A School History of the United States
John Bach McMaster

Part 1 out of 10

Produced by Juliet Sutherland, Charlie Kirschner and PG Distributed









It has long been the custom to begin the history of our country with the
discovery of the New World by Columbus. To some extent this is both wise
and necessary; but in following it in this instance the attempt has been
made to treat the colonial period as the childhood of the United States;
to have it bear the same relation to our later career that the account
of the youth of a great man should bear to that of his maturer years,
and to confine it to the narration of such events as are really
necessary to a correct understanding of what has happened since 1776.

The story, therefore, has been restricted to the discoveries,
explorations, and settlements within the United States by the English,
French, Spaniards, and Dutch; to the expulsion of the French by the
English; to the planting of the thirteen colonies on the Atlantic
seaboard; to the origin and progress of the quarrel which ended with the
rise of thirteen sovereign free and independent states, and to the
growth of such political institutions as began in colonial times. This
period once passed, the long struggle for a government followed till our
present Constitution--one of the most remarkable political instruments
ever framed by man--was adopted, and a nation founded.

Scarcely was this accomplished when the French Revolution and the rise
of Napoleon involved us in a struggle, first for our neutral rights, and
then for our commercial independence, and finally in a second war with
Great Britain. During this period of nearly five and twenty years,
commerce and agriculture flourished exceedingly, but our internal
resources were little developed. With the peace of 1815, however, the
era of industrial development commences, and this has been treated with
great--though it is believed not too great--fullness of detail; for,
beyond all question, _the_ event of the world's history during the
nineteenth century is the growth of the United States. Nothing like it
has ever before taken place.

To have loaded down the book with extended bibliographies would have
been an easy matter, but quite unnecessary. The teacher will find in
Channing and Hart's _Guide to the Study of American History_ the best
digested and arranged bibliography of the subject yet published, and
cannot afford to be without it. If the student has time and disposition
to read one half of the reference books cited in the footnotes of this
history, he is most fortunate.





XXXI. THE NEW WEST (1860-1870)






* * * * *




%1. Nations that have owned our Soil.%--Before the United States
became a nation, six European powers owned, or claimed to own, various
portions of the territory now contained within its boundary. England
claimed the Atlantic coast from Maine to Florida. Spain once held
Florida, Texas, California, and all the territory south and west of
Colorado. France in days gone by ruled the Mississippi valley. Holland
once owned New Jersey, Delaware, and the valley of the Hudson in New
York, and claimed as far eastward as the Connecticut river. The Swedes
had settlements on the Delaware. Alaska was a Russian possession.

Before attempting to narrate the history of our country, it is
necessary, therefore, to tell

1. How European nations came into possession of parts of it.

2. How these parts passed from them to us.

3. What effect the ownership of parts of our country by Europeans had on
our history and institutions before 1776.

%2. European Trade with the East; the Old Routes.%--For two hundred
years before North and South America were known to exist, a splendid
trade had been going on between Europe and the East Indies. Ships loaded
with metals, woods, and pitch went from European seaports to Alexandria
and Constantinople, and brought back silks and cashmeres, muslins,
dyewoods, spices, perfumes, ivory, precious stones, and pearls. This
trade in course of time had come to be controlled by the two Italian
cities of Venice and Genoa. The merchants of Genoa sent their ships to
Constantinople and the ports of the Black Sea, where they took on board
the rich fabrics and spices which by boats and by caravans had come up
the valley of the Euphrates and the Tigris from the Persian Gulf. The
men of Venice, on the other hand, sent their vessels to Alexandria, and
carried on their trade with the East through the Red Sea.

[Illustration: Routes to India]

%3. New Routes wanted.%--Splendid as this trade was, however, it was
doomed to destruction. Slowly, but surely, the Turks thrust themselves
across the caravan routes, cutting off one by one the great feeders of
the Oriental trade, till, with the capture of Constantinople in 1453,
they destroyed the commercial career of Genoa. As their power was
spreading rapidly over Syria and toward Egypt, the prosperity of Venice,
in turn, was threatened. The day seemed near when all trade between the
Indies and Europe would be ended, and men began to ask if it were not
possible to find an ocean route to Asia.

Now, it happened that just at this time the Portuguese were hard at work
on the discovery of such a route, and were slowly pushing their way down
the western coast of Africa. But as league after league of that coast
was discovered, it was thought that the route to India by way of Africa
was too long for the purposes of commerce.[1] Then came the question, Is
there not a shorter route? and this Columbus tried to answer.

[Footnote 1: Read the account of Portuguese exploration in search of a
way to India, in Fiske's _Discovery of America_, Vol. I., pp. 274-334.]

%4. Columbus seeks the East and finds America.%[2]--Columbus was a
native of Genoa, in Italy. He began a seafaring life at fourteen, and in
the intervals between his voyages made maps and globes. As Portugal was
then the center of nautical enterprise, he wandered there about 1470,
and probably went on one or two voyages down the coast of Africa. In
1473 he married a Portuguese woman. Her father had been one of the King
of Portugal's famous navigators, and had left behind him at his death a
quantity of charts and notes; and it was while Columbus was studying
them that the idea of seeking the Indies by sailing due westward seems
to have first started in his mind. But many a year went by, and many a
hardship had to be borne, and many an insult patiently endured in
poverty and distress, before the Friday morning in August, 1492, when
his three caravels, the _Santa Maria_ (sahn'-tah mah-ree'-ah), the
_Pinta_ (peen'-tah), and the _Nina_ (neen'-yah), sailed from the port of
Palos (pah'-los), in Spain.

[Footnote 2: There is reason to believe that about the year 1000 A.D.
the northeast coast of America was discovered by a Norse voyager named
Leif Ericsson. The records are very meager; but the discovery of our
country by such a people is possible and not improbable. For an account
of the pre-Columbian discoveries see Fiske's _Discovery of America_,
Vol. I., pp. 148-255.]

[Illustration: Santa Maria]

His course led first to the Canary Islands, where he turned and went
directly westward. The earth was not then generally believed to be
round. Men supposed it to be flat, and the only parts of it known to
Europeans were Iceland, the British Isles, the continent of Europe, a
small part of Asia, and a strip along the coast of the northern part of
Africa. The ocean on which Columbus was now embarked, and which in our
time is crossed in less than a week, was then utterly unknown, and was
well named "The Sea of Darkness." Little wonder, then, that as the
shores of the last of the Canaries sank out of sight on the 9th of
September, many of the sailors wept, wailed, and loudly bemoaned their
cruel fate. After sailing for what seemed a very long time, they saw
signs of land. But when no land appeared, their hopes gave way to fear,
and they rose against Columbus in order to force him to return.

[Illustration: Nina]

But he calmed their fears, explained the sights they could not
understand, hid from them the true distance sailed, and kept steadily on
westward till October 7, when a flock of land birds were seen flying to
the southwest. Pinzon (peen-thon'), who commanded one of the vessels,
begged Columbus to follow the birds, as they seemed to be going toward
land. Had the little fleet kept on its way, it would have brought up on
the coast of Florida. But Columbus yielded to Pinzon. The ships were
headed southwestward, and about ten o'clock on the night of October 11,
Columbus saw a light moving in the distance. It was made by the
inhabitants going from hut to hut on a neighboring coast. At dawn the
shore itself was seen by a sailor, and Columbus, followed by many of his
men, hastened to the beach, where, October 12, 1492, he raised a huge
cross, and took possession of the country in the name of Ferdinand and
Isabella, King and Queen of Spain, who had supplied him with caravels
and men.[1] He had landed on one of a group of islands which we call the

[Footnote 1: Columbus called the new land San Salvador (sahn
sahl-vah-dor', Holy Savior), because October 12, the day on which it was
discovered, was so named in the Spanish calendar.]

[Footnote 2: Three islands of this group, Cat, Turks, and Watlings, have
rival claims as the landing place of Columbus. At present, Watlings
Island is believed to be the one on which he first set foot. Read an
account of the voyage in Fiske's _Discovery of America_, Vol. I., pp.
408-442; Irving's _Life and Voyages of Columbus_, Vol. I., Book III.]

[Illustration: Coat of arms of Columbus]

During ten days he sailed among these islands. Then, turning southward,
he coasted along Cuba to the eastern end, and so to Haiti, which he
named Hispaniola, or Little Spain. There the _Santa Maria_ was wrecked.
The _Pinta_ had by this time deserted him, and, as the _Nina_ could not
carry all the men, forty were left at Hispaniola, to found the first
colony of Europeans in the New World. Giving the men food enough to last
a year, Columbus set sail for Spain on the 3d of January, 1493, and on
March 15 was safe at Palos.

Of the greatness of his discovery, Columbus had not the faintest idea.
That he had found a new world; that a continent was blocking his way to
the East, never entered his mind. He supposed he had landed on some
islands off the east coast of Asia, and as that coast was called the
Indies, and as the islands were reached by sailing westward, they came
to be called the West Indies, and their inhabitants Indians; and the
native races of the New World have ever since been called Indians.
Although Columbus in after years made three more voyages to the New
World, he never found out his mistake, and died firm in the belief that
he had discovered a direct route to Asia.[1]

[Footnote 1: Columbus began his second voyage in September, 1493, and
discovered Jamaica, Porto Rico (por'-to ree'-co), and the islands of the
Caribbean Sea. On his third voyage, in 1498, he discovered the island of
Trinidad, off the coast of Venezuela, and saw South America at the mouth
of the Orinoco River. During his fourth and last voyage, 1502-1504, he
explored the shores of Honduras and the Isthmus of Panama in search of a
strait leading to the Indian Ocean. Of course he did not find it, and,
going back to Spain, he died poor and broken-hearted on May 20, 1506.]

%5. The Atlantic Coast explored.%--And now that Columbus had shown
the way, others were quick to follow. In 1497 and 1498 came John and
Sebastian Cabot (cab'-ot), sailing under the flag of England, and
exploring our coast from Labrador to Cape Cod; and Pinzon and Solis,
with Vespucius[2] for pilot, sailing under the flag of Spain along the
shores of the Gulf of Mexico, around the peninsula of Florida, and
northward to Chesapeake Bay. Between 1500 and 1502 two Portuguese
navigators named Cortereal (cor-ta-ra-ahl') went over much the same
ground as the Cabots. For the time being, however, these voyages were
fruitless. It was not a new world, but China and Japan, the Indian
Ocean, and the spice islands, that Europe was seeking. When, therefore,
in 1497, Vasco da Gama sailed from Lisbon, passed around the end of
Africa, reached India, and came back to Portugal in 1499 with his ship
laden with the silks and spices of the East, all explorers turned
southward, and for eleven years after the visit of the Cortereals no
voyages were made to North America.

