After Waterloo: Reminiscences of European Travel 1815-1819
Major W. E Frye

Part 5 out of 8

was brought from America. Nothing can be more rich than this plafond. The
above forty columns belonged formerly to the temple of Juno Lucina. It is
singular that the ceremony of the _accouchement_ of the Virgin and the
birth of Christ should be performed here. On the 24th December this
pantomime is regularly acted, and crowds of all sorts of people attend,
particularly women. At the moment that the Virgin is supposed to be
delivered a salve of artillery announces the good tidings. This is
singular, I say, when one recollects the peculiar attributes of Juno Lucina
and the assistance she was supposed to give to persons in the same

You cannot expect me to detail to you all the riches in precious stones and
gifts of pious princes that adorn the several chapels of this and other
churches; but they appear to contain every stone and jewel mentioned in the
Arabian Nights as being to be found in the cave where Aladdin was left by
the magician; and it must be allowed that the Popes have been remarkably
adroit inchanters in conjuring to Rome all the riches of the Earth.

The church of St John Lateran is larger and more striking as to its
exterior and as to its architecture than that of Santa Maria Maggiore, but
it is not so charged with ornament and there is scarce any gilding. There
is a simple elegance about it that I think far more pleasing than the
magnificence of Santa Maria.

St John Lateran contains several beautiful pieces of sculpture in white
marble, rather larger than the usual size of man, of the twelve Apostles,
six on one side of the nave and six on the other; and above them are
bas-reliefs, also in marble, representing the various scenes from the
history of the Old and New Testament. These twelve statues are admirably
well executed and they give to this temple an air of simple grandeur. In
this church are very few paintings on mosaics, but little gilding and no
superfluous ornaments. Sculpture is, in my opinion, far more appropriate to
a place of worship than paintings or dazzling ornaments. Another very
striking beauty of this noble and venerable temple are the columns it
contains some of which are in granite and others of the most beautiful
_verd-antique_. There are besides two superb Corinthian columns of bronze
which adorn one of the altars. Among the chapels of this Cathedral is one
belonging to the Corsini family, which is probably the richest in Europe,
and contains more precious stones and marbles than any other. Yet as this
and the other chapels are in recesses and separated from the aisles of the
church by large bronze gates, you cannot see their contents till you enter
the said chapels; and thus your attention is not diverted by them from the
contemplation of the simple grandeur of the columns and statues which adorn
the body of the temple.

The bronze columns above mentioned were taken from the temple of Jupiter
Capitolinus. On one side in front of the church of St John Lateran stands
an immense Egyptian Obelisk 115 feet in height, brought from Egypt to Rome
in the time of Constantine.

I think the placing of these Obelisks in front of the facade of the most
remarkable edifices is an excellent arrangement, as they are never-failing
landmarks to distinguish from afar off the edifices to which they belong.
This Obelisk was found in the _Circus Maximus_, from which it was removed
and placed on this spot by Sixtus V. A large Orphan establishment is close
to this church; and close to it also the _Battisterio_ of Constantine,
which rests on forty-eight columns of porphyry, said to be the finest in
Europe. Another church in the vicinity contains _La Scala Santa_ or holy
staircase of marble which, according to the tradition, adorned Pontius
Pilate's palace at Jerusalem, and on which identical staircase Jesus Christ
ascended to be interrogated by Pilate. The tradition further says that it
was transported to Rome by Angels. This staircase has twenty-eight steps,
and no one is allowed to mount it except on his knees. Nobody ever descends
it, but there are two other _escaliers_ parallel to it, one on the right
hand, the other on the left, by which you descend in the usual manner. Not
being aware of this ceremony, I, on entering the edifice, began to ascend
the _escalier_ which was nearest to me, which proved to be the _Scala
Santa_, for no sooner had I begun to ascend it as I would any other flight
of steps than two or three voices screamed out: "_Signore! O signore! a
ginocchia; o'e la scala santa_!" I asked what was meant and was then told
the whole story, and that it was necessary to mount this staircase on one's
knees or not at all. This I did not think worth the trouble, being quite
contented with beholding it. The marble of this staircase is much worn by
the number of devout people who ascend it in this manner, and this
ceremony, aided by a _quantum suff_ of faith is no doubt of great efficacy.

The fourth church in estimation, and I believe the next ancient in Rome to
St John Lateran, is the church of _San Paolo fuor della mura_, so called
from its being situated outside the gates of the city. It is of immense
size, but out of repair and neglected. The most striking object of its
architectural contents are the 120 columns of Parian marble which support
its nave.

_St Pietro in Vincoli_ is chiefly remarkable for its being built near the
dungeon where, according to the tradition, St Peter was confined and from
whence he was released by Angels; its chief ornament is the colossal statue
of Moses. Somewhere close to this place are shewn the ruins of the
Mamertine prison where Jugurtha was incarcerated and died.

There are in Rome about three hundred other churches, all of which can
boast of very interesting and valuable contents. One in particular called
the Portuguese Church is uncommonly beautiful tho' small; another, that of
St Ignazio, or the Jesuits' church, is vast and imposing, and very fine
singing is occasionally to be heard there.

ROME, 21st Sept.

The Palace occupied by the Pope is that of the Quirinal, standing on the
Quirinal Hill, which is commonly called _Monte Cavallo_ from the statues of
the two _Hippodamoi_ or tamers of horses, thought to be meant for Castor
and Pollux which stand on this hill; this group is surmounted by an
Egyptian obelisk. These statues are said to be the work of Phidias; but
there is a terrible disproportion between the men and the horses they are
leading; they give you the idea of Brobdignagians leading Shetland ponies.
The Quirinal palace is every way magnificent and worthy of the Sovereign
Pontiff; there are large grounds annexed to it; it stands nearly in the
centre of Rome and from this palace are dated the Papal edicts. The Pope
resides here during the whole year, with the exception of three or four
months in the hot season, when he repairs to Castel Gandolfo near la

Of the fountains the grandest and most striking is that of Trevi, which
lies at the foot of Quirinal Hill. Here is a magnificent group in marble of
Neptune, in his car in the shape of a mussel-shell drawn by Sea-horses and
surrounded by Nymphs and Tritons. An immense basin of white marble, as
large as a moderate sized pond, receives the water which gushes from the
nostrils of the Sea-horses and from the mouths of the Tritons. There is a
very good and just remark made on the subject of this group by Stolberg,
viz. the attention of Neptune seems too much directed towards one of his
horses, a piece of minutiae more worthy of a charioteer endeavouring to
turn a difficult corner, than of the God who at a word could control the
winds and tranquillize the Ocean.

The fountain Termina, so called from its vicinity to the Thermes of
Diocletian, is the next remarkable fountain. Here is a colossal statue of
Moses striking the rock and causing the water to gush forth. The grandeur
and majesty of this statue would be more striking but for the incongruity
of the arcades on each side of the rock, and the two lions in black basalt
who spout water. Moses and the rock would have been sufficient. Simplicity
is, in my opinion, the soul of architecture, and where is there in all
history a subject more peculiarly adapted to a fountain than this part of
the history of Moses?

The Fountain Paolina is a fountain that springs from under a beautiful
arcade, but there are no statues nor bas-reliefs. It is a plain neat
fountain and the water is esteemed the best in Rome. This fountain is
situated on the Janicule Hill, from which you have perhaps the best view of
Rome; as it re-unites more than any other position, at one _coup d'oeil_,
both the modern and debris of the ancient city, without the view of the one
interfering with or being intercepted by the other. From here you can
distinguish rums of triumphal arches, broken columns, aqueducts, etc., as
far as the eye can reach. It demonstrates what an immense extent of ground
ancient Rome must have covered. Near the fountain is the church where St
Peter is said to have suffered martyrdom with his head downwards.

The Column of Trajan is near the fountain Trevi, and it stands in an
inclosure, the pavement of which is seven feet lower than the _piazza_ on
which it stands. The inclosure is walled round. Had not this excavation
been made, one third of the column (lower part) would not be seen. The
_Piazza_, on which this column stands is called _Il foro Trajano_. The
column represents Trajan's triumphs over the Daci, Quadi and Marcomanni,
and is the model from whence Napoleon's column of the Grand Army in the
_Place Vendome_ at Paris is taken. A statue of St Peter stands on this

The Column of Antoninus stands on the _Piazza Colonna_; on it are
sculptured the victories gained by that Emperor. Round this column it has
not been necessary to make excavations. On this column stands the statue of
St Paul.

Amongst the immense variety of edifices and ruins of edifices which most
interest the antiquarian are the Thermes of Diocletian. Here are four
different semi-circular halls, two of which were destined for philosophers,
one for poets and one for orators; baths; a building for tennis or rackets;
three open courts, one for the exercise of the discus, one for athletes and
one for hurling the javelin. Of this vast building part is now a
manufactory, and the hall of the wrestlers is a Carthusian church.

I have now, I believe, visited most, if not all that is to be seen in Rome.
I have visited the Pyramid of Cestius, the tomb of Metella, I have
consulted, the nymph Egeria, smelled at the _Cloaca Maxima_; in fine, I
have given in to all the _singeries_ of _pedantry_ and _virtu_ with as much
ardour as Martinus Scriblerus himself would have done. But it yet remains
for me to speak of the most interesting exhibition that modern Rome can
boast, and of the most interesting person in it and in all Italy, and that
is the atelier of Canova and Canova himself, the greatest sculptor,
perhaps, either of ancient or modern times, except the mighty unknown who
conceived and executed the Apollo of the Vatican.

In the atelier of Canova the most remarkable statues I observed are: a
group of Hector and Ajax of colossal size, not quite finished; a Centaur,
also colossal; a Hebe; two Ballerine or dancing girls, one of which
rivetted my attention most particularly. She is reclining against a tree
with her cheek _appuyed_ on one hand; one of her feet is uplifted and laid
along the other leg as if she were reposing from a dance. The extreme
beauty of the leg and foot, the pulpiness of the arms, the expressive
sweetness of the face, and the resemblance of the marble to wax in point of
mellowness, gives to this beautiful statue the appearance of a living
female _brunette_. It was a long time before I could withdraw my eyes from
that lovely statue.

The next object that engaged my attention was a group representing a Nymph
reclining on a couch _semi-supine_, and a Cupid at her feet. The luxurious
contour of the form of this Nymph is beyond expression and reminded me of
the description of Olympia:

Le parti che solea coprir la stola
Fur di tanta eccellenza, ch'anteporse
A quante n'avea il mondo potean forse.[91]

Parts which are wont to be concealed by gown
Are such, as haply should be placed before
Whate'er this ample world contains in store.

--Trans. W.S. ROSE

This group is destined for the Prince Regent of England. Another beautiful
group represents the three Graces; this is intended for the Duke of
Bedford. Were it given to me to chuse for myself among all the statues in
the atelier of Canova, I should chuse these three, viz., the Ballerina, the
Nymph reclining, and this group of the Graces.

Canova certainly is inimitable in depicting feminine beauty, grace and
delicacy. Among the other statues in this atelier the most prominent are: a
statue of the Princess Leopoldina Esterhazy in the attitude of drawing on a
tablet with this inscription:

_Anch'io voglio tentar l'arte del bello._

This lady is, it seems, a great proficient in painting.

Here too are the moulds of the different statues made by Canova, the
statues themselves having been finished long ago and disposed of; viz., of
the Empress Maria Louisa of France; of the mother of Napoleon (_Madame
Mere_ as she is always called) in the costume and attitude of Agrippina; of
a colossal statue of Napoleon (the statue itself is, I believe, in the
possession of Wellington.[92]) Here too is the bust of Canova by Canova
himself, besides a great variety of bas-reliefs and busts of individuals,
models of monuments, etc.

And now, my friend, I have given you a _precis_ not of all that I have
seen, but of what has most interested me and made on my mind impressions
that can never be effaced. I trust entirely to my memory, for I made no
notes on the spot. Many of the things I have seen too much in a hurry to
form accurate ideas and judgment thereon; most of what we see here is shewn
to us like the figures in a _lanterna magica_, for in the various _palazzi_
and villas the servants who exhibit them hurry you from room to room,
impatient to receive your fee and to get rid of you. I am about to depart
for Naples. On my return to Rome I shall not think of revisiting the
greater number of the _palazzi_, villas and churches; but there are some
things I shall very frequently revisit and these are the two Museums of the
Vatican and of the Capitol, St Peter's, the Coliseum and antiquities in its
neighbourhood, the Pantheon, and last but not least the atelier of the
incomparable Canova.

You may perhaps be unwilling to let me depart from Rome without some
information as to theatricals. With regard to these, Rome must hang down
her head, for the pettiest town in all the rest of Italy or France is
better provided with this sort of amusement than Rome. There is a theatre
called _Teatro della Valle_, where there is a very indifferent set of
actors, and this is the only theatre which is open throughout the year.
Comedies only and farces are given. The theatres Aliberti and Argentino are
open during the Carnaval only. Operas are given at the Argentino, and
masquerades at the Aliberti. But in fact the lovers of Operas and of the
Drama must not come to Rome for gratification. It is not considered
conformable to the dignity and sanctity of an ecclesiastical government to
patronize them; and it is not the custom or etiquette for the Pope,
Cardinals or higher Clergy ever to visit them. The consequence is that no
performer of any consideration or talent is engaged to sing at Rome, except
one or two by chance at the time of the Carnaval. In amends for this you
have a good deal of music at the houses of individuals who hold
_conversazioni_ or assemblies; in which society would flag very much but
for the music, which prevents many a yawn, and which is useful and
indispensable in Italy to make the evening pass, as cards are in England.

