A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature
John W. Cousin

Part 1 out of 13

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The primary aim of this book is to give as much information about English
authors, including under this designation American and Colonial writers,
as the prescribed limits will admit of. At the same time an attempt has
been made, where materials exist for it, to enhance the interest by
introducing such details as tend to illustrate the characters and
circumstances of the respective writers and the manner in which they
passed through the world; and in the case of the more important, to give
some indication of the relative place which they hold and the leading
features of their work.

Including the Appendix of Living Writers, the work contains upwards of
1600 names; but large as this number is, the number of those who have
contributed something of interest and value to the vast store of English
Literature is larger still, and any attempt to make a book of this kind
absolutely exhaustive would be futile.

The word "literature" is here used in a very wide sense, and this gives
rise to considerable difficulty in drawing the line of exclusion. There
are very many writers whose claim to admission may reasonably be
considered as good as that of some who have been included; but even had
it been possible to discover all these, their inclusion would have
swelled the work beyond its limits. A line had to be drawn somewhere, and
the writer has used his best judgment in making that line as consistent
as possible. It may probably, however, be safely claimed that every
department of the subject of any importance is well represented.

Wherever practicable (and this includes all but a very few articles),
various authorities have been collated, and pains have been taken to
secure accuracy; but where so large a collection of facts and dates is
involved, it would be too sanguine to expect that success has invariably
been attained.


_January_, 1910.

The following list gives some of the best known works of Biography:--

Allibone, Critical Dictionary of English Literature and English and
American Authors, 1859-71, Supplement, by J.F. Kirke, 1891; W.
Hazlitt, Collections and Notes of Early English Literature, 1876-93;
R. Chambers, Cyclopaedia of English Literature, 1876, 1901; Halkett
and Laign, Dictionary of Anonymous and Pseudonymous Literature,
1882-88; Dictionary of National Biography, ed. by Leslie Stephen and
Sidney Lee, 1885, etc., re-issue, 1908, etc.; Appleton's Cyclopaedia
of American Biography, ed. by J. Grant Wilson and John Fiske, 1887,
etc.; J. Thomas, Universal Dictionary of Biography and Mythology,
1887-89; Men and Women of the Time, 15th edit., ed. by Victor G.
Plarr, 1889.


_b._ born Edin. Edinburgh
_c._ _circa_ _fl._ flourished
Camb. Cambridge Glas. Glasgow
Coll. College _m._ married
_coll._ collected Oxf. Oxford
_cr._ created pres. president
_d._ died _pub._ published
_dau._ daughter Prof. Professor
_ed._ educated sec. secretary
{ edition _s._ son
ed. { editor Univ. University
{ edited

ABBOTT, JACOB (1803-1879).--Educationalist and miscellaneous author,
_b._ at Hallowell, Maine, _ed._ at Bowdoin Coll. and Andover, entered the
ministry of the Congregational Church, but was best known as an
educationist and writer of religious and other books, mainly for the
young. Among them are _Beechnut Tales_ and _The Rollo Books_, both of
which still have a very wide circulation.

ABBOTT, JOHN STEVENS CABOT (1805-1877).--Historian, etc., _b._ Brunswick,
Maine, and _ed._ at Bowdoin Coll. He studied theology and became a
minister of the Congregational Church at various places in Massachusetts
and Connecticut. Owing to the success of a little work, _The Mother at
Home_, he devoted himself, from 1844 onwards, to literature, and
especially to historical writing. Among his principal works, which were
very popular, are: _History of Napoleon Bonaparte_ (1852-55), _History of
the Civil War in America_ (1863-66), and _History of Frederick the Great_

A BECKETT, GILBERT ABBOTT (1811-1856).--Comic writer, _b._ in London, the
_s._ of a lawyer, and belonged to a family claiming descent from Thomas a
Becket. Destined for the legal profession, he was called to the Bar. In
addition to contributions to various periodicals and newspapers,
including _Punch_, _The Illustrated London News_, _The Times_, and
_Morning Herald_, he produced over fifty plays, many of which attained
great popularity, and he also helped to dramatise some of Dickens' works.
He is perhaps best known as the author of _Comic History of England_,
_Comic History of Rome_, _Comic Blackstone_, etc. He was also
distinguished in his profession, acted as a commissioner on various
important matters, and was appointed a metropolitan police magistrate.

ABERCROMBIE, JOHN (1780-1844).--Physician and writer on mental science,
_s._ of a minister, was _b._ at Aberdeen, and _ed._ at the Grammar School
and Marischal College there. He studied medicine at Edinburgh, in which
city he practised as a physician. He made valuable contributions to the
literature of his profession, and _pub._ two works, _Enquiry Concerning
the Intellectual Powers_ (1830) and _The Philosophy of the Moral
Feelings_ (1833), which, though popular at the time of their publication,
have long been superseded. For his services as a physician and
philanthropist he received many marks of distinction, including the
Rectorship of Marischal College.

ABERCROMBIE, PATRICK (1656-1716).--Antiquary and historian, was physician
to James II. in 1685; he was a Jacobite and opposed the Union in various
pamphlets. His chief work was _Martial Achievements of the Scots Nation_

(1834-1902).--Historian, _s._ of Sir Richard A., and grandson of Sir John
A., who was Prime Minister of Naples, was _b._ at Naples. He belonged to
an ancient Roman Catholic family, and was _ed._ first at Oscott near
Birmingham under Dr. (afterwards Card.) Wiseman. Thence he went to
Edinburgh, where he studied privately, and afterwards to Munich, where he
resided in the house of Dr. Dollinger, the great scholar and subsequent
leader of the Old Catholic party, by whom he was profoundly influenced.
While at Edinburgh he endeavoured to procure admission to Cambridge, but
without success, his religion being at that time a bar. He early devoted
himself to the study of history, and is said to have been on terms of
intimacy with every contemporary historian of distinction, with the
exception of Guizot. He sat in the House of Commons 1859-65, but made no
great mark, and in 1869 was raised to the peerage as Lord Acton of
Aldenham. For a time he edited _The Rambler_, a Roman Catholic
periodical, which afterwards became the _Home and Foreign Review_, and
which, under his care, became one of the most learned publications of the
day. The liberal character of A.'s views, however, led to its stoppage in
deference to the authorities of the Church. He, however, maintained a
lifelong opposition to the Ultramontane party in the Church, and in 1874
controverted their position in four letters to _The Times_ which were
described as the most crushing argument against them which ever appeared
in so condensed a form. A.'s contributions to literature were few, and,
in comparison with his extraordinary learning, comparatively unimportant.
He wrote upon _Cardinal Wolsey_ (1877) and _German Schools of History_
(1886). He was extremely modest, and the loftiness of his ideals of
accuracy and completeness of treatment led him to shrink from tasks which
men of far slighter equipment might have carried out with success. His
learning and his position as a universally acknowledged master in his
subject were recognised by his appointment in 1895 as Professor of Modern
History at Cambridge. Perhaps his most valuable services to historical
literature were his laying down the lines of the great _Cambridge Modern
History_, and his collection of a library of 60,000 vols., which after
his death was purchased by an American millionaire and presented to Lord
Morley of Blackburn, who placed it in the University of Cambridge.

ADAMNAN, ST. (625?-704).--Historian, _b._ in Donegal, became Abbot of
Iona in 679. Like other Irish churchmen he was a statesman as well as an
ecclesiastic, and appears to have been sent on various political
missions. In the great controversy on the subject of the holding of
Easter, he sided with Rome against the Irish Church. He left the earliest
account we have of the state of Palestine in the early ages of the
Church; but of even more value is his _Vita Sancti Columbae_, giving a
minute account of the condition and discipline of the church of Iona. He
_d._ 704.

ADAMS, FRANCIS, W.L. (1862-1893).--Novelist, was _b._ at Malta, and _ed._
at schools at Shrewsbury and in Paris. In 1882 he went to Australia, and
was on the staff of _The Sydney Bulletin_. In 1884 he _publ._ his
autobiographical novel, _Leicester_, and in 1888 _Songs of the Army of
the Night_, which created a sensation in Sydney. His remaining important
work is _Tiberius_ (1894), a striking drama in which a new view of the
character of the Emperor is presented. He _d._ by his own hand at
Alexandria in a fit of depression caused by hopeless illness.

ADDISON, JOSEPH (1672-1719).--Poet, essayist and statesman, was the _s._
of Lancelot Addison, Dean of Lichfield. _B._ near Amesbury, Wilts., A.
went to the Charterhouse where he made the acquaintance of Steele
(_q.v._), and then at the age of fifteen to Oxford where he had a
distinguished career, being specially noted for his Latin verse. Intended
at first for the Church, various circumstances combined to lead him
towards literature and politics. His first attempts in English verse took
the form of complimentary addresses, and were so successful as to obtain
for him the friendship and interest of Dryden, and of Lord Somers, by
whose means he received, in 1699, a pension of L300 to enable him to
travel on the continent with a view to diplomatic employment. He visited
Italy, whence he addressed his _Epistle_ to his friend Halifax. Hearing
of the death of William III., an event which lost him his pension, he
returned to England in the end of 1703. For a short time his
circumstances were somewhat straitened, but the battle of Blenheim in
1704 gave him a fresh opportunity of distinguishing himself. The
government wished the event commemorated by a poem; A. was commissioned
to write this, and produced _The Campaign_, which gave such satisfaction
that he was forthwith appointed a Commissioner of Appeals. His next
literary venture was an account of his travels in Italy, which was
followed by the opera of _Rosamund_. In 1705, the Whigs having obtained
the ascendency, A. was made Under-Secretary of State and accompanied
Halifax on a mission to Hanover, and in 1708 was appointed Chief
Secretary for Ireland and Keeper of the Records of that country. It was
at this period that A. found his true vocation and laid the foundations
of his real fame. In 1709 Steele began to bring out the _Tatler_, to
which A. became almost immediately a contributor: thereafter he (with
Steele) started the _Spectator_, the first number of which appeared on
March 1, 1711. This paper, which at first appeared daily, was kept up
(with a break of about a year and a half when the _Guardian_ took its
place) until Dec. 20, 1714. In 1713 the drama of _Cato_ appeared, and was
received with acclamation by both Whigs and Tories, and was followed by
the comedy of the _Drummer_. His last undertaking was _The Freeholder_, a
party paper (1715-16). The later events in the life of A., viz., his
marriage in 1716 to the Dowager Countess of Warwick, to whose son he had
been tutor and his promotion to be Secretary of State did not contribute
to his happiness. His wife appears to have been arrogant and imperious;
his step-son the Earl was a rake and unfriendly to him; while in his
public capacity his invincible shyness made him of little use in
Parliament. He resigned his office in 1718, and, after a period of
ill-health, _d._ at Holland House, June 17, 1719, in his 48th year.
Besides the works above mentioned, he wrote a _Dialogue on Medals_, and
left unfinished a work on the Evidences of Christianity. The character of
A., if somewhat cool and unimpassioned, was pure, magnanimous, and kind.
The charm of his manners and conversation made him one of the most
popular and admired men of his day; and while he laid his friends under
obligations for substantial favours, he showed the greatest forbearance
towards his few enemies. His style in his essays is remarkable for its
ease, clearness, and grace, and for an inimitable and sunny humour which
never soils and never hurts. The motive power of these writings has been
called "an enthusiasm for conduct." Their effect was to raise the whole
standard of manners and expression both in life and in literature. The
only flaw in his character was a tendency to convivial excess, which must
be judged in view of the laxer manners of his time. When allowance has
been made for this, he remains one of the most admirable characters and
writers in English literature.

SUMMARY.--_B._ Amesbury, _ed._ Charterhouse and Oxford; received
travelling pension, 1699; _Campaign_ (1704) leads to political office;
goes to Ireland, 1708; assists Steele in _Tatler_, 1709; _Spectator_
started, 1711; marries Lady Warwick, 1716; Secretary of State, 1716-18;
_d._ 1719.

Lives in _Biographica Britannica_, _Dict. of Nat. Biog._, _Johnson's
Lives of Poets_, and by Lucy Aikin, Macaulay's _Essay_, Drake's _Essays
Illustrative of Tatler, Guardian, and Spectator_; Pope's and Swift's
Correspondence, etc.

The best edition of the books is that in _Bohn's British Classics_ (6
vols., 1856); others are Tickell's (4 vols., 1721); _Baskerville_ edit.
(4 vols., 1761); Hurd's (6 vols., 1811); Greene's (1856); Dent's
_Spectator_ (1907).

ADOLPHUS, JOHN (1768-1845).--Historian, studied law and was called to the
Bar in 1807. He wrote _Biographical Memoirs of the French Revolution_
(1799) and _History of England from_ 1760-1783 (1802), and other
historical and biographical works.

AELFRED (849-901).--King of the West Saxons, and writer and translator,
_s._ of Ethelwulf, _b._ at Wantage. Besides being the deliverer of his
country from the ravages of the Danes, and the restorer of order and
civil government, _AE._ has earned the title of the father of English
prose writing. The earlier part of his life was filled with war and
action, most of the details regarding which are more or less legendary.
But no sooner had he become King of Wessex, in 871, than he began to
prepare for the work of re-introducing learning into his country.
Gathering round him the few scholars whom the Danes had left, and sending
for others from abroad, he endeavoured to form a literary class. His
chief helper in his great enterprise was Asser of St. David's, who taught
him Latin, and became his biographer in a "life" which remains the best
original authority for the period. Though not a literary artist, AE. had
the best qualities of the scholar, including an insatiable love alike for
the acquisition and the communication of knowledge. He translated several
of the best books then existing, not, however, in a slavish fashion, but
editing and adding from his own stores. In all his work his main desire
was the good of his people. Among the books he translated or edited were
(1) _The Handbook_, a collection of extracts on religious subjects; (2)
_The Cura Pastoralis_, or Herdsman's book of Gregory the Great, with a
preface by himself which is the first English prose; (3) _Bede's
Ecclesiastical History of the English_; (4) _The English Chronicle_,
which, already brought up to 855, he continued up to the date of writing;
it is probably by his own hand; (5) Orosius's _History of the World_,
which he adapted for English readers with many historical and
geographical additions; (6) the _De Consolatione Philosophiae_ of
Boethius; and (7) a translation of some of the Psalms. He also made a
collection of the best laws of his predecessors, Ethelbert, Ine, and
Offa. It has been said "although King Alfred lived a thousand years ago,
a thousand years hence, if there be England then, his memory will yet be
precious to his country."