[Footnote 2: As this man was an Italian, his name was really Amerigo
Vespucci (ah-ma'-ree-go ves-poot'-chee), but it is usually given in its
Latinized form, Americus Vespucius (a-mer'-i-cus ves-pu'-she-us).]

%6. Why the Continent was called America.%--But some great voyages
meantime were made to South America. In 1500 a Portuguese fleet of
thirteen vessels, commanded by Cabral, started from Portugal for the
East. In place of following the usual route and hugging the west coast
of Africa, Cabral went off so far to the westward that one day in April,
1500, he was amazed to see land. It proved to be what is now Brazil, and
after sailing along a little way he sent one of his vessels home to
Portugal with the news.


He did this because six years before, in June, 1494, Spain and Portugal
made a treaty and agreed that a meridian should be drawn 370 leagues
west of the Cape Verde Islands and be known as "The Line of Demarcation"
All heathen lands discovered, no matter by whom, to the east of this
line, were to belong to Portugal; all to the west of it were to be the
property of Spain. Now, as the strange coast seemed to be east of the
line of demarcation, and therefore the property of Portugal, Cabral sent
word to the King that he might explore it.

Accordingly, in May, 1501, the King sent out three ships in charge of
Americus Vespucius. Vespucius sighted the coast somewhere about Cape St.
Roque, and, finding that it was east of the line of demarcation,
explored it southward as far as the mouth of the river La Plata. As he
was then west of the line, and off a coast which belonged to Spain, he
turned and sailed southeastward till he struck the island of South
Georgia, where the Antarctic cold and the fields of floating ice stopped
him and sent him back to Lisbon.

The results of this great voyage were many. In the first place, it
secured Brazil for Portugal. In the second place, it changed the
geographical ideas of the time. The great length of coast line explored
proved that the land was not a mere island, but that Vespucius had found
a new continent in the southern hemisphere,--off the coast of Asia, as
was then supposed. This for a time was called the "Fourth Part" of the
world,--the other three parts being Europe, Asia, and Africa. But in
1507 a German professor published a little book on geography, in which
he suggested that the new part of the world discovered by Americus, the
part which we call Brazil, should be called America.

As Columbus was not supposed to have discovered a new world, but merely
a new route to Asia, this suggestion seemed very proper, and soon the
word "America" began to appear on maps as the name of Brazil. After a
while it was applied to all South America, and finally to North
America also.

%7. The Pacific discovered; the Mexican Gulf Coast explored.%--A few
years after the publication of the little book which gave the New World
the name of America, a Spaniard named Balboa landed on the Isthmus of
Panama, crossed it (1513), and from the mountains looked down on an
endless expanse of blue water, which he called the South Sea, because
when he first saw it he was looking south.

Meantime another Spaniard, named Ponce de Leon (pon'tha da la-on'),
sailed with three ships from Porto Rico, in March, 1513, and on the 27th
of that month came in sight of the mainland. As the day was Easter
Sunday, which the Spaniards call Pascua (pas'-coo-ah) Florida, he called
the country Florida.

[Illustration: Map of 1515][1]

[Footnote 1: Showing what was then supposed to be the shape and position
of the newly discovered lands.]

Six years later (1519) Pineda (pe-na'-da) skirted the shores of the Gulf
from Florida to Mexico.

%8. Spaniards sail round the World.%--In the same year (1519) that
Pineda explored the Gulf coast, a Portuguese named Magellan (ma-jel'-an)
led a Spanish fleet across the Atlantic. He coasted along South America
to Tierra del Fuego, entered the strait which now bears his name, passed
well up the western coast, and turning westward sailed toward India. He
was then on the ocean which Balboa had discovered and named the South
Sea. But Magellan found it so much smoother than the Atlantic that he
called it the Pacific. Five ships and 254 men left Spain; but only one
ship and fifteen men returned to Spain by way of India and Cape of Good
Hope. Magellan himself was among the dead.[1]

[Footnote 1: Magellan was killed by the natives of one of the Philippine
Islands. The captain of the ship which made the voyage was greatly
honored. The King of Spain ennobled him, and on his coat of arms was a
globe representing the earth, and on it the motto "You first sailed
round me."]

%9. Importance of Magellan's Voyage.%--Of all the voyages ever made
by man this was the greatest.[2] In the first place, it proved beyond
dispute that the earth is round. In the second place, it proved that
South America is a great continent, and that there is no short southwest
passage to India.

[Footnote 2: By all means read the account of this voyage by Fiske, in
his _Discovery of America_, Vol. II., pp. 190-211.]

%10. Search for a Northwest Passage; our North Atlantic Coast
explored.%--All eyes, therefore, turned northward; the quest for a
northwest passage began, and in that quest the Atlantic coast of the
United States was examined most thoroughly.


1. Towards the close of the fifteenth century the Turks cut off the old
route of trade between Asia and Europe.

2. In attempting to find a new way to Asia, the Portuguese then began to
explore the west coast of Africa.

3. When at last they got well down the African coast it was thought that
such a route was too long.

4. Columbus (1492) then attempted to find a shorter way to Asia by
sailing westward across the Atlantic Ocean, and landed on some islands
which he supposed to be the East Indies.

5. The explorations of men who followed Columbus proved that a new
continent had been discovered and that it blocked the way to India.

6. The attempts to find a southwest passage or a northwest passage
through our continent led to the exploration of the Atlantic and
Pacific coasts.

7. The new world was called America, after the explorer Americus.

8. The voyage of Magellan proved that the earth is round.



%11. The Spaniards explore the Southwest.%--Now it must be noticed
that up to 1513 no European had explored the interior of either North or
South America. They had merely touched the shores. In 1513 the work of
exploration began. Balboa then crossed the Isthmus of Panama. In 1519
Cortes (cor'-tez) landed on the coast of Mexico with a body of men, and
marched boldly into the heart of the country to the city where lived the
great Indian chief or king, Montezuma. Cortes took the city and made
himself master of Mexico. This was most important; for the conquest of
Mexico turned the attention of the Spaniards from our country for many
years, and finally led to the exploration of the Southwest. But the
first explorers of what is now the United States came from Cuba in 1528.

[Illustration: Map of 1530, Sloane MS.[1]]

[Footnote 1: Notice that the two continents begin to take shape, and
that as the result of Magellan's voyage is not generally known, North
America is placed very near to Java.]

In that year Narvaez (nar-vah-eth), excited by Pineda's accounts of the
Mississippi Indians and their golden ornaments, set forth with 400 men
to conquer the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico. At Apalachee Bay he
landed, and made a raid inland. On returning to the shore, he missed his
ships, and after traveling westward on foot for a month, built five rude
vessels, and once more put to sea. For six weeks the little fleet hugged
the shore, till it came to the mouth of the Mississippi, where two of
the boats were upset and Narvaez was drowned. The rest reached the coast
of Texas in safety. But famine and the tomahawk soon reduced the number
of the survivors to four. These were captured by bands of wandering
Indians, were carried over eastern Texas and western Louisiana, till,
after many strange adventures and vicissitudes, they met beyond the
Sabine River.[1] Protected by the fame they had won for sorcery, and led
by one Cabeza de Vaca, they now wandered westward to the Rio Grande[2]
(ree'-o grahn'-da) and on by Chihuahua (chee-wah'-wah) and Sonora to the
Gulf of California, and by this to Culiacan, a town near the west coast
of Mexico, which they reached in 1536. They had crossed the continent.

[Footnote 1: Now the western boundary of Louisiana.]

[Footnote 2: Rio Grande del Norte---Great River of the North.]

%12. "The Seven Cities of Cibola."%--The story these men told of the
strange country through which they had passed, aroused a strong desire
in the Spaniards to explore it, for somewhere in that direction they
believed were the Seven Cities. According to an ancient legend, when the
Arabs invaded the Spanish peninsula, a bishop of Lisbon with many
followers fled to a group of islands in the Sea of Darkness, and on them
founded seven cities. As one of the Indian tribes had preserved a story
of Seven Caves in which their ancestors had once lived, the credulous
and romantic Spaniards easily confounded the two legends. Firmly
believing that the seven cities must exist in the north country
traversed by Vaca, Mendoza, the Spanish governor of Mexico, selected
Fray Marcos, a monk of great ability, and sent him forth with a few
followers to search for them. Directed by the Indians through whose
villages he passed, he came at last in sight of the seven Zuni
(zoo'-nyee) pueblos (pweb'-loz) of New Mexico, all of which were
inhabited in his time. But he came no nearer than just within sight of
them. For one of the party, who went on in advance, having been killed
by the Zuni, Fray Marcos hurried back to Culiacan. Understanding the
name of the city he had seen to be Cibola (see'-bo-la), he called the
pueblos the "Seven Cities of Cibola," and against them the next year
(1540) Coronado marched with 1100 men. Finding the pueblos were not the
rich cities for which he sought, Coronado pushed on eastward, and for
two years wandered to and fro over the plains and mountains of the West,
crossing the state of Kansas twice.[1]

[Footnote 1: Do not fail to read a delightful little book called _The
Spanish Pioneers_, by Charles F. Lummis. In it the story of these great
journeys is told on pp. 77-88, 101-143.]

[Illustration: The kind of cities found by Marcos and Coronado in the
Rio Grande valley.]

[Illustration: CORONADO'S EXPEDITION 1540]

%13. The Spaniards on the Mississippi.%--In 1537 De Soto was
appointed governor of Cuba, with instructions to conquer and hold all
the country discovered by Narvaez. On this mission he set out in May,
1539, and landed at Tampa Bay, on the west coast of our state of
Florida. He wandered over the swamps and marshes, the moss-grown
jungles, and the forests of the Gulf states, and spent the winter of
1541 near the Yazoo River. Crossing the Mississippi in the spring of
1542 at the Chickasaw Bluffs, he wandered about eastern Arkansas, till
he died of fever, and was buried in the Mississippi. His followers then
built rude boats, floated down the river to the Gulf, steered along the
coast of Texas, and in September, 1543, reached Tampico, in Mexico.