I intend to stop several days here on my return from Naples, for which
place I shall start the day after to-morrow having engaged a place in a
_vettura_ for two and half _louis d'or_ and to be _spesato_. I am not to be
deterred from my journey by the many stories of robberies and
assassinations which are said to occur so frequently on that road.

By the bye, talking of robberies and murders, a man was executed the day
before yesterday on the _Piazza del Popolo_ for a triple murder. I saw the
guillotine, which is now the usual mode of punishment, fixed on the centre
of the _Piazza_ and the criminal escorted there by a body of troops; but I
did not stop to witness the decapitation, having no taste for that sort of
_pleasuring_. This man richly deserved his punishment.

[84] These lines are from Voltaire's _Henriade_, a poem which no Frenchman
reads nowadays, but that Major Frye could quote from memory. The
correct reading of the first verse is: _Des pretres fortunes_, etc.
(_Henriade_, canto iv. ed. Kehl, vol. x, p. 97.)--ED.

[85] Horace, _Sat_., 1, 9, 4.--ED.

[86] Lady Elizabeth Hervey, second wife of William, fifth Duke of
Devonshire (1809); died March, 1824.--ED.

[87] A singular slip of the pen; Frye must have known that the equestrian
statue is a Roman work--ED.

[88] Ariosto, Orlando Furioso, xxxiii, 2, 4.--ED.

[89] See Lucian, _Imag._, iv; _Amores_, xv, xvi.--ED.

[90] Major Frye's description is incorrect in many particulars, on which it
seemed unnecessary to draw attention.--ED.

[91] Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_, XI, 67, 6.

[92] That colossal marble statue was given to the Duke of Wellington by
Louis XVIII, and is still to be seen in London, at Apsley House.--ED.


From Rome to Naples--Albano--Velletri--The Marshes--Terracina--Mola di
Gaeta--Capua--The streets of Naples--Monuments and Museums--Visit to
Pompeii and ascent to Vesuvius--Dangerous ventures--Puzzuoli and
Baiae--Theatres at Naples--Pulcinello--Return to Rome--Tivoli.

I started from Rome on the 26th September; in the same _vettura_ I found an
intelligent young Frenchman of the name of R---- D----, a magistrate in
Corsica, who was travelling in Italy for his amusement. There were besides
a Roman lawyer and not a very bright one by the bye; and a fat woman who
was going to Naples to visit her lover, a Captain in the Austrian service,
a large body of Austrian troops being still at Naples. We issued from Rome
by the _Porta Latina_ and reached Albano (the ancient Alba) sixteen miles
distant at twelve o'clock. We reposed there two hours which gave me an
opportunity of visiting the _Villa Doria_ where there are magnificent
gardens. These gardens form the promenade of the families who come to
Albano to pass the heat of the summer and to avoid the effect of the
exhalations of the marshy country about Rome.

As Albano is situated on an eminence, you have a fine view of the whole
plain of Latium and Rome in perspective. The country of Latium however is
flat, dreary and monotonous; it affords pasture to an immense quantity of
black cattle, such as buffaloes, etc.

Just outside of Albano, on the route to Naples, is a curious ancient
monument called _Il sepolcro degli Orazj e Curiazj._ It is built of brick,
is extremely solid, of singular appearance, from its being a square
monument, flanked at each angle by a tower in the shape of a cone. It is of
an uncouth rustic appearance and must certainly have been built before

_Grecia capia ferum victorem cepit et artes
Intulit agresti Latio....._[93]

and I see no reason against its being the sepulchre of the Horatii and
Curiatii, particularly as it stands so near Alba where the battle was
fought; but be this as it may there is nothing like faith in matters of
antiquity; the sceptic can have little pleasure.

The country on leaving Albano becomes diversified, woody and picturesque.
Near Gensano is the beautiful lake of Nemi, and it is the spot feigned by
the poets as the scene of the amours of Mars and Rhea Silvia. Near Gensano
also is the country residence of the Sovereign Pontiffs called Castel
Gandolfo. La Riccia, the next place we passed thro', is the ancient Aricia,
mentioned in Horace's journey to Brundusium. We arrived in the evening at

Velletri is a large town or rather city situated on a mountain, to which
you ascend by a winding road skirting a beautiful forest. From the terrace
of one of the _Palazzi_ here, you have a superb view of all the plain below
as far as the rock of Circe, comprehending the Pontine marshes. There are
several very fine buildings at Velletri, and it is remarkable as being the
birthplace of Augustus Caesar. There is a spacious _Piazza_ too on which
stands a bronze statue of Pope Urban VIII. Velletri is twenty-eight miles
from Rome.

The next morning, the 27th, we started early so as to arrive by six o'clock
in the evening at Terracina. At Cisterna is a post-house and at Torre tre
Ponti is a convent, a beautiful building, but now delapidated and
neglected. Near it is a wretched inn, where however you are always sure to
find plenty of game to eat. Here begin the Pontine marshes and the famous
Appian road which runs in a right line for twenty-five miles across the
marshes. It was repaired and perfectly reconstructed by Pius VI, and from
him it bears its present appellation of _Linea Pia_. This convent and
church were also constructed by Pius VI with a view to facilitate the
draining and cultivating of the marshes by affording shelter to the
workmen. The _Linea Pia_ is a very fine _chaussee_ considerably raised
above the level of the marsh, well paved, lined with trees and a canal sunk
on one side to carry off the waters. The Pontine marshes extend all the way
from Torre tre Ponti to Terracina. On the left hand side, on travelling
from Rome to Naples, you have two miles or thereabouts of plain bounded by
lofty mountains; on the right a vast marshy plain bounded by the sea at a
distance of seven or eight miles. Nothing can be more monotonous than this
strait road twenty-five miles in length, and the same landscape the whole
way. The air is extremely damp, aguish and unhealthy. Those who travel late
in the evening or early in the morning are recommended not to let down the
glasses of the carriage, in order to avoid inhaling the pestilential miasma
from the marshes, which even the canal has not been able to drain

No one can find amusement in this desolate region but the sportsman; and he
may live in continual enjoyment, and slay wild ducks and snipes in
abundance; a number of buffaloes are to be seen grazing on the marshes.
They are not to be met with to the North of Rome. They resemble entirely
the buffaloes of Egypt and India, being black, and they are very terrific
looking animals to the northern traveller, who beholds them here for the
first time.

These marshes supply Rome abundantly with waterfowl and other game of all
kinds. Every _vetturino_ who is returning to Rome, on passing by, buys a
quantity, for a mere trifle, from the peasantry, who employ themselves much
_a la chasse_, and he is certain to sell them again at Rome for three or
four times the price he paid, and even then it appears marvellous cheap to
an Englishman, accustomed as he is to pay a high price for game in his own

We arrived a little before six at Terracina, which is on the banks of the
Mediterranean and may be distinguished at a great distance by its white
buildings. The chain of mountains on the left of our road hither form a
sort of arch to the chord of the _linea Pia_ and terminates one end of the
arch by meeting the _linea Pia_ at Terracina, which forms what the sailors
call a bluff point. Terracina stands on the situation of the ancient Anxur
and the description of it by Horace in his Brundusian journey;

Impositum saxis late candentibus Anxur[94]

is perfectly applicable even now. It is a handsome looking city and is the
last town in the Pope's territory: part of it is situated on the mountain
and part on the plain at its foot close to the sea.

The fine white buildings on the heights, the temple of Jupiter Anxurus (of
which the facade and many columns remain entire) towering above them, the
orange trees and the sea, afford a view doubly pleasing and grateful to the
traveller after the dreary landscape of the Pontine Marshes. There is but
one inn at Terracina but that is a very large one; there is, however, but
very indifferent fare and bad attendance. The innkeeper is a sad
over-reaching rascal, who fleeces in the most unmerciful manner the
traveller who is not _spesato_. He is obliged to furnish those who are
_spesati_ with supper and lodging at the _vetturino's_ price; but he always
grumbles at it, gives the worst supper he can and bestows it as if he were
giving alms. As the road between Terracina and Fondi (the first Neapolitan
town) is said to be at times infested by robbers, few travellers care to
start till broad daylight. We did so accordingly the following morning. On
arriving at a place called the _Epitafio_, from there being an ancient tomb
there, we took leave of the last Roman post. At one mile and half beyond
the _Epitafio_ is the first Neapolitan post at a place called _Torre de'
Confini_, where we were detained half an hour to have our passports
examined and our portmanteaus searched. Three miles beyond this post is the
miserable and dirty town of Fondi, wherein our baggage again underwent a
strict search. On leaving Terracina the road strikes inland and has
mountains covered with wood to the right and to the left, nor do we behold
the sea again till just before we arrive at Mola di Gaeta, which is an
exceeding long straggling town on its banks; several fishing vessels lie
here and it is here that part of the Bay of Naples begins to open. The
country from Terracina to Fondi is uncultivated and very mountainous;
between Fondi and Mola di Gaeta it is pretty well cultivated; Itri, thro'
which we passed, is a long, dirty, wretched looking village.

The next day at twelve o'clock we arrived and stopped to dine at St Agatha,
a miserable village, with a very bad tho' spacious inn the half of which is
unroofed. We arrived at Capua the same evening having passed the rivers
Garigliano and Volturno, and leaving the Falernian Hills on our left during
part of the road. The landscape is very varied on this route, sometimes
mountainous, sometimes thro' a rich plain in full cultivation.

Capua is a fortified town situated in a flat country and marshy withal. It
is a gloomy, dirty looking city and whatever may have been its splendour
and allurements in ancient times, it at present offers nothing inviting or
remarkable. The lower classes of the people of this town are such thieves
that our _vetturino_ recommended us to remove every thing from the carriage
into our bed rooms, so that we had the trouble of repacking every thing
next morning. Capua is the only place on the whole route where it is
necessary to take the trunks from the carriage. From Capua to Naples is
twenty miles; a little beyond Capua are the remains of a large Amphitheatre
and this is all that exists to attest the splendour of ancient Capua. The
road between Capua and Naples presents on each side one of the richest and
most fruitful countries I ever beheld. It is a perfect garden the whole
way. The _chaussee_ is lined with fruit trees. Halfway is the town or
_borgo_ of Aversa which is large, well-built, opulent and populous. We
entered Naples at one o'clock, drove thro' the _strada di Toledo_ and from
thence to the _largo di Medina_ where we put up at the inn called the
_Aquila nera_. A cordon of Austrian troops lines the whole high road from
Fondi to the gates of Naples; and there are double sentries at a distance
of one mile from each other the whole way.

NAPLES, Octr. 5th.

In Naples the squares or _Piazze_ are called _Larghi_; they are exceedingly
irregular as to shape; a trapezium would be the most appropriate
denomination for them. The _Largo di Medina_ is situated close to the Mole
and light house and is not far from the _Largo del Palazzo_ where the Royal
Palace stands, nor from the _Strada di Toledo_, which is the most bustling
part of the town. On the Mole and sometimes in the _Largo di Medini_
Pulcinello holds forth all day long, quacks scream out the efficacy of
their nostrums and _improvisatori_ recite battles of Paladins. Here and in
the _Strada di Toledo_ the noise made by the vendors of vegetables, fruit,
lemonade, iced water and water-melons, who on holding out their wares to
view, scream out "_O che bella cosa_!"--the noise and bustle of the cooks'
shops in the open air and the cries of "_Lavora_!" made by the drivers of
_calessini_ (sort of carriage) makes such a deafening _tintamarre_ that you
can scarcely hear the voice of your companion who walks by your side. In
the _Largo del Palazzo_ there is always a large assembly of officers and
others, besides a tolerable quantity of _ruffiani_, who fasten upon
strangers in order to recommend to them their female acquaintances. A
little further is the Quai of St Lucia, where the fish market is held, and
here the cries increase. The quantity of fish of all sorts caught in the
bay and exposed for sale in the market is immense and so much more than can
be sold, that the rest is generally given away to the _Lazzaroni_. Here are
delicious mullets, oysters, whitings, soles, prawns, etc. There is on the
Quai of St Lucia a _restaurant_ where naught but fish is served, but that
is so well dressed and in such variety that amateurs frequently come to
dine here on _maigre_ days; for two _carlini_[95] you may eat fish of all
sorts and bread at discretion. The wine is paid for extra. On the Quai of
St Lucia is a fountain of mineral water which possesses the most admirable
qualities for opening the _primae viae_ and purifying the blood. It is an
excellent drink for bilious people or for those afflicted with abdominal
obstructions and diseases of the liver. It has a slight sulfurous mixed
with a ferruginous taste, and is impregnated with a good deal of fixed air,
which makes it a pleasant beverage. It should be taken every morning
fasting. The presidency over this fountain is generally monopolized by a
piscatory nymph who expects a _grano_ for the trouble of filling you a
glass or two. In reaching it to you she never fails to exclaim _"Buono per
le natiche,"_ and it certainly has a very rapid effect; I look upon it as
more efficacious than the Cheltenham waters and it is certainly much more
agreeable in taste. At the end of the Quai of St Lucia is the _Castello
dell 'Uovo,_ a Gothic fortress, before the inner gate of which hangs an
immense stuffed crocodile. This crocodile is said to have been found alive
in the _fosse_ of the castle, but how he came there has never been
explained; there is an old woman's story that he came every day to the
dungeon where prisoners were confined, and took out one for his dinner. The
_Castello dell 'Uovo_ stands on the extremity of a tongue of land which
runs into the sea. After passing the _Castello dell 'Uovo_ I came to the
_Chiaia_ or Quai properly so called, which is the most agreeable part of
Naples and the favorite promenade of the _beau-monde._ The finest buildings
and _Palazzi_ line the _Chiaia_ on the land side and above them all tower
the Castle of St Elmo and the _Chartreuse_ with several villas intervening.
The garden of the _Chiaia_ contains gravel walks, grass plots, alleys of
trees, fountains, plantations of orange, myrtle and laurel trees which give
a delightful fragrance to the air; and besides several other statues, it
boasts of one of the finest groups in Europe, called the _Toro Farnese._ It
is a magnificent piece of sculpture and represents three men endeavouring
to hold a ferocious bull. It is a pity, however, that so valuable a piece
of sculpture should be exposed to the vicissitudes of the season in the
open air. The marble has evidently suffered much by it. Why is such a
valuable piece of sculpture not preserved in the Museum?