AELFRIC (955-_c._ 1022).--Called Grammaticus (10th century), sometimes
confounded with two other persons of the same name, AE. of Canterbury and
AE. of York, was a monk at Winchester, and afterwards Abbot of Cerne and
Eynsham successively. He has left works which shed an important light on
the doctrine and practice of the early Church in England, including two
books of homilies (990-94), a _Grammar_, _Glossary_, _Passiones Sanctorum_
(Sufferings of the Saints), translations of parts of the Bible with
omissions and interpolations, _Canones AElfrici_, and other theological
treatises. His writings had an influence on the formation of English
prose. He filled in his age somewhat the same position that Bede did in
his, that of a compiler and populariser of existing knowledge.

AGUILAR, GRACE (1816-1847).--Novelist and writer on Jewish history and
religion, was _b._ at Hackney of Jewish parents of Spanish descent. She
was delicate from childhood, and early showed great interest in history,
especially Jewish. The death of her _f._ threw her on her own resources.
After a few dramas and poems she _pub._ in America in 1842 _Spirit of
Judaism_, and in 1845 _The Jewish Faith_ and _The Women of Israel_. She
is, however, best known by her novels, of which the chief are _Home
Influence_ (1847) and _A Mother's Recompense_ (1850). Her health gave way
in 1847, and she _d._ in that year at Frankfort.

AIKIN, JOHN (1747-1822).--Miscellaneous writer, _s._ of Dr. John A.,
Unitarian divine, _b._ at Kibworth, studied medicine at Edinburgh and
London, and received degree of M.D. at Leyden. He began practice at
Yarmouth but, one of his pamphlets having given offence, he removed to
London, where he obtained some success in his profession, devoting all
his leisure to literature, to which his contributions were incessant.
These consisted of pamphlets, translations, and miscellaneous works, some
in conjunction with his sister, Mrs. Barbauld. Among his chief works are
_England Delineated_, _General Biography_ in 10 vols., and lives of Selden
and Ussher.

AIKIN, LUCY (1781-1864).--Historical and miscellaneous writer, _dau._ of
above and niece of Mrs. Barbauld (_q.v._). After _pub._ a poem,
_Epistles on Women_, and a novel, _Lorimer_, she began the historical
works on which her reputation chiefly rests, viz., _Memoirs of the Courts
of Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I._ (1818-33) and a _Life of
Addison_. She also wrote lives of her father and of Mrs. Barbauld. She
was remarkable for her conversational powers, and was also an admirable
letter-writer. Like the rest of her family she was a Unitarian.

AINGER, ALFRED (1837-1904).--Biographer and critic, _s._ of an architect
in London, _grad._ at Cambridge, entered the Church, and, after holding
various minor preferments, became Master of the Temple. He wrote memoirs
of Hood and Crabbe, but is best known for his biography of Lamb and his
edition of his works in 6 vols. (1883-88).

AINSWORTH, WILLIAM HARRISON (1805-1882).--Novelist, _s._ of a solicitor,
was _b._ in Manchester. He was destined for the legal profession, which,
however, had no attraction for him; and going to London to complete his
studies made the acquaintance of Mr. John Ebers, publisher, and at that
time manager of the Opera House, by whom he was introduced to literary
and dramatic circles, and whose _dau._ he afterwards married. For a short
time he tried the publishing business, but soon gave it up and devoted
himself to journalism and literature. His first successful novel was
_Rookwood_, _pub._ in 1834, of which Dick Turpin is the leading
character, and thenceforward he continued to pour forth till 1881 a
stream of novels, to the number of 39, of which the best known are _The
Tower of London_ (1840), _Old St. Paul's_ (1841), _Lancashire Witches_,
and _The Constable of the Tower_. The titles of some of his other novels
are _Crichton_ (1837), _Jack Sheppard_ (1839), _Guy Fawkes_, _The Star
Chamber_, _The Flitch of Bacon_, _The Miser's Daughter_ (1842), and
_Windsor Castle_ (1843). A. depends for his effects on striking
situations and powerful descriptions: he has little humour or power of
delineating character.

AIRD, THOMAS (1802-1876).--Poet, _b._ at Bowden, Roxburghshire, went to
Edinburgh, where he became the friend of Professor Wilson, Carlyle, and
other men of letters. He contributed to _Blackwood's Magazine_, and was
editor of the _Dumfries Herald_ (1835-63). His chief poem is _The Captive
of Fez_ (1830); and in prose he wrote _Religious Characteristics_, and
_The Old Bachelor in the Old Scottish Village_ (1848), all of which were
received with favour. Carlyle said that in his poetry he found everywhere
"a healthy breath as of mountain breezes."

AKENSIDE, MARK (1721-1770).--Poet, _s._ of a butcher at
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, gave early indications of talent, and was sent to
the University of Edinburgh with the view of becoming a dissenting
minister. While there, however, he changed his mind and studied for the
medical profession. Thereafter he went to Leyden, where he took his
degree of M.D. in 1744. While there he wrote his principal poem, _The
Pleasures of the Imagination_, which was well received, and was
subsequently translated into more than one foreign language. After trying
Northampton, he settled as a physician in London; but was for long
largely dependent for his livelihood on a Mr. Dyson. His talents brought
him a good deal of consideration in society, but the solemn and pompous
manner which he affected laid him open to some ridicule, and he is said
to have been satirised by Smollett (_q.v._) in his _Peregrine Pickle_. He
endeavoured to reconstruct his poem, but the result was a failure. His
collected poems were _pub._ 1772. His works, however, are now little
read. Mr. Gosse has described him as "a sort of frozen Keats."

ALCOTT, LOUISA M. (1832-1888).--Writer of juvenile and other tales,
_dau._ of Amos Bronson Alcott, an educational and social theorist,
lecturer, and author, was _b._ in Pennsylvania. During the American civil
war she served as a nurse, and afterwards attained celebrity as a writer
of books for young people, of which the best is _Little Women_ (1868).
Others are _Little Men_ and _Jo's Boys_. She also wrote novels, including
_Moods_ and _Work_.

ALCUIN or EALHWINE (735-804).--Theologian and general writer, was _b._
and _ed._ at York. He wrote in prose and verse, his subjects embracing
educational, theological, and historical matters. Returning from Rome, to
which he had been sent to procure the _pallium_ for a friend, he met
Charlemagne at Parma, and made upon him so favourable an impression that
he was asked to enter his service as preceptor in the sciences to himself
and his family. His numerous treatises, which include metrical annals,
hagiographical and philosophical works, are not distinguished by
originality or profundity, but he is the best representative of the
culture and mental activity of his age, upon which, as the minister of
education of the great emperor, he had a widely-spread influence.

ALDRICH, THOMAS BAILEY (1836-1906).--Poet and novelist, _b._ at
Portsmouth, N.H., was for some time in a bank, and then engaged in
journalism. His first book was _The Bells, a Collection of Chimes_
(1855), and other poetical works are _The Ballad of Babie Bell_, _Cloth
of Gold_, _Flower and Thorn_, etc. In prose he wrote _Daisy's Necklace_,
_The Course of True Love_, _Marjorie Daw_, _Prudence Palfrey_, etc.

ALESIUS, ALEXANDER (1500-1565).--Theologian and controversialist. His
unlatinised name was Aless or Alane, and he was _b._ at Edinburgh and
_ed._ at St. Andrews, where he became a canon. Originally a strong and
able defender of the Romish doctrines, he was chosen to argue with
Patrick Hamilton, the proto-martyr of the Reformation in Scotland, with
the object of inducing him to recant. The result, however, was that he
was himself much shaken in his allegiance to the Church, and the change
was greatly accelerated by the martyrdom of H. His subsequent protest
against the immorality of the clergy led to his imprisonment, and
ultimately, in 1532, to his flying for his life to Germany, where he
became associated with Luther and Melancthon, and definitely joined the
reforming party. Coming to England in 1535, he was well received by
Cranmer and other reformers. While in England he studied medicine, and
practised as a physician in London. On the fall of T. Cromwell in 1540 he
again retired to Germany, where, at Leipzig, he obtained a professorship.
During the reign of Edward VI. he re-visited England and was employed by
Cranmer in connection with the 1st Liturgy of Edward VI. Returning to
Leipsic he passed the remainder of his days in peace and honour, and was
twice elected Rector of the University. His writings were both exegetical
and controversial, but chiefly the latter. They include _Expositio Libri
Psalmorum Davidis_ (1550). His controversial works refer to such subjects
as the translation of the Bible into the vernacular, against Servetus,

ALEXANDER, MRS. CECIL F. (HUMPHREYS) (1818-1895).--_dau._ of Maj. H.,
_b._ in Co. Waterford, _m._ the Rev. W. Alexander, afterwards Bishop of
Derry and Archbishop of Armagh. Her _Hymns for Little Children_ had
reached its 69th edition before the close of the century. Some of her
hymns, _e.g._ "There is a Green Hill" and "The Roseate Hues of Early
Dawn," are known wherever English is spoken. Her husband has also written
several books of poetry, of which the most important is _St. Augustine's
Holiday and other Poems_.

ALFORD, HENRY (1810-1871).--Theologian, scholar, poet, and miscellaneous
writer, _s._ of a clergyman, was _b._ in London. After passing through
various private schools, he proceeded to Cambridge, where he had a
distinguished career, and after entering the Church and filling various
preferments in the country, became minister of Quebec Chapel, London,
whence he was promoted to be Dean of Canterbury. His great work was his
_Greek Testament_ in 4 vols., of which the first was _pub._ in 1849 and
the last in 1861. In this work he largely followed the German critics,
maintaining, however, a moderate liberal position; and it was for long
the standard work on the subject in this country. A. was one of the most
versatile men, and prolific authors, of his day, his works consisting of
nearly 50 vols., including poetry (_School of the Heart_ and _Abbot of
Munchelnaye_, and a translation of the _Odyssey_), criticism, sermons,
etc. In addition to the works above mentioned he wrote _Chapters on the
Greek Poets_ (1841), the _Queen's English_ (1863), and many well-known
hymns, and he was the first editor of the _Contemporary Review_. He was
also an accomplished artist and musician. His industry was incessant and
induced a premature breakdown in health, which terminated in his death in
1871. He was the friend of most of his eminent contemporaries, and was
much beloved for his amiable character.

ALISON, ARCHIBALD (1757-1839).--Didactic and philosophical writer, was
_b._ in Edinburgh and _ed._ at Glasgow University and Oxford. After being
presented to various livings in England, A. came to Edinburgh as
incumbent of St. Paul's Episcopal Chapel, where he attained popularity as
a preacher of sermons characterised by quiet beauty of thought and grace
of composition. His chief contribution to literature is his _Essay on the
Nature and Principles of Taste_ (1790), in which the "association" theory
is supported.

ALISON, SIR ARCHIBALD (1792-1867).--Historian, _s._ of the above, was
_b._ at Kenley, Shropshire, and after studying under a private tutor, and
at Edinburgh University, was, in 1814, called to the Bar, at which he
ultimately attained some distinction, becoming in 1834 Sheriff of
Lanarkshire, in which capacity he rendered valuable service in times of
considerable difficulty. It was when travelling in France in 1814 that he
conceived the idea of his _History of Europe_, which deals with the
period from the outbreak of the French Revolution to the restoration of
the Bourbons, and extends, in its original form (1833-42), to 10 vols.
The work is one of vast industry, and gives a useful account of an
important epoch, but is extremely diffuse and one-sided, and often prosy.
Disraeli satirises the author in _Coningsby_ as Mr. Wordy, who wrote a
history to prove that Providence was on the side of the Tories. It had,
however, an enormous sale. A continuation of it (1852-59) brought the
story down to the accession of Louis Napoleon. A. was also the author of
a life of Marlborough, and of two standard works on the criminal law of
Scotland. In his private and official capacities he was highly respected,
and was elected Lord Rector successively of Marischal Coll., Aberdeen,
and of Glasgow University. He was created a baronet by Lord Derby in

ALLEN, CHARLES GRANT (1848-1899).--Scientific writer and novelist, _b._
in Canada, to which his _f._, a clergyman, had emigrated, and _ed._ at
Birmingham and Oxford. For a time he was a professor in a college for
negroes in Jamaica, but returning to England in 1876 devoted himself to
literature. His first books were on scientific subjects, and include
_Physiological AEsthetics_ (1877) and _Flowers and Their Pedigrees_. After
assisting Sir W.W. Hunter in his _Gazeteer of India_, he turned his
attention to fiction, and between 1884 and 1899 produced about 30 novels,
among which _The Woman Who Did_ (1895), promulgating certain startling
views on marriage and kindred questions, created some sensation. Another
work, _The Evolution of the Idea of God_, propounding a theory of
religion on heterodox lines, has the disadvantage of endeavouring to
explain everything by one theory. His scientific works also included
_Colour Sense_, _Evolutionist at Large_, _Colin Clout's Calendar_, and
the _Story of the Plants_, and among his novels may be added _Babylon_,
_In all Shades_, _Philistia_ (1884), _The Devil's Die_, and _The British
Barbarians_ (1896).