More than half a century had now gone by since the first voyage of
Columbus. Yet not a settlement, great or small, had been established by
Spain within our boundary. Between 1546 and 1561 missionaries twice
attempted to found missions and convert the Indians in Florida, and
twice were driven away. In 1582 others entered the valleys of the Gila
and the Rio Grande, took possession of the pueblos, established
missions, preached the Gospel to the Indians, and brought them under
the dominion of Spain. But when Santa Fe (sahn'-tah fa') was founded, in
1582, the only colony of Spain in the United States, besides the
missions in Arizona and New Mexico, was St. Augustine in Florida.

[Illustration: A Spanish mission]

%14. St. Augustine.%--St. Augustine was founded by the Spaniards in
order to keep out the French, who made two attempts to occupy the south
Atlantic coast. The first was that of John Ribault (ree-bo'). He led a
colony of Frenchmen, in 1562, to what is now South Carolina, built a
small fort on a spot which he called Port Royal, and left it in charge
of thirty men while he went back to France for more colonists. The men
were a shiftless set, depended on the Indians till the Indians would
feed them no longer, and when famine set in, they mutinied, slew their
commander, built a crazy ship and went to sea, where an English vessel
found them in a starving condition, and took them to London.

In 1564 a second party, under Laudonniere (lo-do-ne-ar'), landed at the
St. Johns River in Florida, and built a fort called Fort Caroline in
honor of Charles IX. of France. But the King of Spain, hearing that the
French were trespassing, sent an expedition under Menendez
(ma-nen'-deth), who founded St. Augustine in 1565. There Ribault, who
had returned and joined Laudonniere, attempted to attack the Spaniards.
But a hurricane scattered his ships, and while it was still raging,
Menendez fell suddenly on Fort Caroline and massacred men, women, and
children. A few days later, falling in with Ribault and his men, who had
been driven ashore south of St. Augustine, Menendez massacred 150
more.[1] For this foul deed a Frenchman named Gourgues (goorg) exacted a
fearful penalty. With three small ships and 200 men, he sailed to the
St. Johns River, took and destroyed the fort which the Spaniards had
built on the site of Fort Caroline, and put to death every human being
within it.

[Footnote 1: The story of the French in Florida is finely told in
Parkman's _Pioneers of France in the New World_; also J. Sparks's _Life
of Ribault_; Baird's _Huguenot Emigration_.]

[Illustration: Gateway at St. Augustine[2]]

[Footnote 2: Remaining from the Spanish occupation of Florida.]


1. From 1492 to 1513 the Europeans who came to America explored the
coasts of North and South America, but did not go inland.

2. In 1513 exploration of the interior of the two continents began.
Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama, 1513, and Cortes conquered
Mexico, 1519-21.

3. In 1528 Narvaez made the first serious attempt to enter the
Mississippi valley. He died, and some of his followers, under Cabeza de
Vaca, crossed the continent.

4. When the Spanish governor of Mexico heard their story, he sent Fray
Marcos to find the "Seven Cities of Cibola"; and began the exploration
of the southwestern part of the United States.

5. In 1539-1541 De Soto and his band explored the southeastern part of
the United States from Florida to the Mississippi River.

6. By 1582 two Spanish settlements had been made in the United States
--St. Augustine, 1565, and Santa Fe, 1582.




1492. Columbus. Islands off the coast.
1493. Columbus. Islands off the coast.
1497. John Cabot. North America. Labrador.
1498. John and Sebastian Cabot. Labrador to Cape Cod.
Pinzon and Solis. Florida to Chesapeake Bay.
1500. Cabral. Discovers Brazil.
1501. Vespucius. Explores Brazilian coast.
1500-1502. Cortereals. Explore coast North America.
1513. Ponce de Leon. Discovers and names Florida.


1498. Pinzon and Solis. Explore Gulf of Mexico and
coast of Florida.
1519. Pineda. Sails from Florida to Mexico.
1528. Narvaez. Florida to Texas.
1543. Followers of De Soto sail from Mississippi River
to Mexico.


1519-21. Cortes. Conquers Mexico.
1534-36. De Vaca. From the Sabine River to the Gulf
of California.
1539. Fray Marcos. Search for the Seven Cities. Wanders
over New Mexico.
1540-42. Coronado, Gila River, Rio Grande, Colorado
1539-41. De Soto. Wanders over Florida, Georgia, and
Alabama, and reaches the Mississippi River.
1582-1600. Spaniards in the valleys of the Gila and Rio


1513. Balboa. Discovers the Pacific Ocean.
1520. Magellan. Sails around South America into the
1578-1580. Drake. Sails around South America and
up the Pacific coast to Oregon. (See p. 26.)



%15. The English Claim to the Seaboard.%--After the Spaniards had
thus explored the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, and what is now Arizona,
New Mexico, and Texas, the English attempted to take possession of the
Atlantic coast. The voyages of John and Sebastian Cabot in 1497 and 1498
were not followed up in the same way that Spain followed up those of
Columbus, and for nearly eighty years the flag of England was not
displayed in any of our waters.[1] At last, in 1576, Sir Martin
Frobisher set out to find a northwest passage to Asia. Of course he
failed; but in that and two later voyages he cruised about the shores of
our continent and gave his name to Frobisher's Bay.[2] Next came Sir
Francis Drake, the greatest seaman of his age. He left England in 1577,
crossed the Atlantic, sailed down the South American coast, passed
through the Strait of Magellan, and turning northward coasted along
South America, Mexico, and California, in search of a northeast passage
to the Atlantic. When he had gone as far north as Oregon the weather
grew so cold that his men began to murmur, and putting his ship about,
he sailed southward along our Pacific coast in search of a harbor, which
in June, 1579, he found near the present city of San Francisco. There he
landed, and putting up a post nailed to it a brass plate on which was
the name of Queen Elizabeth, and took possession of the country.[3]
Despairing of finding a short passage to England, Drake finally crossed
the Pacific and reached home by way of the Cape of Good Hope. He had
sailed around the globe.[4]

[Footnote 1: For Cabot's voyages read Fiske's _Discovery of America_,
Vol. II., pp. 2-15.]

[Footnote 2: See map of 1515.]

[Footnote 3: The white cliffs reminded Drake strongly of the cliffs of
Dover, and as one of the old names of England was Albion (the country of
the white cliffs), he called the land New Albion.]

[Footnote 4: For Drake read E.T. Payne's _Voyages of Elizabethan

%16. Gilbert and Ralegh attempt to found a Colony.%--While Drake was
making his voyage, another gallant seaman, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, was
given (by Queen Elizabeth) any new land he might discover in America.
His first attempt (1579) was a failure, and while on his way home from a
landing on Newfoundland (1583), his ship, with all on board, went down
in a storm at sea. The next year (1584) his half-brother, Sir Walter
Ralegh, one of the most accomplished men of his day and a great favorite
with Queen Elizabeth, obtained permission from the Queen to make a
settlement on any part of the coast of America not already occupied by a
Christian power; and he at once sent out an expedition. The explorers
landed on Roanoke Island, off the coast of what is now North Carolina,
and came home with such a glowing description of the "good land" they
had found that the Virgin Queen called it "Virginia," in honor of
herself, and Ralegh determined to colonize it.[1]

[Footnote 1: For Ralegh read E. Gosse's _Raleigh_ (in English Worthies
Series); Louise Creighton's _Sir W. Ralegh_ (Historical
Biographies Series).]

%17. Roanoke Colony; the Potato and Tobacco.%--In 1585, accordingly,
108 emigrants under Ralph Lane left England and began to build a town on
Roanoke Island. They were ill suited for this kind of pioneer life, and
were soon in such distress that, had not Sir Francis Drake in one of his
voyages happened to touch at Roanoke, they would have starved to death.
Drake, seeing their helplessness, carried them home to England. Yet
their life on the island was not without results, for they took back
with them the potato, and some dried tobacco leaves which the Indians
had taught them to smoke.

Ralegh, of course, was greatly disappointed to see his colonists again
in England. But he was not discouraged, and in 1587 sent forth a second
band. The first had consisted entirely of men. The second band was
composed of both men and women with their families, for it seemed likely
that if the men took their wives and children along they would be more
likely to remain than if they went alone. John White was the leader, and
with a charter and instructions to build the city of Ralegh somewhere on
the shores of Chesapeake Bay he set off with his colonists and landed on
Roanoke Island. Here a little granddaughter was born (August 18, 1587),
and named Virginia. She was the child of Eleanor Dare, and was the first
child born of English parents in America.

[Illustration: Roanoke Island and vicinity]

Governor White soon found it necessary to go back to England for
supplies, and, in consequence of the Spanish war, three years slipped by
before he was able to return to the colony. He was then too late. Every
soul had perished, and to this day nobody knows how or where. Ralegh
could do no more, and in 1589 made over all his rights to a joint-stock
company of merchants. This company did nothing, and the sixteenth
century came to an end with no English colony in America.[1]

[Footnote 1: Doyle's _English Colonies in America_, Virginia, pp. 56-74;
Bancroft's _History of the United States_, Vol. I., pp. 60-79;
Hildreth's _History of the United States_, Vol. I., pp. 80-87.]

%18. Gosnold in New England.%--With the new century came better
fortune. Ralegh's noble efforts to plant a colony aroused Englishmen to
the possibility of founding a great empire in the New World, and
especially one named Bartholomew Gosnold.

Instead of following the old route to America by way of the Canary
Islands, the West Indies, and Florida, he sailed due west across the
Atlantic,[2] and brought up on the shore of a cape which he named Cape
Cod.[3] Following the shore southward, he passed through Nantucket Sound
and Vineyard Sound, till he came to Cuttyhunk Island, at the entrance of
Buzzards Bay. On this he landed, and built a house for the use of
colonists he intended to leave there. But when he had filled his ship
with sassafras roots and cedar logs, nobody would remain, and the whole
company went back to England.[4]

[Footnote 2: By thus shortening the journey 3000 miles, he practically
brought America 3000 miles nearer to Europe.]

[Footnote 3: Because the waters thereabout abounded in codfish. For a
comparison of Gosnold's route with those of the other early explorers
see the map on p. 15.]

[Footnote 4: Bancroft's _United States_, Vol. I., pp. 70-83. Hildreth's
_United States,_ Vol. I., p. 90.]

%19. The Two Virginia Companies.%--As a result of this voyage,
Gosnold was more eager than ever to plant a colony in Virginia, and this
enthusiasm he communicated so fully to others that, in 1606, King James
I. created two companies to settle in Virginia, which was then the name
for all the territory from what is now Maine to Florida.

