A Popular Account of Dr. Livingstone's Expedition to the Zambesi and Its Tributaries: And of the Discovery of the Lakes Shirwa and Nyassa (1858-1864)

Part 3 out of 7

tear it out. Their bites are so terribly sharp that the bravest must
run, and then strip to pick off those that still cling with their
hooked jaws, as with steel forceps. This kind abounds in damp
places, and is usually met with on the banks of streams. We have not
heard of their actually killing any animal except the Python, and
that only when gorged and quite lethargic, but they soon clear away
any dead animal matter; this appears to be their principal food, and
their use in the economy of nature is clearly in the scavenger line.

We started from the Sinjere on the 12th of June, our men carrying
with them bundles of hippopotamus meat for sale, and for future use.
We rested for breakfast opposite the Kakolole dyke, which confines
the channel, west of the Manyerere mountain. A rogue monkey, the
largest by far that we ever saw, and very fat and tame, walked off
leisurely from a garden as we approached. The monkey is a sacred
animal in this region, and is never molested or killed, because the
people believe devoutly that the souls of their ancestors now occupy
these degraded forms, and anticipate that they themselves must,
sooner or later, be transformed in like manner; a future as cheerless
for the black as the spirit-rapper's heaven is for the whites. The
gardens are separated from each other by a single row of small
stones, a few handfuls of grass, or a slight furrow made by the hoe.
Some are enclosed by a reed fence of the flimsiest construction, yet
sufficient to keep out the ever wary hippopotamus, who dreads a trap.
His extreme caution is taken advantage of by the women, who hang, as
a miniature trap-beam, a kigelia fruit with a bit of stick in the
end. This protects the maize, of which he is excessively fond.

The quantity of hippopotamus meat eaten by our men made some of them
ill, and our marches were necessarily short. After three hours'
travel on the 13th, we spent the remainder of the day at the village
of Chasiribera, on a rivulet flowing through a beautiful valley to
the north, which is bounded by magnificent mountain-ranges. Pinkwe,
or Mbingwe, otherwise Moeu, forms the south-eastern angle of the
range. On the 16th June we were at the flourishing village of Senga,
under the headman Manyame, which lies at the foot of the mount
Motemwa. Nearly all the mountains in this country are covered with
open forest and grass, in colour, according to the season, green or
yellow. Many are between 2000 and 3000 feet high, with the sky line
fringed with trees; the rocks show just sufficiently for one to
observe their stratification, or their granitic form, and though not
covered with dense masses of climbing plants, like those in moister
eastern climates, there is still the idea conveyed that most of the
steep sides are fertile, and none give the impression of that
barrenness which, in northern mountains, suggests the idea that the
bones of the world are sticking through its skin.

The villagers reported that we were on the footsteps of a Portuguese
half-caste, who, at Senga, lately tried to purchase ivory, but, in
consequence of his having murdered a chief near Zumbo and twenty of
his men, the people declined to trade with him. He threatened to
take the ivory by force, if they would not sell it; but that same
night the ivory and the women were spirited out of the village, and
only a large body of armed men remained. The trader, fearing that he
might come off second best if it came to blows, immediately departed.
Chikwanitsela, or Sekuanangila, is the paramount chief of some fifty
miles of the northern bank of the Zambesi in this locality. He lives
on the opposite, or southern side, and there his territory is still
more extensive. We sent him a present from Senga, and were informed
by a messenger next morning that he had a cough and could not come
over to see us. "And has his present a cough too," remarked one of
our party, "that it does not come to us? Is this the way your chief
treats strangers, receives their present, and sends them no food in
return?" Our men thought Chikwanitsela an uncommonly stingy fellow;
but, as it was possible that some of them might yet wish to return
this way, they did not like to scold him more than this, which was
sufficiently to the point.

Men and women were busily engaged in preparing the ground for the
November planting. Large game was abundant; herds of elephants and
buffaloes came down to the river in the night, but were a long way
off by daylight. They soon adopt this habit in places where they are

The plains we travel over are constantly varying in breadth,
according as the furrowed and wooded hills approach or recede from
the river. On the southern side we see the hill Bungwe, and the
long, level, wooded ridge Nyangombe, the first of a series bending
from the S.E. to the N.W. past the Zambesi. We shot an old pallah on
the 16th, and found that the poor animal had been visited with more
than the usual share of animal afflictions. He was stone-blind in
both eyes, had several tumours, and a broken leg, which showed no
symptoms of ever having begun to heal. Wild animals sometimes suffer
a great deal from disease, and wearily drag on a miserable existence
before relieved of it by some ravenous beast. Once we drove off a
maneless lion and lioness from a dead buffalo, which had been in the
last stage of a decline. They had watched him staggering to the
river to quench his thirst, and sprang on him as he was crawling up
the bank. One had caught him by the throat, and the other by his
high projecting backbone, which was broken by the lion's powerful
fangs. The struggle, if any, must have been short. They had only
eaten the intestines when we frightened them off. It is curious that
this is the part that wild animals always begin with, and that it is
also the first choice of our men. Were it not a wise arrangement
that only the strongest males should continue the breed, one could
hardly help pitying the solitary buffalo expelled from the herd for
some physical blemish, or on account of the weakness of approaching
old age. Banished from female society, he naturally becomes morose
and savage; the necessary watchfulness against enemies is now never
shared by others; disgusted, he passes into a state of chronic war
with all who enjoy life, and the sooner after his expulsion that he
fills the lion's or the wild-dog's maw, the better for himself and
for the peace of the country.

We encamped on the 20th of June at a spot where Dr. Livingstone, on
his journey from the West to the East Coast, was formerly menaced by
a chief named Mpende. No offence had been committed against him, but
he had firearms, and, with the express object of showing his power,
he threatened to attack the strangers. Mpende's counsellors having,
however, found out that Dr. Livingstone belonged to a tribe of whom
they had heard that "they loved the black man and did not make
slaves," his conduct at once changed from enmity to kindness, and, as
the place was one well selected for defence, it was perhaps quite as
well for Mpende that he decided as he did. Three of his counsellors
now visited us, and we gave them a handsome present for their chief,
who came himself next morning and made us a present of a goat, a
basket of boiled maize, and another of vetches. A few miles above
this the headman, Chilondo of Nyamasusa, apologized for not formerly
lending us canoes. "He was absent, and his children were to blame
for not telling him when the Doctor passed; he did not refuse the
canoes." The sight of our men, now armed with muskets, had a great
effect. Without any bullying, firearms command respect, and lead men
to be reasonable who might otherwise feel disposed to be troublesome.
Nothing, however, our fracas with Mpende excepted, could be more
peaceful than our passage through this tract of country in 1856. We
then had nothing to excite the cupidity of the people, and the men
maintained themselves, either by selling elephant's meat, or by
exhibiting feats of foreign dancing. Most of the people were very
generous and friendly; but the Banyai, nearer to Tette than this,
stopped our march with a threatening war-dance. One of our party,
terrified at this, ran away, as we thought, insane, and could not,
after a painful search of three days, be found. The Banyai,
evidently touched by our distress, allowed us to proceed. Through a
man we left on an island a little below Mpende's, we subsequently
learned that poor Monaheng had fled thither, and had been murdered by
the headman for no reason except that he was defenceless. This
headman had since become odious to his countrymen, and had been put
to death by them.

On the 23rd of June we entered Pangola's principal village, which is
upwards of a mile from the river. The ruins of a mud wall showed
that a rude attempt had been made to imitate the Portuguese style of
building. We established ourselves under a stately wild fig-tree,
round whose trunk witchcraft medicine had been tied, to protect from
thieves the honey of the wild bees, which had their hive in one of
the limbs. This is a common device. The charm, or the medicine, is
purchased of the dice doctors, and consists of a strip of palm-leaf
smeared with something, and adorned with a few bits of grass, wood,
or roots. It is tied round the tree, and is believed to have the
power of inflicting disease and death on the thief who climbs over
it. Superstition is thus not without its uses in certain states of
society; it prevents many crimes and misdemeanours, which would occur
but for the salutary fear that it produces.

Pangola arrived, tipsy and talkative.--"We are friends, we are great
friends; I have brought you a basket of green maize--here it is!" We
thanked him, and handed him two fathoms of cotton cloth, four times
the market-value of his present. No, he would not take so small a
present; he wanted a double-barrelled rifle--one of Dixon's best.
"We are friends, you know; we are all friends together." But
although we were willing to admit that, we could not give him our
best rifle, so he went off in high dudgeon. Early next morning, as
we were commencing Divine service, Pangola returned, sober. We
explained to him that we wished to worship God, and invited him to
remain; he seemed frightened, and retired: but after service he
again importuned us for the rifle. It was of no use telling him that
we had a long journey before us, and needed it to kill game for
ourselves.--"He too must obtain meat for himself and people, for they
sometimes suffered from hunger." He then got sulky, and his people
refused to sell food except at extravagant prices. Knowing that we
had nothing to eat, they felt sure of starving us into compliance.
But two of our young men, having gone off at sunrise, shot a fine
water-buck, and down came the provision market to the lower figure;
they even became eager to sell, but our men were angry with them for
trying compulsion, and would not buy. Black greed had outwitted
itself, as happens often with white cupidity; and not only here did
the traits of Africans remind us of Anglo-Saxons elsewhere: the
notoriously ready world-wide disposition to take an unfair advantage
of a man's necessities shows that the same mean motives are pretty
widely diffused among all races. It may not be granted that the same
blood flows in all veins, or that all have descended from the same
stock; but the traveller has no doubt that, practically, the white
rogue and black are men and brothers.

Pangola is the child or vassal of Mpende. Sandia and Mpende are the
only independent chiefs from Kebrabasa to Zumbo, and belong to the
tribe Manganja. The country north of the mountains here in sight
from the Zambesi is called Senga, and its inhabitants Asenga, or
Basenga, but all appear to be of the same family as the rest of the
Manganja and Maravi. Formerly all the Manganja were united under the
government of their great chief, Undi, whose empire extended from
Lake Shirwa to the River Loangwa; but after Undi's death it fell to
pieces, and a large portion of it on the Zambesi was absorbed by
their powerful southern neighbours the Banyai. This has been the
inevitable fate of every African empire from time immemorial. A
chief of more than ordinary ability arises and, subduing all his less
powerful neighbours, founds a kingdom, which he governs more or less
wisely till he dies. His successor not having the talents of the
conqueror cannot retain the dominion, and some of the abler under-
chiefs set up for themselves, and, in a few years, the remembrance
only of the empire remains. This, which may be considered as the
normal state of African society, gives rise to frequent and
desolating wars, and the people long in vain for a power able to make
all dwell in peace. In this light, a European colony would be
considered by the natives as an inestimable boon to intertropical
Africa. Thousands of industrious natives would gladly settle round
it, and engage in that peaceful pursuit of agriculture and trade of
which they are so fond, and, undistracted by wars or rumours of wars,
might listen to the purifying and ennobling truths of the gospel of
Jesus Christ. The Manganja on the Zambesi, like their countrymen on
the Shire, are fond of agriculture; and, in addition to the usual
varieties of food, cultivate tobacco and cotton in quantities more
than equal to their wants. To the question, "Would they work for
Europeans?" an affirmative answer may be given, if the Europeans
belong to the class which can pay a reasonable price for labour, and
not to that of adventurers who want employment for themselves. All
were particularly well clothed from Sandia's to Pangola's; and it was
noticed that all the cloth was of native manufacture, the product of
their own looms. In Senga a great deal of iron is obtained from the
ore and manufactured very cleverly.

As is customary when a party of armed strangers visits the village,
Pangola took the precaution of sleeping in one of the outlying
hamlets. No one ever knows, or at any rate will tell, where the
chief sleeps. He came not next morning, so we went our way; but in a
few moments we saw the rifle-loving chief approaching with some armed
men. Before meeting us, he left the path and drew up his "following"
under a tree, expecting us to halt, and give him a chance of
bothering us again; but, having already had enough of that, we held
right on: he seemed dumbfoundered, and could hardly believe his own
eyes. For a few seconds he was speechless, but at last recovered so
far as to be able to say, "You are passing Pangola. Do you not see
Pangola?" Mbia was just going by at the time with the donkey, and,
proud of every opportunity of airing his small stock of English,
shouted in reply, "All right! then get on." "Click, click, click."