ALLINGHAM, WILLIAM (1824-1889).--Poet, the _s._ of a banker of English
descent, was _b._ at Ballyshannon, entered the customs service, and was
ultimately settled in London, where he contributed to _Leigh Hunt's
Journal_. Hunt introduced him to Carlyle and other men of letters, and in
1850 he _pub._ a book of poems, which was followed by _Day and Night
Songs_ (1854), _Laurence Bloomfield in Ireland_ (1864) (his most
ambitious, though not his most successful work), and _Collected Poems_ in
6 vols. (1888-93). He also edited _The Ballad Book_ for the _Golden
Treasury_ series in 1864. In 1870 he retired from the civil service and
became sub-editor of _Fraser's Magazine_ under Froude, whom he succeeded
as editor (1874-79). His verse is clear, fresh, and graceful. He married
Helen Paterson, the water colourist, whose idylls have made the name of
"Mrs. Allingham" famous also. He _d._ in 1889. Other works are _Fifty
Modern Poems_ (1865), _Songs, Poems, and Ballads_ (1877), _Evil May Day_
(1883), _Blackberries_ (1884), _Irish Songs and Poems_ (1887), and
_Varieties in Prose_ (1893). A selection from his diaries and
autobiography was _pub._ in 1906.

ALLSTON, WASHINGTON (1779-1843).--Painter and poet, _b._ in S. Carolina,
became a distinguished painter, and also wrote a good deal of verse
including _The Sylphs of the Seasons_, etc. (1813), and _The Two
Painters_, a satire. He also produced a novel, _Monaldi_. He was known as
"the American Titian."

AMORY, THOMAS (1691(?)-1788).--Eccentric writer, was of Irish descent. In
1755 he _publ._ _Memoirs containing the lives of several ladies of Great
Britain, a History of Antiquities and Observations on the Christian
Religion_, which was followed by the _Life of John Buncle_ (1756),
practically a continuation. The contents of these works are of the most
miscellaneous description--philology, natural science, theology, and, in
fact, whatever occurred to the writer, treated without any system, but
with occasional originality and felicity of diction. The author, who was
probably more or less insane, is described as having a very peculiar
aspect, with the manner of a gentleman, scarcely ever stirring abroad
except at dusk. He reached the age of 97.

ANDERSON, ALEXANDER (1845-1909).--Poet, _s._ of a quarrier at Kirkconnel,
Dumfriesshire, became a surfaceman on the railway. Spending all his
leisure in self-culture, he mastered German, French, and Spanish
sufficiently to read the chief masterpieces in these languages. His
poetic vein, which was true if somewhat limited in range, soon manifested
itself, and his first book, _Songs of Labour_, appeared in 1873, and
there followed _Two Angels_ (1875), _Songs of the Rail_ (1878), and
_Ballads and Sonnets_ (1879). In the following year he was made assistant
librarian in the University of Edinburgh, and after an interval as
secretary to the Philosophical Institution there, he returned as Chief
Librarian to the university. Thereafter he wrote little. Of a simple and
gentle character, he made many friends, including the Duke of Argyll,
Carlyle, and Lord Houghton. He generally wrote under the name of

ANDREWES, LANCELOT (1555-1626).--Churchman and scholar, was _b._ in
London, and _ed._ at Merchant Taylor's School and Cambridge, where he
took a fellowship and taught divinity. After receiving various other
preferments he became Dean of Westminster, and a chaplain-in-ordinary to
Queen Elizabeth, who, however, did not advance him further on account of
his opposition to the alienation of ecclesiastical revenues. On the
accession, however, of James I., to whom his somewhat pedantic learning
and style of preaching recommended him, he rose into great favour, and
was made successively Bishop of Chichester, of Ely, and, in 1618, of
Winchester. He attended the Hampton Court Conference, and took part in
the translation of the Bible, known as the _Authorised Version_, his
special work being given to the earlier parts of the Old Testament: he
acted, however, as a sort of general editor. He was considered as, next
to Ussher, the most learned churchman of his day, and enjoyed a great
reputation as an eloquent and impassioned preacher, but the stiffness and
artificiality of his style render his sermons unsuited to modern taste.
His doctrine was High Church, and in his life he was humble, pious, and
charitable. Ninety-six of his sermons were published in 1631 by command
of Charles I.

There are lives by A.T. Russell (1863), and R.L. Ottley (1894);
_Devotions_ were edited by Rev. Dr. Whyte (1900).

ANSTEY, CHRISTOPHER (1724-1805).--Poet, _s._ of Dr. A., a wealthy
clergyman, rector of Brinkley, Cambridgeshire, was _ed._ at Eton and
Cambridge. He _pub._ in 1766 a satirical poem of considerable sparkle,
_The New Bath Guide_, from which Smollett is said to have drawn largely
in his _Humphrey Clinker_. He made many other excursions into literature
which are hardly remembered, and ended his days as a country squire at
the age of eighty.

D'ARBLAY, FRANCES (BURNEY) (1752-1840).--Novelist, _dau._ of Dr. Charles
B., a musician of some distinction, was _b._ at Lynn Regis, where her
_f._ was organist. Her mother having died while she was very young, and
her _f._, who had come to London, being too busy to give her any
attention, she was practically self-educated. Her first novel, _Evelina_,
_pub._ anonymously in 1778, at once by its narrative and comic power,
brought her fame, and, through Mrs. Thrale (_q.v._), she made the
acquaintance of Dr. Johnson, with whom she became a great favourite. Her
next literary venture was a comedy, _The Witlings_; but, by the advice of
her _f._, it was not put upon the stage. In 1782, however, she produced
_Cecilia_, which, like its predecessor, had an enormous sale, and which,
though not perhaps so popular as _Evelina_, added to her fame. She now
became the friend of Burke and other distinguished persons, including
Mrs. Delaney, through whom she became known to the royal family, and was
offered the appointment of Second Keeper of the Robes, which, with some
misgivings, she accepted. This situation did not prove a happy one, the
duties being menial, the society uncongenial, and the court etiquette
oppressive and injurious to her health, and in 1791 she obtained
permission to retire on a pension of L100. She had, during her connection
with the court, continued her _Diary_, which she had begun in girlhood,
and continued during her whole life, and which during this period
contains many interesting accounts of persons and affairs of note. She
married (1793) Gen. D'Arblay, a French _emigre_, their only income being
her slender pension. This she endeavoured to increase by producing a
tragedy, _Edwy and Elvira_, which failed. In 1795 she _pub._ by
subscription another novel, _Camilla_, which, though it did not add to
her reputation, considerably improved her circumstances, as it is said to
have brought her L3000. After some years spent in France, where her
husband had obtained employment, she returned to England and _pub._ her
last novel, _The Wanderer_, which fell flat. Her only remaining work was
a life of her father, written in an extraordinarily grandiloquent style.
She died in 1840, aged 87.

ARBUTHNOT, JOHN (1667-1735).--Physician and satirist, was _b._ in
Kincardineshire, and after studying at Aberdeen and Oxford, took his
degree of M.D. at St. Andrews. Settling in London, he taught mathematics.
Being by a fortunate accident at Epsom, he was called in to prescribe for
Prince George, who was suddenly taken ill there, and was so successful in
his treatment that he was appointed his regular physician. This
circumstance made his professional fortune, for his ability enabled him
to take full advantage of it, and in 1705 he became physician to the
Queen. He became the cherished friend of Swift and Pope, and himself
gained a high reputation as a wit and man of letters. His principal works
are the _Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus_, partly by Pope, but to which he
was the chief contributor, the _History of John Bull_ (1712), mainly
against the Duke of Marlborough, _A Treatise concerning the Altercation
or Scolding of the Ancients_, and the _Art of Political Lying_. He also
wrote various medical treatises, and dissertations on ancient coins,
weights, and measures. After the death of Queen Anne, A. lost his court
appointments, but this, as well as more serious afflictions with which he
was visited, he bore with serenity and dignity. He was an honourable and
amiable man, one of the very few who seems to have retained the sincere
regard of Swift, whose style he made the model of his own, with such
success that writings by the one were sometimes attributed to the other:
his _Art of Political Lying_ is an example. He has, however, none of the
ferocity of S.

and writer on science, religion, and politics, succeeded his _f._, the
7th duke, in 1847. His talents and eloquence soon raised him to
distinction in public life. He acted with the Liberal party until its
break-up under the Irish policy of Mr. Gladstone, after which he was one
of the Unionist leaders. He held the offices of Lord Privy Seal,
Postmaster-General, and Indian Secretary. His writings include _The Reign
of Law_ (1866), _Primeval Man_ (1869), _The Eastern Question_ (1879),
_The Unseen Foundations of Society_ (1893), _Philosophy of Belief_
(1896), _Organic Evolution Cross-examined_ (1898). He was a man of the
highest character, honest, courageous, and clear-sighted, and, though
regarded by some professional scientists as to a certain extent an
amateur, his ability, knowledge, and dialectic power made him a
formidable antagonist, and enabled him to exercise a useful, generally
conservative, influence on scientific thought and progress.

ARMSTRONG, JOHN, M.D. (1709-1779).--Poet, _s._ of the minister of
Castleton, Roxburghshire, studied medicine, which he practised in London.
He is remembered as the friend of Thomson, Mallet, and other literary
celebrities of the time, and as the author of a poem on _The Art of
Preserving Health_, which appeared in 1744, and in which a somewhat
unpromising subject for poetic treatment is gracefully and ingeniously
handled. His other works, consisting of some poems and prose essays, and
a drama, _The Forced Marriage_, are forgotten, with the exception of the
four stanzas at the end of the first part of Thomson's _Castle of
Indolence_, describing the diseases incident to sloth, which he

ARNOLD, SIR EDWIN (1832-1904).--Poet, _s._ of a Sussex magistrate, was
_b._ at Gravesend, and _ed._ at King's School, Rochester, London, and
Oxford. Thereafter he was an assistant master at King Edward's School,
Birmingham, and was in 1856 appointed Principal of the Government Deccan
College, Poona. Here he received the bias towards, and gathered material
for, his future works. In 1861 he returned to England and became
connected with _The Daily Telegraph_, of which he was ultimately editor.
The literary task which he set before him was the interpretation in
English verse of the life and philosophy of the East. His chief work with
this object is _The Light of Asia_ (1879), a poem on the life and
teaching of Buddha, which had great popularity, but whose permanent place
in literature must remain very uncertain. In _The Light of the World_
(1891), he attempted, less successfully, a similar treatment of the life
and teaching of Jesus. Other works are _The Song of Songs of India_
(1875), _With Saadi in the Garden_, and _The Tenth Muse_. He travelled
widely in the East, and wrote books on his travels. He was made K.C.I.E.
in 1888.

ARNOLD, MATTHEW (1822-1888).--Poet and critic, _s._ of Dr. A., of Rugby
(_q.v._), was _b._ at Laleham and _ed._ at Rugby, Winchester, and Balliol
Coll., Oxford, becoming a Fellow of Oriel in 1845. Thereafter he was
private secretary to Lord Lansdowne, Lord President of the Council,
through whose influence he was in 1851 appointed an inspector of schools.
Two years before this he had _pub._ his first book of poetry, _The
Strayed Reveller_, which he soon withdrew: some of the poems, however,
including "Mycerinus" and "The Forsaken Merman," were afterwards
republished, and the same applies to his next book, _Empedocles on Etna_
(1852), with "Tristram and Iseult." In 1857 he was appointed to the
Professorship of Poetry at Oxford, which he held for ten years. After
this he produced little poetry and devoted himself to criticism and
theology. His principal writings are, in poetry, _Poems_ (1853),
containing "Sohrab and Rustum," and "The Scholar Gipsy;" _Poems, 2nd
Series_ (1855), containing "Balder Dead;" _Merope_ (1858); _New Poems_
(1867), containing "Thyrsis," an elegy on A.H. Clough (_q.v._), "A
Southern Night," "Rugby Chapel," and "The Weary Titan"; in prose he wrote
_On Translating Homer_ (1861 and 1862), _On the Study of Celtic
Literature_ (1867), _Essays in Celtic Literature_ (1868), _2nd Series_
(1888), _Culture and Anarchy_ (1869), _St. Paul and Protestantism_
(1870), _Friendship's Garland_ (1871), _Literature and Dogma_ (1873),
_God and the Bible_ (1875), _Last Essays on Church and Religion_ (1877),
_Mixed Essays_ (1879), _Irish Essays_ (1882), and _Discourses in America_
(1885). He also wrote some works on the state of education on the
Continent. In 1883 he received a pension of L250. The rationalistic
tendency of certain of his writings gave offence to many readers, and the
sufficiency of his equipment in scholarship for dealing with some of the
subjects which he handled was called in question; but he undoubtedly
exercised a stimulating influence on his time; his writings are
characterised by the finest culture, high purpose, sincerity, and a style
of great distinction, and much of his poetry has an exquisite and subtle
beauty, though here also it has been doubted whether high culture and
wide knowledge of poetry did not sometimes take the place of the true
poetic fire.

There is a bibliography of A.'s works by T.B. Smart (1892), and books
upon him have been written by Prof. Saintsbury (1899), H. Paul (1902),
and G.W.E. Russell (1904), also papers by Sir L. Stephen, F. Harrison,
and others.