1. Each company was to own a block of land 100 miles square; that is,
100 miles along the coast,--50 miles each way from its first
settlement,--and 100 miles into the interior.

2. The First Company, a band of London merchants, might establish its
first settlement anywhere between 34 deg. and 41 deg. north latitude.

3. The Second Company, a band of Plymouth merchants, might establish its
first settlement anywhere between 38 deg. and 45 deg..

4. These settlements were to be on the seacoast.

5. In order to prevent the blocks from overlapping, it was provided that
the company which was last to settle should locate at least 100 miles
from the other company's settlement.[1]

[Footnote 1: Over the affairs of each company presided a council
appointed by the King, with power to choose its own president, fill
vacancies among its own members, and elect a council of thirteen to
reside on the company's lands in America. Each company might coin money,
raise a revenue by taxing foreign vessels trading at its ports, punish
crime, and make laws which, if bad, could be set aside by the King. All
property was to be owned in common, and all the products of the soil
deposited in a public magazine from which the needs of the settlers were
to be supplied. The surplus was to be sold for the good of the company.
The charter is given in full in Poore's _Charters and Constitutions_,
pp. 1888-1893.]

%20. The Jamestown Colony.%--Thus empowered, the two companies made
all haste to gather funds, collect stores and settlers, and fit out
ships. The London Company was the first to get ready, and on the 19th of
December, 1606, 143 colonists set sail in three ships for America with
their charter, and a list of the council sealed up in a strong box. The
Plymouth Company soon followed, and before the year 1607 was far
advanced, two settlements were planted in our country: the one at
Jamestown, in Virginia, the other near the mouth of the Kennebec, in
Maine. The latter, however, was abandoned the following year (see
Chapter IV).

The three ships which carried the Virginia colony reached the coast in
the spring of 1607, and entering Chesapeake Bay sailed up a river which
the colonists called the James, in honor of the King. When about thirty
miles from its mouth, a landing was made on a little peninsula, where a
settlement was begun and named Jamestown.[1] It was the month of May,
and as the weather was warm, the colonists did not build houses, but,
inside of some rude fortifications, put up shelters of sails and
branches to serve till huts could be built. But their food gave out, the
Indians were hostile, and before September half of the party had died of
fever. Had it not been for the energy and courage of John Smith, every
one of them would have perished. He practically assumed command, set the
men to building huts, persuaded the Indians to give them food, explored
the bays and rivers of Virginia, and for two dreary years held the
colony together. When we consider the worthless men he had to deal with,
and the hardships and difficulties that beset him, his work is
wonderful. The history which he wrote, however, is not to be trusted.[2]

[Footnote 1: Nothing now remains of Jamestown but the ruined tower of
the church shown in the picture. Much of the land on which the town
stood has been washed away by the river, so that its site is now
an island.]

[Footnote 2: Read the _Life and Writings of Captain John Smith_, by
Charles Dudley Warner; also John Fiske in _Atlantic Monthly_, December,
1895; Eggleston's _Beginners of a Nation_, pp. 31-38. Smith's _True
Relation_ is printed in _American History Leaflets_, No. 27, and
_Library of American Literature_ Vol. I.]

[Illustration: All that is left of Jamestown]

Bad as matters were, they became worse when a little fleet arrived with
many new settlers, making the whole number about 500. The newcomers were
a worthless set picked up in the streets of London or taken from the
jails, and utterly unfit to become the founders of a state in the
wilderness of the New World. Out of such material Smith in time might
have made something, but he was forced by a wound to return to England,
and the colony went rapidly to ruin. Sickness and famine did their work
so quickly that after six months there were but sixty of the 500 men
alive. Then two small ships, under Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George
Somers, arrived at Jamestown with more settlers; but all decided to
flee, and had actually sailed a few miles down the James, when, June 8,
1610, they met Lord Delaware with three ships full of men and supplies
coming up the river. Delaware came out as governor under a new charter
granted in 1609.[1]

[Footnote 1: Read "The Jamestown Experiments," in Eggleston's _Beginners
of a Nation,_ pp. 25-72.]

[Illustration: Vicinity of Jamestown]

%21. The Virginia Charter of 1609% made a great change in the
boundary of the company's property. By the 1606 charter the colony was
limited to 100 miles along the seaboard and 100 miles west from the
coast. In 1609 the company was given an immense domain reaching 400
miles along the coast,--200 miles each way from Old Point
Comfort,--and extending "up into the land throughout _from sea to sea_,
west and northwest." This description is very important, for it was
afterwards claimed by Virginia to mean a grant of land of the shape
shown on the map.[1]

[Footnote 1: Read Hinsdale's _Old Northwest_, pp. 74, 75.]


%22. The First Representative Assembly in America.%--Under the new
charter and new governors Virginia began to thrive. More work and less
grumbling were done, and a few wise reforms were introduced. One
governor, however, Argall, ruled the colony so badly that the people
turned against him and sent such reports to England that immigration
almost ceased. The company, in consequence, removed Argall, and gave
Virginia a better form of government. In future, the governor's power
was to be limited, and the people were to have a share in the making of
laws and the management of affairs. As the colonists, now numbering 4000
men, were living in eleven settlements, or "boroughs," it was ordered
that each borough should elect two men to sit in a legislature to be
called the House of Burgesses. This house, the first representative
assembly ever held by white men in America, met on July 30, 1619, in the
church at Jamestown, and there began "government of the people, by the
people, for the people."

%23. The Establishment of Slavery in America.%--It is interesting to
note that at the very time the men of Virginia thus planted free
representative government in America, another institution was planted
beside it, which, in the course of two hundred and fifty years, almost
destroyed free government. The Burgesses met in July, and a few weeks
later, on an August day, a Dutch ship entered the James and before it
sailed away sold twenty negroes into slavery. The slaves increased in
numbers (there were 2000 in Virginia in 1671), and slavery spread to the
other colonies as they were started, till, in time, it existed in every
one of them.

%24. Virginia loses her Charter, 1624.%--The establishment of popular
government in Virginia was looked on by King James as a direct affront,
and was one of many weighty reasons why he decided to destroy the
company. To do this, he accused it of mismanagement, brought a suit
against it, and in 1624 his judges declared the charter annulled, and
Virginia became a royal colony.[1]

[Footnote 1: On the Virginia colony in general read Doyle's volume on
_Virginia_, pp. 104-184; Lodge's _English Colonies in America_, pp.
1-12; of course, Bancroft and Hildreth. For particular epochs or events
consult Channing and Hart's _Guide to American History_, pp. 248-253.]

%25. Maryland begun.%--A year later James died, and Charles I. came
to the throne. As Virginia was now a royal colony, the land belonged to
the King; and as he was at liberty to do what he pleased with it, he cut
off a piece and gave it to Lord Baltimore. George Calvert, Lord
Baltimore, was a Roman Catholic nobleman who for years past had been
interested in the colonization of America, and had tried to plant a
colony in Newfoundland. The severity of the climate caused failure, and
in 1629 he turned his attention to Virginia and visited Jamestown. But
religious feeling ran as high there as it did anywhere. The colonists
were intolerantly Protestant, and Baltimore was ordered back to England.

Undeterred by such treatment, Baltimore was more determined than ever to
plant a colony, and in 1632 obtained his grant of a piece of Virginia.
The tract lay between the Potomac River and the fortieth degree of north
latitude, and extended from the Atlantic Ocean to a north and south
line through the source of the Potomac.[1] It was called Maryland in
honor of the Queen, Henrietta Maria.

[Footnote 1: It thus included what is now Delaware, and pieces of
Pennsylvania and West Virginia.]


The area of the colony was not large; but the authority of Lord
Baltimore over it was almost boundless. He was to bring to the King each
year, in token of homage, two Indian arrowheads, and pay as rent one
fifth of all the gold and silver mined. This done, the "lord
proprietary," as he was called, was to all intents and purposes a king.
He might coin money, make war and peace, grant titles of nobility,
establish courts, appoint judges, and pardon criminals; but he was not
permitted to tax his people without their consent. He must summon the
freemen to assist him in making the laws; but when made, they need not
be sent to the King for approval, but went into force as soon as the
lord proprietary signed them. Of course they must not be contrary to the
laws of England.

%26. Treatment of Catholics.%--The deed for Maryland had not been
issued when Lord Baltimore died. It was therefore made out in the name
of his son, Cecilius Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore, who, like the
first, was a Roman Catholic, and was influenced in his attempts at
colonization by a desire to found a refuge for people of his own faith.
At that time in England no Roman Catholic was permitted to educate his
children in a foreign land, or to employ a schoolmaster of his religious
belief; or keep a weapon; or have Catholic books in his house; or sit in
Parliament; or when he died be buried in a parish churchyard. If he did
not attend the parish church, he was fined L20 a month. But it is
needless to mention the ways in which he suffered for his religion. It
is enough to know that the persecution was bitter, and that the purpose
of Lord Baltimore was to make Maryland a Roman Catholic colony. Yet he
set a noble example to other founders of colonies by freely granting to
all sects full freedom of conscience. As long as the Catholics remained
in control, toleration worked well. But in the year 1691 Lord Baltimore
was deprived of his colony because he had supported King James II., and
in 1692 sharp laws were made in Maryland against Catholics by the
Protestants. In 1716 the colony was restored to the proprietor.

The first settlement was made in 1634 at St. Marys. Annapolis was
founded about 1683; and Baltimore in 1729.[1]

[Footnote 1: Read Scharf's _History of Maryland_; Doyle's _Virginia_;
Lodge's _English Colonies_; Eggleston's _Beginners of a Nation,_.]

%27. The Dutch on the Hudson.%--Meantime great things had been
happening to the northward. In 1609 Henry Hudson, an English sailor in
the service of Holland, was sent to find a northwest passage to India.
He reached our coast not far from Portland, Maine, and abandoning all
idea of finding a passage, he sailed alongshore to the southward as far
as Cape Cod. Here he put to sea, and when he again sighted land was off
Delaware Bay. In attempting to sail up it, his ship, the _Half-Moon,_
grounded, and Hudson turned about. Running along the Jersey coast, he
entered New York Bay, and sailed up the river which the Dutch called
the North River, but which we know as the Hudson. Hudson's voyage gave
the Dutch a claim to all the country drained by the Delaware or South
River and the Hudson River, and some Dutch traders at once sent out
vessels, and were soon trading actively with the Indians. By 1614 a rude
fort had been erected near the site of Albany, and some trading huts had
been put up on Manhattan Island. These ventures proved so profitable
that numbers of merchants began to engage in the trade, whereupon those
already in it, in order to shut out others, organized a company, and in
1615 obtained a trading charter for three years from the States General
of Holland, and carried on their operations from Albany to the
Delaware River.