On the _Chiaia_ are _restaurants_ and _cafes_. 'Tis here also that the
nobility display their carriages and horses, it being the fashionable drive
in the afternoon: and certainly, except in London, I have never seen such a
brilliant display of carriages as at Naples.

The principal street at Naples is the _Strada di Toledo_. It resembles the
_Rue St Honore_ and can boast of as much wealth in its shops. The houses
are good, solid and extremely lofty, and the streets are paved with lava.
There are two excellent _restaurants_ at Naples, one in the _Largo del
Palazzo_, nearly opposite the Royal Palace, called the _Villa di Napoli_;
the other not far from it in the _Strada di Toledo_, called _La Corona di
Ferro_. Naples is renowned for the excellency of its ices. You have them in
the shape of all kinds of fruit and wonderfully cheap. Many of the ice
houses and _caffes_ remain open day and night; as do some of the gaming
tables, which are much frequented by the upper classes. The theatre of St
Carlo, which was consumed last year by fire, is rising rapidly from its
ashes and will soon be finished. In the mean time Operas are performed at
the _Teatro Fondi_, a moderate sized theatre. I here saw performed the
opera of _Don Giovanni_ of Mozart, with the _ballo_ of _La pazza per
amore_. Mme Colbran, a Spanish lady, is the _Prima Donna_ and an excellent

In all the private societies at Naples a great deal of gaming goes on, and
at some houses those visitors, who do not play, are coolly received. The
following may be considered as a very fair specimen of the life of a young
man of rank and fashion at Naples. He rises about two p.m., takes his
chocolate, saunters about in the _Strada di Toledo_ or in the _Largo del
Palazzo_ for an hour or two, then takes a _promenade a cheval_ on the
_Chiaia_; dines between six and seven; goes to the Opera where he remains
till eleven or half-past eleven; he then saunters about in the different
Cafes for an hour or two; and then repairs to the gaming table at the
_Ridotto_, which he does not quit till broad daylight. The ladies find a
great resource in going to church, which serves to pass away the time that
is not spent in bed, or at the Opera, or at the _promenade en voiture_. The
ladies seldom take exercise on foot at Naples. There being very little
taste for litterature in this vast metropolis, the most pleasant society is
among the foreign families who inhabit Naples or at the houses of the
_Corps diplomatique_. There is, however, a good _cabinet litteraire_ and
library in the _Strada di San Giacomo_, where various French and Italian
newspapers may be read. The Austrians occupy the greater part of the
military posts at Naples; at the Royal Palace however the Sicilian guards
do duty; they are clothed in scarlet and _a anglaise_.

NAPLES, 8th Octr.

One day I went to visit the Museum or _Studii_, as it is called, which is
situated at the extremity of the _Strada di Toledo_ on the land side. Here
is a superb collection of sculpture and painting; and this building
contains likewise the national library, and a choice and unique collection
of Etruscan vases. A large hall contains these vases, which were found at
Pompeii[96]; they are much admired for their beauty and simplicity; each
vase has a mythological or historical painting on it. In this Museum I was
shewn the rolls of papyrus found in Pompeii and Herculaneum and the method
of unrolling them. The work to unroll which they are now employed at this
Museum is a Greek treatise on philosophy by Epicurus. It is a most delicate
operation to unroll these leaves, and with the utmost possible care it is
impossible to avoid effacing many of the letters, and even sentences, in
the act of unrolling. It must require also considerable learning and skill
in the Greek language, combined with a good deal of practise, to supply the
deficiency of the words effaced. When these manuscripts are put in print,
the letters that remain on the papyrus are put in black type, and the words
guessed at are supplied in red; so that you see at one glance what letters
have been preserved, and what are supplied to replace those effaced by the
operation of unrolling; and in this manner are all the papyrus manuscripts'

_Visit to Pompeii and Ascent of Vesuvius_.

_11th Oct_.

We returned, Mr R---- D---- and I, from our visit to Vesuvius, half dead
with fatigue from having had little or no rest the whole night, about three
o'clock to Naples.

We left Naples in a _caleche_ yesterday after breakfast and drove to
Portici. Portici, Resina, and Torre del Greco are beautiful little towns on
the sea-shore of the bay of Naples or rather they may be termed a
continuation of the city, as they are close together in succession, and the
interval filled up with villas. The distance from the gates of Naples to
Portici is three miles. The road runs through the court yard of the Royal
Palace at Portici which has a large archway at its entrance and sortie. We
proceeded to Resina and alighted in order to descend under ground to
Herculaneum, Resina being built on the spot where Herculaneum stood. There
are always guides on this road on the look out for travellers; one
addressed us, and conducted us to a house where we alighted and entered.
Our guide then prepared a flambeau, and having unlocked and lifted up a
trap door invited us to descend. A winding _rampe_ under ground leads to
Herculaneum. We discovered a large theatre with its proscenium, seats,
corridors, vomitories, etc., and we were enabled, having two lighted
torches with us, to read the inscriptions. Some statues that were found
here have been removed to the Museum at Portici. This is the only part of
Herculaneum that has been excavated; for if any further excavations were
attempted, the whole town of Resina, which is built over it, would fall in.
Herculaneum no doubt contains many things of value, but it would be rather
too desperate a stake to expose the town of Resina to certain ruin, for the
sake of what _might_ be found. At Pompeii the case is very different, there
being nothing built over its site.

After having satisfied our curiosity here, we regained the light of heaven
in Resina, and proceeded to Pompeii, which is seven miles further, the
total distance from Naples to Pompeii being ten miles. The part of Pompeii
already discovered looks like a town with the houses unroofed situated in a
deep gravel or sand pit, the depth of which is considerably greater than
the height of the buildings standing in it. You descend into it from the
brink, which is on a level with the rest of the country; Pompeii is
consequently exposed to the open air, and you have neither to go under
ground, nor to use _flambeaux_ as at Herculaneum, but simply to descend as
into a pit. There is always a guard stationed at Pompeii to protect the
place from delapidation and thefts of antiquarians. From its resembling, as
I have already said, a town in the centre of a deep gravel pit, you come
upon it abruptly and on looking down you are surprized to see a city newly
brought to day. The streets and houses here remain entire, the roofs of the
houses excepted, which fell in by the effect of the excavation; so that you
here behold a Roman city nearly in the exact state it was hi when it was
buried under the ashes of Vesuvius, during its first eruption in the year
79 of the Christian era. It does not appear to me that the catastrophe of
Pompeii could have been occasioned by an earthquake, for if so the streets
and houses would not be found upright and entire: it appears rather to have
been caused by the showers of ashes and _ecroulement_ of the mountain,
which covered it up and buried it for ever from the sight of day. The first
place our guide took us to see was a superb Amphitheatre about half as
large as the Coliseum: the arena and seats are perfect, and all the
interior is perfectly cleared out: so are the dens where the wild beasts
were kept; so that you look down into this amphitheatre as into a vast
basin standing on its brink, which is on a level with the rest of the
ground around it, and by means of the seats and passages you may descend
into the _arena_. This Amphitheatre is at a short distance from the rest of
the town. What is at present discovered of this city consists of a long
street with several off-sets of streets issuing from it: a temple, two
theatres, a praetorium, a large barrack, and a peculiarly large house or
villa belonging probably to some eminent person, but no doubt when the
excavation shall be recommenced many more streets will be discovered, as
from the circumstance of there being an amphitheatre, two other theatres
and a number of sepulchral monuments outside the gates, it must have been a
city of great consequence. Most of the houses seem to have had two stories;
the roofs fell in of course by the act of excavation, but the columns
remain entire. I observe that the general style of building in Pompeii in
most of the houses is as follows: that in each building there is a court
yard in the centre, something like the court yard of a convent, which is
sometimes paved in mosaic, and generally surrounded by columns; in the
middle of this court is a fountain or basin: the court has no roof and the
wings of the house form a quadrangle environing it. The windows and doors
of the rooms are made in the interior sides of the quadrangle looking into
the court yard; on the exterior there appears to be only a small latticed
window near the top of the room to admit light. I have seen in Egypt and in
India similarly built houses, and it is the general style of building in
Andalusia and Barbary. In the rooms are niches in the walls for lamps,
precisely in the style of the Moorish buildings in India.

In many of the chambers of the houses at Pompeii are paintings _al fresco_
and arabesques on the walls which on being washed with water appear
perfectly fresh. The subjects of these paintings are generally from the
mythology. In some of the rooms are paintings _al fresco_ of fish, flesh,
fowl and fruit; in others Venus and the Graces at their toilette, from
which we may infer that the former were dining rooms and the latter
boudoirs. A large villa (so I deem it as it stands without the gates) has a
number of rooms, two stories entire and three court yards with fountains,
many beautiful fresco paintings on the walls of the chambers. Annexed to
this villa is a garden arranged in terraces and a fish pond. A covered
gallery supported by pillars on one of the sides of the garden served
probably as a promenade in wet weather. In the cellars of this villa are a
number of _amphorae_ with narrow necks. Had the ancients used corks instead
of oil to stop their _amphorae_, wine eighteen hundred years old might have
been found here. It is not the custom even of the modern Italians to use
corks for the wine they keep for their own use: a spoonful of oil is poured
on the top of the wine in the flask and when they mean to drink it they
extract the oil by means of a lump of cotton fastened to a stick or long
pin which enters the neck of the flask and absorbs and extracts the oil.

Among the buildings discovered in Pompeii is a large Temple of Isis; here
you behold the altar and the pillar to which the beasts of sacrifice were
fastened. In this temple at the time of the first excavation were found all
the instruments of sacrifice and other things appertaining to the worship
of that Goddess. These and other valuables such as statues, coins, utensils
of all sorts were removed to Portici, where they are now to be seen in the
Museum of that place. The _Praetorium_ at Pompeii is the next remarkable
thing; it is a vast enclosure: a great number of columns are standing
upright here and the most of them entire; the steps forming the ascent to
the elevated seat where the Praetor usually sat, remain entire. There is a
large building and court yard near one of the gates of the city supposed to
have been a barrack for soldiers; three skeletons were found here with
their legs in a machine similar to our stocks. The scribbling and
caricatures on the walls of this barrack are perfectly visible and legible.
When one wanders thro' the streets of this singularly interesting city, one
is tempted to think that the inhabitants have just walked out. What a
dreadful lingering death must have befallen these inhabitants who could not
escape from Pompeii at the time of the eruption of Vesuvius which covered
it with ashes. The air could only be exhausted by degrees, so that a
prolonged suffocation or a death by hunger must have been their lot.

Four skeletons were found upright in the streets, having in their hands
boxes containing jewellery and things of value, as if in the act of
endeavouring to make their escape: these must soon have perished, but the
skeleton of a woman found in one of the rooms of the houses close to a bath
shews that her death must have been one of prolonged suffering.

What a fine subject Pompeii would furnish for the pen of a Byron! As I have
before remarked, all the valuables and utensils of all sorts found here
have been removed to Portici; it is a great pity that everything could not
be left in Pompeii in the exact situation in which it was found on its
first discovery at the excavation. What a light it would have thrown (which
no description can give) on the melancholy catastrophe as well as on the
private life and manners of the ancients! But if they had been left here,
they would, even tho' a guard of soldiers were stationed here to protect
them, have been by degrees all stolen.

