James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.
Part 3 out of 10
homo proper of Finn, and here Hengest remains during the winter, prevented
by ice and storms from returning home (Grein). But in spring the feud
breaks out anew. Gūðlāf and Oslāf avenge Hnæf's fall, probably after they
have brought help from home (1150). In the battle, the hall is filled with
the corpses of the enemy. Finn himself is killed, and the queen is captured
and carried away, along with the booty, to the land of the Danes,
Finna land. Bēowulf reaches it in his swimming-race with Breca, 580.
Fitela, the son and nephew of the Wälsing, Sigemund, and his companion in
arms, 876-890. (Sigemund had begotten Fitela by his sister, Signȳ. Cf.
more at length Leo on Bēowulf, p. 38 ff., where an extract from the legend
of the Walsungs is given.)
Folc-walda (gen. Folc-waldan, 1090), Finn's father, 1090.
Francan (gen. Francna, 1211; dat. Froncum, 2913). King Hygelāc fell on an
expedition against the allied Franks, Frisians, and Hūgas, 1211, 2917.
Frēsan, Frȳsan (gen. Frēsena, 1094, Frȳsna, 1105, Frēsna, 2916: dat.
Frȳsum, 1208, 2913). To be distinguished, are: 1) North Frisians, whose
king is Finn, 1069 ff.; 2) West Frisians, in alliance with the Franks and
Hūgas, in the war against whom Hygelāc falls, 1208, 2916. The country of
the former is called Frȳsland, 1127; that of the latter, Frēsna land,
Fr..es wæl (in Fr..es wæle, 1071), mutilated proper name.
Frēawaru, daughter of the Danish king, Hrōðgār; given in marriage to
Ingeld, the son of the Heaðobeard king, Frōda, in order to end a war
between the Danes and the Heaðobeardnas, 2023 ff., 2065.
Frōda (gen. Frōdan), father of Ingeld, the husband of Frēaware, 2026.
Gārmund (gen. Gārmundes, 1963) father of Offa. His grandson is Ēomǣr,
Gēatas (gen. Gēata, 205, etc.; dat. Gēatum, 195, etc.), a tribe in Southern
Scandinavia, to which the hero of this poem belongs; also called
Wedergēatas, 1493, 2552; or, Wederas, 225, 423, etc.; Gūðgēatas, 1539;
Sǣgēatas, 1851, 1987. Their kings named in this poem are: Hrēðel; Hæðcyn,
second son of Hrēðel; Hygelāc, the brother of Hæðcyn; Heardrēd, son of
Hygelāc; then Bēowulf.
Gifðas (dat. Gifðum, 2495), Gepidǣ, mentioned in connection with Danes and
Grendel, a fen-spirit (102-3) of Cain's race, 107, 111, 1262, 1267. He
breaks every night into Hrōðgār's hall and carries off thirty warriors, 115
ff., 1583ff. He continues this for twelve years, till Bēowulf fights with
him (147, 711 ff.), and gives him a mortal wound, in that he tears out one
of his arms (817), which is hung up as a trophy in the roof of Heorot, 837.
Grendel's mother wishes to avenge her son, and the following night breaks
into the hall and carries off Æschere, 1295. Bēowulf seeks for and finds
her home in the fen-lake (1493 ff.), fights with her (1498 ff.), and kills
her (1567); and cuts off the head of Grendel, who lay there dead (1589),
and brings it to Hrōðgār, 1648.
Gūð-lāf and Oslāf, Danish warriors under Hnæf, whose death they avenge on
Hālga, with the surname, _til_, the younger brother of the Danish king,
Hrōðgār, 61. His son is Hrōðulf, 1018, 1165, 1182.
Hāma wrests the _Brōsinga mene_ from Eormenrīc, 1199.
Hæreð (gen. Hæreðes, 1982), father of Hygd, the wife of Hygelāc, 1930,
Hæðcyn (dat. Hæðcynne, 2483), second son of Hrēðel, king of the Gēatas,
2435. Kills his oldest brother, Herebeald, accidentally, with an arrow,
2438 ff. After Hrēðel's death, he obtains the kingdom, 2475, 2483. He falls
at Ravenswood, in the battle against the Swedish king, Ongenþēow, 2925. His
successor is his younger brother, Hygelāc, 2944 ff., 2992.
Helmingas (gen. Helminga, 621). From them comes Wealhþēow, Hrōðgār's wife,
Heming (gen. Heminges, 1945, 1962). Offa is called Heminges mǣg, 1945;
Ēomǣr, 1962. According to Bachlechner (Pfeiffer's Germania, I., p. 458),
Heming is the son of the sister of Gārmund, Offa's father.
Hengest (gen. Hengestes, 1092; dat. Hengeste, 1084): about him and his
relations to Hnæf and Finn, see Finn.
Here-beald (dat. Herebealde, 2464), the oldest son of Hrēðel, king of the
Gēatas (2435), accidentally killed with an arrow by his younger brother,
Here-mōd (gen. Heremōdes, 902), king of the Danes, not belonging to the
Scylding dynasty, but, according to Grein, immediately preceding it; is, on
account of his unprecedented cruelty, driven out, 902 ff., 1710.
Here-rīc (gen. Hererīces, 2207) Heardrēd is called Hererīces nefa, 2207.
Nothing further is known of him.
Het-ware or Franks, in alliance with the Frisians and the Hūgas, conquer
Hygelāc, king of the Gēatas, 2355, 2364 ff., 2917.