[Illustration: View of New Amsterdam in 1656]

%28. Dutch West India Company.%--On the expiration of the charter (in
1618) it was not renewed, but a new corporation, the Dutch West India
Company (1621), was created with almost absolute political and
commercial power over all the Dutch domains in North America, which were
called New Netherland. In 1623 the company began to send out settlers.
Some went to Albany, or, as they called it, Fort Orange. Others were
sent to the South or Delaware River, where a trading post, Fort Nassau,
was built on the site of Gloucester in New Jersey. A few went to the
Connecticut River; some settled on Long Island; and others on Manhattan
Island, where they founded New Amsterdam, now called New York city.

All these little settlements were merely fur-trading posts. Nobody was
engaged as yet in farming. To encourage this, the company (in 1629) took
another step, and offered a great tract of land, on any navigable river
or bay, to anybody who would establish a colony of fifty persons above
the age of fifteen. If on a river, the domain was to be sixteen miles
along one bank or eight miles along each bank, and run back into the
country as far "as the situation of the occupiers will admit." The
proprietor of the land was to be called a "patroon," [1] and was absolute
ruler of whatever colonies he might plant, for he was at once owner,
ruler, and judge. It may well be supposed that such a tempting offer did
not go a-begging, and a number of patroons were soon settled along the
Hudson and on the banks of the Delaware (1631), where they founded a
town near Lewes. The settlements on the Delaware River were short-lived.
The settlers quarreled with the Indians, who in revenge massacred them
and drove off the garrison at Fort Nassau; whereupon the patroons sold
their rights to the Dutch West India Company.[2]

[Footnote 1: The patroon bound himself to (1) transport the fifty
settlers to New Netherland at his own expense; (2) provide each of them
with a farm stocked with horses, cattle, and farming implements, and
charge a low rent; (3) employ a schoolmaster and a minister of the
Gospel. In return for this the emigrant bound himself (1) to stay and
cultivate the land of the patroon for ten years; (2) to bring his grain
to the patroon's mill and pay for grinding; (3) to use no cloth not made
in Holland; (4) to sell no grain or produce till the patroon had been
given a chance to buy it.]

[Footnote 2: Lodge's _English Colonies_, pp. 295-311; Winsor's
_Narrative and Critical History_, Vol. III., pp. 385-411; Bancroft's
_History of the United States_, Vol. I., pp. 501-508.]

%29. The Struggle for the Delaware; the Swedes on the Delaware.%--And
now began a bitter contest for the ownership of the country bordering
the Delaware. A few leading officials of the Dutch Company, disgusted at
the way its affairs were managed, formed a new company under the lead of
William Usselinx. As they could not get a charter from Holland, for she
would not create a rival to the Dutch Company, they sought and obtained
one from Sweden as the South Company, and (1638) sent out a colony to
settle on the Delaware River.[1] The spot chosen was on the site of
Wilmington. The country was named New Sweden, though it belonged to
Maryland. The Dutch West India Company protested and rebuilt Fort
Nassau. The Swedes, in retaliation, went farther up the river and
fortified an island near the mouth of the Schuylkill. Had they stopped
here, all would have gone well. But, made bold by the inaction of the
Dutch, they began to annoy the New Netherlanders, till (1655) Peter
Stuyvesant, the governor of New Netherland, unable to stand it any
longer, came over from New Amsterdam with a few hundred men, overawed
the Swedes, and annexed their territory west of the Delaware. New Sweden
then became part of New Netherland.[2]

[Footnote 1: Sweden had no right to make such a settlement. She had no
claim to any territory in North America.]

[Footnote 2: Lodge's _English Colonies_, pp. 205-210; Bancroft's
_History of the United States_, Vol. I., pp. 509, 510; Hildreth's
_History of the United States_, Vol. I., pp. 413-442.]


1. After the discovery of the North American coast by the Cabots,
England made no attempt to settle it for nearly eighty years; and even
then the colonies planted by Gilbert and Ralegh were failures.

2. Successful settlement by the English began under the London Company
in 1607.

3. In 1609 the London Company obtained a grant of land from sea to sea,
and extending 400 miles along the Atlantic; but in 1624 its charter was
annulled, and in 1632 the King carved the proprietary colony of Maryland
out of Virginia.

4. Meantime Henry Hudson, in the employ of the Dutch, discovered the
Delaware and Hudson rivers (1609), and the Dutch, ignoring the claims of
England, planted colonies on these rivers and called the country New

5. Then a Swedish company began to colonize the Delaware Bay and River
coast of Virginia, which they called New Sweden.

6. Conflicts between the Dutch and the Swedes followed, and in 1655 New
Sweden was made a part of New Netherland.



%30. The Beginnings of New England.%--When the Dutch put up their
trading posts where New York and Albany now stand, all the country east
of New York, all of what is now New England, was a wilderness. As early
as 1607 an attempt was made to settle it and a colony was planted on the
coast of Maine by two members of the Plymouth Company, Sir John Popham,
Lord Chief Justice of England, and Sir Ferdinando Gorges, governor of
Plymouth. But the colonists were half starved and frozen, and in the
spring of 1608 gladly went home to England.

Six years later John Smith, the hero of Virginia, explored and mapped
the coast from the Penobscot to Cape Cod. He called the country New
England; one of the rivers, the Charles; and two of the promontories,
Cape Elizabeth and Cape Ann. Three times he attempted to lead out a
colony; but that work was reserved for other men.

%31. The Separatists.%--The reign of Queen Elizabeth had witnessed in
England the rise of a religious sect which insisted that certain changes
should be made in the government and ceremonials of the Established or
State Church of England. This they called purifying the Church, and in
consequence they were themselves called Puritans.[1] At first they did
not intend to form a new sect; but in 1580 one of their ministers, named
Robert Brown, urged them to separate from the Church of England, and
soon gathered about him a great number of followers, who were called
Separatists or Brownists. They boldly asserted their right to worship as
they pleased, and put their doctrines into practice. So hot a
persecution followed, that in 1608 a party, led by William Brewster and
John Robinson, fled from Scrooby, a little village in northern England,
to Amsterdam, in Holland; but soon went on to Leyden, where they dwelt
eleven years.[2]

[Footnote 1: Read Fiske's _Beginnings of New England_, pp. 50-71. The
teacher may read "Rise and Development of Puritanism" in Eggleston's
_Beginners of a Nation_, pp. 98-140.]

[Footnote 2: Read Eggleston's _Beginners of a Nation_, pp. 141-157;
Fiske's _Beginnings of New England_, pp. 71-80; Doyle's _Puritan
Colonies_, Vol. I., pp. 47-81; Palfrey's _New England_, Vol. I.,
pp. 176-232.]

%32. Why the Separatists went to New England%.--They had come to
Holland as an organized community, practicing English manners and
customs. For a temporary residence this would do. But if they and their
children's children after them were to remain and prosper, they must
break up their organization, forget their native land, their native
speech, their national traditions, and to all intents and purposes
become Dutch. This they could not bring themselves to do, and by 1617
they had fully determined to remove to some land where they might still
continue to be Englishmen, and where they might lay the foundations of a
Christian state. But one such land could then be found, and that was
America. To America, therefore, they turned their attention, and after
innumerable delays formed a company and obtained leave from the London
Company to settle on the coast of what is now New Jersey.[1]

[Footnote 1: Eggleston's _Beginners of a Nation_, pp. 159-176.]

This done, Brewster and Bradford and Miles Standish, with a little band,
sent out as an advance guard, set sail from the Dutch port of Delft
Haven in July, 1620, in the ship _Speedwell_. The first run was to
Southampton, England, where some friends from London joined them in the
_Mayflower_, and whence, August 5, they sailed for America. But the
_Speedwell_ proved so unseaworthy that the two ships put back to
Plymouth, where twenty people gave up the voyage. September 6, 1620,
such as remained steadfast, just 102 in number, reembarked on the
_Mayflower_ and began the most memorable of voyages. The weather was so
foul, and the wind and sea so boisterous, that nine weeks passed before
they beheld the sandy shores of Cape Cod. Having no right to settle
there, as the cape lay far to the northward of the lands owned by the
London Company, they turned their ship southward and attempted to go on.
But head winds drove them back and forced them to seek shelter in
Provincetown harbor, at the end of Cape Cod.

[Illustration: The Mayflower[1]]

[Footnote 1: From the model in the National Museum, Washington.]

[Illustration: THE MASSACHUSETTS COAST (map)]

%33. The Mayflower Compact%.--Since it was then the 11th of November,
the Pilgrims, as they are now called, decided to get permission from
the Plymouth Company to remain permanently. But certain members of the
party, when they heard this, became unruly, and declared that as they
were not to land in Virginia, they were no longer bound by the contracts
they had made in England regarding their emigration to Virginia. To put
an end to this, a meeting was held, November 21, 1620, in the cabin of
the _Mayflower_, and a compact was drawn up and signed.[1] It declared

1. That they were loyal subjects of the King.

2. That they had undertaken to found a colony in the northern parts of
Virginia, and now bound themselves to form a "civil body politic."

3. That they would frame such just and equal laws, from time to time, as
might be for the general good.

4. And to these laws they promised "all due submission and obedience."

[Footnote 1: The compact is in Poore's _Charters and Constitutions_, p.
931, and in Preston's _Documents Illustrative of American History_, pp.
29-31. Read, by all means, Webster's _Plymouth Oration_.]

[Illustration: Plymouth Rock]

%34. The Founding of Plymouth%.--The selection of a site for their
home was now necessary, and five weeks were passed in exploring the
coast before Captain Standish with a boatload of men entered the harbor
which John Smith had noted on his map and named Plymouth. On the sandy
shore of that harbor, close to the water's edge, was a little granite
bowlder, and on this, according to tradition, the Pilgrims stepped as
they came ashore, December 21, 1620. To this harbor the _Mayflower_ was
brought, and the work of founding Plymouth was begun. The winter was a
dreadful one, and before spring fifty-one of the colonists had died.[1]
But the Pilgrims stood fast, and in 1621 obtained a grant of land[2]
from the Council for New England, which had just succeeded the Plymouth
Company, under a charter giving it control between latitudes 40 deg. and
48 deg., from sea to sea.[3] It was from the same Council that for fifteen
years to come all other settlers in New England obtained their rights
to the soil.