ARNOLD, THOMAS (1795-1842).--Historian, _s._ of an inland revenue officer
in the Isle of Wight, was _ed._ at Winchester and Oxford, and after some
years as a tutor, was, in 1828, appointed Head Master of Rugby. His
learning, earnestness, and force of character enabled him not only to
raise his own school to the front rank of public schools, but to exercise
an unprecedented reforming influence on the whole educational system of
the country. A liberal in politics, and a zealous church reformer, he was
involved in many controversies, educational and religious. As a churchman
he was a decided Erastian, and strongly opposed to the High Church party.
In 1841 he was appointed Professor of Modern History at Oxford. His chief
literary works are his unfinished _History of Rome_ (three vols.
1838-42), and his _Lectures on Modern History_. He _d._ suddenly of
angina pectoris in the midst of his usefulness and growing influence. His
life, by Dean Stanley (_q.v._), is one of the best works of its class in
the language.

ASCHAM, ROGER (1515-1568).--Didactic writer and scholar, _s._ of John A.,
house-steward in the family of Lord Scrope, was _b._ at Kirby Wiske,
Yorkshire, and _ed._ first by Sir Humphrey Wingfield, and then at St.
John's Coll., Cambridge, where he devoted himself specially to the study
of Greek, then newly revived, and of which, having taken a fellowship, he
became a teacher. He was likewise noted for his skill in penmanship,
music, and archery, the last of which is the subject of his first work,
_Toxophilus_, _pub._ in 1545, and which, dedicated to Henry VIII., gained
him the favour of the King, who bestowed a pension upon him. The objects
of the book are twofold, to commend the practice of shooting with the
long bow as a manly sport and an aid to national defence, and to set the
example of a higher style of composition than had yet been attempted in
English. Soon afterwards he was made university orator, and master of
languages to the Lady (afterwards Queen) Elizabeth. He then went abroad
in various positions of trust, returning on being appointed Latin
Secretary to Edward VI. This office he likewise discharged to Mary and
then to Elizabeth--a testimony to his tact and caution in these changeful
times. His principal work, _The Schoolmaster_, a treatise on education,
was printed by his widow in 1570. He also _pub._ a book on the political
state of Germany.

Editions: of _Toxophilus_, Arber; _Schoolmaster_, Arber, also Mayer
(1883); English works, Bennet (1767), with life by Dr. Johnson; whole
works, Giles (1864-5).

ASGILL, JOHN (1659-1738).--Eccentric writer, student at the Middle
Temple, 1686, and called to the Bar 1692. In 1699 he _pub._ in an unlucky
hour a pamphlet to prove that death was not obligatory upon Christians,
which, much to his surprise, aroused the public wrath and led to his
expulsion from the Irish and English House of Commons successively. A.
thereafter fell on evil days, and passed the rest of his life between the
Fleet and the King's Bench, where, strange to say, his zeal as a
pamphleteer continued unabated. He _d._ in 1738.

ASHMOLE, ELIAS (1617-1692).--Antiquary, was _ed._ at Lichfield, and
became a solicitor in 1638. On the breaking out of the Civil War he
sided with the royalists; went to Oxford and studied science, including
astrology. The result of his studies in this region of mystery was his
_Theatrum Chymicum Britannicum_, which gained him great repute and the
friendship of John Selden. His last astrological treatise was _The Way to
Bliss_, which dealt with the subject of "the philosopher's stone." He
also wrote various works on antiquarian subjects, and a _History of the
Order of the Garter_. A. held various posts under government, and
presented to the University of Oxford a valuable collection of
curiosities now known as the Ashmolean Museum. He also bequeathed his
library to the University. His wife was a _dau._ of Sir W. Dugdale, the

ASSER (_d._ 909?).--Chronicler, a monk of St. David's, afterwards Bishop
of Sherborne, was the friend, helper, and biographer of AElfred. In
addition to his life of AElfred he wrote a chronicle of England from 849
to 887.

ATHERSTONE, EDWIN (1788-1872).--Poet and novelist. His works, which were
planned on an imposing scale, attracted some temporary attention and
applause, but are now forgotten. His chief poem, _The Fall of Nineveh_,
consisting of thirty books, appeared at intervals from 1828 to 1868. He
also produced two novels, _The Sea Kings in England_ and _The Handwriting
on the Wall_.

ATTERBURY, FRANCIS (1662-1732).--Controversialist and preacher, was _b._
near Newport Pagnel, Bucks, and _ed._ at Westminster School and Oxford.
He became the leading protagonist on the High Church side in the
ecclesiastical controversies of his time, and is believed to have been
the chief author of the famous defence of Dr. Sacheverell in 1712. He
also wrote most of Boyle's _Examination of Dr. Bentley's Dissertations on
the Epistles of Phalaris_, and _pub._ sermons, which, with his letters to
Swift, Pope, and other friends, constitute the foundation of his literary
reputation. During the reign of the Tories he enjoyed much preferment,
having been successively Canon of Exeter, Dean of Christ Church, Dean of
Westminster, and Bishop of Rochester. His Jacobite principles, however,
and his participation in various plots got him into trouble, and in 1722
he was confined in the Tower, deprived of all his offices, and ultimately
banished. He _d._ at Paris, Feb. 15, 1732, and was buried privately in
Westminster Abbey.

AUBREY, JOHN (1626-1697).--Antiquary, was a country gentleman who
inherited estates in several counties in England, which he lost by
litigation and otherwise. He devoted himself to the collection of
antiquarian and miscellaneous observations, and gave assistance to
Dugdale and Anthony a-Wood in their researches. His own investigations
were extensive and minute, but their value is much diminished by his
credulity, and want of capacity to weigh evidence. His only publication
is his _Miscellanies_, a collection of popular superstitions, etc., but
he left various collections, which were edited and _publ._ in the 19th

AUSTEN, JANE (1775-1817).--Novelist, _dau._ of a clergyman, was _b._ at
the rectory of Steventon near Basingstoke. She received an education
superior to that generally given to girls of her time, and took early to
writing, her first tale being begun in 1798. Her life was a singularly
uneventful one, and, but for a disappointment in love, tranquil and
happy. In 1801 the family went to Bath, the scene of many episodes in her
writings, and after the death of her _f._ in 1805 to Southampton, and
later to Chawton, a village in Hants, where most of her novels were
written. A tendency to consumption having manifested itself, she removed
in May, 1817, to Winchester for the advantage of skilled medical
attendance, but so rapid was the progress of her malady that she died
there two months later. Of her six novels, four--_Sense and Sensibility_
(1811), _Pride and Prejudice_ (1813), _Mansfield Park_ (1814) and _Emma_
(1816)--were _pub._ anonymously during her life-time; and the others,
_Northanger Abbey_--written in 1798--and _Persuasion_, finished in 1816,
appeared a few months after her death, when the name of the authoress was
divulged. Although her novels were from the first well received, it is
only of comparatively late years that her genius has gained the wide
appreciation which it deserves. Her strength lies in the delineation of
character, especially of persons of her own sex, by a number of minute
and delicate touches arising out of the most natural and everyday
incidents in the life of the middle and upper classes, from which her
subjects are generally taken. Her characters, though of quite ordinary
types, are drawn with such wonderful firmness and precision, and with
such significant detail as to retain their individuality absolutely
intact through their entire development, and they are never coloured by
her own personality. Her view of life is genial in the main, with a
strong dash of gentle but keen satire: she appeals rarely and slightly to
the deeper feelings; and the enforcement of the excellent lessons she
teaches is left altogether to the story, without a word of formal
moralising. Among her admirers was Sir W. Scott, who said, "That young
lady has a talent for describing the involvements of feelings and
characters of ordinary life which is to me the most wonderful I ever met
with;" others were Macaulay (who thought that in the world there were no
compositions which approached nearer to perfection), Coleridge, Southey,
Sydney Smith, and E. FitzGerald.

AUSTIN, JOHN (1790-1859).--Jurist, served in the army in Sicily and
Malta, but, selling his commission, studied law, and was called to the
Bar 1818. He did not long continue to practise, but devoted himself to
the study of law as a science, and became Professor of Jurisprudence in
London University 1826-32. Thereafter he served on various Royal
Commissions. By his works he exercised a profound influence on the views
of jurisprudence held in England. These include _The Province of
Jurisprudence Determined_ (1832), and his _Lectures on Jurisprudence_.

AYTON, SIR ROBERT (1570-1638).--Poet, _s._ of A. of Kinaldie in Fife.
After _grad._ at St. Andrews, he studied law at Paris, became ambassador
to the Emperor, and held other court offices. He appears to have been
well-known to his literary contemporaries in England. He wrote poems in
Latin, Greek, and English, and was one of the first Scotsmen to write in
the last. His chief poem is _Diophantus and Charidora; Inconstancy
Upbraided_ is perhaps the best of his short poems. He is credited with a
little poem, _Old Long Syne_, which probably suggested Burns's famous
_Auld Lang Syne_.

AYTOUN, WILLIAM EDMONSTONE (1813-1865).--Poet and humorist, _s._ of Roger
A., a Writer to the Signet, was _b._ in Edinburgh and _ed._ there, and
was brought up to the law, which, however, as he said, he "followed but
could never overtake." He became a contributor to _Blackwood's Magazine_
in 1836, and continued his connection with it until his death. In it
appeared most of his humorous prose pieces, such as _The Glenmutchkin
Railway_, _How I Became a Yeoman_, and _How I Stood for the Dreepdaily
Burghs_, all full of vigorous fun. In the same pages began to appear his
chief poetical work, the _Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers_, and a novel,
partly autobiographical, _Norman Sinclair_. Other works were _The Bon
Gaultier Ballads_, jointly with Theodore Martin, and _Firmilian, a
Spasmodic Tragedy_, under the _nom-de-plume_ of T. Percy Jones, intended
to satirise a group of poets and critics, including Gilfillan, Dobell,
Bailey, and Alexander Smith. In 1845 A. obtained the Chair of Rhetoric
and Belles Lettres in Edinburgh University, which he filled with great
success, raising the attendance from 30 to 150, and in 1852 he was
appointed sheriff of Orkney and Shetland. He was married to a _dau._ of
Professor Wilson (Christopher North).

(1561-1626).--Philosopher and statesman, was the youngest _s._ of Sir
Nicholas B., Lord Keeper, by his second wife, a _dau._ of Sir Anthony
Cooke, whose sister married William Cecil, Lord Burghley, the great
minister of Queen Elizabeth. He was _b._ at York House in the Strand on
Jan. 22, 1561, and in his 13th year was sent with his elder brother
Anthony to Trinity Coll., Cambridge. Here he first met the Queen, who was
impressed by his precocious intellect, and was accustomed to call him
"the young Lord Keeper." Here also he became dissatisfied with the
Aristotelian philosophy as being unfruitful and leading only to
resultless disputation. In 1576 he entered Gray's Inn, and in the same
year joined the embassy of Sir Amyas Paulet to France, where he remained
until 1579. The death of his _f._ in that year, before he had completed
an intended provision for him, gave an adverse turn to his fortunes, and
rendered it necessary that he should decide upon a profession. He
accordingly returned to Gray's Inn, and, after an unsuccessful attempt to
induce Burghley to give him a post at court, and thus enable him to
devote himself to a life of learning, he gave himself seriously to the
study of law, and was called to the Bar in 1582. He did not, however,
desert philosophy, and _pub._ a Latin tract, _Temporis Partus Maximus_
(the Greatest Birth of Time), the first rough draft of his own system.
Two years later, in 1584, he entered the House of Commons as member for
Melcombe, sitting subsequently for Taunton (1586), Liverpool (1589),
Middlesex (1593), and Southampton (1597). In the Parliament of 1586 he
took a prominent part in urging the execution of Mary Queen of Scots.
About this time he seems again to have approached his powerful uncle, the
result of which may possibly be traced in his rapid progress at the Bar,
and in his receiving, in 1589, the reversion to the Clerkship of the
Star Chamber, a valuable appointment, into the enjoyment of which,
however, he did not enter until 1608. About 1591 he formed a friendship
with the Earl of Essex, from whom he received many tokens of kindness ill
requited. In 1593 the offices of Attorney-general, and subsequently of
Solicitor-general became vacant, and Essex used his influence on B.'s
behalf, but unsuccessfully, the former being given to Coke, the famous
lawyer. These disappointments may have been owing to a speech made by B.
on a question of subsidies. To console him for them Essex presented him
with a property at Twickenham, which he subsequently sold for L1800,
equivalent to a much larger sum now. In 1596 he was made a Queen's
Counsel, but missed the appointment of Master of the Rolls, and in the
next year (1597), he _pub._ the first edition of his _Essays_, ten in
number, combined with _Sacred Meditations_ and the _Colours of Good and
Evil_. By 1601 Essex had lost the Queen's favour, and had raised his
rebellion, and B. was one of those appointed to investigate the charges
against him, and examine witnesses, in connection with which he showed an
ungrateful and indecent eagerness in pressing the case against his former
friend and benefactor, who was executed on Feb. 25, 1601. This act B.
endeavoured to justify in _A Declaration of the Practices and Treasons,
etc., of ... the Earl of Essex, etc._ His circumstances had for some time
been bad, and he had been arrested for debt: he had, however, received a
gift of a fine of L1200 on one of Essex's accomplices. The accession of
James VI. in 1603 gave a favourable turn to his fortunes: he was
knighted, and endeavoured to set himself right with the new powers by
writing his _Apologie_ (defence) of his proceedings in the case of Essex,
who had favoured the succession of James. In the first Parliament of the
new king he sat for St. Alban's, and was appointed a Commissioner for
Union with Scotland. In 1605 he _pub._ _The Advancement of Learning_,
dedicated, with fulsome flattery, to the king. The following year he
married Alice Barnham, the _dau._ of a London merchant, and in 1607 he
was made Solicitor-General, and wrote _Cogita et Visa_, a first sketch of
the _Novum Organum_, followed in 1609 by _The Wisdom of the Ancients_.
Meanwhile (in 1608), he had entered upon the Clerkship of the Star
Chamber, and was in the enjoyment of a large income; but old debts and
present extravagance kept him embarrassed, and he endeavoured to obtain
further promotion and wealth by supporting the king in his arbitrary
policy. In 1613 he became Attorney-General, and in this capacity
prosecuted Somerset in 1616. The year 1618 saw him Lord Keeper, and the
next Lord Chancellor and Baron Verulam, a title which, in 1621, he
exchanged for that of Viscount St. Albans. Meanwhile he had written the
_New Atlantis_, a political romance, and in 1620 he presented to the king
the _Novum Organum_, on which he had been engaged for 30 years, and which
ultimately formed the main part of the _Instauratio Magna_. In his great
office B. showed a failure of character in striking contrast with the
majesty of his intellect. He was corrupt alike politically and
judicially, and now the hour of retribution arrived. In 1621 a
Parliamentary Committee on the administration of the law charged him with
corruption under 23 counts; and so clear was the evidence that he made no
attempt at defence. To the lords, who sent a committee to inquire
whether the confession was really his, he replied, "My lords, it is my
act, my hand, and my heart; I beseech your lordships to be merciful to a
broken reed." He was sentenced to a fine of L40,000, remitted by the
king, to be committed to the Tower during the king's pleasure (which was
that he should be released in a few days), and to be incapable of holding
office or sitting in parliament. He narrowly escaped being deprived of
his titles. Thenceforth he devoted himself to study and writing. In 1622
appeared his _History of Henry VII._, and the 3rd part of the
_Instauratio_; in 1623, _History of Life and Death_, the _De Augmentis
Scientarum_, a Latin translation of the _Advancement_, and in 1625 the
3rd edition of the _Essays_, now 58 in number. He also _pub._
_Apophthegms_, and a translation of some of the _Psalms_. His life was
now approaching its close. In March, 1626, he came to London, and shortly
after, when driving on a snowy day, the idea struck him of making an
experiment as to the antiseptic properties of snow, in consequence of
which he caught a chill, which ended in his death on 9th April 1626. He
left debts to the amount of L22,000. At the time of his death he was
engaged upon _Sylva Sylvarum_. The intellect of B. was one of the most
powerful and searching ever possessed by man, and his developments of the
inductive philosophy revolutionised the future thought of the human race.
The most popular of his works is the _Essays_, which convey profound and
condensed thought in a style that is at once clear and rich. His moral
character was singularly mixed and complex, and bears no comparison with
his intellect. It exhibits a singular coldness and lack of enthusiasm,
and indeed a bluntness of moral perception and an absence of
attractiveness rarely combined with such extraordinary mental endowments.
All that was possible to be done in defence of his character and public
conduct has been done by his accomplished biographer and editor, Mr.
Spedding (_q.v._). Singular, though of course futile, attempts, supported
sometimes with much ingenuity, have been made to claim for B. the
authorship of Shakespeare's plays, and have indeed been extended so as to
include those of Marlowe, and even the _Essays_ of Montaigne.