Healf-dene (gen. Healfdenes, 189, etc.), son of Bēowulf, the Scylding (57);
rules the Danes long and gloriously (57 f.); has three sons, Heorogār,
Hrōðgār, and Hālga (61), and a daughter, Elan, who, according to the
renewed text of the passage, was married to the Scylfing, Ongenþēow, 62,
Heard-rēd (dat. Heardrēde, 2203, 2376), son of Hygelāc, king of the Gēatas,
and Hygd. After his father's death, while still under age, he obtains the
throne (2371, 2376, 2379); wherefore Bēowulf, as nephew of Heardrēd's
father, acts as guardian to the youth till he becomes older, 2378. He is
slain by Ōhthere's sons, 2386. This murder Bēowulf avenges on Ēadgils,
Heaðo-beardnas (gen. -beardna, 2033, 2038, 2068), the tribe of the
Lombards. Their king, Frōda, has fallen in a war with the Danes, 2029,
2051. In order to end the feud, King Hrōðgār has given his daughter,
Frēawaru, as wife to the young Ingeld, the son of Frōda, a marriage that
does not result happily; for Ingeld, though he long defers it on account of
his love for his wife, nevertheless takes revenge for his father, 2021-2070
Heaðo-lāf (dat. Heaðo-lāfe, 460), a Wylfingish warrior. Ecgþēow, Bēowulf's
father, kills him, 460.
Heaðo-rǣmas reached by B. in the swimming-race with Bēowulf, 519.
Heoro-gār (nom. 61; Heregār, 467; Hiorogār, 2159), son of Healfdene, and
older brother of Hrōðgār, 61. His death is mentioned, 467. He has a son,
Heoroweard, 2162. His coat of mail Bēowulf has received from Hrōðgār
(2156), and presents it to Hygelāc, 2158.
Heoro-weard (dat. Heorowearde, 2162), Heorogār's son, 2161-62.
Heort, 78. Heorot, 166 (gen. Heorotes, 403; dat. Heorote, 475, Heorute,
767, Hiorte, 2100). Hrōðgār's throne-room and banqueting hall and
assembly-room for his liegemen, built by him with unusual splendor, 69, 78.
In it occurs Bēowulf's fight with Grendel, 720 ff. The hall receives its
name from the stag's antlers, of which the one-half crowns the eastern
gable, the other half the western.
Hildeburh, daughter of Hōc, relative of the Danish leader, Hnæf, consort of
the Frisian king, Finn. After the fall of the latter, she becomes a captive
of the Danes, 1072, 1077, 1159. See also under Finn.
Hnæf (gen. Hnæfes, 1115), a Hōcing (Wīdsīð, 29), the Danish King
Healfdene's general, 1070 ff. For his fight with Finn, his death and
burial, see under Finn.
Hond-scīo, warrior of the Gēatas: dat. 2077.
Hōc (gen. Hōces, 1077), father of Hildeburh, 1077; probably also of Hnæf
Hrēðel (gen. Hrēðles, 1486), son of Swerting, 1204. King of the Gēatas,
374. He has, besides, a daughter, who is married to Ecgþēow, and has borne
him Bēowulf, (374), three sons, Herebeald, Hæðcyn, and Hygelāc, 2435. The
eldest of these is accidentally killed by the second, 2440. On account of
this inexpiable deed, Hrēðel becomes melancholy (2443), and dies, 2475.
Hrēðla (gen. Hrēðlan, MS. Hrǣdlan, 454), the same as Hrēðel (cf. Müllenhoff
in Haupts Zeitschrift, 12, 260), the former owner of Bēowulf's coat of
Hrēðling, son of Hrēðel, Hygelāc: nom. sg. 1924; nom. pl., the subjects of
Hygelāc, the Geats, 2961.
Hrēð-men (gen. Hrēð-manna, 445), the Danes are so called, 445.
Hrēð-rīc, son of Hrōðgār, 1190, 1837.
Hrefna-wudu, 2926, or Hrefnes-holt, 2936, the thicket near which the
Swedish king, Ongenþēow, slew Hæðcyn, king of the Gēatas, in battle.
Hrēosna-beorh, promontory in the land of the Gēatas, near which Ongenþēow's
sons, Ōhthere and Onela, had made repeated robbing incursions into the
country after Hrēðel's death. These were the immediate cause of the war in
which Hrēðel's son, King Hæcyn, fell, 2478 ff.
Hrōð-gār (gen. Hrōðgāres, 235, etc.; dat. Hrōðgāre, 64, etc.), of the
dynasty of the Scyldings; the second of the three sons of King Healfdene,
61. After the death of his elder brother, Heorogār, he assumes the
government of the Danes, 465, 467 (yet it is not certain whether Heorogār
was king of the Danes before Hrōðgār, or whether his death occurred while
his father, Healfdene, was still alive). His consort is Wealhþēow (613), of
the stock of the Helmings (621), who has borne him two sons, Hrēðrīc and
Hrōðmund (1190), and a daughter, Frēaware (2023), who has been given in
marriage to the king of the Heaðobeardnas, Ingeld. His throne-room (78
ff.), which has been built at great cost (74 ff.), is visited every night
by Grendel (102, 115), who, along with his mother, is slain by Bēowulf (711
ff., 1493 ff). Hrōðgār's rich gifts to Bēowulf, in consequence, 1021, 1818;
he is praised as being generous, 71 ff., 80, 1028 ff., 1868 ff.; as being
brave, 1041 ff., 1771 ff.; and wise, 1699, 1725.--Other information about
Hrōðgār's reign for the most part only suggested: his expiation of the
murder which Ecgþēow, Bēowulf's father, committed upon Heaðolāf, 460, 470;
his war with the Heaðobeardnas; his adjustment of it by giving his
daughter, Frēaware, in marriage to their king, Ingeld; evil results of this
marriage, 2021-2070.--Treachery of his brother's son, Hrōðulf, intimated,
Hrōð-mund, Hrōðgār's son, 1190.
Hrōð-ulf, probably a son of Hālga, the younger brother of King Hrōðgār,
1018, 1182. Wealhþēow expresses the hope (1182) that, in case of the early
death of Hrōðgār, Hrōð-ulf would prove a good guardian to Hrōðgār's young
son, who would succeed to the government; a hope which seems not to have
been accomplished, since it appears from 1165, 1166 that Hrōð-ulf has
abused his trust towards Hrōðgār.
Hrones-næs (dat. -næsse, 2806, 3137), a promontory on the coast of the
country of the Gēatas, visible from afar. Here is Bēowulf's grave-mound,
Hrunting (dat. Hruntinge, 1660), Hunferð's sword, is so called, 1458, 1660.