On the 26th June we breakfasted at Zumbo, on the left bank of the
Loangwa, near the ruins of some ancient Portuguese houses. The
Loangwa was too deep to be forded, and there were no canoes on our
side. Seeing two small ones on the opposite shore, near a few
recently erected huts of two half-castes from Tette, we halted for
the ferry-men to come over. From their movements it was evident that
they were in a state of rollicking drunkenness. Having a waterproof
cloak, which could be inflated into a tiny boat, we sent Mantlanyane
across in it. Three half-intoxicated slaves then brought us the
shaky canoes, which we lashed together and manned with our own canoe-
men. Five men were all that we could carry over at a time; and after
four trips had been made the slaves began to clamour for drink; not
receiving any, as we had none to give, they grew more insolent, and
declared that not another man should cross that day. Sininyane was
remonstrating with them, when a loaded musket was presented at him by
one of the trio. In an instant the gun was out of the rascal's
hands, a rattling shower of blows fell on his back, and he took an
involuntary header into the river. He crawled up the bank a sad and
sober man, and all three at once tumbled from the height of saucy
swagger to a low depth of slavish abjectness. The musket was found
to have an enormous charge, and might have blown our man to pieces,
but for the promptitude with which his companions administered
justice in a lawless land. We were all ferried safely across by 8
o'clock in the evening.

In illustration of what takes place where no government, or law
exists, the two half-castes, to whom these men belonged, left Tette,
with four hundred slaves, armed with the old Sepoy Brown Bess, to
hunt elephants and trade in ivory. On our way up, we heard from
natives of their lawless deeds, and again, on our way down, from
several, who had been eyewitnesses of the principal crime, and all
reports substantially agreed. The story is a sad one. After the
traders reached Zumbo, one of them, called by the natives Sequasha,
entered into a plot with the disaffected headman, Namakusuru, to kill
his chief, Mpangwe, in order that Namakusuru might seize upon the
chieftainship; and for the murder of Mpangwe the trader agreed to
receive ten large tusks of ivory. Sequasha, with a picked party of
armed slaves, went to visit Mpangwe who received him kindly, and
treated him with all the honour and hospitality usually shown to
distinguished strangers, and the women busied themselves in cooking
the best of their provisions for the repast to be set before him. Of
this, and also of the beer, the half-caste partook heartily. Mpangwe
was then asked by Sequasha to allow his men to fire their guns in
amusement. Innocent of any suspicion of treachery, and anxious to
hear the report of firearms, Mpangwe at once gave his consent; and
the slaves rose and poured a murderous volley into the merry group of
unsuspecting spectators, instantly killing the chief and twenty of
his people. The survivors fled in horror. The children and young
women were seized as slaves, and the village sacked. Sequasha sent
the message to Namakusuru: "I have killed the lion that troubled
you; come and let us talk over the matter." He came and brought the
ivory. "No," said the half-caste, "let us divide the land:" and he
took the larger share for himself, and compelled the would-be usurper
to deliver up his bracelets, in token of subjection on becoming the
child or vassal of Sequasha. These were sent in triumph to the
authorities at Tette. The governor of Quillimane had told us that he
had received orders from Lisbon to take advantage of our passing to
re-establish Zumbo; and accordingly these traders had built a small
stockade on the rich plain of the right bank of Loangwa, a mile above
the site of the ancient mission church of Zumbo, as part of the royal
policy. The bloodshed was quite unnecessary, because, the land at
Zumbo having of old been purchased, the natives would have always of
their own accord acknowledged the right thus acquired; they pointed
it out to Dr. Livingstone in 1856 that, though they were cultivating
it, is was not theirs, but white man's land. Sequasha and his mate
had left their ivory in charge of some of their slaves, who, in the
absence of their masters, were now having a gay time of it, and
getting drunk every day with the produce of the sacked villages. The
head slave came and begged for the musket of the delinquent ferryman,
which was returned. He thought his master did perfectly right to
kill Mpangwe, when asked to do it for the fee of ten tusks, and he
even justified it thus: "If a man invites you to eat, will you not

We continued our journey on the 28th of June. Game was extremely
abundant, and there were many lions. Mbia drove one off from his
feast on a wild pig, and appropriated what remained of the pork to
his own use. Lions are particularly fond of the flesh of wild pigs
and zebras, and contrive to kill a large number of these animals. In
the afternoon we arrived at the village of the female chief, Ma-
mburuma, but she herself was now living on the opposite side of the
river. Some of her people called, and said she had been frightened
by seeing her son and other children killed by Sequasha, and had fled
to the other bank; but when her heart was healed, she would return
and live in her own village, and among her own people. She
constantly inquired of the black traders, who came up the river, if
they had any news of the white man who passed with the oxen. "He has
gone down into the sea," was their reply, "but we belong to the same
people." "Oh no; you need not tell me that; he takes no slaves, but
wishes peace: you are not of his tribe." This antislavery character
excites such universal attention, that any missionary who winked at
the gigantic evils involved in the slave-trade would certainly fail
to produce any good impression on the native mind.


Illness--The Honey-guide--Abundance of game--The Baenda pezi--The

We left the river here, and proceeded up the valley which leads to
the Mburuma or Mohango pass. The nights were cold, and on the 30th
of June the thermometer was as low as 39 degrees at sunrise. We
passed through a village of twenty large huts, which Sequasha had
attacked on his return from the murder of the chief, Mpangwe. He
caught the women and children for slaves, and carried off all the
food, except a huge basket of bran, which the natives are wont to
save against a time of famine. His slaves had broken all the water-
pots and the millstones for grinding meal.

The buaze-trees and bamboos are now seen on the hills; but the jujube
or zisyphus, which has evidently been introduced from India, extends
no further up the river. We had been eating this fruit, which,
having somewhat the taste of apples, the Portuguese call Macaas, all
the way from Tette; and here they were larger than usual, though
immediately beyond they ceased to be found. No mango-tree either is
to be met with beyond this point, because the Portuguese traders
never established themselves anywhere beyond Zumbo. Tsetse flies are
more numerous and troublesome than we have ever before found them.
They accompany us on the march, often buzzing round our heads like a
swarm of bees. They are very cunning, and when intending to bite,
alight so gently that their presence is not perceived till they
thrust in their lance-like proboscis. The bite is acute, but the
pain is over in a moment; it is followed by a little of the
disagreeable itching of the mosquito's bite. This fly invariably
kills all domestic animals except goats and donkeys; man and the wild
animals escape. We ourselves were severely bitten on this pass, and
so were our donkeys, but neither suffered from any after effects.

Water is scarce in the Mburuma pass, except during the rainy season.
We however halted beside some fine springs in the bed of the now dry
rivulet, Podebode, which is continued down to the end of the pass,
and yields water at intervals in pools. Here we remained a couple of
days in consequence of the severe illness of Dr. Kirk. He had
several times been attacked by fever; and observed that when we were
on the cool heights he was comfortable, but when we happened to
descend from a high to a lower altitude, he felt chilly, though the
temperature in the latter case was 25 degrees higher than it was
above; he had been trying different medicines of reputed efficacy
with a view to ascertain whether other combinations might not be
superior to the preparation we generally used; in halting by this
water he suddenly became blind, and unable to stand from faintness.
The men, with great alacrity, prepared a grassy bed, on which we laid
our companion, with the sad forebodings which only those who have
tended the sick in a wild country can realize. We feared that in
experimenting he had over-drugged himself; but we gave him a dose of
our fever pills; on the third day he rode the one of the two donkeys
that would allow itself to be mounted, and on the sixth he marched as
well as any of us. This case is mentioned in order to illustrate
what we have often observed, that moving the patient from place to
place is most conducive to the cure; and the more pluck a man has--
the less he gives in to the disease--the less likely he is to die.

Supplied with water by the pools in the Podebode, we again joined the
Zambesi at the confluence of the rivulet. When passing through a dry
district the native hunter knows where to expect water by the animals
he sees. The presence of the gemsbuck, duiker or diver, springbucks,
or elephants, is no proof that water is near; for these animals roam
over vast tracts of country, and may be met scores of miles from it.
Not so, however, the zebra, pallah, buffalo, and rhinoceros; their
spoor gives assurance that water is not far off, as they never stray
any distance from its neighbourhood. But when amidst the solemn
stillness of the woods, the singing of joyous birds falls upon the
ear, it is certain that water is close at hand.

Our men in hunting came on an immense herd of buffaloes, quietly
resting in the long dry grass, and began to blaze away furiously at
the astonished animals. In the wild excitement of the hunt, which
heretofore had been conducted with spears, some forgot to load with
ball, and, firing away vigorously with powder only, wondered for the
moment that the buffaloes did not fall. The slayer of the young
elephant, having buried his four bullets in as many buffaloes, fired
three charges of No. 1 shot he had for killing guinea-fowl. The
quaint remarks and merriment after these little adventures seemed to
the listener like the pleasant prattle of children. Mbia and
Mantlanyane, however, killed one buffalo each; both the beasts were
in prime condition; the meat was like really excellent beef, with a
smack of venison. A troop of hungry, howling hyenas also thought the
savour tempting, as they hung round the camp at night, anxious to
partake of the feast. They are, fortunately, arrant cowards, and
never attack either men or beasts except they can catch them asleep,
sick, or at some other disadvantage. With a bright fire at our feet
their presence excites no uneasiness. A piece of meat hung on a
tree, high enough to make him jump to reach it, and a short spear,
with its handle firmly planted in the ground beneath, are used as a
device to induce the hyena to commit suicide by impalement.

The honey-guide is an extraordinary bird; how is it that every member
of its family has learned that all men, white or black, are fond of
honey? The instant the little fellow gets a glimpse of a man, he
hastens to greet him with the hearty invitation to come, as Mbia
translated it, to a bees' hive, and take some honey. He flies on in
the proper direction, perches on a tree, and looks back to see if you
are following; then on to another and another, until he guides you to
the spot. If you do not accept his first invitation he follows you
with pressing importunities, quite as anxious to lure the stranger to
the bees' hive as other birds are to draw him away from their own
nest. Except while on the march, our men were sure to accept the
invitation, and manifested the same by a peculiar responsive whistle,
meaning, as they said, "All right, go ahead; we are coming." The
bird never deceived them, but always guided them to a hive of bees,
though some had but little honey in store. Has this peculiar habit
of the honey-guide its origin, as the attachment of dogs, in
friendship for man, or in love for the sweet pickings of the plunder
left on the ground? Self-interest aiding in preservation from danger
seems to be the rule in most cases, as, for instance, in the bird
that guards the buffalo and rhinoceros. The grass is often so tall
and dense that one could go close up to these animals quite
unperceived; but the guardian bird, sitting on the beast, sees the
approach of danger, flaps its wings and screams, which causes its
bulky charge to rush off from a foe he has neither seen nor heard;
for his reward the vigilant little watcher has the pick of the
parasites on his fat friend. In other cases a chance of escape must
be given even by the animal itself to its prey; as in the rattle-
snake, which, when excited to strike, cannot avoid using his rattle,
any more than the cat can resist curling its tail when excited in the
chase of a mouse, or the cobra can refrain from inflating the loose
skin of the neck and extending it laterally, before striking its
poison fangs into its victim. There are many snakes in parts of this
pass; they basked in the warm sunshine, but rustled off through the
leaves as we approached. We observed one morning a small one of a
deadly poisonous species, named Kakone, on a bush by the wayside,
quietly resting in a horizontal position, digesting a lizard for
breakfast. Though openly in view, its colours and curves so closely
resembled a small branch that some failed to see it, even after being
asked if they perceived anything on the bush. Here also one of our
number had a glance at another species, rarely seen, and whose swift
lightning-like motion has given rise to the native proverb, that when
a man sees this snake he will forthwith become a rich man.

We slept near the ruined village of the murdered chief, Mpangwe, a
lovely spot, with the Zambesi in front, and extensive gardens behind,
backed by a semicircle of hills receding up to lofty mountains. Our
path kept these mountains on our right, and crossed several
streamlets, which seemed to be perennial, and among others the
Selole, which apparently flows past the prominent peak Chiarapela.
These rivulets have often human dwellings on their banks; but the
land can scarcely be said to be occupied. The number of all sorts of
game increases wonderfully every day. As a specimen of what may be
met with where there are no human habitations, and where no firearms
have been introduced, we may mention what at times has actually been
seen by us. On the morning of July 3rd a herd of elephants passed
within fifty yards of our sleeping-place, going down to the river
along the dry bed of a rivulet. Starting a few minutes before the
main body, we come upon large flocks of guinea-fowl, shoot what may
be wanted for dinner, or next morning's breakfast, and leave them in
the path to be picked up by the cook and his mates behind. As we
proceed, francolins of three varieties run across the path, and
hundreds of turtle-doves rise, with great blatter of wing, and fly
off to the trees. Guinea-fowls, francolins, turtle-doves, ducks, and
geese are the game birds of this region. At sunrise a herd of
pallahs, standing like a flock of sheep, allow the first man of our
long Indian file to approach within about fifty yards; but having
meat, we let them trot off leisurely and unmolested. Soon afterwards
we come upon a herd of waterbucks, which here are very much darker in
colour, and drier in flesh, than the same species near the sea. They
look at us and we at them; and we pass on to see a herd of doe
koodoos, with a magnificently horned buck or two, hurrying off to the
dry hill-sides. We have ceased shooting antelopes, as our men have
been so often gorged with meat that they have become fat and dainty.
They say that they do not want more venison, it is so dry and
tasteless, and ask why we do not give them shot to shoot the more
savoury guinea-fowl.