[Footnote 1: In the trying times which followed, William Bradford was
chosen governor and many times reelected. He wrote the so-called "Log of
the Mayflower,"--really a manuscript _History of the Plymouth
Plantation_ from 1602 to 1647,--a fragment of which is reproduced on the
opposite page.]

[Footnote 2: This grant had no boundary. Each settler might have 100
acres. Fifteen hundred acres were set aside for public buildings.]

[Footnote 3: Fiske's _Beginnings of New England_, pp. 80-87; Palfrey's
_New England_, Vol. I, pp. 176-232; Thatcher's _History of the Town of

[Illustration: Fragment of _History of the Plymouth Plantation_.]

%35. A Puritan Colony proposed.%--Among those who obtained such
rights was a company of Dorchester merchants who planted a town on Cape
Ann. The enterprise failed, and the colonists went off and settled at a
place they called Naumkeag. But there was one man in Dorchester who was
not discouraged by failure. He was John White, a Puritan rector. What
had been done by the Separatists in a small way might be done, it seemed
to White, on a great scale by an association of wealthy and influential
Puritans. The matter was discussed by them in London, and in 1628 an
association was formed, and a tract of land was bought from the Council
for New England.

%36. The "Sea to Sea" Grant%.--Concerning the interior of our
continent absolutely nothing was known. Nobody supposed it was more than
half as wide as it really is. The grant to the association, therefore,
stretched from three miles north of the Merrimac River to three miles
south of the Charles River, along these rivers to their sources, and
then westward across the continent from sea to sea.[1]

[Footnote 1: You will notice that when this grant was made in 1628 the
Dutch had discovered the Hudson, and had begun to settle Albany. To this
region (the Hudson and Mohawk valleys) the English had no just claim.]

As soon as the grant was obtained, John Endicott came out with a company
of sixty persons, and took up his abode at Naumkeag, which, being an
Indian and therefore a pagan name, he changed to Salem, the Hebrew word
for "peace."

%37. The Massachusetts Charter, 1629%.--The next step was to obtain
the right of self-government, which was secured by a royal charter
creating a corporation known as the Governor and Company of
Massachusetts Bay in New England. Over the affairs of the company were
to preside a governor, deputy governor, and a council of eighteen to be
elected annually by the members of the company.[2]

[Footnote 2: The charter is printed in Poore's _Charters and
Constitutions_, pp. 932-942, and in Preston's _Documents_, pp. 36-61.]

Six ships were now fitted out, and in them 406 men, women, and children,
with 140 head of cattle, set sail for Massachusetts. They reached Salem
in safety and made it the largest colony in New England.

%38. Why the Puritans came to New England.%--It was in 1625 that
Charles I. ascended the throne of England. Under him the quarrel with
the Puritans grew worse each year. He violated his promises, he
collected illegal taxes, he quartered troops on the people, he threw
those into prison who would not contribute to his forced loans, or
pressed them into the army or the navy. His Archbishop Laud persecuted
the Puritans with shameful cruelty.

Little wonder then that in 1629 twelve leading Puritans met in
consultation and agreed to head a great migration to the New World,
provided the charter and the government of the Massachusetts Bay Company
were both removed to New England. This was agreed to, and in April,
1630, John Winthrop sailed with nearly one thousand Puritans for Salem.
From Salem he moved to Charlestown, and later in the year (1630) to a
little three-hilled peninsula, which the English called Tri-mountain or
Tremont. There a town was founded and called Boston.

The departure of Winthrop was the signal, and before the year 1630
ended, seventeen ships, bringing fifteen hundred Puritans, reached
Massachusetts. The newcomers settled Charlestown, Boston, Roxbury,
Dorchester, Watertown, and Newtown (now Cambridge). New England was

[Footnote 1: Read Fiske's _Beginnings of New England_, pp. 75-105.
Eggleston's _Beginners of a Nation_, pp. 188-219.]

%39. New Hampshire and Maine.%--When it became apparent that the
Plymouth colony was permanently settled, Sir Ferdinando Gorges, whose
interest in New England had never lagged, together with John Mason
obtained (1622) from the Council for New England a grant of Laconia, as
they called the territory between the Merrimac and the Kennebec rivers,
and from the Atlantic "to the great river of Canada." Seven years later
(1629) they divided their property. Mason, taking the territory between
the Merrimac and Piscataqua rivers, called it New Hampshire because he
was Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire in England. Gorges took the region
between the Piscataqua and the Kennebec, and called it Maine. After the
death of Mason (1635) his colony was neglected and from 1641 to 1679 was
annexed to Massachusetts. The King separated them in 1679, joined them
again in 1688, and finally parted them in 1691, making New Hampshire a
royal colony.

Gorges took better care of his part and (in 1639) was given a charter
with the title of Lord Proprietor of the Province or County of Maine,
which extended, as before, from the Piscataqua to the Kennebec, and
backward 120 miles from the ocean. But after his death the province fell
into neglect, and the towns were gradually absorbed by Massachusetts,
which, in 1677, bought the claims of the heir of Gorges for L1250 and
governed Maine as lord proprietor under the Gorges charter.

%40. Church and State in Massachusetts.%--Down to the moment of their
arrival in America the Puritans had not been Separatists. They were
still members of the Church of England who desired to see her form of
worship purified. But the party under Endicott had no sooner reached
Salem than they seceded, and the first Congregational Church in New
England was founded.

Some in Salem were not prepared for so radical a step, and attempted to
establish a church on the episcopal model; but Endicott promptly sent
two of the leaders back to England. Thus were established two facts: 1.
The separation or secession of the Colonial Church from that of England.
2. That the episcopal form of worship would not be tolerated in
the colony.

In 1631 another step was taken which united church and state, for it was
then ordered that "no man shall be admitted to the freedom of this body
politic, but such as are members of some of the churches within the
limits of the same."

This was intolerance of the grossest kind, and soon became the cause of
troubles which led to the founding of Rhode Island and Connecticut.

%41. The Planting of Rhode Island.%--There came to Salem (from
Plymouth), in 1633, a young minister named Roger Williams. He dissented
heartily from the intolerance of the people of Massachusetts, and,
though a minister of the Salem church, insisted

1. On the separation of church and state.

2. On the toleration of all religious beliefs.

3. On the repeal of all laws requiring attendance on religious worship.

To us, in this century, the justice of each of these principles is
self-evident. But in the seventeenth century there was no country in the
world where it was safe to declare them. For doing so in some parts of
Europe, a man would most certainly have been burned at the stake. For
doing so in England, he would have been put in the pillory, or had his
ears cut off, or been sent to jail. That Williams's teachings should
seem rank heresy in New England was quite natural. But, to make matters
worse, he wrote a pamphlet in which he boldly stated

1. That the soil belonged to the Indians.

2. That the settlers could obtain a valid title only by purchase from
the Indians.

3. That accepting a deed for the land from a mere intruder like the King
of England was a sin requiring public repentance.

In the opinion of the people of New England such doctrine could not fail
to bring down on Massachusetts the wrath of the King. When, therefore, a
little later, Endicott cut the red cross of St. George out of the colors
of the Salem militia, the people considered his act a defiance of royal
authority, attributed it to the teachings of Williams, and proceeded to
punish both. Endicott was rebuked by the General Court (or legislature)
and forbidden to hold office for a year. Williams was ordered to go
back to England. But he fled to the woods, and made his way through the
snow to the wigwam of the Indian chief, Massasoit, on Narragansett Bay,
and there in the summer of 1636 he founded Providence. About the same
time another teacher of what was then thought heresy, Anne Hutchinson,
was driven from Massachusetts, and with some of her followers went
southward and founded Portsmouth and Newport, on the island of Rhode
Island. For a while each of these settlements was independent, but in
1643 Williams went to London and secured a patent from Parliament which
united them under the name of "The Incorporation of Providence
Plantations on the Narragansett Bay in New England."

%42. Connecticut begun.%--In the same year that Roger Williams began
his settlement at Providence, several hundred people from the towns near
Boston went off and settled in the Connecticut valley. For a long time
past there had been growing up in Massachusetts a strong feeling that
the law that none but church members should vote or hold office was
oppressive. This feeling became so strong that in 1635 some hardy
pioneers from Dorchester pushed through the wilderness and settled at
Windsor. A party from Watertown went further and settled Wethersfield.
These were small movements. But in 1636 the Newtown congregation, led by
its pastor, Thomas Hooker, walked to the Connecticut valley and founded
Hartford. The congregations of the Dorchester and Watertown churches
soon followed, while a party from Roxbury settled at Springfield. During
three years these four towns were part of Massachusetts. But in 1639,
Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield adopted a constitution and formed a
little republic which in time was called Connecticut. Their "Fundamental
Orders of Connecticut" was the first written constitution made in
America. Their republic was the first in the history of the world to be
founded by a written constitution, and marks the beginning of democratic
government in our country.

%43. The New Haven Colony.%--Just at the time these things were
happening in the Connecticut valley, the beginnings of another little
republic were made on the shores of Long Island Sound. One day in the
summer of 1637 there came to Boston a company of rich London merchants
under the lead of an eloquent preacher named John Davenport. The people
of Boston would gladly have kept the newcomers at that town. But the
strangers desired to found a state of their own, and so, after spending
some months in seeking for a spot with a good harbor, they left Boston
in 1638 and founded New Haven. In 1639 Milford and Guilford were laid
out, and Stamford was started in 1640. Three years later these four
towns joined in a sort of federal union and took the name of the New
Haven colony.[1]

[Footnote 1: Fiske's _Beginnings of New England_, pp. 134-137.]


%44. "The United Colonies of New England."%--There were now five
colonies in New England; namely, Plymouth, or the "Old Colony,"
Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Haven.
Geographically, they were near each other. But each was weak in numbers,
and if left without the aid of its neighbors, might easily have fallen
a prey to some enemy. Of this the settlers were well aware, and in 1643
four of the colonies, Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and New
Haven[1] united for defense against the Indians and the Dutch, who
claimed the Connecticut valley and so threatened the English colonies
on the west.