Hūgas (gen. Hūga, 2503), Hygelāc wars against them allied with the Franks
and Frisians, and falls, 2195 ff. One of their heroes is called Dæghrefn,
whom Bēowulf slays, 2503.
[H]ūn-ferð, the son of Ecglāf, þyle of King Hrōðgār. As such, he has his
place near the throne of the king, 499, 500, 1167. He lends his sword,
Hrunting, to Bēowulf for his battle with Grendel's mother, 1456 f.
According to 588, 1168, he slew his brothers. Since his name is always
alliterated with vowels, it is probable that the original form was, as
Rieger (Zachers Ztschr., 3, 414) conjectures, Unferð.
Hūn-lāfing, name of a costly sword, which Finn presents to Hengest, 1144.
Hygd (dat. Hygde, 2173), daughter of Hæreð, 1930; consort of Hygelāc, king
of the Gēatas, 1927; her son, Heardrēd, 2203, etc.--Her noble, womanly
character is emphasized, 1927 ff.
Hyge-lāc (gen. Hige-lāces, 194, etc., Hygelāces, 2387; dat. Higelāce, 452,
Hygelāce, 2170), king of the Gēatas, 1203, etc. His grandfather is
Swerting, 1204; his father, Hrēðel, 1486, 1848; his older brothers,
Herebeald and Hæðcyn, 2435; his sister's son, Bēowulf, 374, 375. After his
brother, Hæðcyn, is killed by Ongenþēow, he undertakes the government (2992
in connection with the preceding from 2937 on). To Eofor he gives, as
reward for slaying Ongenþēow, his only daughter in marriage, 2998. But much
later, at the time of the return of Bēowulf from his expedition to Hrōðgār,
we see him married to the very young Hygd, the daughter of Hæreð, 1930. The
latter seems, then, to have been his second wife. Their son is Heardrēd,
2203, 2376, 2387.--Hygelāc falls during an expedition against the Franks,
Frisians, and Hūgas, 1206, 1211, 2356-59, 2916-17.
Ingeld (dat. Ingelde, 2065), son of Frōda, the Heaðobeard chief, who fell
in a battle with the Danes, 2051 ff. in order to end the war, Ingeld is
married to Frēawaru, daughter of the Danish king, Hrōðgār, 2025-30. Yet his
love for his young wife can make him forget only for a short while his
desire to avenge his father. He finally carries it out, excited thereto by
the repeated admonitions of an old warrior, 2042-70 (Wīdsīð, 45-59).
Ing-wine (gen. Ingwina, 1045, 1320), friends of Ing, the first king of the
East Danes. The Danes are so called, 1045, 1320.
Mere-wīoingas (gen. Mere-wīoinga, 2922), as name of the Franks, 2922.
Nægling, the name of Bēowulf's sword, 2681.
Offa (gen. Offan, 1950), king of the Angles (Wīdsīð, 35), the son of
Gārmund, 1963; married (1950) to Þrȳðo (1932), a beautiful but cruel
woman, of unfeminine spirit (1932 ff.), by whom he has a son, Ēomǣr, 1961.
Ōht-here (gen. Ōhtheres, 2929, 2933; Ōhteres, 2381, 2393, 2395, 2613), son
of Ongenþēow, king of the Swedes, 2929. His sons are Ēanmund (2612) and
Onela (gen. Onelan, 2933), Ōhthere's brother, 2617, 2933.
Ongen-þēow (nom. -þēow, 2487, -þīo, 2952; gen. -þēowes, 2476, -þīowes,
2388; dat. -þīo, 2987), of the dynasty of the Scylfings; king of the
Swedes, 2384. His wife is, perhaps, Elan, daughter of the Danish king,
Healfdene (62), and mother of two sons, Onela and Ōhthere, 2933. She is
taken prisoner by Hæðcyn, king of the Gēatas, on an expedition into Sweden,
which he undertakes on account of her sons' plundering raids into his
country, 2480 ff. She is set free by Ongenþēow (2931), who kills Hæðcyn,
2925, and encloses the Gēatas, now deprived of their leader, in the
Ravenswood (2937 ff.), till they are freed by Hygelāc, 2944. A battle then
follows, which is unfavorable to Ongenþēow's army. Ongenþēow himself,
attacked by the brothers, Wulf and Eofor, is slain by the latter, 2487 ff.,
Ōs-lāf, a warrior of Hnæf's, who avenges on Finn his leader's death, 1149
Scede-land, 19. Sceden-īg (dat. Sceden-īgge, 1687), O.N., Scān-ey, the most
southern portion of the Scandinavian peninsula, belonging to the Danish
kingdom, and, in the above-mentioned passages of our poem, a designation of
the whole Danish kingdom.
Scēf or Scēaf. See Note.
Scēfing, the son (?) of Scēf, or Scēaf, reputed father of Scyld, 4. See
Scyld (gen. Scyldes, 19), a Scēfing. 4. His son is Bēowulf, 18, 53: his
grandson, Healfdene, 57; his great-grandson, Hrōðgār, who had two brothers
and a sister, 59 ff.--Scyld dies, 26; his body, upon a decorated ship, is
given over to the sea (32 ff.), just as he, when a child, drifted alone,
upon a ship, to the land of the Danes, 43 ff. After him his descendants
bear his name.
Scyldingas (Scyldungas, 2053; gen. Scyldinga, 53, etc., Scyldunga, 2102,
2160; dat. Scyldingum, 274, etc.), a name which is extended also to the
Danes, who are ruled by the Scyldings, 53, etc. They are also called
Ār-Scyldingas, 464; Sige-Scyldingas, 598, 2005; Þēod-Scyldingas, 1020;
Scylfingas, a Swedish royal family, whose relationship seems to extend to
the Gēatas, since Wīglāf, the son of Wīhstān, who in another place, as a
kinsman of Bēowulf, is called a Wǣgmunding (2815), is also called lēod
Scylfinga, 2604. The family connections are perhaps as follows:--
Ecgþēow. Wēohstān. Ongenþēow.
| | |
-------- -------- ---------------
Bēowulf. Wīglāf. Onela. Ōhthere.