About eight o'clock the tsetse commence to buzz about us, and bite
our hands and necks sharply. Just as we are thinking of breakfast,
we meet some buffaloes grazing by the path; but they make off in a
heavy gallop at the sight of man. We fire, and the foremost, badly
wounded, separates from the herd, and is seen to stop amongst the
trees; but, as it is a matter of great danger to follow a wounded
buffalo, we hold on our way. It is this losing of wounded animals
which makes firearms so annihilating to these beasts of the field,
and will in time sweep them all away. The small Enfield bullet is
worse than the old round one for this. It often goes through an
animal without killing him, and he afterwards perishes, when he is of
no value to man. After breakfast we draw near a pond of water; a
couple of elephants stand on its bank, and, at a respectful distance
behind these monarchs of the wilderness, is seen a herd of zebras,
and another of waterbucks. On getting our wind the royal beasts make
off at once; but the zebras remain till the foremost man is within
eighty yards of them, when old and young canter gracefully away. The
zebra has a great deal of curiosity; and this is often fatal to him,
for he has the habit of stopping to look at the hunter. In this
particular he is the exact opposite of the diver antelope, which
rushes off like the wind, and never for a moment stops to look
behind, after having once seen or smelt danger. The finest zebra of
the herd is sometimes shot, our men having taken a sudden fancy to
the flesh, which all declare to be the "king of good meat." On the
plains of short grass between us and the river many antelopes of
different species are calmly grazing, or reposing. Wild pigs are
common, and walk abroad during the day; but are so shy as seldom to
allow a close approach. On taking alarm they erect their slender
tails in the air, and trot off swiftly in a straight line, keeping
their bodies as steady as a locomotive on a railroad. A mile beyond
the pool three cow buffaloes with their calves come from the woods,
and move out into the plain. A troop of monkeys, on the edge of the
forest, scamper back to its depths on hearing the loud song of
Singeleka, and old surly fellows, catching sight of the human party,
insult it with a loud and angry bark. Early in the afternoon we may
see buffaloes again, or other animals. We camp on the dry higher
ground, after, as has happened, driving off a solitary elephant. The
nights are warmer now, and possess nearly as much of interest and
novelty as the days. A new world awakes and comes forth, more
numerous, if we may judge by the noise it makes, than that which is
abroad by sunlight. Lions and hyenas roar around us, and sometimes
come disagreeably near, though they have never ventured into our
midst. Strange birds sing their agreeable songs, while others scream
and call harshly as if in fear or anger. Marvellous insect-sounds
fall upon the ear; one, said by natives to proceed from a large
beetle, resembles a succession of measured musical blows upon an
anvil, while many others are perfectly indescribable. A little lemur
was once seen to leap about from branch to branch with the agility of
a frog; it chirruped like a bird, and is not larger than a robin red-
breast. Reptiles, though numerous, seldom troubled us; only two men
suffered from stings, and that very slightly, during the entire
journey, the one supposed that he was bitten by a snake, and the
other was stung by a scorpion.

Grass-burning has begun, and is producing the blue hazy atmosphere of
the American Indian summer, which in Western Africa is called the
"smokes." Miles of fire burn on the mountain-sides in the evenings,
but go out during the night. From their height they resemble a broad
zigzag line of fire in the heavens.

We slept on the night of the 6th of July on the left bank of the
Chongwe, which comes through a gap in the hills on our right, and is
twenty yards wide. A small tribe of the Bazizulu, from the south,
under Dadanga, have recently settled here and built a village. Some
of their houses are square, and they seem to be on friendly terms
with the Bakoa, who own the country. They, like the other natives,
cultivate cotton, but of a different species from any we have yet
seen in Africa, the staple being very long, and the boll larger than
what is usually met with; the seeds cohere as in the Pernambuco kind.
They brought the seed with them from their own country, the distant
mountains of which in the south, still inhabited by their fellow-
countrymen, who possess much cattle and use shields, can be seen from
this high ground. These people profess to be children of the great
paramount chief, Kwanyakarombe, who is said to be lord of all the
Bazizulu. The name of this tribe is known to geographers, who derive
their information from the Portuguese, as the Morusurus, and the
hills mentioned above are said to have been the country of
Changamira, the warrior-chief of history, whom no Portuguese ever
dared to approach. The Bazizulu seem, by report, to be brave
mountaineers; nearer the river, the Sidima inhabit the plains; just
as on the north side, the Babimpe live on the heights, about two days
off, and the Makoa on or near the river. The chief of the Bazizulu
we were now with was hospitable and friendly. A herd of buffaloes
came trampling through the gardens and roused up our men; a feat that
roaring lions seldom achieved.

Our course next day passed over the upper terrace and through a dense
thorn jungle. Travelling is always difficult where there is no path,
but it is even more perplexing where the forest is cut up by many
game-tracks. Here we got separated from one another, and a
rhinoceros with angry snort dashed at Dr. Livingstone as he stooped
to pick up a specimen of the wild fruit morula; but she strangely
stopped stock-still when less than her own length distant, and gave
him time to escape; a branch pulled out his watch as he ran, and
turning half round to grasp it, he got a distant glance of her and
her calf still standing on the selfsame spot, as if arrested in the
middle of her charge by an unseen hand. When about fifty yards off,
thinking his companions close behind, he shouted "Look out there!"
when off she rushed, snorting loudly, in another direction. The
Doctor usually went unarmed before this, but never afterwards.

A fine eland was shot by Dr. Kirk this afternoon, the first we have
killed. It was in first-rate condition, and remarkably fat; but the
meat, though so tempting in appearance, severely deranged all who
partook of it heartily, especially those who ate of the fat. Natives
who live in game countries, and are acquainted with the different
kinds of wild animals, have a prejudice against the fat of the eland,
the pallah, the zebra, hippopotamus, and pig; they never reject it,
however, the climate making the desire for all animal food very
strong; but they consider that it causes ulcers and leprosy, while
the fat of sheep and of oxen never produces any bad effects, unless
the animal is diseased.

On the morning of the 9th, after passing four villages, we
breakfasted at an old friend's, Tombanyama, who lives now on the
mainland, having resigned the reedy island, where he was first seen,
to the buffaloes, which used to take his crops and show fight to his
men. He keeps a large flock of tame pigeons, and some fine fat
capons, one of which he gave us, with a basket of meal. They have
plenty of salt in this part of the country, obtaining it from the
plains in the usual way.

The half-caste partner of Sequasha and a number of his men were
staying near. The fellow was very munch frightened when he saw us,
and trembled so much when he spoke, that the Makololo and other
natives noticed and remarked on it. His fears arose from a sense of
guilt, as we said nothing to frighten him, and did not allude to the
murder till a few minutes before starting; when it was remarked that
Dr. Livingstone having been accredited to the murdered chief, it
would be his duty to report on it; and that not even the Portuguese
Government would approve of the deed. He defended it by saying that
they had put in the right man, the other was a usurper. He was
evidently greatly relieved when we departed. In the afternoon we
came to an outlying hamlet of Kambadzo, whose own village is on an
island, Nyampungo, or Nyangalule, at the confluence of the Kafue.
The chief was on a visit here, and they had been enjoying a regular
jollification. There had been much mirth, music, drinking, and
dancing. The men, and women too, had taken "a wee drap too much,"
but had not passed the complimentary stage. The wife of the headman,
after looking at us a few moments, called out to the others, "Black
traders have come before, calling themselves Bazungu, or white men,
but now, for the first time, have we seen the real Bazungu."
Kambadzo also soon appeared; he was sorry that we had not come before
the beer was all done, but he was going back to see if it was all
really and entirely finished, and not one little potful left

This was, of course, mere characteristic politeness, as he was
perfectly aware that every drop had been swallowed; so we proceeded
on to the Kafue, or Kafuje, accompanied by the most intelligent of
his headmen. A high ridge, just before we reached the confluence,
commands a splendid view of the two great rivers, and the rich
country beyond. Behind, on the north and east, is the high mountain-
range, along whose base we have been travelling; the whole range is
covered with trees, which appear even on the prominent peaks,
Chiarapela, Morindi, and Chiava; at this last the chain bends away to
the N.W., and we could see the distant mountains where the chief,
Semalembue, gained all our hearts in 1856.

On the 9th of July we tried to send Semalembue a present, but the
people here refused to incur the responsibility of carrying it. We,
who have the art of writing, cannot realize the danger one incurs of
being accused of purloining a portion of goods sent from one person
to another, when the carrier cannot prove that he delivered all
committed to his charge. Rumours of a foray having been made, either
by Makololo or Batoka, as far as the fork of the Kafue, were received
here by our men with great indignation, as it looked as if the
marauders were shutting up the country, which they had been trying so
much to open. Below the junction of the rivers, on a shallow
sandbank, lay a large herd of hippopotami, their bodies out of the
water, like masses of black rock. Kambadzo's island, called
Nyangalule, a name which occurs again at the mouth of the Zambesi,
has many choice Motsikiri (Trachelia) trees on it; and four very
conspicuous stately palms growing out of a single stem. The Kafue
reminds us a little of the Shire, flowing between steep banks, with
fertile land on both sides. It is a smaller river, and has less
current. Here it seems to come from the west. The headman of the
village, near which we encamped, brought a present of meal, fowls,
and sweet potatoes. They have both the red and white varieties of
this potato. We have, on several occasions during this journey, felt
the want of vegetables, in a disagreeable craving which our diet of
meat and native meal could not satisfy. It became worse and worse
till we got a meal of potatoes, which allayed it at once. A great
scarcity of vegetables prevails in these parts of Africa. The
natives collect several kinds of wild plants in the woods, which they
use no doubt for the purpose of driving off cravings similar to those
we experienced.

Owing to the strength of the wind, and the cranky state of the
canoes, it was late in the afternoon of the 11th before our party was
ferried over the Kafue. After crossing, we were in the Bawe country.
Fishhooks here, of native workmanship, were observed to have barbs
like the European hooks: elsewhere the point of the hook is merely
bent in towards the shank, to have the same effect in keeping on the
fish as the barb. We slept near a village a short distance above the
ford. The people here are of Batoka origin, the same as many of our
men, and call themselves Batonga (independents), or Balengi, and
their language only differs slightly from that of the Bakoa, who live
between the two rivers Kafue and Loangwa. The paramount chief of the
district lives to the west of this place, and is called Nchomokela--
an hereditary title: the family burying-place is on a small hill
near this village. The women salute us by clapping their hands and
lullilooing as we enter and leave a village, and the men, as they
think, respectfully clap their hands on their hips. Immense crops of
mapira (holcus sorghum) are raised; one species of it forms a natural
bend on the seed-stalk, so that the massive ear hangs down. The
grain was heaped up on wooden stages, and so was a variety of other
products. The men are skilful hunters, and kill elephants and
buffaloes with long heavy spears. We halted a few minutes on the
morning of the 12th July, opposite the narrow island of Sikakoa,
which has a village on its lower end. We were here told that
Moselekatse's chief town is a month's distance from this place. They
had heard, moreover, that the English had come to Moselekatse, and
told him it was wrong to kill men; and he had replied that he was
born to kill people, but would drop the habit; and, since the English
came, he had sent out his men, not to kill as of yore, but to collect
tribute of cloth and ivory. This report referred to the arrival of
the Rev. R. Moffat, of Kuruman, who, we afterwards found, had
established a mission. The statement is interesting as showing that,
though imperfectly expressed, the purport of the missionaries'
teaching had travelled, in a short time, over 300 miles, and we know
not how far the knowledge of the English operations on the coast
spread inland.

When abreast of the high wooded island Kalabi we came in contact with
one of the game-laws of the country, which has come down from the
most ancient times. An old buffalo crossed the path a few yards in
front of us; our guide threw his small spear at its hip, and it was
going off scarcely hurt, when three rifle balls knocked it over. "It
is mine," said the guide. He had wounded it first, and the
established native game-law is that the animal belongs to the man who
first draws blood; the two legs on one side, by the same law,
belonged to us for killing it. This beast was very old, blind of one
eye, and scabby; the horns, mere stumps, not a foot long, must have
atrophied, when by age he lost the strength distinctive of his sex;
some eighteen or twenty inches of horn could not well be worn down by
mere rubbing against the trees. We saw many buffaloes next day,
standing quietly amidst a thick thorn-jungle, through which we were
passing. They often stood until we were within fifty or a hundred
yards of them.