SUMMARY.--_B._ London 1561, _ed._ Trinity Coll., Cambridge, dissatisfied
with Aristotelean philosophy, entered Gray's Inn 1576, in France 1576-79,
called to Bar 1582, enters Parliament 1584, became friend of Essex 1591,
who presents him with estate 1593, _pub._ 1st ed. of _Essays_ 1597,
prosecutes Essex 1601, _pub._ _Advancement of Learning_ 1605,
Solicitor-Gen. 1607, _pub._ _Wisdom of the Ancients_ 1609, Attorney-Gen.
1613, prosecuted Somerset 1616, Lord Keeper 1618, Lord Chancellor with
title of Verulam 1619, Visc. St. Albans 1621, _pub._ _Novum Organum_
1620, charged with corruption, and retires from public life 1621, _pub._
_Henry VII._ and 3rd part of _Instauratio_ 1622, _d._ 1626.

The standard edition of B.'s works is that of Spedding, Ellis, and Heath
(14 vols. 1857-74), including _Life and Letters_ by Spedding. See also
Macaulay's _Essays_; Dean Church in _Men of Letters Series_; Dr. Abbott's
_Life_ (1885), etc. For philosophy Fowler's _Novum Organum_ (1878).

BACON, ROGER (1214?-1294).--Philosopher, studied at Oxford and Paris. His
scientific acquirements, regarded in that age as savouring of
witchcraft, and doubtless also his protests against the ignorance and
immorality of the clergy, excited the jealousy and hatred of the
Franciscans, and he was in consequence imprisoned at Paris for ten years.
Clement IV., who had been a sympathiser, desired on his accession to see
his works, and in response B. sent him _Opus Majus_, a treatise on the
sciences (grammar, logic, mathematics, physics, and philosophy), followed
by _Opus Secundum_ and _Opus Tertium_. Clement, however, was near death
when they arrived. B. was comparatively free from persecution for the
next ten years. But in 1278 he was again imprisoned for upwards of ten
years. At the intercession of some English noblemen he was at last
released, and spent his remaining years at Oxford. He possessed one of
the most commanding intellects of his own, or perhaps of any, age, and,
notwithstanding all the disadvantages and discouragements to which he was
subjected, made many discoveries, and came near to many more. There is
still preserved at Oxford a rectified calendar in which he approximates
closely to the truth. He received the sobriquet of the "Doctor

BAGE, ROBERT (1728-1801).--Novelist, _b._ in Derbyshire, was the _s._ of
a paper-maker. It was not until he was 53 that he took to literature; but
in the 15 years following he produced 6 novels, of which Sir Walter Scott
says that "strong mind, playful fancy, and extensive knowledge are
everywhere apparent." B., though brought up as a Quaker, imbibed the
principles of the French Revolution. He was an amiable and benevolent
man, and highly esteemed. _Hermsprong; or, Man as He is Not_ (1796) is
considered the best of his novels, of which it was the last. The names of
the others are _Mount Kenneth_ (1781), _Barham Downs_ (1784), _The Fair
Syrian_ (1787), _James Wallace_ (1788), and _Man as He is_ (1792).

BAGEHOT, WALTER (1826-1877).--Economist, _s._ of a banker, _b._ at
Langport, Somerset, _ed._ at University Coll., London, and called to the
Bar, but did not practise, and joined his _f._ in business. He wrote for
various periodicals, and from 1860 was editor of _The Economist_. He was
the author of _The English Constitution_ (1867), a standard work which
was translated into several languages; _Physics and Politics_ (1872), and
_Lombard Street_ (1873), a valuable financial work. A collection of
essays, biographical and economic, was _pub._ after his death.

BAILEY, PHILIP JAMES (1816-1902).--Poet, _s._ of a journalist, _b._ at
Nottingham, and _ed._ there and at Glasgow, of which he was made an LL.D.
in 1891. His life was a singularly uneventful one. He lived at
Nottingham, Jersey, Ilfracombe, London, and again at Nottingham, where he
_d._ He travelled a good deal on the Continent. He was by profession a
barrister, but never practised, and devoted his whole energies to poetry.
His first poem, _Festus_ (1839), is, for the daring of its theme and the
imaginative power and moral altitude which it displays, one of the most
notable of the century; as the work of one little past boyhood it is a
prodigy of intellectual precocity. Along with its great qualities it has
many faults in execution, and its final place in literature remains to
be determined. It was _pub._ anonymously, and had great success, but has
fallen into unmerited, but perhaps temporary, neglect. Among its greatest
admirers was Tennyson. The subsequent poems of B., _The Angel World_
(1850), _The Mystic_ (1855), _The Age_ (1858), and _The Universal Hymn_
(1867), were failures, and the author adopted the unfortunate expedient
of endeavouring to buoy them up by incorporating large extracts in the
later editions of _Festus_, with the effect only of sinking the latter,
which ultimately extended to over 40,000 lines. B. was a man of
strikingly handsome appearance, and gentle and amiable character.

BAILLIE, JOANNA (1762-1851).--Dramatist and poetess, _dau._ of the
minister of Bothwell, afterwards Professor of Divinity at Glasgow. Her
mother was a sister of the great anatomists, William and John Hunter, and
her brother was the celebrated physician, Matthew B., of London. She
received a thorough education at Glasgow, and at an early age went to
London, where the remainder of her long, happy, and honoured, though
uneventful, life was passed. In 1798, when she was 36, the first vol. of
her _Plays on the Passions_ appeared, and was received with much favour,
other two vols. followed in 1802 and 1812, and she also produced
_Miscellaneous Plays_ in 1804, and 3 vols. of _Dramatic Poetry_ in 1836.
In all her works there are many passages of true and impressive poetry,
but the idea underlying her _Plays on the Passions_, that, namely, of
exhibiting the principal character as acting under the exclusive
influence of one passion, is artificial and untrue to nature.

BAILLIE, LADY GRIZEL (1665-1746).--Poetess, _dau._ of Sir Patrick Home or
Hume, afterwards Earl of Marchmont, was married to George Baillie of
Jerviswoode. In her childhood she showed remarkable courage and address
in the services she rendered to her father and his friend, Robert Baillie
of Jerviswoode, the eminent Scottish patriot, when under persecution. She
left many pieces both prose and verse in MS., some of which were _pub._
The best known is the beautiful song, _Were na my heart licht I wad die_.

BAILLIE, ROBERT (1599-1662).--Historical writer, _s._ of B. of Jerviston,
_ed._ at Glasgow, he entered the Church of Scotland and became minister
of Kilwinning in Ayrshire. His abilities soon made him a leading man. He
was a member of the historic Assembly of 1638, when Presbyterianism was
re-established in Scotland, and also of the Westminster Assembly, 1643.
In 1651 he was made Professor of Divinity in Glasgow, and 10 years later
Principal. His _Letters and Journals_, edited for the Bannatyne Club by
D. Laing (_q.v._), are of the greatest value for the interesting light
they throw on a period of great importance in Scottish history. He was
one of the wisest and most temperate churchmen of his time.

BAIN, ALEXANDER (1818-1903).--Philosopher, _b._ at Aberdeen, and
graduated at Marischal Coll. there, became in 1860 Professor of Logic in
his university, and wrote a number of works on philosophy and psychology,
including _The Senses and the Intellect_ (1855), _The Emotions and the
Will_, _Mental and Moral Science_ (1868), _Logic_ (1870), and _Education
as a Science_ (1879). In 1881 he was elected Lord Rector of Aberdeen

BAKER, SIR RICHARD (1568-1645).--Historian and religious writer, studied
law, was knighted in 1603, and was High Sheriff of Oxfordshire 1620. B.
was the author of _The Chronicle of the Kings of England_ (1643), which
was for long held as a great authority among the country gentlemen. It
has, however, many errors. B. fell on evil days, was thrown into the
Fleet for debt incurred by others, for which he had made himself
responsible, and _d._ there. It was during his durance that the
_Chronicle_ and some religious treatises were composed. The _Chronicle_
was continued by Edward Phillips, Milton's nephew, who became a strong

BAKER, SIR SAMUEL WHITE (1821-1893).--Traveller, _b._ in London, and
after being a planter in Ceylon, and superintending the construction of a
railway between the Danube and the Black Sea, went with his wife, a
Hungarian lady, in search of the sources of the Nile, and discovered the
great lake, Albert Nyanza. B. was knighted in 1866, and was for 4 years
Governor-General of the Equatorial Nile Basin. His books, which are all
on travel and sport, are well written and include _Albert Nyanza_ (1866),
_Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia_ (1867).

BALE, JOHN (1495-1563).--Historian and controversialist, _b._ at Cove,
Suffolk, and _ed._ as a Carmelite friar, but becoming a Protestant,
engaged in violent controversy with the Roman Catholics. After undergoing
persecution and flying to Flanders, he was brought back by Edward VI. and
made Bishop of Ossory. On the death of Edward he was again persecuted,
and had to escape from Ireland to Holland, but returned on the accession
of Elizabeth, who made him a Prebendary of Canterbury. His chief work is
a Latin _Account of the Lives of Eminent Writers of Great Britain_.
Besides this he wrote some dramas on scriptural subjects, and an account
of the trial and death of Sir John Oldcastle. He wrote in all 22 plays,
of which only 5 have come down, the names of certain of which give some
idea of their nature, _e.g._, _The Three Leaves of Nature_, _Moses and
Christ_, and _The Temptacyon of Our Lord_.

BALLANTINE, JAMES (1808-1877).--Artist and author, _b._ in Edinburgh,
began life as a house painter. He studied art, and became one of the
first to revive the art of glass-painting, on which subject he wrote a
treatise. He was the author of _The Gaberlunzie's Wallet_ (1843), _Miller
of Deanhaugh_ (1845), _Poems_ (1856), _100 Songs with Music_ (1865), and
a _Life of David Roberts, R.A._ (1866).

BALLANTYNE, ROBERT MICHAEL (1825-1894).--Writer of tales for boys, _b._
in Edinburgh, was a connection of the well-known printers. As a youth he
spent some years in the service of the Hudson's Bay Co., and was then a
member of Constable's printing firm. In 1856 he took to literature as a
profession, and _pub._ about 80 tales, which, abounding in interesting
adventure and information, and characterised by a thoroughly healthy
tone, had great popularity. Among them are _The Young Fur Traders_
(1856), _The Coral Island_, _Fighting the Flames_, _Martin Rattler_, _The
World of Ice_, _The Dog Crusoe_, _Erling the Bold_, and _Black Ivory_. B.
was also an accomplished water-colour artist, and in all respects lived
up to the ideals he sought to instil into his readers. He _d._ at Rome.