There were some magnificent tombs just outside the gates which must have
been no small ornament to the city.

We returned to Resina to dinner at six o'clock.

We had made an arrangement with one of the guides of Vesuvius called
Salvatore that he should be ready for us at Resina at seven o'clock with a
mule and driver for each of us to ascend the mountain, and we found him
very punctual at the door of the inn at that hour. The terms of the journey
were as follows. One _scudo_ for Salvatore and one _scudo_ for each mule
and driver for which they were to forward us to the mountain, remain the
whole night and reconduct us to Resina the following morning. The object in
ascending at night and remaining until morning is to combine the night view
of the eruption with the visit (if possible) to the crater, which cannot
with safety be undertaken by night, and to enjoy likewise the noble view at
sunrise of the whole bay and city of Naples and the adjacent islands. We
started therefore at a quarter past seven and arrived at half past nine at
a small house and chapel, called the hermitage of Vesuvius, which is
generally considered as half-way up the mountain. In this house dwells an
old ecclesiastic who receives travellers and furnishes them with a couch
and frugal repast. We dismounted here and our worthy host provided us with
some mortadella and an omelette; and we did not fail to do justice to his
excellent _lacrima Christi_, of which he has always a large provision. We
then betook ourselves to rest, leaving orders to be awakened at two o'clock
in order to proceed further up the mountain. There was a pretty decent
eruption of the mountain, which vomited fire, stones and ashes at an
interval of twenty-five minutes, so that we enjoyed this spectacle during
our ascent. A violent noise, like thunder, accompanies each eruption, which
increases the awefulness and grandeur of the sight. At two o'clock our
guide and muleteers being very punctual, we bade adieu to the hermit,
promising him to come to breakfast with him the next morning; we then
mounted our mules and after an hour's march arrived at the spot where the
ashes and cinders, combined with the steepness of the mountain, prevent the
possibility of going any further except on foot. We dismounted therefore at
this place, and sent back our mules to the hermitage to wait for us there.
We now began to climb among the ashes, and tho' the ascent to the position
of the ancient crater is not more than probably eighty yards in height, we
were at least one hour before we reached it, from its excessive steepness
and from gliding back two feet out of three at every step we made. We at
length reached the old crater and sat ourselves down to repose till
day-break. Tho' it was exceeding cold, the exhalation from the veins of
fire and hot ashes kept us as warm as we could wish: for here every step is

_per ignes
Suppositos cineri doloso_.[97]

We remained on this spot till broad daylight and witnessed several
eruptions at an interval of twenty or twenty-five minutes. I remarked that
the mountain toward the summit forms two cones, one of which vomited fire
and smoke, and the other calcined stones and ashes, accompanied by a
rumbling noise like thunder. The stones came clattering down the flanks of
the mountain and some of them rolled very near us; had we been within the
radius formed by the erupted stones we probably should have been killed.

At daylight Mr R---- D---- proposed to ascend the two cones in spite of the
remonstrances of our guide Salvatore, who told us that no person had yet
been there and that we must expect to be crushed to death by the stones,
should an eruption take place, and that it was almost as much madness to
attempt it, as it would be to walk before a battery of cannon in the act of
being fired. Tho' I did not admit all the force of this comparison, yet I
began to think there was a little too much risk in the attempt; my French
friend however was deaf to all remonstrance and said to me, "_As-tu peur_?"
I replied: "No! that I was at all times very indifferent as to life or
death, but that I did not like pain, and was not at all desirous to have an
arm or leg broken, the former accident having happened to a German a few
days before; nevertheless, I added, if you persist in going, I will
accompany you." We accordingly started to ascend the cone, which vomited
fire and smoke, taking care to place ourselves on the windward side in
ascending, and after much fatigue we arrived in about fifteen minutes close
to the apex of the cone, after groping amidst the ashes and stumbling on a
vein of red hot cinders. My shoes were sadly burnt, my stockings singed and
my feet scorched; my friend was less fortunate, for he tumbled down with
his hands on a vein of red hot cinders and burned them terribly. My great
and principal apprehension in making this ascent was of stumbling upon
holes slightly encrusted with ashes and that the whole might give way and
precipitate me into some _gouffre._ On arrival at the summit of the cone we
had just time to look down and perceive that there was a hole or _gouffre,_
but whether it were very deep or not we could not ascertain, for a blast of
fire and smoke issuing from it at this moment nearly suffocated us; we
immediately lost no time in gliding down the ashes on the side of the cone
on our breech, and reached its base in a few seconds, where we waited till
an eruption took place from the other cone, in order to profit of the
interval to ascend it also. It required four minutes' walk to reach the
base of the other cone and about twelve to ascend to its apex; on arrival
at the brink, where we remained about two minutes, we had just sufficient
time to observe that there was no deep hole or bottomless _gouffre_ as we
expected, but that it formed a crater with a sort of slant and not
exceeding thirty feet in depth to the bottom, which looked exactly like a
lime-kiln, being of a dirty white appearance, and in continual agitation,
as it were of limestones boiling; so that a person descending to the bottom
of this crater would probably be scorched to death or suffocated in a few
minutes, but would infallibly be ejected and thrown into the air at the
first eruption. I mean by this that he would not disappear or fall into a
bottomless pit (as I should have supposed before I viewed the crater), but
that his friends would be sure of finding his body either yet living or
dead, outside the brink of the crater, within the radius made by the
erupted stones and ashes.

Our guide now begged us for God's sake to descend, as an eruption might be
expected every minute. We accordingly glided down the exterior surface of
the cone among the ashes, on our breech, for it is impossible to descend in
any other way and in a few seconds we reached its base. Finding ourselves
on a little level ground we began to run or rather wade thro' the ashes in
order to get out of reach of the eruption, but we had not gone thirty yards
when one took place. The stones clattered down with a frightful noise and
we received a shower of ashes on our heads, the dust of which got into our
eyes and nearly blinded us. On reaching the brink of the old crater we
stopped half an hour to enjoy the fine view of Parthenope in all her glory
at sunrise. We then descended rapidly, sometimes plunging down the ashes on
our feet and sometimes gliding on our breech till we arrived at the place
where we had descended from our mules, and this distance, which required
one hour to ascend, cost us in its descent not more than seven minutes.

We then walked to the hermitage in about an hour and a quarter, and arrived
there with no other accident than having our shoes and stockings totally
spoiled, our feet a little singed, the hands of Mr. R.D. severely burned
and both begrimed with ashes like blacksmiths. The ecclesiastic gave us a
breakfast of coffee and eggs and a glass of Maraschino, and we gave him two
_scudi_ each. Before we departed he presented to us his Album, which he
usually does to all travellers, inviting them to write something. I took up
the pen and feeling a little inspiration wrote the following lines:

Anch'io salito son sul gran Vesuvio,
Mentre cadsa di cineri un diluvio;
Questo cammin mi piace d'aver fatto,
Ma plu mi piace il ritornare intatto.

which pleased the old man very much to see a foreigner write Italian verse.
I pleased him still more by letting him know that I was an enthusiastic
admirer and humble cultivator of the Tuscan Muse, and that having read and
studied most of their poets, particularly _il divino Ariosto_, I now and
then caught a _scintilletta_ from his verse. We now took a cordial farewell
of our worthy old host, mounted our mules and descended the mountain. On
arrival at Portici we dismissed our guide Salvatore with a _scudo pour
boire_, besides the stipulated price. Salvatore asked me to give him a
written certificate of his services, which he generally sollicits from all
those whom he conducts to the Volcano. I asked him for his certificate
book, and begged to know whether he would have it in prose or verse. He
laughed and said: _Vostra Excellenza e padrone_. I took out my pencil and
wrote the following quatrain:

Dal monte ignivomo tornati siam stanchissimi,
E del buon Salvator siam tutti contentissimi;
Felice il pellogrin che a Salvator si fida,
Che di lui non si puo trovare un miglior guida.

I never saw any body so delighted as Salvatore appeared when I read to him
what I had written in his book.

I have another observation to make before I take leave of this celebrated
mountain, which is, that the liquid lava which it ejects is far more
dangerous and destructive than the eruption of stones and ashes; the lava
flows from the flanks of the mountain in a liquid stream. Sometimes there
will be an eruption and no lava flowing: at other tunes the lava flows from
the flanks of the mountain, without any eruption from the crater; at other
times, and then it is most alarming, the eruption takes place accompanied
by the flowing of the lava. All this demonstrates that the volcano is the
effect of the efforts of the subterraneous fire to get some vent and escape
from its confinement. This time I did not observe any lava flowing, except
a slight vein of it on the spot where Mr R.D. fell down and burned his
hands; but it is easy to observe on the side of the mountain the course and
route taken at different times by the lava, which has become hardened and
is very plainly to be distinguished, as it resembles a _river_ (if I may
use the word) of slate meandering between the green sward of the mountain
and descending toward the sea. You can plainly distinguish the course and
direction of the lava which destroyed part of Torre del Greco and swept it
into the sea.

At Portici, having washed ourselves at the inn from head to foot in order
to get rid of our blacksmith's appearance, and having purchased a new pair
of shoes and stockings each, we visited the Royal Palace and Museum with a
view principally of examining the objects of art and valuables discovered
in Pompeii. The Royal Palace is called _la Favorita_, its architecture is
beautiful; the garden or rather lawn which is ornamented by statues and
enriched by orange groves extends to the sea. The first thing that presents
itself to the view of the visitor at the Museum of Portici are the two
equestrian statues of Marcus Balbus proconsul and procurator and of his
son, which statues were found in Herculaneum. I forgot to mention that
there is an inscription with that name on the side of the proscenium of the
theatre easily legible by the light of _flambeaux_.

To return to the Museum at Portici, we were then shewn into a room
containing curious _morceaux_ of antiquity discovered at Pompeii: a tripod
in bronze and various other articles of the same metal; tables, various
lamps in bronze, resembling exactly those used in Hindostan, wooden pens,
dice, grains of corn quite black and scorched, a skeleton of a woman with
the ashes incrusted round it (the form of her breast is seen on the crust
of ashes; golden armlets were found on her which were shewn to us), steel
mirrors, combs, utensils for culinary purposes, such as _casseroles_,
frying pans, spoons, forks, pestles and mortars, instruments of sacrifice,
weights and measures, coins, a _carcan_ or _stock_, &c.

In the upper rooms are to be seen the paintings and _fresques_ found in the
same place. The paintings are poor things, and in their landscapes the
Romans seem to have had little more idea of perspective than the Chinese;
but the _fresques_ are beautiful: the female figures belonging thereto are
delineated with the utmost grace and delicacy. They consist of subjects
chiefly from the mythology. I noticed the following in particular, viz.,
Chiron teaching the young Achilles to draw the bow; the discovery of
Orestes; Theseus and the Minotaur (he has just slain the Minotaur and a boy
is in the act of kissing his hand as if to thank him for his deliverance;
the Minotaur is here represented as a monster with the body of a man and
the head of a bull); a Centaur carrying off a nymph; a car drawn by a
parrot and driven by a cricket: a woman offering to another little Loves
for sale (she is pulling out the little Cupids from a basket and holding
them by their wings as if they were fowls); a beautiful female figure
seated on a monster something like the Chimaera of the ancients and holding
a cup before the monster's mouth (emblematical of Hope nourishing a
Chimaera). The arabesques taken from Pompeii and preserved here are very
beautiful. Here also are two statues found in Pompeii: the one representing
a drunken Faun, the other a sitting Mercury. We met two Polish ladies here,
who were amusing themselves in copying the _fresques_. We returned to
Naples at five o'clock, and dined at the _Villa di Napoli_. In the evening
we went to the _Teatro de' Fiorentini_. The piece performed was Pamela or
_La virtu premiata,_ which I understand is quite a stock piece in Italy. It
is written by Goldoni. It was very badly performed; the actors were not
perfect in their parts, and the prompter's voice was as loud as usual. The
costume was appropriate enough, which is far from being always the case at
this theatre.

NAPLES, 13 Octr.

We started on the 12th at six o'clock in the morning (Mr R----- D. and
myself) in a _caleche_ in order to visit Puzzuoli, Baii and all the
classical ground in that direction. We of course passed through the grotto
of Pausilippo. This grotto is thirty feet high and about five hundred feet
long. In fact, it is a vast rock undermined and a high road running thro'
it, the breadth of which is sufficient for three carriages to go abreast.
From its great length it is of course exceeding dark; in order therefore to
obviate this inconvenience lamps constantly lighted are suspended from the
roof and on the sides of the grotto, and holes pierced towards the top to
admit a little daylight. The road pierced thro' this rock and called the
grotto of Pausilippo abridges the journey to Puzzuoli very considerably, as
otherwise you would be obliged to go round by Cape Margelina, which would
increase the distance ten miles. On issuing from the grotto on the other
side, you arrive in a few minutes on the seashore, on the bay formed
between Cape Margelina and Puzzuoli. We stopped at the lake Agnano which is
strongly impregnated with sulfur. On the banks of this lake are the
_Thermae_ or vapour baths, and here is also the famous _Grotto del Cane_,
the pestilential vapour arising from which rises about three inches from
the ground and has the appearance of a spider's web. An unfortunate dog
performs the miracle of the resurrection to all those who visit this
natural curiosity; and we also were curious to see its effect. The guardian
of the Thermes seized the poor animal and held his nose close to the place
from whence the vapour exhales. The dog was seized with strong convulsions
and in two minutes he was perfectly senseless and to all appearance dead;
but on being placed in the open air, he soon recovers. The poor beast shews
evident repugnance to the experiment, and I wonder he does not endeavor to
make his escape, for he has sometimes to perform this feat four or five
times a day. I should suppose that he will not be very long lived, for the
repeated doses of this mephitic vapour must surely accelerate his
dissolution. The heat of the _Thermae_ and steam of the sulphur is almost
insupportable; but it has a most beneficial effect on maladies of the
nerves and cutaneous complaints.