On the 14th July we left the river at the mountain-range, which,
lying north-east and south-west across the river, forms the Kariba
gorge. Near the upper end of the Kariba rapids, the stream Sanyati
enters from the south, and is reported to have Moselekatse's
principal cattle-posts at its sources; our route went round the end
of the mountains, and we encamped beside the village of the generous
chief Moloi, who brought us three immense baskets of fine mapira
meal, ten fowls, and two pots of beer. On receiving a present in
return, he rose, and, with a few dancing gestures, said or sang,
"Motota, Motota, Motota," which our men translated into "thanks." He
had visited Moselekatse a few months before our arrival, and saw the
English missionaries, living in their wagons. "They told
Moselekatse," said he, "they were of his family, or friends, and
would plough the land and live at their own expense;" and he had
replied, "The land is before you, and I shall come and see you
plough." This again was substantially what took place, when Mr.
Moffat introduced the missionaries to his old friend, and shows still
further that the notion of losing their country by admitting
foreigners does not come as the first idea to the native mind. One
might imagine that, as mechanical powers are unknown to the heathen,
the almost magic operations of machinery, the discoveries of modern
science and art, or the presence of the prodigious force which, for
instance, is associated with the sight of a man-of-war, would have
the effect which miracles once had of arresting the attention and
inspiring awe. But, though we have heard the natives exclaim in
admiration at the sight of even small illustrations of what science
enables us to do--"Ye are gods, and not men"--the heart is
unaffected. In attempting their moral elevation, it is always more
conducive to the end desired, that the teacher should come
unaccompanied by any power to cause either jealousy or fear. The
heathen, who have not become aware of the greed and hate which too
often characterize the advancing tide of emigration, listen with most
attention to the message of Divine love when delivered by men who
evidently possess the same human sympathies with themselves. A chief
is rather envied his good fortune in first securing foreigners in his
town. Jealousy of strangers belongs more to the Arab than to the
African character; and if the women are let alone by the traveller,
no danger need be apprehended from any save the slave-trading tribes,
and not often even from them.

We passed through a fertile country, covered with open forest,
accompanied by the friendly Bawe. They are very hospitable; many of
them were named, among themselves, "the Baenda pezi," or "Go-nakeds,"
their only clothing being a coat of red ochre. Occasionally stopping
at their villages we were duly lullilooed, and regaled with sweet
new-made beer, which, being yet unfermented, was not intoxicating.
It is in this state called Liting or Makonde. Some of the men carry
large shields of buffalo-hide, and all are well supplied with heavy
spears. The vicinity of the villages is usually cleared and
cultivated in large patches; but nowhere can the country be said to
be stocked with people. At every village stands were erected, and
piles of the native corn, still unthrashed, placed upon them; some
had been beaten out, put into oblong parcels made of grass, and
stacked in wooden frames.

We crossed several rivulets in our course, as the Mandora, the Lofia,
the Manzaia (with brackish water), the Rimbe, the Chibue, the Chezia,
the Chilola (containing fragments of coal), which did little more
than mark our progress. The island and rapid of Nakansalo, of which
we had formerly heard, were of no importance, the rapid being but
half a mile long, and only on one side of the island. The island
Kaluzi marks one of the numerous places where astronomical
observations were made; Mozia, a station where a volunteer poet left
us; the island Mochenya, and Mpande island, at the mouth of the
Zungwe rivulet, where we left the Zambesi.

When favoured with the hospitality and company of the "Go-nakeds," we
tried to discover if nudity were the badge of a particular order
among the Bawe, but they could only refer to custom. Some among them
had always liked it for no reason in particular: shame seemed to lie
dormant, and the sense could not be aroused by our laughing and
joking them on their appearance. They evidently felt no less decent
than we did with our clothes on; but, whatever may be said in favour
of nude statues, it struck us that man, in a state of nature, is a
most ungainly animal. Could we see a number of the degraded of our
own lower classes in like guise, it is probable that, without the
black colour which acts somehow as a dress, they would look worse

In domestic contentions the Bawe are careful not to kill each other;
but, when one village goes to war with another, they are not so
particular. The victorious party are said to quarter one of the
bodies of the enemies they may have killed, and to perform certain
ceremonies over the fragments. The vanquished call upon their
conquerors to give them a portion also; and, when this request is
complied with, they too perform the same ceremonies, and lament over
their dead comrade, after which the late combatants may visit each
other in peace. Sometimes the head of the slain is taken and buried
in an ant-hill, till all the flesh is gone; and the lower jaw is then
worn as a trophy by the slayer; but this we never saw, and the
foregoing information was obtained only through an interpreter.

We left the Zambesi at the mouth of the Zungwe or Mozama or Dela
rivulet, up which we proceeded, first in a westerly and then in a
north-westerly direction. The Zungwe at this time had no water in
its sandy channel for the first eight or ten miles. Willows,
however, grow on the banks, and water soon began to appear in the
hollows; and a few miles further up it was a fine flowing stream
deliciously cold. As in many other streams from Chicova to near
Sinamane shale and coal crop out in the bank; and here the large
roots of stigmaria or its allied plants were found. We followed the
course of the Zungwe to the foot of the Batoka highlands, up whose
steep and rugged sides of red and white quartz we climbed till we
attained an altitude of upwards of 3000 feet. Here, on the cool and
bracing heights, the exhilaration of mind and body was delightful, as
we looked back at the hollow beneath covered with a hot sultry glare,
not unpleasant now that we were in the mild radiance above. We had a
noble view of the great valley in which the Zambesi flows. The
cultivated portions are so small in comparison to the rest of the
landscape that the valley appears nearly all forest, with a few
grassy glades. We spent the night of the 28th July high above the
level of the sea, by the rivulet Tyotyo, near Tabacheu or
Chirebuechina, names both signifying white mountain; in the morning
hoar frost covered the ground, and thin ice was on the pools.
Skirting the southern flank of Tabacheu, we soon passed from the
hills on to the portion of the vast table-land called Mataba, and
looking back saw all the way across the Zambesi valley to the lofty
ridge some thirty miles off, which, coming from the Mashona, a
country in the S.E., runs to the N.W. to join the ridge at the angle
of which are the Victoria Falls, and then bends far to the N.E. from
the same point. Only a few years since these extensive highlands
were peopled by the Batoka; numerous herds of cattle furnished
abundance of milk, and the rich soil amply repaid the labour of the
husbandman; now large herds of buffaloes, zebras, and antelopes
fatten on the excellent pasture; and on that land, which formerly
supported multitudes, not a man is to been seen. In travelling from
Monday morning till late on Saturday afternoon, all the way from
Tabacheu to Moachemba, which is only twenty-one miles of latitude
from the Victoria Falls, and constantly passing the ruined sites of
utterly deserted Botoka villages, we did not fall in with a single
person. The Batoka were driven out of their noble country by the
invasions of Moselekatse and Sebetuane. Several tribes of Bechuana
and Basutu, fleeing from the Zulu or Matebele chief Moselekatse
reached the Zambesi above the Falls. Coming from a land without
rivers, none of them knew how to swim; and one tribe, called the
Bamangwato, wishing to cross the Zambesi, was ferried over, men and
women separately, to different islands, by one of the Batoka chiefs;
the men were then left to starve and the women appropriated by the
ferryman and his people. Sekomi, the present chief of the
Bamangwato, then an infant in his mother's arms, was enabled, through
the kindness of a private Batoka, to escape. This act seems to have
made an indelible impression on Sekomi's heart, for though otherwise
callous, he still never fails to inquire after the welfare of his

Sebetuane, with his wonted ability, outwitted the treacherous Batoka,
by insisting in the politest manner on their chief remaining at his
own side until the people and cattle were all carried safe across;
the chief was then handsomely rewarded, both with cattle and brass
rings off Sebetuane's own wives. No sooner were the Makololo, then
called Basuto, safely over, than they were confronted by the whole
Batoka nation; and to this day the Makololo point with pride to the
spot on the Lekone, near to which they were encamped, where
Sebetuane, with a mere handful of warriors in comparison to the vast
horde that surrounded him, stood waiting the onslaught, the warriors
in one small body, the women and children guarding the cattle behind
them. The Batoka, of course, melted away before those who had been
made veterans by years of continual fighting, and Sebetuane always
justified his subsequent conquests in that country by alleging that
the Batoka had come out to fight with a man fleeing for his life, who
had never done them any wrong. They seem never to have been a
warlike race; passing through their country, we once observed a large
stone cairn, and our guide favoured us with the following account of
it:- "Once upon a time, our forefathers were going to fight another
tribe, and here they halted and sat down. After a long consultation,
they came to the unanimous conclusion that, instead of proceeding to
fight and kill their neighbours, and perhaps be killed themselves, it
would be more like men to raise this heap of stones, as their protest
against the wrong the other tribe had done them, which, having
accomplished, they returned quietly home." Such men of peace could
not stand before the Makololo, nor, of course, the more warlike
Matebele, who coming afterwards, drove even their conquerors, the
Makololo, out of the country. Sebetuane, however, profiting by the
tactics which he had learned of the Batoka, inveigled a large body of
this new enemy on to another island, and after due starvation there
overcame the whole. A much greater army of "Moselekatse's own"
followed with canoes, but were now baffled by Sebetuane's placing all
his people and cattle on an island and so guarding it that none could
approach. Dispirited, famished, borne down by fever, they returned
to the Falls, and all except five were cut off.

But though the Batoka appear never to have had much inclination to
fight with men, they are decidedly brave hunters of buffaloes and
elephants. They go fearlessly close up to these formidable animals,
and kill them with large spears. The Banyai, who have long bullied
all Portuguese traders, were amazed at the daring and bravery of the
Batoka in coming at once to close quarters with the elephant; and
Chisaka, a Portuguese rebel, having formerly induced a body of this
tribe to settle with him, ravaged all the Portuguese villas around
Tette. They bear the name of Basimilongwe, and some of our men found
relations among them. Sininyane and Matenga also, two of our party,
were once inveigled into a Portuguese expedition against Mariano, by
the assertion that the Doctor had arrived and had sent for them to
come down to Senna. On finding that they were entrapped to fight,
they left, after seeing an officer with a large number of Tette
slaves killed.

The Batoka had attained somewhat civilized ideas, in planting and
protecting various fruit and oil-seed yielding trees of the country.
No other tribe either plants or abstains from cutting down fruit
trees, but here we saw some which had been planted in regular rows,
and the trunks of which were quite two feet in diameter. The grand
old Mosibe, a tree yielding a bean with a thin red pellicle, said to
be very fattening, had probably seen two hundred summers. Dr. Kirk
found that the Mosibe is peculiar, in being allied to a species met
with only in the West Indies. The Motsikiri, sometimes called
Mafuta, yields a hard fat, and an oil which is exported from
Inhambane. It is said that two ancient Batoka travellers went down
as far as the Loangwa, and finding the Macaa tree (jujube or
zisyphus) in fruit, carried the seed all the way back to the great
Falls, in order to plant them. Two of these trees are still to be
seen there, the only specimens of the kind in that region.

The Batoka had made a near approach to the custom of more refined
nations and had permanent graveyards, either on the sides of hills,
thus rendered sacred, or under large old shady trees; they reverence
the tombs of their ancestors, and plant the largest elephants' tusks,
as monuments at the head of the grave, or entirely enclose it with
the choicest ivory. Some of the other tribes throw the dead body
into the river to be devoured by crocodiles, or, sewing it up in a
mat, place it on the branch of a baobab, or cast it in some lonely
gloomy spot, surrounded by dense tropical vegetation, where it
affords a meal to the foul hyenas; but the Batoka reverently bury
their dead, and regard the spot henceforth as sacred. The ordeal by
the poison of the muave is resorted to by the Batoka, as well as by
the other tribes; but a cock is often made to stand proxy for the
supposed witch. Near the confluence of the Kafue the Mambo, or
chief, with some of his headmen, came to our sleeping-place with a
present; their foreheads were smeared with white flour, and an
unusual seriousness marked their demeanour. Shortly before our
arrival they had been accused of witchcraft; conscious of innocence,
they accepted the ordeal, and undertook to drink the poisoned muave.
For this purpose they made a journey to the sacred hill of
Nchomokela, on which repose the bodies of their ancestors; and, after
a solemn appeal to the unseen spirits to attest the innocence of
their children, they swallowed the muave, vomited, and were therefore
declared not guilty. It is evident that they believe that the soul
has a continued existence; and that the spirits of the departed know
what those they have left behind them are doing, and are pleased or
not according as their deeds are good or evil; this belief is
universal. The owner of a large canoe refused to sell it, because it
belonged to the spirit of his father, who helped him when he killed
the hippopotamus. Another, when the bargain for his canoe was nearly
completed, seeing a large serpent on a branch of the tree overhead,
refused to complete the sale, alleging that this was the spirit of
his father come to protest against it.