The Scylfings are also called Heaðo-Scilfingas, 63, Gūð-Scylfingas, 2928.
Sige-mund (dat. -munde, 876, 885), the son of Wæls, 878, 898. His (son and
) nephew is Fitela, 880, 882. His fight with the drake, 887 ff.
Swerting (gen. Swertinges, 1204), Hygelāc's grandfather, and Hrēðel's
Swēon (gen. Swēona, 2473, 2947, 3002), also Swēo-þēod, 2923. The dynasty of
the Scylfings rules over them, 2382, 2925. Their realm is called Swīorice,
Þrȳðo, consort of the Angle king, Offa, 1932, 1950. Mother of Ēomǣr, 1961,
notorious on account of her cruel, unfeminine character, 1932 ff. She is
mentioned as the opposite to the mild, dignified Hygd, the queen of the
Wæls (gen. Wælses, 898), father of Sigemund, 878, 898.
Wǣg-mundingas (gen. Wǣgmundinga, 2608, 2815). The Wǣgmundings are on one
side, Wīhstān and his son Wīglāf; on the other side, Ecgþēow and his son
Bēowulf (2608, 2815). See under Scylfingas.
Wederas (gen. Wedera, 225, 423, 498, etc.), or Weder-gēatas. See Gēatas.
Wēland (gen. Wēlandes, 455), the maker of Bēowulf's coat of mail, 455.
Wendlas (gen. Wendla, 348): their chief is Wulfgār. See Wulfgār. The
Wendlas are, according to Grundtvig and Bugge, the inhabitants of Vendill,
the most northern part of Jutland, between Limfjord and the sea.
Wealh-þēow (613, Wealh-þēo, 665, 1163), the consort of King Hrōðgār, of the
stock of the Helmings, 621. Her sons are Hrēðrīc and Hrōðmund, 1190; her
daughter, Frēawaru, 2023.
Wēoh-stān (gen. Wēox-stānes, 2603, Wēoh-stānes, 2863, Wih-stānes, 2753,
2908, etc.), a Wǣgmunding (2608), father of Wīglāf, 2603. In what
relationship to him Ælfhere, mentioned 2605, stands, is not
clear.--Wēohstān is the slayer of Ēanmund (2612), in that, as it seems, he
takes revenge for his murdered king, Heardrēd. See Ēanmund.
Wīg-lāf, Wēohstān's son, 2603, etc., a Wǣgmunding, 2815, and so also a
Scylfing, 2604; a kinsman of Ælfhere, 2605. For his relationship to
Bēowulf, see the genealogical table under Scylfingas.--He supports Bēowulf
in his fight with the drake, 2605 ff., 2662 ff. The hero gives him, before
his death, his ring, his helm, and his coat of mail, 2810 ff.
Won-rēd (gen. Wonrēdes, 2972), father of Wulf and Eofor, 2966, 2979.
Wulf (dat. Wulfe, 2994), one of the Gēatas, Wonrēd's son. He fights in the
battle between the armies of Hygelāc and Ongenþēow with Ongenþēow himself,
and gives him a wound (2966), whereupon Ongenþēow, by a stroke of his
sword, disables him, 2975. Eofor avenges his brother's fall by dealing
Ongenþēow a mortal blow, 2978 ff.
Wulf-gār, chief of the Wendlas, 348, lives at Hrōðgār's court, and is his
"ār and ombiht," 335.
Wylfingas (dat. Wylfingum, 461). Ecgþēow has slain Heoðolāf, a warrior of
this tribe, 460.
Yrmen-lāf, younger brother of Æschere, 1325.
Br.: S.A. Brooke, Hist. of Early Eng. Lit.
E.: Earle, Deeds of Beowulf in Prose.
G.: Garnett, Translation of Beowulf
Ha.: Hall, Translation of Beowulf.
H.-So.: Heyne-Socin, 5th ed.
Sw.: Sweet, Anglo-Saxon Reader, 6th ed.
Ten Br.: Ten Brink.
Beit.: Paul und Branne's Beiträge.
Eng. Stud.: Englische Studien.
Haupts Zeitschr.: Haupts Zeitschrift, etc.
Mod. Lang. Notes: Modern Language Notes.
Tidskr.: Tidskrift for Philologi.
Zachers Zeitschr.: Zachers Zeitschrift, etc.
l. 1. hwæt: for this interjectional formula opening a poem, cf. _Andreas,
Daniel, Juliana, Exodus, Fata Apost., Dream of the Rood_, and the
"Listenith lordinges!" of mediaeval lays.--E. Cf. Chaucer, Prologue, ed.
Morris, l. 853:
"Sin I shal beginne the game, _What_, welcome be the cut, a Goddes name!"
wē ... gefrūnon is a variant on the usual epic formulǣ ic gefrægn (l. 74)
and mīne gefrǣge (l. 777). _Exodus, Daniel, Phoenix_, etc., open with the
l. 1. "Gār was the javelin, armed with two of which the warrior went into
battle, and which he threw over the 'shield-wall.' It was barbed."--Br.
124. Cf. _Maldon_, l. 296; _Judith_, l. 224; _Gnom. Verses_, l. 22; etc.
l. 4. "Scild of the Sheaf, not 'Scyld the son of Scaf'; for it is too
inconsistent, even in myth, to give a patronymic to a foundling. According
to the original form of the story, Scēaf was the foundling; he had come
ashore with a sheaf of corn, and from that was named. This form of the
story is preserved in Ethelwerd and in William of Malmesbury. But here the
foundling is Scyld, and we must suppose he was picked up with the sheaf,
and hence his cognomen."--E., p. 105. Cf. the accounts of Romulus and
Remus, of Moses, of Cyrus, etc.
l. 6. egsian is also used in an active sense (not in the Gloss.), = _to
l. 15. S. suggests þā (_which_) for þæt, as object of drēogan; and for
aldor-lēase, Gr. suggested aldor-ceare.--_Beit_. ix. 136.