We then proceeded on our journey to Puzzuoli, the ancient Puteoli, where
are the remains of the famous mole (or bridge as others call it) of
Caligula, intended to embrace or unite the two extremes of the bay of Baiae
formed on one side by Puzzuoli and on the other by cape Misenus. We
alighted to take a _dejeuner a la fourchette_ at Puzzuoli, and then went to
visit the temple of Jupiter Serapis, which is a vast edifice and tho' in
ruins very imposing. On wandering thro' the enceinte of this famous temple,
I thought of Apollonius of Tyana and his sudden appearance to his friend
Damis at the porch of this very temple, when he escaped from the fangs of
Domitian and when it was believed that, by means of magic art, he had been
able at once to transport himself from the Praetorium at Rome to Puteoli.
As I said before, the bay included by cape Misenus and Puzzuoli is what is
called Baiae. The land is low and marshy from Puzzuoli to a little beyond
the lake Avernus; but from Monte Nuovo it begins to rise and form high
cliffs nearly all way to Cape Misenus. It was on these high cliffs that the
opulent Romans built their villas and they must have been as much crowded
together as the villas at Ramsgate and Broadstairs. We embarked in a boat
at Puzzuoli to cross over to Baiae (i.e., the place where the villas
begin), but we stopped on our way thither at a landing place nearly in the
centre of the bay in order to visit the lake Avernus and the Cave of the
Cumaean Sybil, described by Virgil, as the entrance into the realm of
Pluto. The lake Avernus, in spite of its being invested by the poets with
all that is terrible in the mythology as a river of Hell, looks very like
any other lake, and tho' it is impregnated with sulphur, and emits a most
unpleasant smell, birds do not drop down dead on flying over it as
formerly. The ground about it is marshy and unwholesome. The silence and
melancholy appearance of this lake and its environing groves of wood are
not calculated to inspire exhilarating ideas. Full of classic souvenirs we
went to descend into the Cave of the Sybil, and as we descended I could not
refrain from repeating aloud Virgil's lines:

_Di quibus imperium est animarum umbrasque silentes_,[98] etc.

This descent really is fitted to give one an idea of the descent to the
shades below, and what added to the illusion was that when we arrived at
the bottom of the descent and just at the entrance of the cave where the
Sybil held her oracles, we discovered four fierce looking fellows with
lighted torches in their hands standing at the entrance. My friend cried
out _Voila les Furies_, and these proved to be our boatmen who, while we
were contemplating the _bolge d'Averno_, had run on before to provide
torches to shew us the interior of the grotto of the Sybil. As this grotto
is nearly knee-deep filled with water we got on the backs of the boatmen to
enter it. It is about twenty-five feet long, fifteen broad and the height
about thirteen feet. As we were neither devoured by Cerberus nor hustled by
old Charon into his boat, we returned from the _Shades below_ to the light
of heaven, triumphant like Ulysses or Aeneas, considering ourselves now
among the _Pauci quos aequus amavit Jupiter_.[99]

Acheron, the dreadful Acheron, is not far from Avernus and is likewise a
lake, tho' call'd a river in the mythology. It is also sulfuric and the
ground about it is woody, low, marshy and consequently aguish.

We next ascended the cliffs of Baiae and we were shown the remains of the
villas of Cicero, Caesar, Sylla and other great names. We then went to the
baths of Nero (so called). Here it is the fashion to descend under ground
in order to feel the effect of the sulfuric heat, which is intense, and my
friend who descended soon returned dripping with perspiration and calling
out: _Qui n'a pas vu cela n'a rien vu!_ but I did not chuse to descend, as
I could feel no pleasure in being half stifled and the _grotto del Cane_
had already given me a full idea of the force of the vapour of the

We then descended from the cliffs of Baiae on the other side, and visited
the remains of three celebrated temples of antiquity situated on the beach
nearly and very close to each other, viz., the temples of Diana, of Venus
and of Mercury; all striking objects and majestic, tho' in a state of
dilapidation. Each of these temples has cupolas. We then ascended the slope
of ground leading towards cape Misensus, to visit the _Cento Camarelle_ and
_Piscina mirabile_, both vast edifices under ground, serving as cellars or
appendages to a Palace that stood on this spot. We then visited the lake
called the _Mare Morto_ or Styx; and then went round to the other side of
it, to visit those beautiful _coteaux_ planted in vines and their summits
crowned with groves which have obtained the name of the Elysian fields.
This Styx and these Elysian fields look like any other lake and _coteaux_
and are entirely indebted to the lyre of Maro for their celebrity.

From thence we went to the extremity of cape Misenus and embarked in our
boat (which we had sent on there to wait for us) to return to Puzzuoli by
crossing the bay at once. In this bay and near cape Misenus a Roman fleet
was usually stationed and Pliny's uncle, I believe, commanded one there at
the time of the first eruption of Vesuvius which cost him his life.

There is a singular phenomenon in this bay of a mountain that in one of the
later eruptions and earthquakes was formed in twenty-four hours near the
seashore and was named _Monte Nuovo._

The small salt water lake called _Lacus Lucrinus_ is also on this bay. It
appears to me to be an artificial lake, made probably by the opulent Romans
who resided at Baiae to hold their mullets and other sea fish which they
wished to fatten.

Near Puzzuoli likewise is the famous _Solfaterra,_ the bed of an ancient
volcano. It is well worth examining. It has been long since extinguished,
but you meet with vast beds of sulphur and calcined stones, and the smell
is at times almost insupportable. We returned to Naples by half-past seven
o'clock, not a little tired but highly gratified by our excursion.

NAPLES, 14th Oct.

At the _Teatro Nuovo_ I have seen another Italian tragedy performed. The
piece was _Tito Manlio Torquato_, taken from the well known anecdote in the
Roman history. The scenery, decorations and _costume_ were good and
appropriate, not so the acting; for the actors as usual were imperfect in
their parts. I fully agree with Alfieri that Italy must be united and enjoy
a free popular government before one can expect to see tragedies well
performed. It is very diverting to see the puppet shows at Naples and to
hear the witticisms and various artifices of the showman of Pulcinello to
secure payment in advance from his audience, who would otherwise go away
without paying as soon as the performance was over.

This performance is much attended by the _lazzaroni_ and _faineans_ of the
lower orders of Naples and the puppet showman is obliged to have recourse
to various stratagems and ingenious sallies to induce a handsome
contribution to be made. Sometimes he will say with a very grave face (the
curtain being drawn up and no Pulcinello appearing) that he is very sorry
there can be no performance this day; for that poor Signor Pulcinello is
sick and has no money to pay the Doctor: but that if a _quete_ be made for
him, he will get himself cured and make his appearance as usual. All the
while that one of the showmen goes about collecting the _grani_, the other
holds a dialogue with Pulcinello (still invisible). Pulcinello groans and
is very miserable. At length the collection is made. Pulcinello takes
medicine, says he is well again, makes his appearance and begins. At
another time the audience is informed that there can be no performance as
Pulcinello is arrested for debt and put in prison, where he must remain
unless a subscription of money be made for him to pay his debts and take
him out of gaol. Then follows an absurd dialogue between Pulcinello
(supposed to answer from the prison) and the showman. The showman scolds
him for being a spendthrift and leading a profligate life, calls him a
_briccone_, a _birbante_, and Pulcinello only groans out in reply, _Povero
me, Povero Pulcinello, che disgrazia! sventurato di me! di non aver
denari!_ These strokes of wit never fail to bring in many a _grano_.

At another time the curtain is drawn up and discovers a gibbet and
Pulcinello standing on a ladder affixed to it with a rope round his neck.
The showman with the utmost gravity and assumed melancholy informs the
audience that a most serious calamity is about to happen to Naples: that
Signor Pulcinello is condemned to be hanged for a robbery, and that unless
he can procure _molti denari_ to bribe the officers of justice to let him
escape, he will inevitably be hanged and the people will never more behold
their unhappy friend Pulcinello. The showman now implores the commiseration
of the audience, and now reproaches Pulcinello with his profligacy and
nefarious pranks which have brought him to an untimely end. Pulcinello
sobs, cries, promises to reform and to attend mass regularly in future.
What Neapolitan heart can resist such an appeal? The _grani_ are collected.
Pulcinello gives money to the puppet representing the executioner; down
goes the gibbet, and Pulcinello is himself again.

I shall return in a day or two to Rome, having seen nearly all that Naples
affords. I have now full liberty to die when I chuse according to the
proverb: _Veder Napoli e poi morire_.

Naples certainly is, taking it all in all, the most interesting city in
Europe, for it unites every thing that is conducive to the _agremens_ of
life. A beautiful city, a noble bay, a vast commerce, provisions of the
best sort, abundant and cheap, a pleasant society, a delicious climate,
music, Operas, _Balli,_ Libraries, Museums of Painting and Sculpture; in
its neighbourhood two subterraneous cities, a volcano in full play, and
every spot of ground conveying the most interesting _souvenirs_ and
immortalized in prose and verse. Add thereto the vapour baths of sulphur
for stringing anew the nerves of those debilitated by a too ardent pursuit
of pleasure, and the Fountain of St Lucia for those suffering from a
redundancy of bile. Now tell me of any other residence which can equal
this? Adieu.

ROME, 22nd Octr.

Nothing material occurred on my return from Naples to Rome; but on the 2d
day after my arrival I made an excursion to Tivoli, which is about eighteen
miles distant from Rome. I passed the night at the only inn at Tivoli. The
next morning I walked to the _Villa d'Este_ in this neighbourhood, which is
a vast edifice with extensive grounds. Here on a terrace in front of the
villa are models in marble of all the principal edifices and monuments,
ancient and modern, of Rome, very ingeniously executed. From the _Villa
d'Este_ is a noble view of the whole plain of Latium and of the "Eternal

From hence I walked about two miles further to visit the greatest antiquity
and curiosity of the place, which is the Villa or rather the ruins of the
celebrated Villa built by Adrian, which must have been of immense size from
the vast space of ground it occupies. It was intended to unite everything
that the magnificent ideas of a Prince could devise who wished to combine
every sort of recreation, sensual as well as intellectual, within the
precincts of his Palace; columns, friezes, capitals, entablatures and
various other spoils of rich architecture cover the ground in profusion:
many of the walls and archways are entire and almost an entire cupola
remains standing. Besides the buildings above ground, here are cellars
under ground intended as quarters for the guards and capable of holding
three thousand men, as well as stabling for horses. In the inclosure of and
forming part of this Villa, which covers a circumference of seven miles,
were a gymnasium, baths, temples, a school of philosophers, tanks, a
theatre, &c. The greatest part of these buildings are choaked up and
covered with earth, since it is by excavation alone that what does appear
was brought to light. It was by excavation that a man discovered a large
hall wherein he found the nine beautiful statues of the Muses, which now
adorn the Museum of the Vatican; and no doubt if the Roman government would
recommence the excavations many more valuables might be found. Hadrian's
villa has already furnished many a statue, column and pilaster to the
Museums, churches and Palaces of Rome.

I was much more gratified in beholding the remains of this Villa than in
visiting Tivoli and I remained here several hours. At four o'clock in the
afternoon I started on my return to Rome; it was imprudent not to have
started sooner, as it is always dangerous to be outside the walls of Rome
after dark, in consequence of the brigands who infest the environs and
sometimes come close to the walls of the city.

I reached my hotel in Rome at nine o'clock, one hour and half after dark,
but had the good fortune to meet nobody. The Roman peasantry generally go
armed and those who feed cattle in the fields of the Campagna or have any
labour to perform there never sleep there on account of the _mal'aria._

[93] Horace, _Epist.,_ II, 1, 156.--ED.

[94] Horace, Sat., i, 5, 26.--ED.

[95] A _carlino_ is of the value of half a franc or five pence English. The
accounts in Naples are kept in _ducati_, _carlini_ and _grani_. Ten
_carlini_ make a ducat and ten _grani_ (a copper coin) make a carlino.
A grano is a _sou_ French in value. The _ducato_ is an imaginary coin.
The _soudo Napoletano_, a handsome silver coin of the size of an _ecu
de six francs_, is equal to twelve carlini.

[96] Not one of these vases was found at Pompeii.--ED.

[97] Horace, _Carm_., II, 1, 7.--ED.