BANCROFT, GEORGE (1800-1891).--American historian, _b._ at Worcester,
Massachusetts, and after _grad._ at Harvard, studied in Germany, where he
became acquainted and corresponded with Goethe, Hegel, and other leaders
of German thought. Returning to America he began his _History of the
United States_ (1834-74). The work covers the period from the discovery
of the Continent to the conclusion of the Revolutionary War in 1782. His
other great work is _The History of the Formation of the Constitution of
the United States_ (1882). B. filled various political offices, and was
in 1846 Minister Plenipotentiary to England, and in 1867 Minister to
Prussia. His writing is clear and vigorous, and his facts generally
accurate, but he is a good deal of a partisan.

BANIM, JOHN (1798-1842).--Novelist, began life as a miniature painter,
but was led by the success of his first book, _Tales of the O'Hara
Family_, to devote himself to literature. The object which he set before
himself was to become to Ireland what Scott has been to Scotland, and the
influence of his model is distinctly traceable in his writings. His
strength lies in the delineation of the characters of the Irish lower
classes, and the impulses, often misguided and criminal, by which they
are influenced, and in this he has shown remarkable power. The first
series of the _O'Hara Tales_ appeared in 1825, the second in 1826. Other
works are _The Croppy_ (1828), _The Denounced_ (1830), _The Smuggler_
(1831), _The Mayor of Windgap_, and his last, _Father Connell_. Most of
these deal with the darker and more painful phases of life, but the
feeling shown in the last-named is brighter and tenderer. B. latterly
suffered from illness and consequent poverty, which were alleviated by a
pension from Government. He also wrote some poems, including _The Celt's
Paradise_, and one or two plays. In the _O'Hara Tales_, he was assisted
by his brother, MICHAEL BANIM (1796-1874), and there is difficulty in
allocating their respective contributions. After the death of John,
Michael wrote _Clough Fionn_ (1852), and _The Town of the Cascades_

BANNATYNE, RICHARD (_d._ 1605).--Secretary to John Knox, compiled
_Memorials of Transactions in Scotland from 1569 to 1573_.

BARBAULD, ANNA LETITIA (1743-1825).--Poetess, etc., _dau._ of Dr. John
Aikin (_q.v._), was _b._ at Kibworth-Hencourt, Leicestershire. Her _f._
kept an academy for boys, whose education she shared, and thus became
acquainted with the classics. In 1773 she _pub._ a collection of
miscellaneous poems, which was well received, and in the following year
she married the Rev. R. Barbauld, a French Protestant and dissenting
minister, who also conducted a school near Palgrave in Suffolk. Into this
enterprise Mrs. B. threw herself with great energy, and, mainly owing to
her talents and reputation, it proved a success and was afterwards
carried on at Hampstead and Newington Green. Meantime, she continued her
literary occupations, and brought out various devotional works, including
her _Hymns in Prose for Children_. These were followed by _Evenings at
Home_, _Selections from the English Essayists_, _The Letters of Samuel
Richardson_, with a life prefixed, and a selection from the British
novelists with introductory essay.

BARBOUR, JOHN (1316?-1395).--Poet. Of B.'s youth nothing is certainly
known, but it is believed that he was _b._ near Aberdeen, and studied at
Oxford and Paris. He entered the Church, and rose to ecclesiastical
preferment and Royal favour. He is known to have been Archdeacon of
Aberdeen in 1357, when, and again in 1364, he went with some young
scholars to Oxford, and he also held various civil offices in connection
with the exchequer and the King's household. His principal poem, _The
Bruce_, was in progress in 1376. It consists of 14,000 octosyllabic
lines, and celebrates the praises of Robert the Bruce and James Douglas,
the flowers of Scottish chivalry. This poem is almost the sole authority
on the history it deals with, but is much more than a rhyming chronicle;
it contains many fine descriptive passages, and sings the praises of
freedom. Its style is somewhat bald and severe. Other poems ascribed to
B. are _The Legend of Troy_, and _Legends of the Saints_, probably
translations. B. devoted a perpetual annuity of 20 shillings, bestowed
upon him by the King, to provide for a mass to be sung for himself and
his parents, and this was duly done in the church of St. Machar until the

_The Bruce_, edited by C. Innes for Spalding Club (1856), and for Early
Engl. Text Soc. by W.W. Skeat, 1870-77; and for Scott. Text Soc. (1894);
_The Wallace_ and _The Bruce_ re-studied, J.T.T. Brown, 1900; G. Neilson
in Chambers' Cyc. Eng. Lit. (1903).

BARCLAY, ALEXANDER (1475?-1552).--Poet, probably of Scottish birth, was a
priest in England. He is remembered for his satirical poem, _The Ship of
Fools_ (1509), partly a translation, which is of interest as throwing
light on the manners and customs of the times to which it refers. He also
translated Sallust's _Bellum Jugurthinum_, and the _Mirrour of Good
Manners_, from the Italian of Mancini, and wrote five _Eclogues_. His
style is stiff and his verse uninspired.

BARCLAY, JOHN (1582-1621).--Satirist, _s._ of a Scotsman, who was
Professor of Law at Pont-a-Mousson, Lorraine, came with his _f._ to
England about 1603. He wrote several works in English and Latin, among
which are _Euphormionis Satyricon_, against the Jesuits, and _Argenis_, a
political romance, resembling in certain respects the _Arcadia_ of
Sidney, and the _Utopia_ of More.

BARCLAY, ROBERT (1648-1690).--Apologist of the Quakers, _s._ of Col.
David B. of Ury, _ed._ at the Scots Coll. in Paris, of which his uncle
was Rector, made such progress in study as to gain the admiration of his
teachers, specially of his uncle, who offered to make him his heir if he
would remain in France, and join the Roman Catholic Church. This he
refused to do, and, returning to Scotland, he in 1667 adopted the
principles of the Quakers as his _f._ had already done. Soon afterwards
he began to write in defence of his sect, by _pub._ in 1670 _Truth
cleared of Calumnies_, and _a Catechism and Confession of Faith_ (1673).
His great work, however, is his _Apology for the Quakers_, _pub._ in
Latin in 1676, and translated into English in 1678. It is a weighty and
learned work, written in a dignified style, and was eagerly read. It,
however, failed to arrest the persecution to which the Quakers were
exposed, and B. himself, on returning from the Continent, where he had
gone with Foxe and Penn, was imprisoned, but soon regained his liberty,
and was in the enjoyment of Court favour. He was one of the twelve
Quakers who acquired East New Jersey, of which he was appointed nominal
Governor. His latter years were spent at his estate of Ury, where he _d._
The essential view which B. maintained was, that Christians are
illuminated by an inner light superseding even the Scriptures as the
guide of life. His works have often been reprinted.

BARHAM, RICHARD HARRIS (1788-1845).--Novelist and humorous poet, _s._ of
a country gentleman, was _b._ at Canterbury, _ed._ at St. Paul's School
and Oxford, entered the church, held various incumbencies, and was
Divinity Lecturer, and minor canon of St. Paul's. It is not, however, as
a churchman that he is remembered, but as the author of the _Ingoldsby
Legends_, a series of comic and serio-comic pieces in verse, sparkling
with wit, and full of striking and often grotesque turns of expression,
which appeared first in _Bentley's Miscellany_. He also wrote, in
_Blackwood's Magazine_, a novel, _My Cousin Nicholas_.

BARLOW, JOEL (1754-1812).--Poet, _b._ at Reading, Connecticut, served for
a time as an army chaplain, and thereafter betook himself to law, and
finally to commerce and diplomacy, in the former of which he made a
fortune. He was much less successful as a poet than as a man of affairs.
His writings include _Vision of Columbus_ (1787), afterwards expanded
into the _Columbiad_ (1807), _The Conspiracy of Kings_ (1792), and _The
Hasty Pudding_ (1796), a mock-heroic poem, his best work. These are
generally pompous and dull. In 1811 he was _app._ ambassador to France,
and met his death in Poland while journeying to meet Napoleon.

BARNARD, LADY ANNE (LINDSAY) (1750-1825).--Poet, _e. dau._ of the 5th
Earl of Balcarres, married Andrew Barnard, afterwards Colonial Secretary
at Cape Town. On the _d._ of her husband in 1807 she settled in London.
Her exquisite ballad of _Auld Robin Gray_ was written in 1771, and _pub._
anonymously. She confessed the authorship to Sir Walter Scott in 1823.

BARNES, BARNABE (1569?-1609).--Poet, _s._ of Dr. Richard B. Bishop, of
Durham, was _b._ in Yorkshire, and studied at Oxford. He wrote
_Parthenophil_, a collection of sonnets, madrigals, elegies, and odes, _A
Divine Centurie of Spirituall Sonnets_, and _The Devil's Charter_, a
tragedy. When at his best he showed a true poetic vein.

BARNES, WILLIAM (1801-1886).--Poet and philologist, _s._ of a farmer,
_b._ at Rushay, Dorset. After being a solicitor's clerk and a
schoolmaster, he entered the Church, in which he served various cures.
He first contributed to a newspaper, _Poems in Dorset Dialect_,
separately _pub._ in 1844. _Hwomely Rhymes_ followed in 1858, and a
collected edition of his poems appeared in 1879. His philological works
include _Philological Grammar_ (1854), _Se Gefylsta, an Anglo-Saxon
Delectus_ (1849). _Tiw, or a View of Roots_ (1862), and a _Glossary of
Dorset Dialect_ (1863). B.'s poems are characterised by a singular
sweetness and tenderness of feeling, deep insight into humble country
life and character, and an exquisite feeling for local scenery.

BARNFIELD, RICHARD (1574-1627).--Poet, _e.s._ of Richard B., gentleman,
was _b._ at Norbury, Shropshire, and _ed._ at Oxford. In 1594 he _pub._
_The Affectionate Shepherd_, a collection of variations in graceful verse
of the 2nd Eclogue of Virgil. His next work was _Cynthia, with certain
Sonnets and the Legend of Cassandra_ in 1595; and in 1598 there appeared
a third vol., _The Encomion of Lady Pecunia, etc._, in which are two
songs ("If music and sweet poetrie agree," and "As it fell upon a day")
also included in _The Passionate Pilgrim_, an unauthorised collection,
and which were long attributed to Shakespeare. From this time, 1599, B.
produced nothing else, and seems to have retired to the life of a country
gentleman at Stone in Staffordshire, in the church of which he was buried
in 1627. He was for long neglected; but his poetry is clear, sweet, and
musical. His gift indeed is sufficiently attested by work of his having
passed for that of Shakespeare.

BARROW, ISAAC (1630-1677).--Divine, scholar, and mathematician, _s._ of a
linen-draper in London, was _ed._ at Charterhouse, Felsted, Peterhouse,
and Trinity Coll., Cambridge, where his uncle and namesake, afterwards
Bishop of St. Asaph, was a Fellow. As a boy he was turbulent and
pugnacious, but soon took to hard study, distinguishing himself in
classics and mathematics. Intending originally to enter the Church, he
was led to think of the medical profession, and engaged in scientific
studies, but soon reverted to his first views. In 1655 he became
candidate for the Greek Professorship at Cambridge, but was unsuccessful,
and travelled for four years on the Continent as far as Turkey. On his
return he took orders, and, in 1660, obtained the Greek Chair at
Cambridge, and in 1662 the Gresham Professorship of Geometry, which he
resigned on being appointed first Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in
the same university. During his tenure of this chair he _pub._ two
mathematical works of great learning and elegance, the first on Geometry
and the second on Optics. In 1669 he resigned in favour of his pupil,
Isaac Newton, who was long considered his only superior among English
mathematicians. About this time also he composed his _Expositions of the
Creed_, _The Lord's Prayer_, _Decalogue_, and _Sacraments_. He was made a
D.D. by royal mandate in 1670, and two years later Master of Trinity
Coll., where he founded the library. Besides the works above mentioned,
he wrote other important treatises on mathematics, but in literature his
place is chiefly supported by his sermons, which are masterpieces of
argumentative eloquence, while his treatise on the _Pope's Supremacy_ is
regarded as one of the most perfect specimens of controversy in
existence. B.'s character as a man was in all respects worthy of his
great talents, though he had a strong vein of eccentricity. He _d._
unmarried in London at the early age of 47. B.'s theological works were
edited by Napier, with memoir by Whewell (9 vols., 1839).

BARTON, BERNARD (1784-1849).--Poet, _b._ of Quaker parentage, passed
nearly all his life at Woodbridge, for the most part as a clerk in a
bank. He became the friend of Southey, Lamb, and other men of letters.
His chief works are _The Convict's Appeal_ (1818), a protest against the
severity of the criminal code of the time, and _Household Verses_ (1845),
which came under the notice of Sir R. Peel, through whom he obtained a
pension of L100. With the exception of some hymns his works are now
nearly forgotten, but he was a most amiable and estimable man--simple and
sympathetic. His _dau._ Lucy, who married Edward Fitzgerald, the
translator of _Omar Khayyam_, _pub._ a selection of his poems and
letters, to which her husband prefixed a biographical introduction.

BAYNES, THOMAS SPENCER (1823-1887).--Philosopher, _s._ of a Baptist
minister, _b._ at Wellington, Somerset, intended to study for Baptist
ministry, and was at a theological seminary at Bath with that view, but
being strongly attracted to philosophical studies, left it and went to
Edin., when he became the favourite pupil of Sir W. Hamilton (_q.v._), of
whose philosophical system he continued an adherent. After working as ed.
of a newspaper in Edinburgh, and after an interval of rest rendered
necessary by a breakdown in health, he resumed journalistic work in 1858
as assistant ed. of the _Daily News_. In 1864 he was appointed Prof. of
Logic and English Literature at St. Andrews, in which capacity his mind
was drawn to the study of Shakespeare, and he contributed to the
_Edinburgh Review_ and _Fraser's Magazine_ valuable papers (chiefly
relating to his vocabulary and the extent of his learning) afterwards
collected as _Shakespeare Studies_. In 1873 he was appointed to
superintend the ninth ed. of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_, in which,
after 1880, he was assisted by W. Robertson Smith (_q.v._).