Some of the Batoka chiefs must have been men of considerable
enterprise; the land of one, in the western part of this country, was
protected by the Zambesi on the S., and on the N. and E. lay an
impassable reedy marsh, filled with water all the year round, leaving
only his western border open to invasion: he conceived the idea of
digging a broad and deep canal nearly a mile in length, from the
reedy marsh to the Zambesi, and, having actually carried the scheme
into execution, he formed a large island, on which his cattle grazed
in safety, and his corn ripened from year to year secure from all

Another chief, who died a number of years ago, believed that he had
discovered a remedy for tsetse-bitten cattle; his son Moyara showed
us a plant, which was new to our botanist, and likewise told us how
the medicine was prepared; the bark of the root, and, what might
please our homoeopathic friends, a dozen of the tsetse are dried, and
ground together into a fine powder. This mixture is administered
internally; and the cattle are fumigated by burning under them the
rest of the plant collected. The treatment must be continued for
weeks, whenever the symptoms of poison appear. This medicine, he
frankly admitted, would not cure all the bitten cattle. "For," said
he, "cattle, and men too, die in spite of medicine; but should a herd
by accident stray into a tsetse district and be bitten, by this
medicine of my father, Kampa-kampa, some of them could be saved,
while, without it, all would inevitably die." He stipulated that we
were not to show the medicine to other people, and if ever we needed
it in this region we must employ him; but if we were far off we might
make it ourselves; and when we saw it cure the cattle think of him,
and send him a present.

Our men made it known everywhere that we wished the tribes to live in
peace, and would use our influence to induce Sekeletu to prevent the
Batoka of Moshobotwane and the Makololo under-chiefs making forays
into their country: they had already suffered severely, and their
remonstrances with their countryman, Moshobotwane, evoked only the
answer, "The Makololo have given me a spear; why should I not use
it?" He, indeed, it was who, being remarkably swift of foot, first
guided the Makololo in their conquest of the country. In the
character of peacemakers, therefore, we experienced abundant
hospitality; and, from the Kafue to the Falls, none of our party was
allowed to suffer hunger. The natives sent to our sleeping-places
generous presents of the finest white meal, and fat capons to give it
a relish, great pots of beer to comfort our hearts, together with
pumpkins, beans, and tobacco, so that we "should sleep neither hungry
nor thirsty."

In travelling from the Kafue to the Zungwe we frequently passed
several villages in the course of a day's march. In the evening came
deputies from the villages, at which we could not stay to sleep, with
liberal presents of food. It would have pained them to have allowed
strangers to pass without partaking of their hospitality; repeatedly
were we hailed from huts, and asked to wait a moment and drink a
little of the beer, which was brought with alacrity. Our march
resembled a triumphant procession. We entered and left every village
amidst the cheers of its inhabitants; the men clapping their hands,
and the women lullilooing, with the shrill call, "Let us sleep," or
"Peace." Passing through a hamlet one day, our guide called to the
people, "Why do you not clap your hands and salute when you see men
who are wishing to bring peace to the land?" When we halted for the
night it was no uncommon thing for the people to prepare our camp
entirely of their own accord; some with hoes quickly smoothed the
ground for our beds, others brought dried grass and spread it
carefully over the spot; some with their small axes speedily made a
bush fence to shield us from the wind; and if, as occasionally
happened, the water was a little distance off, others hastened and
brought it with firewood to cook our food with. They are an
industrious people, and very fond of agriculture. For hours together
we marched through unbroken fields of mapira, or native corn, of a
great width; but one can give no idea of the extent of land under the
hoe as compared with any European country. The extent of surface is
so great that the largest fields under culture, when viewed on a wide
landscape, dwindle to mere spots. When taken in connection with the
wants of the people, the cultivation on the whole is most creditable
to their industry. They erect numerous granaries which give their
villages the appearance of being large; and, when the water of the
Zambesi has subsided, they place large quantities of grain, tied up
in bundles of grass, and well plastered over with clay, on low sand
islands for protection from the attacks of marauding mice and men.
Owing to the ravages of the weevil, the native corn can hardly be
preserved until the following crop comes in. However largely they
may cultivate, and however abundant the harvest, it must all be
consumed in a year. This may account for their making so much of it
into beer. The beer these Batoka or Bawe brew is not the sour and
intoxicating boala or pombe found among some other tribes, but sweet,
and highly nutritive, with only a slight degree of acidity,
sufficient to render it a pleasant drink. The people were all plump,
and in good condition; and we never saw a single case of intoxication
among them, though all drank abundance of this liting, or sweet beer.
Both men and boys were eager to work for very small pay. Our men
could hire any number of them to carry their burdens for a few beads
a day. Our miserly and dirty ex-cook had an old pair of trousers
that some one had given to him; after he had long worn them himself,
with one of the sorely decayed legs he hired a man to carry his heavy
load a whole day; a second man carried it the next day for the other
leg, and what remained of the old garment, without the buttons,
procured the labour of another man for the third day.

Men of remarkable ability have risen up among the Africans from time
to time, as amongst other portions of the human family. Some have
attracted the attention, and excited the admiration of large
districts by their wisdom. Others, apparently by the powers of
ventriloquism, or by peculiar dexterity in throwing the spear, or
shooting with the bow, have been the wonder of their generation; but
the total absence of literature leads to the loss of all former
experience, and the wisdom of the wise has not been handed down.
They have had their minstrels too, but mere tradition preserves not
their effusions. One of these, and apparently a genuine poet,
attached himself to our party for several days, and whenever we
halted, sang our praises to the villagers, in smooth and harmonious
numbers. It was a sort of blank verse, and each line consisted of
five syllables. The song was short when it first began, but each day
he picked up more information about us, and added to the poem until
our praises became an ode of respectable length. When distance from
home compelled his return he expressed his regret at leaving us, and
was, of course, paid for his useful and pleasant flatteries.
Another, though a less gifted son of song, belonged to the Batoka of
our own party. Every evening, while the others were cooking,
talking, or sleeping, he rehearsed his songs, containing a history of
everything he had seen in the land of the white men, and on the way
back. In composing, extempore, any new piece, he was never at a
loss; for if the right word did not come he halted not, but eked out
the measure with a peculiar musical sound meaning nothing at all. He
accompanied his recitations on the sansa, an instrument figured in
the woodcut, the nine iron keys of which are played with the thumbs,
while the fingers pass behind to hold it. The hollow end and
ornaments face the breast of the player. Persons of a musical turn,
if too poor to buy a sansa, may be seen playing vigorously on an
instrument made with a number of thick corn-stalks sewn together, as
a sansa frame, and keys of split bamboo, which, though making but
little sound, seems to soothe the player himself. When the
instrument is played with a calabash as a sounding board, it emits a
greater volume of sound. Pieces of shells and tin are added to make
a jingling accompaniment, and the calabash is also ornamented.

After we had passed up, a party of slaves, belonging to the two
native Portuguese who assassinated the chief, Mpangwe, and took
possession of his lands at Zumbo, followed on our footsteps, and
representing themselves to be our "children," bought great quantities
of ivory from the Bawe, for a few coarse beads a tusk. They also
purchased ten large new canoes to carry it, at the rate of six
strings of red or white beads, or two fathoms of grey calico, for
each canoe, and, at the same cheap rate, a number of good-looking


The Victoria Falls of the Zambesi--Marvellous grandeur of the
Cataracts--The Makololo's town--The Chief Sekeletu.

During the time we remained at Motunta a splendid meteor was observed
to lighten the whole heavens. The observer's back was turned to it,
but on looking round the streak of light was seen to remain on its
path some seconds. This streak is usually explained to be only the
continuance of the impression made by the shining body on the retina.
This cannot be, as in this case the meteor was not actually seen and
yet the streak was clearly perceived. The rays of planets and stars
also require another explanation than that usually given.

Fruit-trees and gigantic wild fig-trees, and circles of stones on
which corn safes were placed, with worn grindstones, point out where
the villages once stood. The only reason now assigned for this fine
country remaining desolate is the fear of fresh visitations by the
Matebele. The country now slopes gradually to the west into the
Makololo Valley. Two days' march from the Batoka village nearest the
highlands, we met with some hunters who were burning the dry grass,
in order to attract the game by the fresh vegetation which speedily
springs up afterwards. The grass, as already remarked, is excellent
for cattle. One species, with leaves having finely serrated edges,
and of a reddish-brown colour, we noticed our men eating: it tastes
exactly like liquorice-root, and is named kezu-kezu. The tsetse,
known to the Batoka by the name "ndoka," does not exist here, though
buffaloes and elephants abound.

A small trap in the path, baited with a mouse, to catch spotted cats
(F. Genetta), is usually the first indication that we are drawing
near to a village; but when we get within the sounds of pounding
corn, cockcrowing, or the merry shouts of children at play, we know
that the huts are but a few yards off, though the trees conceal them
from view. We reached, on the 4th of August, Moachemba, the first of
the Batoka villages which now owe allegiance to Sekeletu, and could
see distinctly with the naked eye, in the great valley spread out
before us, the columns of vapour rising from the Victoria Falls,
though upwards of 20 miles distant. We were informed that, the rains
having failed this year, the corn crops had been lost, and great
scarcity and much hunger prevailed from Sesheke to Linyanti. Some of
the reports which the men had heard from the Batoka of the hills
concerning their families, were here confirmed. Takelang's wife had
been killed by Mashotlane, the headman at the Falls, on a charge, as
usual, of witchcraft. Inchikola's two wives, believing him to be
dead, had married again; and Masakasa was intensely disgusted to hear
that two years ago his friends, upon a report of his death, threw his
shield over the Falls, slaughtered all his oxen, and held a species
of wild Irish wake, in honour of his memory: he said he meant to
disown them, and to say, when they come to salute him, "I am dead. I
am not here. I belong to another world, and should stink if I came
among you."

All the sad news we had previously heard, of the disastrous results
which followed the attempt of a party of missionaries, under the Rev.
H. Helmore, to plant the gospel at Linyanti, were here fully
confirmed. Several of the missionaries and their native attendants,
from Kuruman, had succumbed to the fever, and the survivors had
retired some weeks before our arrival. We remained the whole of the
7th beside the village of the old Batoka chief, Moshobotwane, the
stoutest man we have seen in Africa. The cause of our delay here was
a severe attack of fever in Charles Livingstone. He took a dose of
our fever pills; was better on the 8th, and marched three hours; then
on the 9th marched eight miles to the Great Falls, and spent the rest
of the day in the fatiguing exercise of sight-seeing. We were in the
very same valley as Linyanti, and this was the same fever which
treated, or rather maltreated, with only a little Dover's powder,
proved so fatal to poor Helmore; the symptoms, too, were identical
with those afterwards described by non-medical persons as those of

We gave Moshobotwane a present, and a pretty plain exposition of what
we thought of his bloody forays among his Batoka brethren. A
scolding does most good to the recipient, when put alongside some
obliging act. He certainly did not take it ill, as was evident from
what he gave us in return; which consisted of a liberal supply of
meal, milk, and an ox. He has a large herd of cattle, and a tract of
fine pasture-land on the beautiful stream Lekone. A home-feeling
comes over one, even in the interior of Africa, at seeing once more
cattle grazing peacefully in the meadows. The tsetse inhabits the
trees which bound the pasture-land on the west; so, should the
herdsman forget his duty, the cattle straying might be entirely lost.
The women of this village were more numerous than the men, the result
of the chief's marauding. The Batoko wife of Sima came up from the
Falls, to welcome her husband back, bringing a present of the best
fruits of the country. Her husband was the only one of the party who
had brought a wife from Tette, namely, the girl whom he obtained from
Chisaka for his feats of dancing. According to our ideas, his first
wife could hardly have been pleased at seeing the second and younger
one; but she took her away home with her, while the husband remained
with us. In going down to the Fall village we met several of the
real Makololo. They are lighter in colour than the other tribes,
being of a rich warm brown; and they speak in a slow deliberate
manner, distinctly pronouncing every word. On reaching the village
opposite Kalai, we had an interview with the Makololo headman,
Mashotlane: he came to the shed in which we were seated, a little
boy carrying his low three-legged stool before him: on this he sat
down with becoming dignity, looked round him for a few seconds, then
at us, and, saluting us with "Rumela" (good morning, or hail), he
gave us some boiled hippopotamus meat, took a piece himself, and then
handed the rest to his attendants, who soon ate it up. He defended
his forays on the ground that, when he went to collect tribute, the
Batoka attacked him, and killed some of his attendants. The excuses
made for their little wars are often the very same as those made by
Caesar in his "Commentaries." Few admit, like old Moshobotwane, that
they fought because they had the power, and a fair prospect of
conquering. We found here Pitsane, who had accompanied the Doctor to
St. Paul de Loanda. He had been sent by Sekeletu to purchase three
horses from a trading party of Griquas from Kuruman, who charged nine
large tusks apiece for very wretched animals.

In the evening, when all was still, one of our men, Takelang, fired
his musket, and cried out, "I am weeping for my wife: my court is
desolate: I have no home;" and then uttered a loud wail of anguish.