[98] Virgil, _Aen_., VI, 264.--ED.

[99] Virgil, _Aen_., VI, 129.--ED.



From Rome to Florence--Sismondi the historian--Reminiscences of
India--Lucca--Princess Elisa Baciocchi--Pisa--The Campo Santo--Leghorn--
Hebrews in Leghorn--Lord Dillon--The story of a lost glove--From Florence
to Lausanne by Milan, Turin and across Mont Cenis--Lombardy in winter--The
Hospice of Mont Cenis.

FLORENCE, Novr. 20th.

I bade adieu to Rome on the 28th October and returned here by the same road
I went, viz., by Radicofani and Sienna. I arrived here after a journey of
six days, having been detained one day at Aquapendente on account of the
swelling of the waters. The day after my arrival here I despatched a letter
to Pescia to Mr Sismondi de' Sismondi, the celebrated author of the history
of the Italian Republics, to inform him of my intended visit to him, and I
forwarded to him at the same time two letters of introduction, one from
Colonel Wardle and the other from Mr Piton, banker at Geneva, who mentioned
me in his letter to Sismondi as having _des idees parfaitement analogues
aux siennes_. I received a most friendly answer inviting me to come to
Pescia and to pass a few days with him at his villa. Pescia is thirty miles
distant from Florence and the same from Leghorn. I was delighted with the
opportunity of seeing a man whom I esteemed so much as an author and as a
citizen, and of visiting at the same time the different cities of Tuscany,
particularly Lucca and Pisa. I accordingly hired a cabriolet and on the
morning of the 6th Novr drove to Prato, a good-sized handsome town, solidly
built, ten miles distant from Florence. The country on each side of the
road appears highly cultivated, and the road is lined with villas and farm
houses with gardens nearly the whole way. Changing horses at Prato, I
proceeded ten miles further to Pistoia, a large elegant and well-built town
on the banks of the Ombrone.

The streets in Pistoia are broad and well paved and the _Palazzo pubblico_
is a striking building; so is the _Seminario_ or College. Here I changed
horses again and proceeded to Pescia, where I alighted at the villa of M.
Sismondi. The distance between Pistoia and Pescia is about ten or eleven

Pescia is a beautiful little town, very clean and solidly built, lying in a
valley surrounded nearly on all sides by mountains. Its situation is
extremely romantic and picturesque, and there are several handsome villas
on the slopes and summits of these mountains. On market days Pescia is
crowded with the country people who flock hither from all parts, and one is
astonished to see such a number of beautiful and well dressed country
girls. Industry and comfort are prevalent here, as is the case indeed all
over Tuscany; I mean agricultural industry, for commerce is just now at a

I passed three most delightful days and which will live for ever in my
recollection, with Mr Sismondi, in whom I found an inexhaustible fund of
talent and information, combined with such an unassuming simplicity of
character and manner that he appeared to me by far the most agreeable
litterary man that I ever met with. His mother, who is a lady of great
talent and perfectly conversant in English litterature, resides with him.
His sister also is settled at Pescia, being married to a Tuscan gentleman
of the name of Forti. The sister has a full share of the talents and
amiable qualities of her mother and brother. With a family of such
resources as this, you may suppose our conversation did not flag for a
moment, nor do I recollect in the course of my whole life having passed
such a pleasant time; and I only wished that the three days could be
prolonged to three years. Politics, the occurrences of the day, living
characters, classical reminiscences, French, English, Italian and German
litterature, afforded us an inexhaustible variety of topics for
conversation: and the profound local knowledge that Mr Sismondi possesses
of Italy, of its history and antiquities, renders his communications of the
utmost value to the traveller. Our supper was prolonged to a late hour and
I question if the suppers and conversations of Scipio and Atticus, those
_nodes caenaeque Deum_[100] were more piquant or afforded more variety than
ours. Shakespeare, Schiller, Voltaire, Ariosto, Dante, Filangieri, Michel
Angelo, Washington, Napoleon, all furnished anecdotes and reflexions in

The last evening that I passed here, two families of Pescia came in. One of
the gentlemen was a great reader of voyages and travels, and India suddenly
became the subject of discourse. As I had passed six years in that country,
during which time I had visited the three Presidencies of Calcutta, Madras,
and Bombay, having ascended the Ganges as far as Benares, having visited
the Mysore country and Nizam's territory, having sojourned three weeks
among the splendid and magnificent ruins of Bijanagur or Bisnagar, having
travelled thro' the whole of the Deccan from Pondicherry to cape Comorin,
besides having traversed on horseback the whole circumference of Ceylon and
across the whole island from East to West by the Wanny, I was enabled to
furnish them with many an anecdote from the Eastern world, which to them
was a great treat, and I dare say at times my narration appeared almost as
marvellous as a story in the Arabian Nights, particularly when I related
the various religious ceremonies, the grim Idol of Juggernaut, the swinging
to _recover cast_, the exposure of old people to the holy death in the
Ganges by stopping up their nose, mouth and ears with mud, and placing them
on the water's edge at low tide in order that they should be swept off at
the high water; the holy city of Benares; the magnificent remains of
Bisnagar; the splendid Pagodas of Ramisseram; the policy of the Bramins;
the appalling voluntary penances of the _Joguis_ or _Fakirs_ as the
Europeans call them; the bed of spikes; the arm held up in the air for
fifteen years; the tiger hunt; the method of catching the elephant in
Ceylon; the pearl fishery; Sepoy establishment; in short I must have
appeared to them a Ulysses or a Sindbad, and I dare say that they thought I
added from time to time a little embellishment from my imagination, tho' I
can safely and solemnly aver that I did not extenuate nor exaggerate any
thing, but simply related what I had myself seen and witnessed.

Mr Sismondi is under a sort of banishment from his native country Geneva in
consequence of the side of the question he took in his writings on the
return of the Emperor Napoleon from Elba. It was indeed natural for the
restored government (the Bourbons) to desire the removal from France of a
man of talent who had exposed their past and might scrutinize their future
conduct and wilful faults; but why the Government of Geneva should espouse
their quarrel and visit one of their most estimable citizens with
banishment for opinions not at all connected with nor influential upon
Geneva, appears to me not only absurd and anomalous, but unjust in the
highest degree. But such is the state of degradation to which Europe is
reduced by the triumph of the old _regime_; and the Swiss Governments are
compelled to become the instruments of the vengeance of the coalition. But
I shall dwell no more on this subject at present. Let us hope that in a
short time a more liberal spirit will arise, and the Genevese will be eager
to recall in triumph the illustrious citizen of whom they have so much
reason to be proud.

We spent our mornings, Mr Sismondi and I, in promenades towards the most
striking points of the country immediately environing Pescia, and as I had
at this time some idea of coming to settle in Tuscany, he was so kind as to
conduct me to look at several villas that were to let; and I inspected
three very beautiful ones well furnished and each capable of holding a
large family, that were to be let for 18, 20, and 24 _louis d'or_ per

Wine and every article of life is of prodigious cheapness here, and the
inhabitants are so respectable, and there is such an absence of all crime,
that Pescia must be a very desirable and economical residence for any
foreign family possessing a sufficient knowledge of Italian to mix with the
society of the natives. There are several ancient and noble families in the
neighbourhood, highly respectable in point of moral character and manners,
but rather in _decadence_ in point of fortune.

It was with the greatest regret that I bade adieu to the amiable Sismondi,
his mother and sister; but I hope for a time only, as I have some idea of
removing my domicile from Lausanne to this part of the world.

I started at 10 o'clock a.m. on the 11th of November and after two hours'
journey in a cabriolet arrived at Lucca, a distance of ten miles, and put
up at the _Hotel del Pelicano._ The road runs thro' a highly cultivated

Lucca is a large fortified city, situated hi a beautifully luxuriant plain
or basin surrounded on all sides by hills and mountains of various slopes,
contours and heights, and abounding in villas, vineyards, mulberry and
olive plantations. Every spot of ground is in cultivation and the industry
of the inhabitants of Lucca is proverbial. Indeed the whole territory of
this little _ci-devant_ Republic is a perfect paradise.

The city itself, from the massiveness and solidity of the edifices, has
more of a solemn than a lively appearance; but there is a delightful walk
on the ramparts which are lined with trees. The streets are well paved. The
extreme antiquity of the city and style of its edifices make it appear less
_riani_ than the other cities in Tuscany. The Cathedral is Gothic and there
are in it the statues of the four Evangelists. This and the _Palazzo
Pubblico_ are the most conspicuous edifices. Tho' the Republic is
annihilated, the word _Libertas_ still remains on an escutcheon on the
gates of the city. Lucca, tho' no longer a Republic and enclavee in
Tuscany, is for the present an independent state and belongs to an Infanta
of Spain (formerly Princess of Parma) who takes the title of Duchess of
Lucca. It is generally supposed however that on the demise of Maria Louisa,
ex-Empress of the French and now Duchess of Parma, this family, viz., the
Duchess of Lucca and her son will resume their ancient possessions in the
Parmesan, and that Lucca will then be incorporated with Tuscany.

Before the fall of Napoleon the Princess Elisa Baciocchi his sister was
sovereign of Lucca, and she it was who has embellished the outside of the
city with some beautiful promenades. She devoted her whole time, talents
and resources to the good of her subjects and is highly esteemed and much
regretted by them. The present Duchess of Lucca has no other character but
that which seems common to the Royal families of France, Spain and Naples;
viz., of being very weak and priest-ridden. Lucca furnishes excellent
female servants who are remarkable for their industry and probity. Their
only solace is their lover or _amoroso_, as they term him; and when they
enter into the service of any family, they always stipulate for one day in
the week on which they must have liberty to visit their _amoroso_, or the
_amoroso_ must be allowed to come to the house to visit them. This is an
ancient custom among them and has no pernicious consequences, nor does it
interfere with their other good qualities. At the back of Lucca is an
immense mountain which stands between it and Pisa, and intercepts the
reciprocal view of the two cities which are only ten miles distant from
each other. This mountain and its peculiarity is the very one mentioned by
Dante in his _Inferno_ in the _episode_ of Ugolino:

_Cacciando il lupo e i lupicini_ AL MONTE,
PER CHE i Pisan veder Lucca NON ponno.[101]

I started from Lucca in a cabriolet and in two hours arrived at Pisa,
putting up at the _Tre Donzelle_ on the Quai of the Arno. Between Lucca and
Pisa are the _Bagni di Lucca_, a favorite resort for the purpose of bathing
and drinking the mineral waters.

Pisa is one of the most beautiful cities I have seen in Italy. The extreme
elegance and comfort of the houses, the spacious Quai on the Arno which
furnishes a most agreeable promenade, the splendid style of architecture of
the _Palazzi_ and public buildings, the cleanliness of the streets, the
salubrity of the climate, the mildness of the winter, the profusion and
cheapness of all the necessaries of life, and above all the amenity and
simplicity of the inhabitants, combine to make Pisa an agreeable and
favorite residence. Yet the population having much decreased there appears
an air of melancholy stillness about the city and grass may be seen in some
of the streets. This decay in population causes lodgings to be very cheap.

The most striking object in Pisa is the leaning tower _(Torre cadente)_ and
after that the Cathedral, Baptistery, and _Campo Santo_ which are all close
to the tower and to each other. Imagine two fine Gothic Churches in a
square or place like Lincoln's Inn Fields; a large oblong building nearly
at right angles with the churches and inclosing a green grass plot in its
quadrangle and a leaning tower of cylindrical form facing the churches: and
then you will have a complete idea of this part of Pisa.

I must not omit to mention that there is a breed of camels here belonging
to the Grand Duke; I believe it is the only part of Europe except Turkey
where the breed of camels is attempted to be propagated.

LEGHORN, 17 Novr.

I left Pisa for Leghorn on the morning of the 15th November, and after a
drive of two hours in a cabriolet I arrived at the latter place and put up
at the _Aquila Nera._ The distance between Pisa and Leghorn is only 10 or
11 miles and a plain with few trees, either planted in corn or in
pasturage, forms the landscape between the two cities.

Leghorn (Livorno), being a modern city, does not offer anything remarkably
interesting to the classical traveller either from its locality or its
history. Founded under the auspices of the Medici it has risen rapidly to
grandeur and opulence, and has eclipsed Genoa in commerce. It is a
remarkably handsome city, the streets being all broad and at right angles;
the _Piazze_ are large and the _Piazza Grande_ in particular is
magnificent. There is a fine broad street leading from the _Piazza Grande_
to the Port. The Port and Mole are striking objects and considerable
commercial bustle prevails there.