S. translates: "For God had seen the dire need which the rulerless ones
l. 18. "Beowulf (that is, Beaw of the Anglo-Saxon genealogists, not our
Beowulf, who was a Geat, not a Dane), 'the son of Scyld in Scedeland.' This
is our ancestral myth,--the story of the first culture-hero of the North;
'the patriarch,' as Rydberg calls him, 'of the royal families of Sweden,
Denmark, Angeln, Saxland, and England.'"--Br., p. 78. Cf. _A.-S. Chron._
H.-So. omits parenthetic marks, and reads (after S., _Beit._ ix. 135)
eaferan; cf. _Fata Apost._: lof wīde sprang þēodnes þegna.
"The name _Bēowulf_ means literally 'Bee-wolf,' wolf or ravager of the
bees, = bear. Cf. _beorn_, 'hero,' originally 'bear,' and _bēohata_,
'warrior,' in Cǣdmon, literally 'bee-hater' or 'persecutor,' and hence
identical in meaning with _bēowulf_."--Sw.
"Arcite and Palamon, That foughten _breme_, as it were bores two."
--Chaucer, _Knightes Tale_, l. 841, ed. Morris.
Cf. M. Müller, _Science of Lang._, Sec. Series, pp. 217, 218; and Hunt's
l. 19. Cf. l. 1866, where Scedenig is used, = _Scania_, in Sweden(?).
l. 21. wine is pl.; cf. its apposition wil-gesīðas below. H.-So. compares
_Héliand_, 1017, for language almost identical with ll. 20, 21.
l. 22. on ylde: cf.
"_In elde_ is bothe wisdom and usage." --Chaucer, _Knightes Tale_, l. 1590,
l. 26. Reflexive objects often pleonastically accompany verbs of motion;
cf. ll. 234, 301, 1964, etc.
l. 31. The object of āhte is probably geweald, to be supplied from wordum
wēold of l. 30.--H.-So.
R., Kl., and B. all hold conflicting views of this passage: _Beit._ xii.
80, ix. 188; _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 382, etc. Kl. suggests lǣndagas for
l. 32. "hringed-stefna is sometimes translated 'with curved prow,' but it
means, I think, that in the prow were fastened rings through which the
cables were passed that tied it to the shore."--Br., p. 26. Cf. ll. 1132,
1898. Hring-horni was the mythic ship of the Edda. See Toller-Bosworth for
three different views; and cf. wunden-stefna (l. 220), hring-naca (l.
ll. 34-52. Cf. the burial of Haki on a funeral-pyre ship, _Inglinga Saga;_
the burial of Balder, Sinfiötli, Arthur, etc.
l. 35. "And this [their joy in the sea] is all the plainer from the number
of names given to the ship-names which speak their pride and affection. It
is the AEtheling's vessel, the Floater, the Wave-swimmer, the Ring-sterned,
the Keel, the Well-bound wood, the Sea-wood, the Sea-ganger, the Sea-broad
ship, the Wide-bosomed, the Prow-curved, the Wood of the curved neck, the
Foam-throated floater that flew like a bird."--Br., p. 168.
l. 49. "We know from Scandinavian graves ... that the illustrious dead were
buried ... in ships, with their bows to sea-ward; that they were however
not sent to sea, but were either burnt in that position, or mounded over
with earth."--E. See Du Chaillu, _The Viking Age_, xix.
l. 51. (1) sele-rǣdende (K., S., C.); (2) sēle-rǣdenne (H.); (3)
sele-rǣdende (H.-So.). Cf. l. 1347; and see Ha.
l. 51. E. compares with this canto Tennyson's "Passing of Arthur" and the
legendary burial-journey of St. James of Campostella, an. 800.
l. 53. The poem proper begins with this, "There was once upon a time," the
first 52 lines being a prelude. Eleven of the "fitts," or cantos, begin
with the monosyllable þā, four with the verb gewītan, nine with the formula
Hrōðgār (Bēowulf, Unferð) maðelode, twenty-four with monosyllables in
general (him, swā, sē, hwæt, þā, heht, wæs, mæg, cwōm, strǣt).
l. 58. gamel. "The ... characteristics of the poetry are the use of archaic
forms and words, such as mec for mé, the possessive sín, gamol, dógor, swát
for eald, dǣg, blód, etc., after they had become obsolete in the prose
language, and the use of special compounds and phrases, such as hildenǣdre
(_war-adder_) for 'arrow,' gold-gifa (_gold-giver_) for 'king,' ...
goldwine gumena (_goldfriend of men, distributor of gold to men_) for
'king,'" etc.--Sw. Other poetic words are ides, ielde (_men_), etc.
l. 60. H.-So. reads rǣswa (referring to Heorogār alone), and places a point
(with the Ms.) after Heorogār instead of after rǣswa. Cf. l. 469; see B.,
_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 193.
l. 62. Elan here (OHG. _Elana, Ellena, Elena, Elina, Alyan_) is thought by
B. (_Tidskr._ viii. 43) to be a remnant of the masc. name Onela, and he
reads: [On-]elan ewēn, Heaðoscilfingas(=es) healsgebedda.
l. 68. For hē, omitted here, cf. l. 300. Pronouns are occasionally thus
omitted in subord. clauses.--Sw.
l. 70. þone, here = þonne, _than_, and micel = māre? The passage, by a
slight change, might be made to read, medo-ærn micle mā gewyrcean,--þone =
_by much larger than_,--in which þone (þonne) would come in naturally.
l. 73. folc-scare. Add _folk-share_ to the meanings in the Gloss.; and cf.
l. 74. ic wide gefrægn: an epic formula very frequent in poetry, = _men
said._ Cf. _Judith_, ll. 7, 246; _Phoenix_, l. 1; and the parallel (noun)
formula, mīne gefrǣge, ll. 777, 838, 1956, etc.
ll. 78-83. "The hall was a rectangular, high-roofed, wooden building, its
long sides facing north and south. The two gables, at either end, had
stag-horns on their points, curving forwards, and these, as well as the
ridge of the roof, were probably covered with shining metal, and glittered
bravely in the sun."--Br., p. 32.
l. 84. _Son-in-law and father-in-law;_ B., a so-called _dvanda_ compound.