We proceeded next morning, 9th August, 1860, to see the Victoria
Falls. Mosi-oa-tunya is the Makololo name and means smoke sounding;
Seongo or Chongwe, meaning the Rainbow, or the place of the Rainbow,
was the more ancient term they bore. We embarked in canoes,
belonging to Tuba Mokoro, "smasher of canoes," an ominous name; but
he alone, it seems, knew the medicine which insures one against
shipwreck in the rapids above the Falls. For some miles the river
was smooth and tranquil, and we glided pleasantly over water clear as
crystal, and past lovely islands densely covered with a tropical
vegetation. Noticeable among the many trees were the lofty Hyphaene
and Borassus palms; the graceful wild date-palm, with its fruit in
golden clusters, and the umbrageous mokononga, of cypress form, with
its dark-green leaves and scarlet fruit. Many flowers peeped out
near the water's edge, some entirely new to us, and others, as the
convolvulus, old acquaintances.

But our attention was quickly called from the charming islands to the
dangerous rapids, down which Tuba might unintentionally shoot us. To
confess the truth, the very ugly aspect of these roaring rapids could
scarcely fail to cause some uneasiness in the minds of new-comers.
It is only when the river is very low, as it was now, that any one
durst venture to the island to which we were bound. If one went
during the period of flood, and fortunately hit the island, he would
be obliged to remain there till the water subsided again, if he lived
so long. Both hippopotami and elephants have been known to be swept
over the Falls, and of course smashed to pulp.

Before entering the race of waters, we were requested not to speak,
as our talking might diminish the virtue of the medicine; and no one
with such boiling eddying rapids before his eyes, would think of
disobeying the orders of a "canoe-smasher." It soon became evident
that there was sound sense in this request of Tuba's, although the
reason assigned was not unlike that of the canoe-man from Sesheke,
who begged one of our party not to whistle, because whistling made
the wind come. It was the duty of the man at the bow to look out
ahead for the proper course, and when he saw a rock or snag, to call
out to the steersman. Tuba doubtless thought that talking on board
might divert the attention of his steersman, at a time when the
neglect of an order, or a slight mistake, would be sure to spill us
all into the chafing river. There were places where the utmost
exertions of both men had to be put forth in order to force the canoe
to the only safe part of the rapid, and to prevent it from sweeping
down broadside on, where in a twinkling we should have found
ourselves floundering among the plotuses and cormorants, which were
engaged in diving for their breakfast of small fish. At times it
seemed as if nothing could save us from dashing in our headlong race
against the rocks which, now that the river was low, jutted out of
the water; but just at the very nick of time, Tuba passed the word to
the steersman, and then with ready pole turned the canoe a little
aside, and we glided swiftly past the threatened danger. Never was
canoe more admirably managed: once only did the medicine seem to
have lost something of its efficacy. We were driving swiftly down, a
black rock over which the white foam flew, lay directly in our path,
the pole was planted against it as readily as ever, but it slipped,
just as Tuba put forth his strength to turn the bow off. We struck
hard, and were half-full of water in a moment; Tuba recovered himself
as speedily, shoved off the bow, and shot the canoe into a still
shallow place, to bale out the water. Here we were given to
understand that it was not the medicine which was at fault; that had
lost none of its virtue; the accident was owing entirely to Tuba
having started without his breakfast. Need it be said we never let
Tuba go without that meal again?

We landed at the head of Garden Island, which is situated near the
middle of the river and on the lip of the Falls. On reaching that
lip, and peering over the giddy height, the wondrous and unique
character of the magnificent cascade at once burst upon us.

It is rather a hopeless task to endeavour to convey an idea of it in
words, since, as was remarked on the spot, an accomplished painter,
even by a number of views, could but impart a faint impression of the
glorious scene. The probable mode of its formation may perhaps help
to the conception of its peculiar shape. Niagara has been formed by
a wearing back of the rock over which the river falls; and during a
long course of ages, it has gradually receded, and left a broad,
deep, and pretty straight trough in front. It goes on wearing back
daily, and may yet discharge the lakes from which its river--the St.
Lawrence--flows. But the Victoria Falls have been formed by a crack
right across the river, in the hard, black, basaltic rock which there
formed the bed of the Zambesi. The lips of the crack are still quite
sharp, save about three feet of the edge over which the river rolls.
The walls go sheer down from the lips without any projecting crag, or
symptoms of stratification or dislocation. When the mighty rift
occurred, no change of level took place in the two parts of the bed
of the river thus rent asunder, consequently, in coming down the
river to Garden Island, the water suddenly disappears, and we see the
opposite side of the cleft, with grass and trees growing where once
the river ran, on the same level as that part of its bed on which we
sail. The first crack is, in length, a few yards more than the
breadth of the Zambesi, which by measurement we found to be a little
over 1860 yards, but this number we resolved to retain as indicating
the year in which the Fall was for the first time carefully examined.
The main stream here runs nearly north and south, and the cleft
across it is nearly east and west. The depth of the rift was
measured by lowering a line, to the end of which a few bullets and a
foot of white cotton cloth were tied. One of us lay with his head
over a projecting crag, and watched the descending calico, till,
after his companions had paid out 310 feet, the weight rested on a
sloping projection, probably 50 feet from the water below, the actual
bottom being still further down. The white cloth now appeared the
size of a crown-piece. On measuring the width of this deep cleft by
sextant, it was found at Garden Island, its narrowest part, to be
eighty yards, and at its broadest somewhat more. Into this chasm, of
twice the depth of Niagara-fall, the river, a full mile wide, rolls
with a deafening roar; and this is Mosi-oa-tunya, or the Victoria

Looking from Garden Island, down to the bottom of the abyss, nearly
half a mile of water, which has fallen over that portion of the Falls
to our right, or west of our point of view, is seen collected in a
narrow channel twenty or thirty yards wide, and flowing at exactly
right angles to its previous course, to our left; while the other
half, or that which fell over the eastern portion of the Falls, is
seen in the left of the narrow channel below, coming towards our
right. Both waters unite midway, in a fearful boiling whirlpool, and
find an outlet by a crack situated at right angles to the fissure of
the Falls. This outlet is about 1170 yards from the western end of
the chasm, and some 600 from its eastern end; the whirlpool is at its
commencement. The Zambesi, now apparently not more than twenty or
thirty yards wide, rushes and surges south, through the narrow
escape-channel for 130 yards; then enters a second chasm somewhat
deeper, and nearly parallel with the first. Abandoning the bottom of
the eastern half of this second chasm to the growth of large trees,
it turns sharply off to the west, and forms a promontory, with the
escape-channel at its point, of 1170 yards long, and 416 yards broad
at the base. After reaching this base, the river runs abruptly round
the head of another promontory, and flows away to the east, in a
third chasm; then glides round a third promontory, much narrower than
the rest, and away back to the west, in a fourth chasm; and we could
see in the distance that it appeared to round still another
promontory, and bend once more in another chasm towards the east. In
this gigantic, zigzag, yet narrow trough, the rocks are all so
sharply cut and angular, that the idea at once arises that the hard
basaltic trap must have been riven into its present shape by a force
acting from beneath, and that this probably took place when the
ancient inland seas were let off by similar fissures nearer the

The land beyond, or on the south of the Falls, retains, as already
remarked, the same level as before the rent was made. It is as if
the trough below Niagara were bent right and left, several times
before it reached the railway bridge. The land in the supposed bends
being of the same height as that above the Fall, would give standing-
places, or points of view, of the same nature as that from the
railway-bridge, but the nearest would be only eighty yards, instead
of two miles (the distance to the bridge) from the face of the
cascade. The tops of the promontories are in general flat, smooth,
and studded with trees. The first, with its base on the east, is at
one place so narrow, that it would be dangerous to walk to its
extremity. On the second, however, we found a broad rhinoceros path
and a hut; but, unless the builder were a hermit, with a pet
rhinoceros, we cannot conceive what beast or man ever went there for.
On reaching the apex of this second eastern promontory we saw the
great river, of a deep sea-green colour, now sorely compressed,
gliding away, at least 400 feet below us.

Garden Island, when the river is low, commands the best view of the
Great Fall chasm, as also of the promontory opposite, with its grove
of large evergreen trees, and brilliant rainbows of three-quarters of
a circle, two, three, and sometimes even four in number, resting on
the face of the vast perpendicular rock, down which tiny streams are
always running to be swept again back by the upward rushing vapour.
But as, at Niagara, one has to go over to the Canadian shore to see
the chief wonder--the Great Horse-shoe Fall--so here we have to cross
over to Moselekatse's side to the promontory of evergreens, for the
best view of the principal Falls of Mosi-oa-tunya. Beginning,
therefore, at the base of this promontory, and facing the Cataract,
at the west end of the chasm, there is, first, a fall of thirty-six
yards in breadth, and of course, as they all are, upwards of 310 feet
in depth. Then Boaruka, a small island, intervenes, and next comes a
great fall, with a breadth of 573 yards; a projecting rock separates
this from a second grand fall of 325 yards broad; in all, upwards of
900 yards of perennial Falls. Further east stands Garden Island;
then, as the river was at its lowest, came a good deal of the bare
rock of its bed, with a score of narrow falls, which, at the time of
flood, constitute one enormous cascade of nearly another half-mile.
Near the east end of the chasm are two larger falls, but they are
nothing at low water compared to those between the islands.

The whole body of water rolls clear over, quite unbroken; but, after
a descent of ten or more feet, the entire mass suddenly becomes like
a huge sheet of driven snow. Pieces of water leap off it in the form
of comets with tails streaming behind, till the whole snowy sheet
becomes myriads of rushing, leaping, aqueous comets. This
peculiarity was not observed by Charles Livingstone at Niagara, and
here it happens, possibly from the dryness of the atmosphere, or
whatever the cause may be which makes every drop of Zambesi water
appear to possess a sort of individuality. It runs off the ends of
the paddles, and glides in beads along the smooth surface, like drops
of quicksilver on a table. Here we see them in a conglomeration,
each with a train of pure white vapour, racing down till lost in
clouds of spray. A stone dropped in became less and less to the eye,
and at last disappeared in the dense mist below.

Charles Livingstone had seen Niagara, and gave Mosi-oa-tunya the
palm, though now at the end of a drought, and the river at its very
lowest. Many feel a disappointment on first seeing the great
American Falls, but Mosi-oa-tunya is so strange, it must ever cause
wonder. In the amount of water, Niagara probably excels, though not
during the months when the Zambesi is in flood. The vast body of
water, separating in the comet-like forms described, necessarily
encloses in its descent a large volume of air, which, forced into the
cleft, to an unknown depth, rebounds, and rushes up loaded with
vapour to form the three or even six columns, as if of steam, visible
at the Batoka village Moachemba, twenty-one miles distant. On
attaining a height of 200, or at most 300 feet from the level of the
river above the cascade, this vapour becomes condensed into a
perpetual shower of fine rain. Much of the spray, rising to the west
of Garden Island, falls on the grove of evergreen trees opposite; and
from their leaves, heavy drops are for ever falling, to form sundry
little rills, which, in running down the steep face of rock, are
blown off and turned back, or licked off their perpendicular bed, up
into the column from which they have just descended.

The morning sun gilds these columns of watery smoke with all the
glowing colours of double or treble rainbows. The evening sun, from
a hot yellow sky, imparts a sulphureous hue, and gives one the
impression that the yawning gulf might resemble the mouth of the
bottomless pit. No bird sits and sings on the branches of the grove
of perpetual showers, or ever builds its nest there. We saw
hornbills and flocks of little black weavers flying across from the
mainland to the islands, and from the islands to the points of the
promontories and back again, but they uniformly shunned the region of
perpetual rain, occupied by the evergreen grove. The sunshine,
elsewhere in this land so overpowering, never penetrates the deep
gloom of that shade. In the presence of the strange Mosi-oa-tunya,
we can sympathize with those who, when the world was young, peopled
earth, air, and river, with beings not of mortal form. Sacred to
what deity would be this awful chasm and that dark grove, over which
hovers an ever-abiding "pillar of cloud"?