Among the few things worthy of particular notice is the Jewish Synagogue,
decorated with costly lamps and inscriptions in gold in the Hebrew and
Spanish languages, many of which allude to the hospitality and protection
afforded to the Hebrew nation by the Sovereigns of Tuscany. There are a
great number of Hebrew families here: they all speak Spanish, being the
descendants of those unfortunate Jews who were expelled from Spain at the
time of the expulsion of the Moors in the reign of Don Felipe III surnamed
_el Discreto_, who was determined not to suffer either a Jew, Mahometan or
heretic in all his dominions. This barbarous decree was the ruin and
destruction of a number of industrious families, thousands of whom died of
despair at being exiled from their native land. In return for this what has
Spain gained? The Inquisition--despotism in its worst form--poverty--rags
--lice--an overbearing insolent and sanguinary priesthood of whom the
monarch is either the puppet or the slave; a degraded nobility; a half
savage, grossly ignorant, lazy and brutal people. A proper judgment on the
Spanish nation for its cruelty and fanaticism! My guide at Leghorn
conducted me to see the burying ground belonging to the English factory,
which is interesting enough from the variety of tombs, monuments and
inscriptions. Here all Protestants, to whatever nation they belong, are
buried. I noticed Smollett's tomb. It is on the whole an interesting spot,
tho' not quite so much so as the cemetery of Pere La Chaise at Paris.

I returned to Florence from Leghorn _tout d'une traite_ in the diligence.
We stopped at Fornacetti (half way) to dine. There is a good _table d'Hote
(ordinario)_ there.

FLORENCE, 22nd Novr.

I have become acquainted with Lord Dillon[102] and his family, who are
residing here and from whom I have received much civility. I met at his
house the Marchese Giuliani, one of the adherents of King Joachim, a very
amiable and clever man who speaks English fluently. Lord Dillon is a man of
much reading and information and his conversation is at all times a great
treat. His lady too is very amiable and accomplished. I went one day with a
friend of mine to a _pique-nique_ party at the Cascino, where a laughable
adventure occurred perfectly in the stile of the _novelle_ of Boccacio. As
it is not the custom in Florence that husbands and wives should go together
to places of public amusement, the lady is generally accompanied by her
_cavalier servente:_ but it by no means follows that the _cavalier
servente_ is the favored lover: one is often adopted as a cover to another
who enjoys the peculiar favors of the lady. A gentleman who arrived at the
hall where the supper table was laid out, somewhat earlier than the rest of
the company and before the chamber was lighted, observed a gentleman and
lady ascend the staircase, turn aside by a corridor and enter a chamber
together. It was dark and he could not distinguish their persons. He waited
fifteen or twenty minutes and observed them leave the chamber together,
pass along the corridor and disappear. He had the curiosity to go into the
chamber they had just left and found on the bed a lady's glove. He took up
the glove and put it in his pocket, determined that this incident should
afford him some amusement at supper and the company also by putting some
fair one to the blush. Accordingly, when the supper was nearly over, he
held up the glove and asked with a loud voice if any lady had lost a glove;
when his own wife who was sitting at the same table at some distance from
him called out with the utmost _sangfroid: E il mio! dammelo: l'ho lasciato
cadere._ You may conceive what a laugh there was against him, for he had
related the circumstances of his finding it to several of the company
before they sat down to supper. This reminded me of an anecdote mentioned
by Brantome as having occurred at Milan in his time, a glove being in this
case also the cause of the _desagrement_. A married lady had been much
courted by a Spanish Cavalier of the name of Leon: one day, thinking he had
made sure of her, he followed her into her bedroom, but met with a severe
and decided repulse and was compelled to leave her _re infecta_. In his
confusion he left one of his gloves on the bed which remained there
unperceived by the lady. The husband of the lady arrived shortly afterwards
and as he was aware of the attentions of the Spaniard to his wife and had
noticed his going into the house, he went directly to his wife's chamber,
where the first thing that captivated his attention was a man's military
glove on the bed. He, however, said nothing, but from that moment abstained
from all conjugal duty. The lady finding herself thus neglected by a
husband who had been formerly tender and attentive, was at a loss to know
the reason, and determined to come to an _eclaircissement_ with him in as
delicate a manner as she could. She therefore took a slip of paper, wrote
the following lines thereon and placed it on his table:

_Vigna era, vigna son;
Era podada, or piu non son;
E non so per qual cagion
Non mi poda il mio patron._[103]

The husband, on reading these lines, wrote the following in answer:

_Vigna eri, vigna sei;
Eri podada, e piu non sei;
Per la gran fa del Leon
Non ti poda il tuo patron._

The lady on reading these lines perceived at once the cause of her
husband's estrangement and succeeded in explaining the matter
satisfactorily to him, which was facilitated by the ingenuous declaration
of Leon himself that he had tried to succeed but had been repulsed. The
husband and wife being perfectly reconciled lived happily and no doubt the
vine was cultivated as usual.

I left Florence the 27th November, and arrived at Turin 5th December. In an
evil hour I engaged myself to accompany an old Swiss Baroness with whom I
became acquainted at the Hotel of Mine Hembert to accompany her to Turin.
She had with her her son, a fine boy of thirteen years of age but very much
spoiled. We engaged a _vetturino_ to conduct us to Turin, stopping one day
at Milan. The Baroness did not speak Italian and generally sent for me to
interpret for her when any disputes occurred between her and the people at
the inns, and these disputes were tolerably frequent, as she always gave
the servants wherever she stopped a good deal of trouble and on departing
generally forgot to give them the _buona grazia._ I sometimes paid them for
her myself in order to avoid noise and tumult; at other times we departed
under vollies of abuse and imprecations such as _brutta vecchia, maladetta
carogna,_ and so forth. The Baroness had strong aristocratic prejudices and
was a bitter enemy of the French Revolution to which she attributed
collectively all the _desagremens_ she had experienced during life and all
the inconveniences she met with during our present journey. The negligence
and impertinence of the servants in Italy were invariably attributed by her
to the revolutionary principle and she told me that the servants in her
native canton Bern were the best in the world, but that even in them the
French Revolution had made a great deal of difference and that they were
not so submissive as they used to be. As she sent for me to be her dragoman
in all her disputes on the road, you may conceive how glad I was to arrive
at Turin to be rid of her. She put me in mind of Gabrina in the _Orlando
Furioso._ We stopped one day at Milan but we were very near being detained
two or three days at Fiacenza owing to an informality in the Baroness's
passport, which had not been vise by the Austrian Legation at Florence. In
vain she pleaded that she was told at the inn at Florence that such _visa_
was not necessary; the police officer at the Austrian _Douane_, at a short
distance beyond Piacenza, was inexorable and refused to _viser_ her
passport to allow her to proceed. She was in a sad dilemma and it was
thought we should be obliged to remain at Piacenza. I however recommended
her to be guided by me and not to talk with or scold anybody, and that I
would ensure her arrival at Milan without difficulty, for I had observed
that her scolding the officer at the _Douane_ only served to make him more
obstinate. I recommended her therefore that when we should arrive within
sixty or seventy paces of the gate at Milan, she should get out of the
carriage with her son and walk thro' the gate on foot with the utmost
unconcern as if she belonged to the town and was returning from a
promenade; and that while they stopped us who were in the carriage to
examine our passports, she should walk direct to the inn where we were to
lodge, then write to the Consul of her nation to explain the business. She
followed my advice and passed unobserved and unmolested into Milan. On the
preceding evening at Castel-puster-lengo at supper I asked whether she
thought the rigour of the Austrian government was also the offspring of the
French Revolution. The Baroness had brought up her son in all these
feelings and particularly in a determined hatred of the Canton de Vaud; for
in the evening when we arrived at the inn and were sitting round the fire,
he would shake the burning faggots about and say: _Voila la ville de
Lausanne en cendres!_ If he grows up with these ideas and acts upon them,
he stands a good chance of being shot in a duel by some Vaudois. It is a
pity to see a child so spoiled, for he was a very fine boy, tho' very
violent in his temper which probably he inherited from his mother. Somebody
at the _pension Surpe_ at Milan who knew her told me that the Baroness was
of an aristocratic family and had married a rich _bourgeois_ of Bern whom
she treated rather too much _de haut en bas;_ in short that it was a
marriage quite _a la George Dandin_, till the poor man took it into his
head to die one day. At Turin we parted company, she for Genoa and I for

_From Turin to Lausanne_.

I felt the cold very sensibly in the journey from Florence to Milan and
Turin. There is not a colder country in Europe than Lombardy in the winter.
The vicinity of the Alps contributes much to this; and the houses being
exceedingly large and having no stoves it is quite impossible that the
fireplaces can give heat sufficient to warm the rooms. I started from Turin
on the morning of the 9th December in the French diligence bound to Lyon,
but taking my place only as far as Chambery. In the diligence were a
Piedmontese Colonel who had served under Napoleon, and a young Scotchman, a
relation of Lord Minto. The latter was fond of excursions in ice and snow
and on our arrival at Suza he proposed to me to start from there two or
three hours before the diligence and to ascend Mont Cenis on foot as far as
the _Hospice_ and I was mad enough to accede to the proposal, for it
certainly was little less than madness in a person of my chilly habits and
susceptibility of cold and who had passed several years within the tropics
to scale the Alps on foot in the middle of December and to walk 24 miles in
snow and ice at one o'clock in the morning, which was the hour at which we
started. I was well clad in flannel and I went thro' the journey valiantly
and in high spirits and without suffering much from the cold till within
five miles of the Hospice, when a heavy snow storm came on; it then began
to look a little ugly and but for Napoleon's grand _chausses_ we were lost.
We struggled on three miles further in the snow before we fell in with a
_maison de refuge_. We knocked there and nobody answered. We then
determined _coute que coute_ to push on to the _Hospice_ which we knew
could not be more than two miles distant; indeed it was much more advisable
so to do than to run the risk of being frozen by remaining two or three
hours in the cold air till the diligence should come up. In standing still
I began to feel the cold bitterly; so in spite of the snow storm, we pushed
on and arrived at the inn at Mont-Cenis at five in the morning. We rubbed
our hands and faces well with snow and took care not to approach the fire
for several minutes, fortifying ourselves in the interim with a glass of
brandy. We then had some coffee made and laid ourselves down to sleep by
the side of an enormous fire until the diligence arrived, which made its
appearance at eight o'clock. The passengers stopped to breakfast and the
Scotchman proposed to me to make the descent of Lans-le-Bourg also on foot;
but I was quite satisfied with the prowess I had already exhibited and
declined the challenge. He however set off alone and thus performed the
entire passage of Mont Cenis on foot. As for the rest of us we were carried
down on a _traineau_; that is to say the diligence was unloaded and its
wheels taken off; the baggage and wheels were put on one _traineau_ and the
diligence with the passengers in it on another, and in this manner we
descended to Lans-le-Bourg. Nothing remarkable occurred on this journey and
we arrived at Chambery in good case. I hired a _caleche_ to go to Geneva,
remained there three days and arrived at Lausanne on the 18th December.

[100] Horace, _Sat_., II, 6, 65.--ED.

[101] Dante, _Inferno_, I, 33,29.--ED.

[102] Henry Augustus, thirteenth Viscount Dillon (1777-1832), married
(1807) to Henrietta Browne (died 1862).--ED.

[103] Quoted from memory, with mistakes. The text has been corrected as it
stands in Brantome, _Les Dames galantes_, ed. Chasles, vol. I, p.





Journey from Lausanne to Clermont-Ferrand--A wretched conveyance--The
first dish of frogs--Society in Clermont-Ferrand--General de
Vergeunes--Cleansing the town--Return to Lausanne--A zealous
priest--Journey to Bern and back to Lausanne--Avenches--Lake Morat--Lake
Neufchatel--The Diet in Bern--Character of the Bernois--A beautiful
Milanese lady.

I started from Lausanne on the 4th March 1817, and arrived on the same day
at 4 o'clock at Geneva. On my arrival at Geneva, my banker informed me that
I had been denounced to the police, for some political opinions I had
spoken at the _Hotel de l'Ecu de Geneve_, previous to my journey into
Italy, and that I had been traced as far as Turin. I went directly on
hearing this to the police, and desired to know who my accusers were, and
that the accusation against me might be investigated immediately. Both
these propositions were however declined, and I was told it was an _affaire
passee_, and of no sort of consequence; so that from that day to this I
have never been able to ascertain who my friends were.

I left Lausanne with the intention of paying a visit to my friend Col.
Wardle and his family at Clermont-Ferrand, in the Department of the Puy de
Dome, in Auvergne, where they are residing. I staid three days at Geneva,
and then set off at 7 in the evening on the 8th March with the Courier for

I never regretted any thing so much, and was near paying severely for my
rashness in putting myself into such a wretched conveyance, at such a
season of the year; but I had made the agreement with the Courier without
inspecting his carriage, and was obliged to adhere to the bargain. It was a
vehicle entirely open before; it was a bitter cold, rainy, snowy night; and
I had the rain and snow in my face the whole way, and on crossing the
Cerdon I was seized with a violent ague fit, and suffered so much from it
that on arrival at a village beyond Nantua where we stopped for supper, I
determined to proceed no further, but to rest there that night; and I asked
the innkeeper if he could furnish me with a bed for the night. He however
made so many objections and seemed so unwilling that I should remain, that
I was obliged to make up my mind to proceed. I allayed the _frissonnement_
by a large glass of brandy and water, made fiery hot. At eight o'clock next
morning I arrived at Lyons, more dead than alive. A warm bath, however,
remaining in bed the whole day, buried in blankets, abstaining from all
food, a few grains of calomel at night and copious libations of rice gruel
the next day restored me completely to health; and after a _sejour_ of four
days at Lyons, I was enabled to proceed on my journey to Clermont on the
14th March. We arrived at Roanne in the evening and I stopped there the
whole night.