Cf. l. 1164, where a similar compound means _uncle and nephew;_ and
Wīdsīð's suhtorfǣdran, used of the same persons.
l. 88. "The word drēam conveys the buzz and hum of social happiness, and
more particularly the sound of music and singing."--E. Cf. l. 3021; and
_Judith_, l. 350; _Wanderer_, l. 79, etc.
ll. 90-99. There is a suspicious similarity between this passage and the
lines attributed by Bede to Cǣdmon:
Nū wē sculan herian heofonrices Weard, etc. --Sw., p. 47.
ll. 90-98 are probably the interpolation of a Christian scribe.
ll. 92-97. "The first of these Christian elements [in _Bēowulf_] is the
sense of a fairer, softer world than that in which the Northern warriors
lived.... Another Christian passage (ll. 107, 1262) derives all the demons,
eotens, elves, and dreadful sea-beasts from the race of Cain. The folly of
sacrificing to the heathen gods is spoken of (l. 175).... The other point
is the belief in immortality (ll. 1202, 1761)."--Br. 71.
l. 100. Cf. l. 2211, where the third dragon of the poem is introduced in
the same words. Beowulf is the forerunner of that other national
dragon-slayer, St. George.
l. 100. onginnan in _Bēowulf_ is treated like verbs of motion and modal
auxiliaries, and takes the object inf. without tō; cf. ll. 872, 1606, 1984,
244. Cf. _gan_ (= _did_) in Mid. Eng.: _gan_ espye (Chaucer, _Knightes
Tale_, l. 254, ed. Morris).
l. 101. B. and H.-So. read, fēond on healle; cf. l. 142.--_Beit._ xii.
ll. 101-151. "Grimm connects [Grendel] with the Anglo-Saxon grindel (_a
bolt_ or _bar_).... It carries with it the notion of the bolts and bars of
hell, and hence _a fiend._ ... Ettmüller was the first ... to connect the
name with grindan, _to grind, to crush to pieces, to utterly destroy._
Grendel is then _the tearer, the destroyer_."--Br., p. 83.
l. 102. gæst = _stranger_ (Ha.); cf. ll. 1139, 1442, 2313, etc.
l. 103. See Ha., p. 4.
l. 105 MS. and Ho. read won-sǣli.
l. 106. "The perfect and pluperfect are often expressed, as in Modern
English, by hǣfð and hǣfde with the past participle."--Sw. Cf. ll. 433,
408, 940, 205 (p. p. inflected in the last two cases), etc.
l. 106. S. destroys period here, reads in Caines, etc., and puts þone ...
drihten in parenthesis.
l. 108. þæs þe = _because_, especially after verbs of thanking (cf. ll.
228, 627, 1780, 2798); _according as_ (l. 1351).
l. 108. The def. article is omitted with Drihten (_Lord_) and Deofol
(_devil_; cf. l. 2089), as it is, generally, sparingly employed in poetry;
cf. tō sǣ (l. 318), ofer sǣ (l. 2381), on lande (l. 2311), tō ræste (l.
1238), on wicge (l. 286), etc., etc.
l. 119. weras (S., H.-So.); wera (K., Th.).--_Beit._ ix. 137.
l. 120. unfǣlo = _uncanny_ (R.).
l. 131. E. translates, _majestic rage;_ adopting Gr.'s view that swyð is =
Icel. sviði, _a burn_ or _burning_. Cf. l. 737.
l. 142. B. supposes heal-þegnes to be corrupted from helþegnes; cf. l.
101.--_Beit._ xii. 80. See Gūðlāc, l. 1042.
l. 144. See Ha., p. 6, for S.'s rearrangement.
l. 146. S. destroys period after sēlest, puts wæs ... micel in parenthesis,
and inserts a colon after tīd.
l. 149. B. reads sārcwidum for syððan.
l. 154. B. takes sibbe for accus. obj. of wolde, and places a comma after
Deniga.--_Beit._ xii. 82.
l. 159. R. suggests ac se for atol.
l. 168. H.-So. plausibly conjectures this parenthesis to be a late
insertion, as, at ll. 180-181, the Danes also are said to be heathen.
Another commentator considers the throne under a "spell of enchantment,"
and therefore it could not be touched.
l. 169. nē ... wisse: _nor had he desire to do so_ (W.). See Ha., p. 7, for
l. 169. myne wisse occurs in _Wanderer_, l. 27.
l. 174. The gerundial inf. with tō expresses purpose, defines a noun or
adjective, or, with the verb be, expresses duty or necessity passively; cf.
ll. 257, 473, 1004, 1420, 1806, etc. Cf. tō + inf. at ll. 316, 2557.
ll. 175-188. E. regards this passage as dating the time and place of the
poem relatively to the times of heathenism. Cf. the opening lines, _In days
of yore_, etc., as if the story, even then, were very old.
l. 177. gāst-bona is regarded by Ettmüller and G. Stephens (_Thunor_, p.
54) as an epithet of Thor (= _giant-killer_), a kenning for Thunor or Thor,
meaning both _man_ and _monster_.--E.
l. 189. Cf. l. 1993, where similar language is used. H.-So. takes both
mōd-ceare and mǣl-ceare as accus., others as instr.
ll. 190, 1994. sēað: for this use of sēoðan cf. Bede, _Eccles. Hist._, ed.
Miller, p. 128, where p. p. soden is thus used.
l. 194. fram hām = _in his home_ (S., H.-So.); but fram hām may be for fram
him (_from them_, i.e. _his people_, or _from Hrothgar's_). Cf. Ha., p. 8.
l. 197. Cf. ll. 791, 807, for this fixed phrase.
l. 200. See _Andreas, Elene_, and _Juliana_ for swan-rād (_= sea_). "The
swan is said to breed wild now no further away than the North of Sweden."