The ancient Batoka chieftains used Kazeruka, now Garden Island, and
Boaruka, the island further west, also on the lip of the Falls, as
sacred spots for worshipping the Deity. It is no wonder that under
the cloudy columns, and near the brilliant rainbows, with the
ceaseless roar of the cataract, with the perpetual flow, as if
pouring forth from the hand of the Almighty, their souls should be
filled with reverential awe. It inspired wonder in the native mind
throughout the interior. Among the first questions asked by
Sebituane of Mr. Oswell and Dr. Livingstone, in 1851, was, "Have you
any smoke soundings in your country," and "what causes the smoke to
rise for ever so high out of water?" In that year its fame was heard
200 miles off, and it was approached within two days; but it was seen
by no European till 1855, when Dr. Livingstone visited it on his way
to the East Coast. Being then accompanied as far as this Fall by
Sekeletu and 200 followers, his stay was necessarily short; and the
two days there were employed in observations for fixing the
geographical position of the place, and turning the showers, that at
times sweep from the columns of vapour across the island, to account,
in teaching the Makololo arboriculture, and making that garden from
which the natives named the island; so that he did not visit the
opposite sides of the cleft, nor see the wonderful course of the
river beyond the Falls. The hippopotami had destroyed the trees
which were then planted; and, though a strong stockaded hedge was
made again, and living orange-trees, cashew-nuts, and coffee seeds
put in afresh, we fear that the perseverance of the hippopotami will
overcome the obstacle of the hedge. It would require a resident
missionary to rear European fruit-trees. The period at which the
peach and apricot come into blossom is about the end of the dry
season, and artificial irrigation is necessary. The Batoka, the only
arboriculturists in the country, rear native fruit-trees alone--the
mosibe, the motsikiri, the boma, and others. When a tribe takes an
interest in trees, it becomes more attached to the spot on which they
are planted, and they prove one of the civilizing influences.

Where one Englishman goes, others are sure to follow. Mr. Baldwin, a
gentleman from Natal, succeeded in reaching the Falls guided by his
pocket-compass alone. On meeting the second subject of Her Majesty,
who had ever beheld the greatest of African wonders, we found him a
sort of prisoner at large. He had called on Mashotlane to ferry him
over to the north side of the river, and, when nearly over, he took a
bath, by jumping in and swimming ashore. "If," said Mashotlane, "he
had been devoured by one of the crocodiles which abound there, the
English would have blamed us for his death. He nearly inflicted a
great injury upon us, therefore, we said, he must pay a fine." As
Mr. Baldwin had nothing with him wherewith to pay, they were taking
care of him till he should receive beads from his wagon, two days

Mashotlane's education had been received in the camp of Sebituane,
where but little regard was paid to human life. He was not yet in
his prime, and his fine open countenance presented to us no
indication of the evil influences which unhappily, from infancy, had
been at work on his mind. The native eye was more penetrating than
ours; for the expression of our men was, "He has drunk the blood of
men--you may see it in his eyes." He made no further difficulty
about Mr. Baldwin; but the week after we left he inflicted a severe
wound on the head of one of his wives with his rhinoceros-horn club.
She, being of a good family, left him, and we subsequently met her
and another of his wives proceeding up the country.

The ground is strewn with agates for a number of miles above the
Falls; but the fires, which burn off the grass yearly, have injured
most of those on the surface. Our men were delighted to hear that
they do as well as flints for muskets; and this with the new ideas of
the value of gold (dalama) and malachite, that they had acquired at
Tette, made them conceive that we were not altogether silly in
picking up and looking at stones.

Marching up the river, we crossed the Lekone at its confluence, about
eight miles above the island Kalai, and went on to a village opposite
the Island Chundu. Nambowe, the headman, is one of the Matebele or
Zulus, who have had to flee from the anger of Moselekatse, to take
refuge with the Makololo.

We spent Sunday, the 12th, at the village of Molele, a tall old
Batoka, who was proud of having formerly been a great favourite with
Sebituane. In coming hither we passed through patches of forest
abounding in all sorts of game. The elephants' tusks, placed over
graves, are now allowed to decay, and the skulls, which the former
Batoka stuck on poles to ornament their villages, not being renewed,
now crumble into dust. Here the famine, of which we had heard,
became apparent, Molele's people being employed in digging up the
tsitla root out of the marshes, and cutting out the soft core of the
young palm-trees, for food.

The village, situated on the side of a wooded ridge, commands an
extensive view of a great expanse of meadow and marsh lying along the
bank of the river. On these holmes herds of buffaloes and waterbucks
daily graze in security, as they have in the reedy marshes a refuge
into which they can run on the approach of danger. The pretty little
tianyane or ourebi is abundant further on, and herds of blue
weldebeests or brindled gnus (Katoblepas Gorgon) amused us by their
fantastic capers. They present a much more ferocious aspect than the
lion himself, but are quite timid. We never could, by waving a red
handkerchief, according to the prescription, induce them to venture
near to us. It may therefore be that the red colour excites their
fury only when wounded or hotly pursued. Herds of lechee or lechwe
now enliven the meadows; and they and their younger brother, the
graceful poku, smaller, and of a rounder contour, race together
towards the grassy fens. We venture to call the poku after the late
Major Vardon, a noble-hearted African traveller; but fully anticipate
that some aspiring Nimrod will prefer that his own name should go
down to posterity on the back of this buck.

Midway between Tabacheu and the Great Falls the streams begin to flow
westward. On the other side they begin to flow east. Large round
masses of granite, somewhat like old castles, tower aloft about the
Kalomo. The country is an elevated plateau, and our men knew and
named the different plains as we passed them by.

On the 13th we met a party from Sekeletu, who was now at Sesheke.
Our approach had been reported, and they had been sent to ask the
Doctor what the price of a horse ought to be; and what he said, that
they were to give and no more. In reply they were told that by their
having given nine large tusks for one horse before the Doctor came,
the Griquas would naturally imagine that the price was already
settled. It was exceedingly amusing to witness the exact imitation
they gave of the swagger of a certain white with whom they had been
dealing, and who had, as they had perceived, evidently wished to
assume an air of indifference. Holding up the head and scratching
the beard it was hinted might indicate not indifference, but vermin.
It is well that we do not always know what they say about us. The
remarks are often not quite complimentary, and resemble closely what
certain white travellers say about the blacks.

We made our camp in the afternoon abreast of the large island called
Mparira, opposite the mouth of the Chobe. Francolins, quails, and
guinea-fowls, as well as larger game, were abundant. The Makololo
headman, Mokompa, brought us a liberal present; and in the usual way,
which is considered politeness, regretted he had no milk, as his cows
were all dry. We got some honey here from the very small stingless
bee, called, by the Batoka, moandi, and by others, the kokomatsane.
This honey is slightly acid, and has an aromatic flavour. The bees
are easily known from their habit of buzzing about the eyes, and
tickling the skin by sucking it as common flies do. The hive has a
tube of wax like a quill, for its entrance, and is usually in the
hollows of trees.

Mokompa feared that the tribe was breaking up, and lamented the
condition into which they had fallen in consequence of Sekeletu's
leprosy; he did not know what was to become of them. He sent two
canoes to take us up to Sesheke; his best canoe had taken ivory up to
the chief, to purchase goods of some native traders from Benguela.
Above the Falls the paddlers always stand in the canoes, using long
paddles, ten feet in length, and changing from side to side without
losing the stroke.

Mochokotsa, a messenger from Sekeletu, met us on the 17th, with
another request for the Doctor to take ivory and purchase a horse.
He again declined to interfere. None were to come up to Sekeletu but
the Doctor; and all the men who had had smallpox at Tette, three
years ago, were to go back to Moshobotwane, and he would sprinkle
medicine over them, to drive away the infection, and prevent it
spreading in the tribe. Mochokotsa was told to say to Sekeletu that
the disease was known of old to white men, and we even knew the
medicine to prevent it; and, were there any danger now, we should be
the first to warn him of it. Why did not he go himself to have
Moshobotwane sprinkle medicine to drive away his leprosy. We were
not afraid of his disease, nor of the fever that had killed the
teachers and many Makololo at Linyanti. As this attempt at
quarantine was evidently the suggestion of native doctors to increase
their own importance, we added that we had no food, and would hunt
next day for game, and the day after; and, should we be still ordered
purification by their medicine, we should then return to our own

The message was not all of our dictation, our companions interlarded
it with their own indignant protests, and said some strong things in
the Tette dialect about these "doctor things" keeping them back from
seeing their father; when to their surprise Mochokotsa told them he
knew every word they were saying, as he was of the tribe Bazizulu,
and defied them to deceive him by any dialect, either of the Mashona
on the east, or of the Mambari on the west. Mochokotsa then repeated
our message twice, to be sure that he had it every word, and went
back again. These chiefs' messengers have most retentive memories;
they carry messages of considerable length great distances, and
deliver them almost word for word. Two or three usually go together,
and when on the way the message is rehearsed every night, in order
that the exact words may be kept to. One of the native objections to
learning to write is, that these men answer the purpose of
transmitting intelligence to a distance as well as a letter would;
and, if a person wishes to communicate with any one in the town, the
best way to do so is either to go to or send for him. And as for
corresponding with friends very far off, that is all very well for
white people, but the blacks have no friends to whom to write. The
only effective argument for the learning to read is, that it is their
duty to know the revelation from their Father in Heaven, as it stands
in the Book.

Our messenger returned on the evening of the following day with "You
speak truly," says Sekeletu, "the disease is old, come on at once, do
not sleep in the path; for I am greatly desirous (tlologelecoe) to
see the Doctor."

After Mochokotsa left us, we met some of Mokompa's men bringing back
the ivory, as horses were preferred to the West-Coast goods. They
were the bearers of instructions to Mokompa, and as these
instructions illustrate the government of people who have learned
scarcely anything from Europeans, they are inserted, though otherwise
of no importance. Mashotlane had not behaved so civilly to Mr.
Baldwin as Sekeletu had ordered him to do to all Englishmen. He had
been very uncivil to the messengers sent by Moselekatse with letters
from Mr. Moffat, treated them as spies, and would not land to take
the bag until they moved off. On our speaking to him about this, he
justified his conduct on the plea that he was set at the Falls for
the very purpose of watching these, their natural enemies; and how
was he to know that they had been sent by Mr. Moffat? Our men
thereupon reported at head-quarters that Mashotlane had cursed the
Doctor. The instructions to Mokompa, from Sekeletu, were to "go and
tell Mashotlane that he had offended greatly. He had not cursed
Monare (Dr. Livingstone) but Sebituane, as Monare was now in the
place of Sebituane, and he reverenced him as he had done his father.
Any fine taken from Mr. Baldwin was to be returned at once, as he was
not a Boer but an Englishman. Sekeletu was very angry, and Mokompa
must not conceal the message."

On finding afterwards that Mashotlane's conduct had been most
outrageous to the Batoka, Sekeletu sent for him to come to Sesheke,
in order that he might have him more under his own eye; but
Mashotlane, fearing that this meant the punishment of death, sent a
polite answer, alleging that he was ill and unable to travel.
Sekeletu tried again to remove Mashotlane from the Falls, but without
success. In theory the chief is absolute and quite despotic; in
practice his authority is limited, and he cannot, without
occasionally putting refractory headmen to death, force his
subordinates to do his will.

Except the small rapids by Mparira island, near the mouth of the
Chobe, the rest of the way to Sesheke by water is smooth. Herds of
cattle of two or three varieties graze on the islands in the river:
the Batoka possessed a very small breed of beautiful shape, and
remarkably tame, and many may still be seen; a larger kind, many of
which have horns pendent, and loose at the roots; and a still larger
sort, with horns of extraordinary dimensions,--apparently a burden
for the beast to carry. This breed was found in abundance at Lake
Ngami. We stopped at noon at one of the cattle-posts of Mokompa, and
had a refreshing drink of milk. Men of his standing have usually
several herds placed at different spots, and the owner visits each in
turn, while his head-quarters are at his village. His son, a boy of
ten, had charge of the establishment during his father's absence.
According to Makololo ideas, the cattle-post is the proper school in
which sons should be brought up. Here they receive the right sort of
education--the knowledge of pasture and how to manage cattle.

Strong easterly winds blow daily from noon till midnight, and
continue till the October or November rains set in. Whirlwinds,
raising huge pillars of smoke from burning grass and weeds, are
common in the forenoon. We were nearly caught in an immense one. It
crossed about twenty yards in front of us, the wind apparently
rushing into it from all points of the compass. Whirling round and
round in great eddies, it swept up hundreds of feet into the air a
continuous dense dark cloud of the black pulverized soil, mixed with
dried grass, off the plain. Herds of the new antelopes, lechwe, and
poku, with the kokong, or gnus, and zebras stood gazing at us as we
passed. The mirage lifted them at times halfway to the clouds, and
twisted them and the clumps of palms into strange unearthly forms.
The extensive and rich level plains by the banks, along the sides of
which we paddled, would support a vast population, and might be
easily irrigated from the Zambesi. If watered, they would yield
crops all the year round, and never suffer loss by drought. The
hippopotamus is killed here with long lance-like spears. We saw two
men, in a light canoe, stealing noiselessly down on one of these
animals thought to be asleep; but it was on the alert, and they had
quickly to retreat. Comparatively few of these animals now remain
between Sesheke and the Falls, and they are uncommonly wary, as it is
certain death for one to be caught napping in the daytime.