BAXTER, RICHARD (1615-1691).--Divine scholar and controversialist, was
_b._ of poor, but genteel, parents at Rowton in Shropshire, and although
he became so eminent for learning, was not _ed._ at any university.
Circumstances led to his turning his attention to a career at court under
the patronage of the Master of the Revels, but a short experience of this
sufficed; and giving himself to the Christian ministry, he was ordained
in 1638, and, after being master of a school at Dudley, exercised his
ministry successively at Bridgnorth and Kidderminster. His learning and
capacity for business made him the leader of the Presbyterian party. He
was one of the greatest preachers of his own day, and consistently
endeavoured to exert a moderating influence, with the result that he
became the object of attack by extremists of opposing views. Though
siding with the Parliament in the Civil War, he opposed the execution of
the King and the assumption of supreme power by Cromwell. During the war
he served with the army as a chaplain. On the return of Charles II., B.
was made one of his chaplains, and was offered the see of Hereford, which
he declined, and his subsequent request to be allowed to return to
Kidderminster was refused. He subsequently suffered persecution at the
hands of Judge Jeffreys. After the Revolution he had a few years of peace
and quiet. His literary activity was marvellous in spite of ill-health
and outward disturbance. He is said to have written 168 works, the best
known of which are _The Saints' Everlasting Rest_ (1650), and _Call to
the Unconverted_ (1657), manuals of practical religion; and, among his
controversial writings, _Methodus Theologiae_ (1681), and _Catholic
Theology_ (1675), in which his theological standpoint--a compromise
between Arminianism and Calvinism--is set forth. Dr. Isaac Barrow says
that "his practical writings were never mended, and his controversial
seldom confuted," and Dean Stanley calls him "the chief English
Protestant schoolman." B. left an autobiography, _Reliquiae Baxterianae_,
which was a favourite book with both Johnson and Coleridge. Other works
by him are _The Life of Faith_ (1670), _Reasons of the Christian
Religion_ (1672), and _Christian Directory_ (1675). _Practical Works_ in
23 vols. (1830) edited with memoirs by W. Orme, also _Lives_ by A.B.
Grosart (1879), Dean Boyle (1883), and J.H. Davies (1886).

BAYLY, ADA ELLEN (_d._ 1903).--Novelist, wrote several stories under the
name of "Edna Lyall," which were very popular. They include
_Autobiography of a Slander_, _Donovan_, _Hope the Hermit_, _In the
Golden Days_, _To Right the Wrong_, _We Two_, and _Won by Waiting_.

BAYLY, THOMAS HAYNES (1797-1839).--Miscellaneous writer, _s._ of a
wealthy lawyer in Bath. Originally intended for the law, he changed his
mind and thought of entering the Church, but abandoned this idea also,
and gave himself to writing for the stage and the periodical press. He is
chiefly known for his songs, of which he wrote hundreds, which, set to
the music of Bishop and other eminent composers, found universal
acceptance. Some were set to his own music. He also wrote several novels
and a number of farces, etc. Although making a large income from his
writings, in addition to that of his wife, he fell into embarrassed
circumstances. Among the best known of his songs are _I'd be a
Butterfly_, _Oh, no, we never mention Her_, and _She wore a Wreath of
Roses_. He may be regarded as, excepting Moore, the most popular song
writer of his time.

BEACONSFIELD, BENJAMIN DISRAELI, 1ST EARL of (1804-1881).--Statesman and
novelist, was the _s._ of Isaac D. (_q.v._). Belonging to a Jewish family
settled first in Spain, whence in the 15th century they migrated to
Italy, he was _b._ in London in 1804 and privately _ed._ His _f._
destined him for the law, and he was articled to a solicitor. The law
was, however, uncongenial, and he had already begun to write. After some
journalistic work, he brought himself into general notice by the
publication, in 1827, of his first novel, _Vivian Grey_, which created a
sensation by its brilliance, audacity, and slightly veiled portraits of
living celebrities. After producing a _Vindication of the British
Constitution_, and some political pamphlets, he followed up his first
success by a series of novels, _The Young Duke_ (1831), _Contarini
Fleming_ (1832), _Alroy_ (1833), _Venetia and Henrietta Temple_ (1837).
During the same period he had also written _The Revolutionary Epic_ and
three burlesques, _Ixion_, _The Infernal Marriage_, and _Popanilla_.
These works had gained for him a brilliant, if not universally admitted,
place in literature. But his ambition was by no means confined to
literary achievement; he aimed also at fame as a man of action. After
various unsuccessful attempts to enter Parliament, in which he stood,
first as a Radical, and then as a Tory, he was in 1837 returned for
Maidstone, having for his colleague Mr. Wyndham Lewis, whose widow he
afterwards married. For some years after entering on his political
career, D. ceased to write, and devoted his energies to parliamentary
work. His first speech was a total failure, being received with shouts of
laughter, but with characteristic courage and perseverance he pursued his
course, gradually rose to a commanding position in parliament and in the
country, became leader of his party, was thrice Chancellor of the
Exchequer, 1852, 1858-59, and 1866-68, in which last year he became Prime
Minister, which office he again held from 1874 till 1880. To return to
his literary career, in 1844 he had _pub._ _Coningsby_, followed by
_Sybil_ (1845), and _Tancred_ (1847), and in 1848 he wrote a life of Lord
G. Bentinck, his predecessor in the leadership of the Protectionist
party. His last novels were _Lothair_ (1870), and _Endymion_ (1880). He
was raised to the peerage as Earl of Beaconsfield in 1876, and was a
Knight of the Garter. In his later years he was the intimate friend as
well as the trusted minister of Queen Victoria. The career of D. is one
of the most remarkable in English history. With no family or political
influence, and with some personal characteristics, and the then current
prejudices in regard to his race to contend with, he rose by sheer force
of will and intellect to the highest honours attainable in this country.
His most marked qualities were an almost infinite patience and
perseverance, indomitable courage, a certain spaciousness of mind, and
depth of penetration, and an absolute confidence in his own abilities,
aided by great powers of debate rising occasionally to eloquence. Though
the object, first of a kind of contemptuous dislike, then of an intense
opposition, he rose to be universally regarded as, at all events, a great
political force, and by a large part of the nation as a great statesman.
As a writer he is generally interesting, and his books teem with striking
thoughts, shrewd maxims, and brilliant phrases which stick in the memory.
On the other hand he is often artificial, extravagant, and turgid, and
his ultimate literary position is difficult to forecast.

_Lives_ by Froude (1890), Hitchman (1885), see also _Dictionary of Nat.
Biog. etc._

BEATTIE, JAMES (1735-1803).--Poet and philosophical writer, _s._ of a
shopkeeper and small farmer at Laurencekirk, Kincardineshire, and _ed._
at Aberdeen; he was, in 1760, appointed Professor of Moral Philosophy
there. In the following year he _pub._ a vol. of poems, which attracted
attention. The two works, however, which brought him most fame were: (1)
his _Essay on Truth_ (1770), intended as an answer to Hume, which had
great immediate success, and led to an introduction to the King, a
pension of L200, and the degree of LL.D. from Oxford; and (2) his poem of
_The Minstrel_, of which the first book was _pub._ in 1771 and the
second in 1774, and which constitutes his true title to remembrance. It
contains much beautiful descriptive writing. The _Essay on Truth_ and his
other philosophical works are now forgotten. B. underwent much domestic
sorrow in the death of his wife and two promising sons, which broke down
his own health and spirits.

BEAUMONT, FRANCIS (1584-1616), AND FLETCHER, JOHN (1579-1625).--Poets and
dramatists. As they are indissolubly associated in the history of English
literature, it is convenient to treat of them in one place. B. was the
_s._ of Francis B., a Judge of the Common Pleas, and was _b._ at the
family seat, Grace Dieu, Leicestershire. He was _ed._ at Oxford, but his
_f._ dying in 1598, he left without taking his degree. He went to London
and entered the Inner Temple in 1600, and soon became acquainted with Ben
Jonson, Drayton, and other poets and dramatists. His first work was a
translation from Ovid, followed by commendatory verses prefixed to
certain plays of Jonson. Soon afterwards his friendship with F. began.
They lived in the same house and had practically a community of goods
until B.'s marriage in 1613 to Ursula, _dau._ and co-heiress of Henry
Isley of Sundridge in Kent, by whom he had two _dau._ He _d._ in 1616,
and is buried in Westminster Abbey. F. was the youngest _s._ of Richard
F., Bishop of London, who accompanied Mary Queen of Scots to the
scaffold. He went to Cambridge, but it is not known whether he took a
degree, though he had some reputation as a scholar. His earliest play is
_The Woman Hater_ (1607). He is said to have died of the plague, and is
buried in St. Saviour's Church, Southwark. The plays attributed to B. and
F. number 52 and a masque, and much labour has been bestowed by critics
in endeavouring to allocate their individual shares. It is now generally
agreed that others collaborated with them to some extent--Massinger,
Rowley, Shirley, and even Shakespeare. Of those believed to be the joint
work of B. and F. _Philaster_ and _The Maid's Tragedy_ are considered the
masterpieces, and are as dramas unmatched except by Shakespeare. _The Two
Noble Kinsmen_ is thought to contain the work of Shakespeare. As regards
their respective powers, B. is held to have had the graver, solider, and
more stately genius, while F. excelled in brightness, wit, and gaiety.
The former was the stronger in judgment, the latter in fancy. The plays
contain many very beautiful lyrics, but are often stained by gross
indelicacy. The play of _Henry VIII._ included in Shakespeare's works, is
now held to be largely the work of F. and Massinger. Subjoined is a list
of the plays with the authorship according to the latest authorities.

(1) BEAUMONT.--_The Masque_. (2) FLETCHER.--_Woman Hater_ (1607),
_Faithful Shepherdess_ (1609), _Bonduca_ (_Boadicea_) (1618-19), _Wit
without Money_ (1614?), _Valentinian_ (1618-19), _Loyal Subjects_ (1618),
_Mad Lover_ (1618-19), _Humorous Lieutenant_ (1618?), _Women Pleased_
(1620?), _Island Princess_ (1621), _Pilgrim_ (1621), _Wild Goose Chase_
(1621), _Woman's Prize_ (? _pub._ 1647), _A Wife for a Month_ (1624),
_Chances_ (late, _p._ 1647), perhaps _Monsieur Thomas_ (_p._ 1639), and
_Sea Voyage_ (1622). (3) BEAUMONT and FLETCHER.--_Four Plays in One_
(1608), _King and No King_ (1611), _Cupid's Revenge_ (1611?), _Knight of
Burning Pestle_ (1611), _Maid's Tragedy_ (1611), _Philaster_ (1611),
_Coxcomb_ (1612-13), _Wits at Several Weapons_ (1614), _Scornful Lady_
(1616), doubtfully, _Thierry and Theodoret_ (1616), and _Little French
Lawyer_ (1620) perhaps by F. and Massinger, and _Laws of Candy_ (?)
perhaps by B. and Massinger. (4) FLETCHER and OTHERS.--_Honest Man's
Fortune_ (1613), F., Mass., and Field; _The Captain_ (1613), and _Nice
Valour_ (_p._ 1647), F. and Middleton (?); _Bloody Brothers_ (1616-17),
F., Mid., and Rowley or Fielding and B. Jonson (?); _Queen of Corinth_
(1618-19), F. and Row. or Mass. and Mid.; _Barneveld_ (1619), by F. and
Massinger; _Knight of Malta_ (1619), _False One_ (1620), _A Very Woman_
(1621?), _Double Marriage_ (1620), _Elder Brother_ (_p._ 1637), _Lover's
Progress_ (_p._ 1647), _Custom of the Country_ (1628), _Prophetess_
(1622), _Spanish Curate_ (1622), by F. and Shakespeare; _Henry VIII._
(1617), and _Two Noble Kinsmen_ (_p._ 1634), by F. and Rowley, or
Massinger; _Maid of the Mill_ (1625-6), _Beggar's Bush_ (?) (1622), by F.
and Shirley; _Noble Gentleman_ (?) _Night Walker_ (1633?), _Lovers
Pilgrimage_ (1623?), _Fair Maid of the Inn_ (1625-26), also with

The latest ed. is that of Mr. Bullen (11 vols., 1904), and A.R. Waller (7
vols., _pub._ C.U.P., 1909); Dyce (11 vols., 1843-46); _Francis
Beaumont_, G.C. Macaulay (1883); _Lyric Poems_ of B. and F., E. Rhys
(1897); _Bibliography_, A.C. Potter in _Harvard Bibliograph.
Contributions_, 1891.

BEAUMONT, SIR JOHN (1582-1627?).--Poet, elder brother of Francis B., the
dramatist (_q.v._). His poems, of which the best known is _Bosworth
Field_, _pub._ by his _s._, 1629. Another, _The Crown of Thorns_, is

BECKFORD, WILLIAM (_c._ 1760-1844).--Miscellaneous writer, only _s._ of
William B., Lord Mayor of London, the associate and supporter of John
Wilkes, inherited at the age of 9 an enormous fortune. In these
circumstances he grew up wayward and extravagant, showing, however, a
strong bent towards literature. His education was entrusted to a private
tutor, with whom he travelled extensively on the Continent. At the age of
22 he produced his oriental romance, _Vathek_ (_c._ 1781), written
originally in French and, as he was accustomed to boast, at a single
sitting of three days and two nights. There is reason, however, to
believe that this was a flight of imagination. It is an impressive work,
full of fantastic and magnificent conceptions, rising occasionally to
sublimity. His other principal writings are _Memoirs of Extraordinary
Painters_ (1780), a satirical work, and _Letters from Italy with Sketches
of Spain and Portugal_ (1835), full of brilliant descriptions of scenes
and manners. B.'s fame, however, rests nearly as much upon his eccentric
extravagances as a builder and collector as upon his literary efforts. In
carrying out these he managed to dissipate his fortune of L100,000 a
year, only L80,000 of his capital remaining at his death. He sat in
parliament for various constituencies, and one of his two _dau._ became
Duchess of Hamilton.