[Footnote 1: Rhode Island was not allowed to come in, for the feeling
against the followers of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson was still
very strong.]

The name of this league was "The United Colonies of New England," and it
was the first attempt in America at federal government. All its affairs
were managed by a board of eight commissioners,--two from each
colony,--who must be church members. They had no power to lay taxes or
to meddle with the internal concerns of the colonies, but they had
entire control over all dealings with Indians or with foreign powers.

%45. The Year 1643.%--The year 1643 is thus an important one in
colonial history. It was in that year that the New Haven colony was
founded; that the league of The United Colonies of New England was
formed; and that Roger Williams obtained the first charter of
Rhode Island.

%46. New Charters.%--During the next twenty years no changes took
place in the boundaries of the colonies. This was the period of the
Civil War in England, of the Commonwealth, of the rule of Cromwell and
the Puritans; and affairs in New England were left to take care of
themselves. But in 1660 Charles II. was restored to the throne of
England, and a new era opens in colonial history. In 1661 the little
colony of Connecticut promptly acknowledged the restoration of Charles
II. and applied for a charter. The application was more than granted;
for to Connecticut (1662) was given not only a charter and an immense
tract of land, but also the colony of New Haven.[1] The land grant was
comprised in a strip that stretched across the continent from Rhode
Island to the Pacific and was as wide as the present state.[2] In 1663
Rhode Island was given a new charter.

[Footnote 1: In 1660, after the restoration of Charles II., Edward
Whalley and William Goffe (the regicides, "king-killers," as they were
called), two of the judges who had condemned Charles I. to be beheaded,
fled to New Haven and were protected by the people. This act had much to
do with the annexation of New Haven to Connecticut.]

[Footnote 2: Read Fiske's _Beginnings of New England_, pp. 192-196. Many
of the New Haven colonists were disgusted by the union of their colony
with Connecticut, and in June, 1667, migrated to New Jersey, where they
founded "New-Ark" or Newark.]

In 1684 the King's judges declared the Massachusetts charter void, and
James II. was about to make New England one royal colony, when the
English people drove him from the throne. William and Mary in 1691
granted a new charter and united the Plymouth colony, Massachusetts,
Maine, and Nova Scotia, in one colony called Massachusetts Bay. This
charter was in force when the Revolution opened.


1. The first colony established by the Plymouth Company (1607, on the
coast of Maine) was a failure.

2. Captain John Smith explored the New England coast and mapped it
(1613), but did not succeed in planting any colonies.

3. The permanent settlement of New England began with the arrival of a
body of Separatists in the _Mayflower_ (1620), who founded the colony
of Plymouth.

4. The Separatist migration from England was followed in a few years by
a great exodus of Puritans, who planted towns along the coast to the
north of Plymouth, and obtained a charter of government and a great
strip of land, and founded the colony of Massachusetts Bay.

5. Religious disputes drove Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson out of
Massachusetts, and led to the founding of Rhode Island (1636).

6. Other church wrangles led to an emigration from Massachusetts to the
Connecticut valley, where a little confederacy of towns was created and
called Connecticut.

7. Some settlers from England went to Long Island Sound and there
founded four towns which, in their turn, joined in a federal union
called the New Haven Colony.

8. In time, New Haven was joined to Connecticut, and Plymouth and Maine
to Massachusetts; New Hampshire was made a royal colony; and the four
New England colonies--Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and
Connecticut--were definitely established.

9. The territory of Massachusetts and Connecticut stretched across the
continent to the "South Sea," or Pacific Ocean.



%47. North and South Carolina.%--You remember that away back in the
sixteenth century the French under Jean Ribault and the English under
Ralegh undertook to plant colonies on what is now the Carolina coast.
They failed, and the country remained a wilderness till 1653, when a
band of emigrants from Virginia made the first permanent settlement on
the banks of the Chowan and the Roanoke. In 1663 some Englishmen from
Barbados began to settle on the Cape Fear River, just at the time when
Charles II. of England gave the region to eight English noblemen, who,
out of compliment to the King, allowed the name of Carolina given it by
Ribault to remain. In 1665 the bounds were enlarged, and Carolina then
extended from latitude 29 deg. 00' to 36 deg. 30', the present south boundary of
Virginia, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

[Illustration: CAROLINA AS GRANTED BY King Charles II]

There was at first no intention of dividing the territory, although,
after Charleston was founded (1670), North Carolina and South Carolina
sometimes had separate governors. But in 1729 the proprietors sold
Carolina to the King, and it was then divided into two distinct and
separate royal provinces.

%48. New York.%--An event of far greater importance than the
chartering of Carolina was the seizure of New Netherland. After the
conquest of New Sweden, in 1655, the possessions and claims of the Dutch
in our country extended from the Connecticut River to the Delaware
River, and from the Mohawk to Delaware Bay. Geographically, they cut the
English colonies in two, and hampered communication between New England
and the South. To own this region was therefore of the utmost importance
to the English; and to get it, King Charles II., in 1664, revived the
old claim that the English had discovered the country before the Dutch,
and he sent a little fleet and army, which appeared off New Amsterdam
and demanded its surrender. The demand was complied with; and in 1664
Dutch rule in our country ended, and England owned the seaboard from the
Kennebec to the Savannah.

The King had already granted New Netherland to his brother the Duke of
York, in honor of whom the town of New Amsterdam was now renamed
New York.

%49. New Jersey.%--The Duke of York no sooner received his province
than he gave so much of it as lay between the Delaware and the ocean to
his friends Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, and called it New
Jersey, in honor of Sir George Carteret, who had been governor of the
island of Jersey in the English Channel. The two proprietors divided it
between them by the line shown on the map (p. 56). In 1674 Berkeley sold
West Jersey to a company of Quakers, who settled near Burlington. A
little later, 1676, William Penn and some other Quakers bought East
Jersey. There were then two colonies till 1702, when the proprietors
surrendered their rights, and New Jersey became one royal province.

%50. The Beginnings of Pennsylvania.%--The part which Penn took in
the settlement of New Jersey suggested to him the idea of beginning a
colony which should be a refuge for the persecuted of all lands and of
all religions.


Now it so happened that Penn was the son of a distinguished admiral to
whom King Charles II. owed L16,000, and seeing no chance of its ever
being paid, he proposed to the King, in 1680, that the debt be paid with
a tract of land in America. The King gladly agreed, and in 1681 Penn
received a grant west of the Delaware. Against Penn's wish, the King
called it Pennsylvania, or Penn's Woodland. It was given almost
precisely the bounds of the present state.[1] In 1683 Penn made a famous
treaty with the Indians, and laid out the city of Philadelphia.

[Footnote 1: There was a long dispute, however, with Lord Baltimore,
over the south boundary line, which was not settled till 1763-67, when
two surveyors, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, came over from England
and located it as at present. In later years, when all the Atlantic
seaboard states north of Maryland and Delaware had abolished slavery,
this "Mason and Dixon's Line" became famous as the dividing line between
the slave and the free Atlantic states.]

%51. The Three Lower Counties: Delaware.%--If you look at the map of
the British Colonies in 1764, you will see that Pennsylvania was the
only English colony which did not have a seacoast. This was a cause of
some anxiety to Penn, who was afraid that the settlers in Delaware and
New Jersey might try to prevent his colonists from going in and out of
Delaware Bay. To avoid this, he bought what is now Delaware from the
Duke of York.

The three lower counties on the Delaware, as the tract was called, had
no boundary. Lawfully it belonged to Lord Baltimore. But neither the
Dutch patroons who settled on the Delaware in 1631, nor the Swedes who
came later, nor the Dutch who annexed New Sweden to New Netherland, nor
the English who conquered the Dutch, paid any regard to Baltimore's
rights. At last, after the purchase of Delaware, the heirs of Baltimore
and of Penn (1732) agreed on what is the present boundary line. After
1703 the people of the three lower counties were allowed to have an
assembly or legislature of their own; but they had the same governor as
Pennsylvania and were a part of that colony till the Revolution.[1]

[Footnote 1: For Pennsylvania read Janney's _Life of William Penn_ or
Dixon's _History of William Penn_; Proud's or Gordon's _Pennsylvania_;
Lodge's _Colonies_, pp. 213-226.]

%52. Georgia.%--The return of the Carolinas to the King in 1729 was
very soon followed by the establishment of the last colony ever planted
by England in the United States. The founder was James Oglethorpe, an
English soldier and member of Parliament. Filled with pity for the poor
debtors with whom the English jails were then crowded, he formed a plan
to pay the debts of the most deserving, send them to America, and give
them what hundreds of thousands of men have since found in our
country,--a chance to begin life anew.


Great numbers of people became interested in his plan, and finally
twenty-two persons under Oglethorpe's lead formed an association and
secured a charter from King George II. for a colony, which they called
Georgia. The territory granted lay between the Savannah and the
Altamaha rivers, and extended from their mouths to their sources and
then across the country to the Pacific Ocean. Oglethorpe had selected
this tract in order that his colonists might serve the patriotic purpose
of protecting Charleston from the Spanish attacks to which it was
then exposed.

Money for the colony was easily raised,[1] and in November, 1732,
Oglethorpe, with 130 persons, set out for Charleston, and after a short
stay there passed southward and founded the city of Savannah (1733). It
must not be supposed that all the colonists were poor debtors. In time,
Italians from Piedmont, Moravians and Lutherans from Germany, and
Scotchmen from the Highlands, all made settlements in Georgia.

[Footnote 1: The House of Commons gave L10,000.]

%53. The Thirteen English Colonies.%--Thus it came about that between
1606 and 1733 thirteen English colonies were planted on the Atlantic
seaboard of what is now the United States. Naming them from north to
south, they were: 1. New Hampshire, with no definite western boundary;
2. Massachusetts, which owned Maine and a strip of territory across the
continent; 3. Rhode Island, with her present bounds; 4. Connecticut,
with a great tract of land extending to the Pacific; 5. New York, with
undefined bounds; 6. New Jersey; 7. Pennsylvania and 8. Delaware, the
property of the Penn family; 9. Maryland, the property of the heirs of
Lord Baltimore; 10. Virginia, with claims to a great part of North
America; 11. North Carolina, 12. South Carolina, and 13. Georgia, all
with claims to the Pacific.


1. The English seized New Netherland (1664), giving it to the Duke of
York; and the Duke, after establishing the province of New York, gave
New Jersey to two of his friends, and sold the three counties on the
Delaware to William Penn.