Between Lyons and Roanne is the mountain of Tarare where the road is cut
right athwart the mountain and is consequently terribly steep; indeed it is
the steepest ascent for a carriage I ever beheld. All the passengers were
obliged to _bundle out_ and ascend on foot; and even then it is a most
arduous _montee_ for such a cumbrous machine as a French diligence.

The country between Lyons and Roanne appears diversified; but this is not
the season for enjoying the beauties of nature. Roanne consists of one
immensely long street, but it is broad, and contains excellently built
houses and shops. There is a theatre also and baths. It is situated on the
Loire which I now salute for the first time.

The following morning at nine o'clock a _patache_ (a sort of two wheeled
carriage) was in waiting to convey me the remainder of my journey; and I
arrived at night at a large village or town called Thiers. Halfway between
Roanne and Thiers, on stopping at a small village to dine, I observed a
dish of frogs at the kitchen fire at the inn; and as it was the first time
I had observed them as an article of food in France, I was desirous to
taste them. They were dressed in a _fricassee_ of white sauce, and I found
them excellent. The legs only are used. They would be delicious as a curry.
The next morning we continued our journey; and crossing the river Allier at
twelve o'clock, arrived at Clermont-Ferrand at 2 p.m., and dined with Col.
Wardle. Clermont and Ferrand are two towns within a mile and half distant
from each other and this Clermont is generally called Clermont-Ferrand to
distinguish it from other towns of the same name.

CLERMONT, March 26th.

I have taken lodgings for a month, and board with a French family for 90
franks per month. On the road hither the immense mountain called the Puy de
Dome is discernible at a great distance; it is said to have been a volcano.

Clermont is a very ancient city and has an air of dullness; but the _Place_
and promenades round the town are excellent. It is the capital of this
department (Puy de Dome). There is a terrible custom here of emptying the
_aguas mayores y menores_ (as the Spaniards term those secretions) into the
small streets that lie at the back of the houses. The consequence is that
they are clogged up with filth and there is always a most abominable
stench. One must be careful how one walks thro' these streets at night,
from the liability of being saluted by a golden shower. The lower classes
of the Auvergnats have the reputation of being dirty, slovenly and idle.

Here is a church built by the English in the time of Edward III, when the
Black Prince commanded in this country; and it was in a chapel in this
city, the remains of which still exist, that Peter the Hermit preached the
first crusade. These are almost the only things worthy of remark in the
town itself, except that there is a good deal of commerce carried on,
manufactures of crockery, cloth and silk stockings. But in the natural
curiosities of the environs of Clermont there is a great deal to interest
the botanist and mineralogist and above all there is a remarkable
petrifying well, very near the town, where by leaving pieces of wood,
shell-fish and other articles exposed to the dropping of the water, they
become petrified in a short time. This water has the same effect on dead
animals and rapidly converts them into stone. I have myself seen a small
basket filled with plovers' eggs become in eight days a perfect

CLERMONT, April 2d.

I am arrived here at rather a dull season: the Carnaval is just over and
all the young ladies are taking to their _Livres d'Heures_ to atone for any
levity or indiscretion they may have been guilty of during the hey day of
the Carnaval. The Wardle family have a very pleasant acquaintance here,
chiefly among the _liberaux_, or moderate royalists, but there are some
most inveterate _Ultras_ in this city, who keep aloof from any person of
liberal principles, as they would of a person infected with the plague. The
noblesse of Auvergne have the reputation of being in general ignorant and
despotic. There is but little _agrement_ or instruction to be derived from
their society, for they have not the ideas of the age. In general the
nobles of Auvergne, tho' great sticklers for feudality and for their
privileges, and tho' they disliked the Revolution, had the good sense not
to emigrate.

There is a Swiss regiment of two battalions quartered here. It bears the
name of its Colonel, De Salis. As there are a number of officers of the old
army here, on half pay, about three hundred in number, it is said, frequent
disputes occur between them and the Swiss officers. The Swiss are looked
upon by the people at large as the satellites of despotism and not without
reason. It is, I think, degrading for any country to have foreign troops in
pay in time of peace. Several attempts have been made in the Chamber of
Deputies to obtain their removal or _licenciement_, but without success. As
it is supposed that the song of the _Ranz des Vaches_ affects the
sensibility of the Swiss very much, and makes them long to return to their
native mountains, a wag has recommended to all the young ladies in France
who are musicians to play and sing the _Ranz des Vaches_ with all their
might, in order to induce the Swiss to betake themselves to their native

There has been a great deal of denunciation going forward here; but the
General de V----[104] who commands the troops in Clermont, determined to
put a stop to it. He had the good sense to see that such a system, if
encouraged, would be destructive of all society, prejudicial to the
Government, and vexatious to himself; as he would be thereby kept
continually in hot water. Accordingly, on a delator presenting himself and
accusing another of not being well affected to the present order of things,
and of having spoken disrespectfully of the King, M. de V---- said to him:
"I have no doubt, Sir, that your denunciation proceeds from pure motives,
and I give you full credit for your zeal and attachment to the royal cause;
but I cannot take any steps against the person whom you accuse, unless you
are willing to give me leave to publish your name and consent to be
confronted with him, so that I may examine fairly the state of the case,
and render justice to both parties." The accuser declined acceding to this
proposition. The General desired him to withdraw, and shortly after
intimated publicly that he would listen to no denunciation, unless the
denouncer gave up his name and consented to be confronted with the accused.
The consequence of this intimation was that all denunciations ceased. The
late Prefect however was not so prudent, and chose rather to encourage
delation; but mark the consequence! He arrested several persons wrongfully,
was obliged to release them afterwards, was in continual hot water and it
ended by the Government being obliged to displace him. To avoid the merited
vengeance of many individuals whom he had ill-treated, he was obliged, on
giving up his prefecture, to make a precipitate retreat from Clermont. The
delators attempted the same system with the new Prefect and Col. Wardle,
having invited some of the Swiss officers to a ball, to which were likewise
invited people of all opinions, an information was lodged against him,
purporting that he wanted to corrupt the Swiss officers from their
allegiance. The Prefect sent the letter to Col. Wardle and said that it had
not made the slightest impression on his mind, and that he treated it as a
malicious report. The new Prefect adopted the same system as the General
and tranquillity is since perfectly restored.

Things have been taking a better turn since the dissolution of the _Chambre
introuvable_. Decazes, the present minister, is an able man, and if he is
not _contrarie_ by the _Liberaux_, he will keep the fanatical _Ultras_ in
good order. The Bishop of Clermont is a liberal man also, and as it seems
the wish of the present public functionaries here to conciliate, it is to
be hoped that their example will not be lost on the _bons vieux
gentilshommes_ of Auvergne.

I find an inexhaustible fund of entertainment from the conversation of M.
C----. He has so many interesting anecdotes to relate respecting the French
Revolution. With regard to his present occupations, which are directed
towards rural economy, he tells me that he has succeeded in a plan of
cleansing the town from its Augean filth, and making it very profitable to
himself; and that he calculates to obtain a revenue thereby of twenty
thousand franks annually. He has, in short, undertaken to be the grand
_scavenger_ of the town, and the Government, in addition to a salary of
2,500 francs per annum, which they give him for his trouble, give to him
the exclusive privilege of removing all the dung he can collect in the
precincts of the city, and of converting it to his own advantage. He began
by fitting up a large enclosure, walled on each side, and in which he
deposits all the filth he can collect in the stables, yards and streets of
Clermont. He sends his carts round the town every morning to get them
loaded. All their contents are brought to this repository, and shot out
there. Straw is then placed over this dung, and then earth or soil
collected from gullies and ravines, and this arranged _stratum super
stratum_, till it forms an immense compact cake of rich compost; and when
it has filled one of the yards and has completed a thickness of five feet,
he sells it to the farmers, who send their carts to carry it off. He has
divided this enclosure or repository into three or four compartments. The
compost therefore is prepared, and ready to be carried off in one yard,
while the others are filling. In this he has rendered a great benefit to
the public, for the Auvergnats are incurable in their custom of emptying
their _pots de chambre_ out of the windows; so that the streets every
morning are in a terrible state: but thanks to the industry of C---- his
cars go round to collect the precious material, and all is cleared away by
twelve o'clock. He collects bones too, and offal to add to the compost. He
conducted me to see his premises; but the odour was too strong....

I returned to Lausanne by the same route, leaving Clermont on the 6th
April, staying four days at Lyons and as many at Geneva. Young Wardle
accompanied me. We met with no other adventure on the road than having a
young Catholic priest, fresh from the seminary, for our travelling
companion, from Thiers to Roanne. This young man wished to convert Wardle
and myself to Catholicism.

Among many arguments that he made use of was that most silly one, which has
been so often sported by the Catholic theologians, viz.: that it is much
safer to be a Catholic than a Protestant, inasmuch as the Catholics do not
allow that any person can be saved out of the pale of their church, whereas
the Protestants do allow that a Catholic may be saved. I answered him that
this very argument made more against Catholicism than any other, and that
this intolerant spirit would ever prevent me (even had such an idea entered
into my head) of embracing such a religion. I then told him that, once for
all, I did not wish to enter into any theological disputes; that I had
fully made up my mind on these subjects; and that I would rather take the
opinion of a Voltaire or a Franklin on these matters than all the opinions
of all the theologians and churchmen that ever sat in council from the
Council of Nicsea to the present day. This silenced him effectually. Such
is the absurd line of conduct pursued by the Catholic priests of the
present day in France. Instead of reforming the discipline and dogmas of
their church and adapting it to the enlightened ideas of the present age,
they are sedulously employd in preaching intolerant doctrines, and reviving
absurd legends, and pretended miracles, which have been long ago consigned
to contempt and oblivion by all rational Catholics; and by this they hope
to re-establish the ecclesiastical power in its former glory and
preponderance. Vain hope! By the American and French Revolutions a great
light is gone up to the _Gentiles_. Catholicism is on its last legs, and
they might as soon attempt to replace our old friend and school
acquaintance Jupiter on the throne of heaven, as to re-establish the Papal
power in its pristine splendour; to borrow the language of the _Pilgrim's
Progress_, the Giant _Pope_ will be soon as dead as the Giant _Pagan_.

On arrival at Lyons we put up at the _Hotel du Parc_, where I found cheaper
and better entertainment than at the _Hotel du Nord_.

My friend young Wardle has fallen in love with a very beautiful _cafetiere_
at Lyons', and spends a great part of his time in the _cafe_, at which this
nymph administers, and looks at her, _sighs, looks and sighs again_. It is
not probable however that he will succeed in his suit, for she has been
courted by very many others and no one has succeeded. She remains constant
to her _good man_, and the breath of calumny has never ventured to assail
her. I met one day at Lyons with my old friend W----s of Strassburg, who
was a Lieutenant in the 25th Regiment in the French service and served in
the battle of Waterloo.[105] He is now here and being on _demi-solde_,
employs himself in a mercantile house here as principal commis. He dined
with us and we passed a most pleasant day together.

I arrived on the 20th April at Lausanne.

* * * * *

After remaining some weeks, at Lausanne on my return from Clermont, I
determind on making a pedestrian trip as far as Bern and Neufchatel
previous to returning into Italy, which it is my intention to do in
September. I sent on my portmanteau accordingly to Payerne near Avenches,
intending to pay a visit and pass three days with my friend, the Revd. Mr.
J[omini],[106] the rector of the parish there, from whom I had received a
pressing invitation. I was acquainted at Lausanne with his daughter, Mme
C----, and was much pleased in her society. She had great talent of
conversation, and I never in my life met with a lady possessed of so much
historical knowledge. I started on the 27th June from Lausanne, passed the
first night at Mondon and the next afternoon arrived at Avenches, the
_Aventicum_ of the ancient Romans. Payerne is only a mile distant from
Avenches, and I was received with the utmost cordiality by the worthy
pastor and his daughter. The scenery on the road to Avenches is very like
the scenery in all the rest of the Canton de Vaud, viz., alternate mountain
and valley, lofty trees, and every spot capable of cultivation bearing some
kind of produce; corn just ready for the sickle and fruit such as cherries
and strawberries in full bloom. Avenches has an air of great antiquity and
looks very gloomy withal, which forms a striking contrast to the neat, well
built towns and villages of this Canton on the banks of the lake Leman
where everything appears so stirring and cheerful. Avenches, on the
contrary, is very dull, and there is little society.

At Mr. J[omini] there were, besides his daughter, his son and his son's
wife. All the _ministres_ (for such is the word in use to designate
Protestant clergymen and you would give great offence were you to call them
_pretres_) have a fixed salary of 100L sterling per annum, with a house and
ground attached to the cure; so that by farming a little they can maintain
then? families creditably. M. Jomini lost his wife some time ago, and still
remains a widower.

I left Payerne on the fifth of July and walked to the _campagne_ of M. de


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