--E. Cf. ganotes bæð, l. 1862.
l. 203. Concessive clauses with þēah, þēah þe, þēah ... eal, vary with
subj. and ind., according as fact or contingency is dominant in the mind;
cf. ll. 526, 1168, 2032, etc. (subj.), 1103, 1614 (ind.). Cf. gif, nefne.
l. 204. hǣl, an OE. word found in Wülker's Glossaries in various forms, =
_augury, omen, divination_, etc. Cf. hǣlsere, _augur_; hǣl, _omen;_
hǣlsung, _augurium_, hǣlsian, etc. Cf. Tac., _Germania_, 10.
l. 207. C. adds "= _impetrare_" to the other meanings of findan given in
l. 217. Cf. l. 1910; and _Andreas_, l. 993.--E. E. compares Byron's
"And fast and falcon-like the vessel flew," --_Corsair_, i. 17.
"Merrily, merrily bounds the bark." --_Lord of the Isles_, iv. 7.
l. 218. Cf.
"The fomy stedes on the golden brydel Gnawinge." --Chaucer, _Knightes
Tale_, l. 1648, ed. Morris.
l 218. MS. and Ho. read fāmi-heals.
l. 219. Does ān-tīd mean _hour_ (Th.), or _corresponding hour_ = ānd-tīd
(H.-So.), or _in due time_ (E.), or _after a time_, when ōþres, etc., would
be adv. gen.? See C., _Beit._ viii. 568.
l. 224. eoletes may = (1) _voyage_; (2) _toil, labor_; (3) _hurried
journey;_ but _sea_ or _fjord_ appears preferable.
ll. 229-257. "The scenery ... is laid on the coast of the North Sea and the
Kattegat, the first act of the poem among the Danes in Seeland, the second
among the Geats in South Sweden."--Br., p. 15.
l. 239. "A shoal of simple terms express in _Bēowulf_ the earliest
sea-thoughts of the English.... The simplest term is Sǣ.... To this they
added Wǣter, Flod, Stream, Lagu, Mere, Holm, Grund, Heathu, Sund, Brim,
Garsecg, Eagor, Geofon, Fifel, Hron-rad, Swan-rad, Segl-rad,
Ganotes-bǣð."--Br., p. 163-166.
l. 239. "The infinitive is often used in poetry after a verb of motion
where we should use the present participle."--Sw. Cf. ll. 711, 721, 1163
1803, 268, etc. Cf. German _spazieren fahren reiten_, etc., and similar
constructions in French, etc.
l. 240, W. reads hringed-stefnan for helmas bǣron. B. inserts (?) after
holmas and begins a new line at the middle of the verse. S. omits B.'s "on
l. 245. Double and triple negatives strengthen each other and do not
produce an affirmative in A.-S. or M. E. The neg. is often prefixed to
several emphatic words in the sentence, and readily contracts with vowels,
and h or w; cf. ll. 863, 182, 2125, 1509, 575, 583, 3016, etc.
l. 249. seld-guma = _man-at-arms in another's house_ (Wood); = _low-ranking
fellow_ (Ha.); stubenhocker, _stay-at-home_ (Gr.), Scott's "carpet knight,"
_Marmion_, i. 5.
l. 250. næfne (nefne, nemne) usually takes the subj., = _unless_; cf. ll.
1057, 3055, 1553. For ind., = _except_, see l. 1354. Cf. būtan, gif, þēah.
l. 250. For a remarkable account of armor and weapons in _Bēowulf_, see S.
A. Brooke, _Hist. of Early Eng. Lit._ For general "Old Teutonic Life in
Bēowulf," see J. A. Harrison, _Overland Monthly_.
l. 252. ǣr as a conj. generally has subj., as here; cf. ll. 264, 677, 2819,
732. For ind., cf. l. 2020.
l. 253. lēas = _loose_, _roving_. Ettmüller corrected to lēase.
l. 256. This proverb (ofest, etc.) occurs in _Exod._ (Hunt), l. 293.
l. 258. An "elder" may be a very young man; hence yldesta, = _eminent_, may
be used of Beowulf. Cf. _Laws of AElfred_, C. 17: Nā þæt ǣlc eald sȳ, ac
þæt hē eald sȳ on wīsdōme.
l. 273. Verbs of hearing and seeing are often followed by acc. with inf.;
cf. ll. 229, 1024, 729, 1517, etc. Cf. German construction with _sehen,
horen_, etc., French construction with _voir, entendre_, etc., and the
l. 275. dǣd-hata = _instigator_. Kl. reads dǣd-hwata.
l. 280. ed-wendan, n. (B.; cf. 1775), = edwenden, limited by bisigu. So ten
Br. = _Tidskr._ viii. 291.
l. 287. "Each is denoted ... also by the strengthened forms ǽghwæðer
(ǽgðer), éghwæðer, etc. This prefixed ǽ, óe corresponds to the Goth, _aiw_,
OHG. _eo_, _io_, and is umlauted from á, ó by the i of the gi which
originally followed."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 190.
l. 292. "All through the middle ages suits of armour are called
l. 299. MS. reads gōd-fremmendra. So H.-So.
l. 303. "An English warrior went into battle with a boar-crested helmet,
and a round linden shield, with a byrnie of ringmail ... with two javelins
or a single ashen spear some eight or ten feet long, with a long two-edged
sword naked or held in an ornamental scabbard.... In his belt was a short,
heavy, one-edged sword, or rather a long knife, called the seax ... used
for close quarters."--Br., p. 121.
l. 303. For other references to the boar-crest, cf. ll. 1112, 1287, 1454;
Grimm, _Myth._ 195; Tacitus, _Germania_, 45. "It was the symbol of their
[the Baltic AEstii's] goddess, and they had great faith in it as a
preservative from hard knocks."--E. See the print in the illus. ed. of
Green's _Short History_, Harper & Bros.
l. 303. "See Kemble, _Saxons in England_, chapter on heathendom, and
Grimm's _Teutonic Mythology_, chapter on Freyr, for the connection these
and other writers establish between the Boar-sign and the golden boar which
Freyr rode, and his worship."--Br., p. 128. Cf. _Elene_, l. 50.
l. 304. Gering proposes hlēor-bergan = _cheek-protectors_; cf. _Beit._ xii.