2. Meanwhile the King granted Penn what is now Pennsylvania (1681).

3. The Carolinas were first chartered as one proprietary colony, but
were sold back to the King and finally separated in 1729.

4. Georgia, the last of the thirteen English colonies, was granted to
Oglethorpe and others as a refuge for poor debtors (1732).




1579. Gilbert.
1584. }Ralegh, Roanoke Island.
1587. }


1606. London Company, Plymouth Company.
1607. Virginia settled.
1609. Boundary of London Company changed. Origin of
Virginia claim.
1620. Landing of the Pilgrims. Plymouth colony.
1622. Grant to Mason and Gorges.
1628. Land bought for Massachusetts Bay colony.
1629. Mason and Gorges divide their grant into Maine
and New Hampshire.
1632. Maryland patent granted.
1639. Connecticut constitution
(Windsor. Hartford. Wethersfield)
1643. New Haven colony organized
(New Haven. Milford. Guilford. Stamford.)
1643. Rhode Island chartered.
1662. Connecticut chartered.
(Connecticut. New Haven.)
1663. Rhode Island rechartered.
1663. Carolina patent granted.
After 1729 North and South Carolina.
1664. New Netherland conquered and New York founded.
1664. New Jersey granted to Berkeley and Carteret.
1681. Pennsylvania granted to Penn.
1682. Three counties on the Delaware bought by Penn.
1691. Plymouth and Maine (and Nova Scotia)
united with Massachusetts.
1732. Georgia chartered.

1613. Begin to colonize New Netherland

1638. South Company makes settlement on the Delaware.
1655. Conquered by the Dutch.



%54. The Early French Possessions% on our continent may be arranged
in three great areas: 1. Acadia, 2. New France, 3. Louisiana, or the
basin of the Mississippi River.

ACADIA comprised what is now New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and a part of
Maine. It was settled in the early years of the seventeenth century at
Port Royal (now Annapolis, Nova Scotia), at Mount Desert Island, and on
the St. Croix River.

NEW FRANCE was the drainage basin of the St. Lawrence and the Great
Lakes. As far back as 1535 Jacques Cartier explored the St. Lawrence
River to the site of Montreal. But it was not till 1608 that a party
under Champlain made the first permanent settlement on the river,
at Quebec.

The French settlers at once entered into an alliance with the Huron and
Algonquin Indians, who lived along the St. Lawrence River. But these
tribes were the bitter enemies of the Iroquois, who dwelt in what is now
central New York, and when, in consequence of this alliance, the French
were summoned to take the warpath, Champlain, with a few followers,
went, and on the shore of the lake which now bears his name, not far
from the site of Ticonderoga, he met and defeated the Iroquois tribe of
Mohawks in July, 1609.

The battle was a small affair; but its consequences were serious and
lasting, for the Iroquois were thenceforth the enemies of the French,
and prevented them from ever coming southward and taking possession of
the Hudson and the Mohawk valleys. When, therefore, the French
merchants began to engage in the fur trade with the Indians, and the
French priests began their efforts to convert the Indians to
Christianity, they were forced to go westward further and further into
the interior.


Their route, instead of being up the St. Lawrence, was up the Ottawa
River to its head waters, over the portage to Lake Nipissing, and down
its outlet to Georgian Bay, where the waters of the Great Lakes lay
before them (see map on p. 63). They explored these lakes, dotted their
shores here and there with mission and fur-trading stations, and took
possession of the country.

%55. The French on the Mississippi.%--In the course of these
explorations the French heard accounts from the Indians of a great
river to the westward, and in 1672 Father Marquette (mar-ket') and Louis
Joliet (zho-le-a') were sent by the governor of New France to search for
it. They set out, in May, 1673, from Michilimackinac, a French trading
post and mission at the foot of Lake Michigan. With five companions, in
two birch-bark canoes, they paddled up the lake to Green Bay, entered
Fox River, and, dragging the boats through its boiling rapids, came to a
village where lived the Miamis and the Kickapoos. These Indians tried to
dissuade them from going on; but Marquette was resolute, and on the 10th
of June, 1673, he led his followers over the swamps and marshes that
separated Fox River from a river which the Indian guides assured him
flowed into the Mississippi. This westward-flowing river he called the
Wisconsin, and there the guides left him, as he says, "alone, amid that
unknown country, in the hands of God."

The little band shoved their canoes boldly out upon the river, and for
seven days floated slowly downward into the unknown. At last, on the
17th of June, they paddled out on the bosom of the Mississippi, and,
turning their canoes to the south, followed the bends and twists of the
river, past the mouth of the Missouri, past the Ohio, to a point not far
from the mouth of the Arkansas. There the voyage ended, and the party
went slowly back to the Lakes.[1]

[Footnote 1: Read Parkman's _La Salle and the Discovery of the Great

%56. La Salle finishes the Work of Marquette and Joliet.%--The
discovery of Marquette and Joliet was the greatest of the age. Yet five
years went by before Robert de la Salle (lah sahl') set forth with
authority from the French King "to labor at the discovery of the western
part of New France," and began the attempt to follow the river to the
sea. In 1678 La Salle and his companions left Canada, and made their way
to the shore of Lake Erie, where during the winter they built and
launched the _Griffin_, the first ship that ever floated on those
waters. In this they sailed to the mouth of Green Bay, and from there
pushed on to the Illinois River, to an Indian camp not far from the
site of Peoria, Ill. Just below this camp La Salle built Fort Crevecoeur
(cra'v-ker, a word meaning heart-break, vexation).


Leaving the party there in charge of Henri de Tonty to construct another
ship, he with five companions went back to Canada. On his return he
found that Fort Crevecoeur was in ruins, and that Tonty and the few men
who had been faithful were gone, he knew not where. In the hope of
meeting them he pushed on down the Illinois to the Mississippi. To go on
would have been easy, but he turned back to find Tonty, and passed the
winter on the St. Joseph River.

From there in November, 1681, he once more set forth, crossed the lake
to the place where Chicago now is, went up the Chicago River and over
the portage to the Illinois, and early in February floated out on the
Mississippi. It was, on that day, a surging torrent full of trees and
floating ice; but the explorers kept on their way and came at last to
the shores of the Gulf of Mexico. There La Salle took formal possession
of all the regions drained by the Mississippi, the Ohio, and their
tributaries, claiming them in the name of France, and naming the country
thus claimed "Louisiana." The iron will, the splendid courage, of La
Salle had triumphed over every obstacle and made him one of the grandest
characters in history.

But his work was far from ended. The valley he had explored, the
territory he had added to France, must be occupied, and to occupy it two
things were necessary: 1. A colony must be planted at the mouth of the
Mississippi, to control its navigation and shut out the Spaniards. 2. A
strong fort must be built on the Illinois, to overawe the Indians.

In order to overawe the Indians, La Salle now hurried back to the
Illinois River, where, in December, 1682, near the present town of
Ottawa, on the summit of a cliff now known as "Starved Rock," he built a
stockade which he called Fort St. Louis. In 1684, while on a voyage from
France to plant a colony on the Mississippi, he missed the mouth and
brought up on the coast of Texas; and, landing on the sands of
Matagorda Bay, the colonists built another Fort St. Louis. But death
rapidly reduced their numbers, and, in their distress, they parted. Some
remained at the fort and were killed by the Indians. Others, led by La
Salle, started for the Illinois River and reached it; but without their
leader, whom they had murdered on the way.


1. After the settlement of Quebec (1608) the French began to explore the
regions lying to the west, discovered the Great Lakes, and heard of a
great river--the Mississippi.

2. This river Marquette and Joliet explored from the mouth of the
Wisconsin to the mouth of the Arkansas (1673).

3. Then La Salle floated down the Mississippi from the Illinois to the
Gulf of Mexico, took formal possession of the valley in the name of his
King, and called it Louisiana (1682).

[Illustration: Starved Rock]



[Illustration: A typical Indian]

%57%. When Europeans first set foot on our shores, they found the
country already inhabited, and, adopting the name given to the men of
the New World by Columbus, they called these people "Indians."

They were not "Indians," or natives of Asia, but a race by themselves,
which ages before the time of Columbus was spread over all North and
South America.

Like their descendants in the West to-day, they had red or
copper-colored skins, their eyes and long straight hair were jet black,
their faces beardless, and their cheek bones high.

%58. The Villages.%---East of the Rocky Mountains the Indians lived
in villages, often covering several acres in area, and surrounded by
stockades of two and even three rows of posts. The stockade was pierced
with loopholes, and provided with platforms on which were piles of
stones for the defenders to hurl on the heads of their enemies.
Sometimes the structures which formed the village were wigwams--rude
structures made by driving poles into the ground in a circle, drawing
their tops near together, and then covering them with bark or skins.
Sometimes the dwellings had rudely framed sides and roofs covered with
layers of elm bark. Usually these structures were fifteen or twenty feet
wide by 100 feet long. At each end was a door. Along each side were ten
or twelve stalls, in each of which lived a family, so that one house
held twenty or more families. Down the middle at regular intervals were
fire pits where the food was cooked, the smoke escaping through holes in
the roof.[1]

[Footnote 1: Read Parkman's _Conspiracy of Pontiac_, Vol. I., pp. 17,

[Illustration: Buffalo-skin lodge]

%59. Clans and Tribes.%--All the families living in such a house
traced descent from a common female ancestor, and formed a clan. Each
clan had its own name,--usually that of some animal, as the Wolf, the
Bear, or the Turtle,--its own sachem or civil magistrate, and its own
war chiefs, and owned all the food and all the property, except weapons
and ornaments, in common. A number of such clans made a tribe, which had
one language and was governed by a council of the clan sachems.

[Illustration: Seneca long house]

%60. The Three Indian Races.%--With slight exceptions, the tribes
living east of the Mississippi are divided, by those who have studied
their languages, into three great groups:

1. The Muskhogees, who lived south of the Tennessee River and comprised
the Creek, the Seminole, the Choctaw, and the Chickasaw tribes.

2. The Iroquoian group, which occupied the country from the Delaware and
the Hudson to and beyond the St. Lawrence and Lakes Ontario and Erie,
besides isolated tracts in North Carolina and Tennessee. The chief
tribes were the Iroquois proper,--forming a confederacy in central New
York known as the Five Nations (Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Oneidas,
and Mohawks),--the Hurons, the Eries, the Cherokees, and the Tuscaroras.

[Illustration: Moccasin]


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