On the 18th we entered Sesheke. The old town, now in ruins, stands
on the left bank of the river. The people have built another on the
same side, a quarter of a mile higher up, since their headman
Moriantsiane was put to death for bewitching the chief with leprosy.
Sekeletu was on the right bank, near a number of temporary huts. A
man hailed us from the chiefs quarters, and requested us to rest
under the old Kotla, or public meeting-place tree. A young Makololo,
with the large thighs which Zulus and most of this tribe have,
crossed over to receive orders from the chief, who had not shown
himself to the people since he was affected with leprosy. On
returning he ran for Mokele, the headman of the new town, who, after
going over to Sekeletu, came back and conducted us to a small but
good hut, and afterwards brought us a fine fat ox, as a present from
the chief. "This is a time of hunger," he said, "and we have no
meat, but we expect some soon from the Barotse Valley." We were
entirely out of food when we reached Sesheke. Never was better meat
than that of the ox Sekeletu sent, and infinitely above the flesh of
all kinds of game is beef!

A constant stream of visitors rolled in on us the day after our
arrival. Several of them, who had suffered affliction during the
Doctor's absence, seemed to be much affected on seeing him again.
All were in low spirits. A severe drought had cut off the crops, and
destroyed the pasture of Linyanti, and the people were scattered over
the country in search of wild fruits, and the hospitality of those
whose ground-nuts (Arachis hypogoea) had not failed. Sekeletu's
leprosy brought troops of evils in its train. Believing himself
bewitched, he had suspected a number of his chief men, and had put
some, with their families, to death; others had fled to distant
tribes, and were living in exile. The chief had shut himself up, and
allowed no one to come into his presence but his uncle Mamire.
Ponwane, who had been as "head and eyes" to him, had just died;
evidence, he thought, of the potent spells of those who hated all who
loved the chief. The country was suffering grievously, and
Sebituane's grand empire was crumbling to pieces. A large body of
young Barotse had revolted and fled to the north; killing a man by
the way, in order to put a blood-feud between Masiko, the chief to
whom they were going, and Sekeletu. The Batoka under Sinamane, and
Muemba, were independent, and Mashotlane at the Falls was setting
Sekeletu's authority virtually at defiance. Sebituane's wise policy
in treating the conquered tribes on equal terms with his own
Makololo, as all children of the chief, and equally eligible to the
highest honours, had been abandoned by his son, who married none but
Makololo women, and appointed to office none but Makololo men. He
had become unpopular among the black tribes, conquered by the spear
but more effectually won by the subsequent wise and just government
of his father.

Strange rumours were afloat respecting the unseen Sekeletu; his
fingers were said to have grown like eagle's claws, and his face so
frightfully distorted that no one could recognize him. Some had
begun to hint that he might not really be the son of the great
Sebituane, the founder of the nation, strong in battle, and wise in
the affairs of state. "In the days of the Great Lion" (Sebituane),
said his only sister, Moriantsiane's widow, whose husband Sekeletu
had killed, "we had chiefs and little chiefs and elders to carry on
the government, and the great chief, Sebituane, knew them all, and
everything they did, and the whole country was wisely ruled; but now
Sekeletu knows nothing of what his underlings do, and they care not
for him, and the Makololo power is fast passing away." {3}

The native doctors had given the case of Sekeletu up. They could not
cure him, and pronounced the disease incurable. An old doctress from
the Manyeti tribe had come to see what she could do for him, and on
her skill he now hung his last hopes. She allowed no one to see him,
except his mother and uncle, making entire seclusion from society an
essential condition of the much longed-for cure. He sent,
notwithstanding, for the Doctor; and on the following day we all
three were permitted to see him. He was sitting in a covered wagon,
which was enclosed by a high wall of close-set reeds; his face was
only slightly disfigured by the thickening of the skin in parts,
where the leprosy had passed over it; and the only peculiarity about
his hands was the extreme length of his finger-nails, which, however,
was nothing very much out of the way, as all the Makololo gentlemen
wear them uncommonly long. He has the quiet, unassuming manners of
his father, Sebituane, speaks distinctly, in a low pleasant voice,
and appears to be a sensible man, except perhaps on the subject of
his having been bewitched; and in this, when alluded to, he exhibits
as firm a belief as if it were his monomania. "Moriantsiane, my
aunt's husband, tried the bewitching medicine first on his wife, and
she is leprous, and so is her head-servant; then, seeing that it
succeeded, he gave me a stronger dose in the cooked flesh of a goat,
and I have had the disease ever since. They have lately killed
Ponwane, and, as you see, are now killing me." Ponwane had died of
fever a short time previously. Sekeletu asked us for medicine and
medical attendance, but we did not like to take the case out of the
hands of the female physician already employed, it being bad policy
to appear to undervalue any of the profession; and she, being anxious
to go on with her remedies, said "she had not given him up yet, but
would try for another month; if he was not cured by that time, then
she would hand him over to the white doctors." But we intended to
leave the country before a month was up; so Mamire, with others,
induced the old lady to suspend her treatment for a little. She
remained, as the doctors stipulated, in the chief's establishment,
and on full pay.

Sekeletu was told plainly that the disease was unknown in our
country, and was thought exceedingly obstinate of cure; that we did
not believe in his being bewitched, and we were willing to do all we
could to help him. This was a case for disinterested benevolence; no
pay was expected, but considerable risk incurred; yet we could not
decline it, as we had the trading in horses. Having, however, none
of the medicines usually employed in skin diseases with us, we tried
the local application of lunar caustic, and hydriodate of potash
internally; and with such gratifying results, that Mamire wished the
patient to be smeared all over with a solution of lunar caustic,
which he believed to be of the same nature as the blistering fluid
formerly applied to his own knee by Mr. Oswell. ITS power he
considered irresistible, and he would fain have had anything like it
tried on Sekeletu.

It was a time of great scarcity and hunger, but Sekeletu treated us
hospitably, preparing tea for us at every visit we paid him. With
the tea we had excellent American biscuit and preserved fruits, which
had been brought to him all the way from Benguela. The fruits he
most relished were those preserved in their own juices; plums,
apples, pears, strawberries, and peaches, which we have seen only
among Portuguese and Spaniards. It made us anxious to plant the
fruit-tree seeds we had brought, and all were pleased with the idea
of having these same fruits in their own country.

Mokele, the headman of Sesheke, and Sebituane's sister, Manchunyane,
were ordered to provide us with food, as Sekeletu's wives, to whom
this duty properly belonged, were at Linyanti. We found a black
trader from the West Coast, and some Griqua traders from the South,
both in search of ivory. Ivory is dear at Sesheke; but cheaper in
the Batoka country, from Sinamane's to the Kafue, than anywhere else.
The trader from Benguela took orders for goods for his next year's
trip, and offered to bring tea, coffee, and sugar at cent. per cent.
prices. As, in consequence of a hint formerly given, the Makololo
had secured all the ivory in the Batoga country to the east, by
purchasing it with hoes, the Benguela traders found it unprofitable
to go thither for slaves. They assured us that without ivory the
trade in slaves did not pay. In this way, and by the orders of
Sekeletu, an extensive slave-mart was closed. These orders were
never infringed except secretly. We discovered only two or three
cases of their infraction.

Sekeletu was well pleased with the various articles we brought for
him, and inquired if a ship could not bring his sugar-mill and the
other goods we had been obliged to leave behind at Tette. On hearing
that there was a possibility of a powerful steamer ascending as far
as Sinamane's, but never above the Grand Victoria Falls, he asked,
with charming simplicity, if a cannon could not blow away the Falls,
so as to allow the vessel to come up to Sesheke.

To save the tribe from breaking up, by the continual loss of real
Makololo, it ought at once to remove to the healthy Batoka highlands,
near the Kafue. Fully aware of this, Sekeletu remarked that all his
people, save two, were convinced that, if they remained in the
lowlands, a few years would suffice to cut off all the real Makololo;
they came originally from the healthy South, near the confluence of
the Likwa and Namagari, where fever is almost unknown, and its
ravages had been as frightful among them here, as amongst Europeans
on the Coast. Sebituane's sister described its first appearance
among the tribe, after their settling in the Barotse Valley on the
Zambesi. Many of them were seized with a shivering sickness, as if
from excessive cold; they had never seen the like before. They made
great fires, and laid the shivering wretches down before them; but,
pile on wood as they might, they could not raise heat enough to drive
the cold out of the bodies of the sufferers, and they shivered on
till they died. But, though all preferred the highlands, they were
afraid to go there, lest the Matebele should come and rob them of
their much-loved cattle. Sebituane, with all his veterans, could not
withstand that enemy; and how could they be resisted, now that most
of the brave warriors were dead? The young men would break, and run
away the moment they saw the terrible Matebele, being as much afraid
of them as the black conquered tribes are of the Makololo. "But if
the Doctor and his wife," said the chiefs and counsellors, "would
come and live with us, we would remove to the highlands at once, as
Moselekatse would not attack a place where the daughter of his
friend, Moffat, was living."

The Makololo are by far the most intelligent and enterprising of the
tribes we have met. None but brave and daring men remained long with
Sebituane, his stern discipline soon eradicated cowardice from his
army. Death was the inevitable doom of the coward. If the chief saw
a man running away from the fight, he rushed after him with amazing
speed, and cut him down; or waited till he returned to the town, and
then summoned the deserter into his presence. "You did not wish to
die on the field, you wished to die at home, did you? you shall have
your wish!" and he was instantly led off and executed. The present
race of young men are inferior in most respects to their fathers.
The old Makololo had many manly virtues; they were truthful, and
never stole, excepting in what they considered the honourable way of
lifting cattle in fair fight. But this can hardly be said of their
sons; who, having been brought up among the subjected tribes, have
acquired some of the vices peculiar to a menial and degraded race. A
few of the old Makololo cautioned us not to leave any of our property
exposed, as the blacks were great thieves; and some of our own men
advised us to be on our guard, as the Makololo also would steal. A
very few trifling articles were stolen by a young Makololo; and he,
on being spoken to on the subject, showed great ingenuity in excusing
himself, by a plausible and untruthful story. The Makololo of old
were hard workers, and did not consider labour as beneath them; but
their sons never work, regarding it as fit only for the Mashona and
Makalaka servants. Sebituane, seeing that the rival tribes had the
advantage over his, in knowing how to manage canoes, had his warriors
taught to navigate; and his own son, with his companions, paddled the
chief's canoe. All the dishes, baskets, stools, and canoes are made
by the black tribes called Manyeti and Matlotlora. The houses are
built by the women and servants. The Makololo women are vastly
superior to any we have yet seen. They are of a light warm brown
complexion, have pleasant countenances, and are remarkably quick of
apprehension. They dress neatly, wearing a kilt and mantle, and have
many ornaments. Sebituane's sister, the head lady of Sesheke, wore
eighteen solid brass rings, as thick as one's finger, on each leg,
and three of copper under each knee; nineteen brass rings on her left
arm, and eight of brass and copper on her right, also a large ivory
ring above each elbow. She had a pretty bead necklace, and a bead
sash encircled her waist. The weight of the bright brass rings round
her legs impeded her walking, and chafed her ankles; but, as it was
the fashion, she did not mind the inconvenience, and guarded against
the pain by putting soft rag round the lower rings.

Justice appears upon the whole to be pretty fairly administered among
the Makololo. A headman took some beads and a blanket from one of
his men who had been with us; the matter was brought before the
chief, and he immediately ordered the goods to be restored, and
decreed, moreover, that no headman should take the property of the
men who had returned. In theory, all the goods brought back belonged
to the chief; the men laid them at his feet, and made a formal offer
of them all; he looked at the articles, and told the men to keep
them. This is almost invariably the case. Tuba Mokoro, however,
fearing lest Sekeletu might take a fancy to some of his best goods,
exhibited only a few of his old and least valuable acquisitions.
Masakasa had little to show; he had committed some breach of native
law in one of the villages on the way, and paid a heavy fine rather
than have the matter brought to the Doctor's ears. Each carrier is
entitled to a portion of the goods in his bundle, though purchased by
the chief's ivory, and they never hesitate to claim their rights; but
no wages can be demanded from the chief, if he fails to respond to
the first application.

Our men, accustomed to our ways, thought that the English system of
paying a man for his labour was the only correct one, and some even
said it would be better to live under a government where life and
labour were more secure and valuable than here. While with us, they
always conducted themselves with propriety during Divine service, and
not only maintained decorum themselves, but insisted on other natives
who might be present doing the same. When Moshobotwane, the Batoka
chief, came on one occasion with a number of his men, they listened
in silence to the reading of the Bible in the Makololo tongue; but,
as soon as we all knelt down to pray, they commenced a vigorous
clapping of hands, their mode of asking a favour. Our indignant
Makololo soon silenced their noisy accompaniment, and looked with
great contempt on this display of ignorance. Nearly all our men had
learned to repeat the Lord's Prayer and the Apostles' Creed in their


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