BEDDOES, THOMAS LOVELL (1803-1849).--Dramatic poet and physiologist, _s._
of Dr. Thos. B., an eminent physician, and nephew of Maria Edgeworth.
_Ed._ at the Charterhouse and Oxford, he _pub._ in 1821 _The
Improvisatore_, which he afterwards endeavoured to suppress. His next
venture was _The Bride's Tragedy_ (1822), which had considerable success,
and won for him the friendship of "Barry Cornwall." Thereafter he went to
Goettingen and studied medicine. He then wandered about practising his
profession, and expounding democratic theories which got him into
trouble. He _d._ at Bale in mysterious circumstances. For some time
before his death he had been engaged upon a drama, _Death's Jest Book_,
which was published in 1850 with a memoir by his friend, T.F. Kelsall. B.
had not the true dramatic instinct, but his poetry is full of thought and
richness of diction. Some of his short pieces, _e.g._: "If there were
dreams to sell," and "If thou wilt ease thine heart," are masterpieces of
intense feeling exquisitely expressed.

BEDE or BAEDA (673-735).--Historian and scholar. B., who is sometimes
referred to as "the father of English history," was in his youth placed
under the care of Benedict Biscop, Abbot of Wearmouth, and of Ceolfrith,
afterwards Abbot of Jarrow. Ordained deacon in 692 and priest in 703, he
spent most of his days at Jarrow, where his fame as a scholar and teacher
of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew brought him many disciples. Here likewise he
_d._ and was buried, but his bones were, towards the beginning of the
11th century, removed to Durham. The well-deserved title of "Venerable"
usually prefixed to his name first appears in 836. He was the most
learned Englishman of his age. His industry was marvellous, and its
results remain embodied in about 40 books, of which about 25 are
commentaries on books of Scripture. The others are lives of saints and
martyrs, and his two great works, _The Ecclesiastical History of England_
and the scientific treatise, _De Natura Rerum_. The former of these gives
the fullest and best information we have as to the history of England
down to the year 731, and the latter is an encyclopaedia of the sciences
as then known. In the anxious care with which he sought out and selected
reliable information, and referred to authorities he shows the best
qualities of the modern historian, and his style is remarkable for "a
pleasing artlessness."

_History of Early Engl. Lit._, Stopford Brooke (2 vols., 1892), etc.

BEECHER, HENRY WARD (1813-1887).--Orator and divine, _s._ of Lyman B. and
_bro._ of Harriet Beecher Stowe, was one of the most popular of American
preachers and platform orators, a prominent advocate of temperance and of
the abolition of slavery. His writings, which had a wide popularity,
include _Summer in the Soul_ and _Life Thoughts_.

BEHN, APHRA (JOHNSTON) (1640-1689).--Novelist and dramatist, _dau._ of a
barber named Johnston, but went with a relative whom she called father to
Surinam, of which he had been appointed Governor. He, however, _d._ on
the passage thither, and her childhood and youth were passed there. She
became acquainted with the celebrated slave Oronoko, afterwards the hero
of one of her novels. Returning to England in 1658 she _m._ Behn, a Dutch
merchant, but was a widow at the age of 26. She then became attached to
the Court, and was employed as a political spy at Antwerp. Leaving that
city she cultivated the friendship of various playwrights, and produced
many plays and novels, also poems and pamphlets. The former are extremely
gross, and are now happily little known. She was the first English
professional authoress. Among her plays are _The Forced Marriage_,
_Abdelazer_, _The Rover_, _The Debauchee_, etc., and her novels include
_Oronoko_ and _The Nun_. The former of these was the first book to bring
home to the country a sense of the horrors of slavery, for which let her
have credit.

BELL, HENRY GLASSFORD (1805-1874).--Poet and historian, was a member of
the Scottish Bar, and became Sheriff of Lanarkshire. He wrote a _Life of
Mary Queen of Scots_ (1830), strongly in her defence, and two vols. of
poetry, _Summer and Winter Hours_ (1831), and _My Old Portfolio_, the
latter also containing pieces in prose.

BELLENDEN, or BALLANTYNE, JOHN (_fl._ 1533-1587?).--Poet, _b._ towards
the close of the 15th century, and _ed._ at St. Andrews and Paris. At the
request of James V. he translated the _Historia Gentis Scotorum_ of
Boece. This translation, _Chroniklis of Scotland_ is a very free one,
with a good deal of matter not in the original, so that it may be almost
considered as a new work. It was _pub._ in 1536, and is the earliest
existing specimen of Scottish literary prose. He also translated the
first five books of Livy. He enjoyed the Royal favour, and was Archdeacon
of Moray. He latterly, however, became involved in controversy which led
to his going to Rome, where he _d._, according to one account, about
1550. Another authority, however, states that he was living in 1587.

BENTHAM, JEREMY (1748-1832).--Writer on jurisprudence and politics, _b._
in London, _s._ of a prosperous attorney, _ed._ at Westminster and
Oxford, was called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn, but disliking the law, he
made little or no effort to practise, but devoted himself to physical
science and the theory of jurisprudence. In 1776 he _pub._ anonymously
his _Fragment on Government_, an able criticism of Blackstone's
_Commentaries_, which brought him under the notice of Lord Shelburne, and
in 1780 his _Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation_. Other
works were _Panopticon_, in which he suggested improvements on prison
discipline, _Discourse on Civil and Penal Legislation_ (1802),
_Punishments and Rewards_ (1811), _Parliamentary Reform Catechism_
(1817), and _A Treatise on Judicial Evidence_. By the death of his _f._
he inherited a competency on which he was able to live in frugal
elegance, not unmixed with eccentricity. B. is the first and perhaps the
greatest of the "philosophical radicals," and his fundamental principle
is utilitarianism or "the greatest happiness of the greatest number," a
phrase of which he is generally, though erroneously, regarded as the
author. The effect of his writings on legislation and the administration
of the law has been almost incalculable. He left his body to be
dissected; and his skeleton, clothed in his usual attire, is preserved in
University College, London.

_Life_ by Bowring in collected works (J.H. Barton, 11 vols., 1844).
_Study of Life and Work_, Atkinson, 1903.

BENTLEY, RICHARD (1662-1742).--Theologian, scholar, and critic, _b._ in
Yorkshire of humble parentage, went at the age of 14 to Camb.,
afterwards had charge of a school at Spalding, and then becoming tutor to
the _s._ of Dr. Stillingfleet, Dean of St. Paul's, afterwards Bishop of
Worcester (_q.v.i_), accompanied his pupil to Oxf. After taking his
degree at both universities, and entering the Church, he laid the
foundation of his reputation as perhaps the greatest scholar England has
produced by his letter in Mill's ed. of the _Chronicle of John Malelas_,
and his _Dissertation on the Letters of Phalaris_ (1699), which spread
his fame through Europe. After receiving various preferments, including
the Boyle lectureship and the Keepership of the Royal Library, he was, in
1700, appointed Master of Trinity, and afterwards was, largely owing to
his own pugnacity and rapacity, which were almost equal to his learning,
involved in a succession of litigations and controversies. These lasted
for 20 years, and led to the temporary loss of his academic preferments
and honours. In 1717, however, he was appointed Regius Prof. of Divinity.
During the contentions referred to he continued his literary activity
without abatement, and _pub._ various ed. of the classics, including
Horace and Terence. He was much less successful in certain emendations of
Milton which he attempted. Having incurred the resentment of Pope he was
rewarded by being assigned a niche in _The Dunciad!_ His style is strong
and nervous, and sparkles with wit and sarcasm. His classical
controversies called forth Swift's _Battle of the Books_.

_Life_ by Monk (1833). _Life_ by Sir R. Jebb in _English Men of Letters_

BERESFORD, JAMES (1764-1840).--Miscellaneous writer and clergyman. He
made translations and wrote religious books, but was chiefly known as the
author of a satirical work, _The Miseries of Human Life_ (1806-7.)

BERKELEY, GEORGE (1685-1753).--Philosopher, eldest _s._ of William B., a
cadet of the noble family of Berkeley, _b._ at Kilcrin near Kilkenny, and
_ed._ at the school of his native place and at Trinity Coll., Dublin,
where he graduated and took a Fellowship in 1707. His earliest
publication was a mathematical one; but the first which brought him into
notice was his _Essay towards a New Theory of Vision_, _pub._ in 1709.
Though giving rise to much controversy at the time, its conclusions are
now accepted as an established part of the theory of optics. There next
appeared in 1710 the _Treatise concerning the Principles of Human
Knowledge_, which was followed in 1713 by _Dialogues between Hylas_ and
_Philonous_, in which he propounded his system of philosophy, the leading
principle of which is that the world as represented to our senses depends
for its existence on being perceived. Of this theory the _Principles_
gives the exposition and the _Dialogues_ the defence. One of his main
objects was to combat the prevailing materialism of the time. A theory so
novel was, as might be expected, received with widespread ridicule,
though his genius was realised by some of the more elect spirits, such as
Dr. S. Clarke. Shortly afterwards B. visited England, and was received
into the circle of Addison, Pope, and Steele. He then went to the
Continent in various capacities, and on his return was made Lecturer in
Divinity and Greek in his university, D.D. in 1721, and Dean of Derry in
1724. In 1725 he formed the project of founding a college in Bermuda for
training ministers for the colonies, and missionaries to the Indians, in
pursuit of which he gave up his deanery with its income of L1100, and
went to America on a salary of L100. Disappointed of promised aid from
Government he returned, and was appointed Bishop of Cloyne. Soon
afterwards he _pub._ _Alciphron, or The Minute Philosopher_, directed
against Shaftesbury, and in 1734-37 _The Querist_. His last publications
were _Siris_, a treatise on the medicinal virtues of tar-water, and
_Further Thoughts on Tar-water_. He _d._ at Oxford in 1753. His
affectionate disposition and genial manners made him much beloved. As a
thinker his is the greatest name in English philosophy between Locke and
Hume. His style is clear and dignified.

The best ed. of B. is Prof. A.C. Fraser's, with Life (4 vols., 1871, and
new, 1902); there is also a small work by the same (1881).

BERNERS, BERNES, or BARNES, JULIANA (_b._ 1388?).--Writer on heraldry and
sports. Nothing of her real history is known, but statements more or less
mythical have gathered round her name. The work attributed to her is _The
Boke of St. Albans_ (1486). It consists of four treatises on _Hawking_,
_Hunting_, _The Lynage of Coote Armiris_, and _The Blasynge of Armis_.
She was said to be the _dau._ of Sir James B., and to have been Prioress
of Sopwell Nunnery, Herts.

BERNERS, JOHN BOURCHIER, 2ND LORD (1467-1553).--Translator, _b._ at
Sherfield, Herts and _ed._ at Oxf., held various offices of state,
including that of Chancellor of the Exchequer to Henry VIII., and
Lieutenant of Calais, where he _d._ He translated, at the King's desire,
_Froissart's Chronicles_ (1523-25), in such a manner as to make distinct
advance in English historical writing, and the _Golden Book of Marcus
Aurelius_ (1534); also _The History of Arthur of Lytell Brytaine_
(Brittany), and the romance of _Huon of Bordeaux_.

BESANT, SIR WALTER (1836-1901).--Novelist and historian of London, _b._
at Portsmouth and _ed._ at King's Coll., London, and Camb., was for a few
years a professor at Mauritius, but a breakdown in health compelled him
to resign, and he returned to England and took the duties of Secretary to
the Palestine Exploration Fund, which he held 1868-85. He _pub._ in 1868
_Studies in French Poetry_. Three years later he began his collaboration
with James Rice (_q.v._). Among their joint productions are _Ready-money
Mortiboy_ (1872), and the _Golden Butterfly_ (1876), both, especially the
latter, very successful. This connection was brought to an end by the
death of Rice in 1882. Thereafter B. continued to write voluminously at
his own hand, his leading novels being _All in a Garden Fair_, _Dorothy
Forster_ (his own favourite), _Children of Gibeon_, and _All Sorts and
Conditions of Men_. The two latter belonged to a series in which he
endeavoured to arouse the public conscience to a sense of the sadness of
life among the poorest classes in cities. In this crusade B. had
considerable success, the establishment of The People's Palace in the
East of London being one result. In addition to his work in fiction B.
wrote largely on the history and topography of London. His plans in this
field were left unfinished: among his books on this subject is _London in
the 18th Century_.

Other works among novels are _My Little Girl_, _With Harp and Crown_,
_This Son of Vulcan_, _The Monks of Thelema_, _By Celia's Arbour_, and
_The Chaplain of the Fleet_, all with Rice; and _The Ivory Gate_, _Beyond
the Dreams of Avarice_, _The Master Craftsman_, _The Fourth Generation_,
etc., alone. _London under the Stuarts_, _London under the Tudors_ are

BICKERSTAFFE, ISAAC (_c._ 1735-1812?).--Dramatic writer, in early life a
page to Lord Chesterfield when Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, produced
between 1756 and 1771 many dramatic pieces, which had considerable
popularity, the best known of which are _Love in a Village_ (1762), and
_The Maid of the Mill_. Owing to misconduct he was dismissed from being
an officer in the Marines, and had ultimately, in 1772, to fly the
country. The remainder of his life seems to have been passed in penury
and misery. The date of his death is unknown. He was alive in 1812.


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