26. "A bronze disk found at Öland in Sweden represents two warriors in
helmets with boars as their crests, and cheek-guards under; these are the
hlēor-bergan."--E. Cf. hauberk, with its diminutive habergeon, < A.-S.
heals, _neck_ + beorgan, _to cover_ or _protect_; and harbor, < A.-S. here,
_army_ + beorgan, id.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ xii. 123. Cf. cinberge, Hunt's
_Exod._ l. 175.
l. 305. For ferh wearde and gūðmōde grummon, B. and ten Br. read
ferh-wearde (l. 305) and gūðmōdgum men (l. 306), = _the boar-images ...
guarded the lives of the warlike men_.
l. 311. lēoma: cf. Chaucer, _Nonne Preestes Tale_, l. 110, ed. Morris:
"To dremen in here dremes Of armes, and of fyr with rede _lemes_."
l. 318. On the double gender of sǣ, cf. Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 147; and
note the omitted article at ll. 2381, 318, 544, with the peculiar tmesis of
_between_ at ll. 859, 1298, 1686, 1957. So _Cǣdmon_, l. 163 (Thorpe),
_Exod._ l. 562 (Hunt), etc.
l. 320. Cf. l. 924; and _Andreas_, l. 987, where almost the same words
occur. "Here we have manifestly before our eye one of those ancient
causeways, which are among the oldest visible institutions of
l. 322. S. inserts comma after scīr, and makes hring-īren (= _ring-mail_)
parallel with gūð-byrne.
l. 325. Cf. l. 397. "The deposit of weapons outside before entering a house
was the rule at all periods.... In provincial Swedish almost everywhere a
church porch is called våkenhus,... i.e. _weapon-house_, because the
worshippers deposited their arms there before they entered the house."--E.,
after G. Stephens.
l. 333. Cf. Dryden's "mingled metal _damask'd_ o'er with gold."--E.
l. 336. "ǣl-, el-, kindred with Goth. _aljis_, other, e.g. in ǣlþéodig,
elþéodig, foreign."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 47.
l. 336. Cf. l. 673 for the functions of an ombiht-þegn.
l. 338. Ho. marks wræc- and its group long.
l. 343. Cf. l. 1714 for the same bēod-genēatas,--"the predecessor title to
that of the Knights of the Table Round."--E. Cf. _Andreas_ (K.), l. 2177.
l. 344. The future is sometimes expressed by willan + inf., generally with
some idea of volition involved; cf. ll. 351, 427, etc. Cf. the use of
willan as principal vb. (with omitted inf.) at ll. 318, 1372, 543, 1056;
and sculan, ll. 1784, 2817.
l. 353. sīð here, and at l. 501, probably means _arrival_. E. translates
the former by _visit_, the latter by _adventure_.
l. 357. unhār = _hairless, bald_ (Gr., etc.).
l. 358. ēode is only one of four or five preterits of gān (gongan, gangan,
gengan), viz. gēong (gīong: ll. 926, 2410, etc.), gang (l. 1296, etc.),
gengde (ll. 1402, 1413). Sievers, p. 217, apparently remarks that ēode is
"probably used only in prose." (?!). Cf. geng, _Gen._ ll. 626, 834; _Exod._
(Hunt) l. 102.
l. 367. The MS. and H.-So. read with Gr. and B. glædman Hrōðgār, abandoning
Thorkelin's glædnian. There is a glass. hilaris glædman.--_Beit._ xii. 84;
same as glæd.
l. 369. dugan is a "preterit-present" verb, with new wk. preterit, like
sculan, durran, magan, etc. For various inflections, see ll. 573, 590,
1822, 526. Cf. _do_ in "that will _do_"; _doughty_, etc.
l. 372. Cf. l. 535 for a similar use; and l. 1220. Bede, _Eccles. Hist._,
ed. Miller, uses the same expression several times. "Here, and in all other
places where cniht occurs in this poem, it seems to carry that technical
sense which it bore in the military hierarchy [of a noble youth placed out
and learning the elements of the art of war in the service of a qualified
warrior, to whom he is, in a military sense, a servant], before it bloomed
out in the full sense of _knight_."--E.
l. 373. E. remarks of the hyphened eald-fæder, "hyphens are risky toys to
play with in fixing texts of pre-hyphenial antiquity"; eald-fæder could
only = _grandfather_. eald here can only mean _honored_, and the hyphen is
unnecessary. Cf. "old fellow," "my old man," etc.; and Ger. _alt-vater_.
l. 378. Th. and B. propose Gēatum, as presents from the Danish to the
Geatish king.--_Beit._ xii.
l. 380. hæbbe. The subj. is used in indirect narration and question, wish
and command, purpose, result, and hypothetical comparison with swelce = _as
ll. 386, 387. Ten Br. emends to read: "Hurry, bid the kinsman-throng go
into the hall together."
l. 387. sibbe-gedriht, for Beowulf's friends, occurs also at l. 730. It is
subject-acc. to sēon. Cf. ll. 347, 365, and Hunt's _Exod._ l. 214.
l. 404. "Here, as in the later Icelandic halls, Beowulf saw Hrothgar
enthroned on a high seat at the east end of the hall. The seat is sacred.
It has a supernatural quality. Grendel, the fiend, cannot approach
it."--Br., p. 34. Cf. l. 168.
l. 405. "At Benty Grange, in Derbyshire, an Anglo-Saxon barrow, opened in
1848, contained a coat of mail. 'The iron chain work consists of a large
number of links of two kinds attached to each other by small rings half an
inch in diameter; one kind flat and lozenge-shaped ... the others all of
one kind, but of different lengths.'"--Br., p. 126.
l. 407. Wes ... hāl: this ancient Teutonic greeting afterwards grew into
wassail. Cf. Skeat's _Luke_, i. 28; _Andreas_ (K.), 1827; Layamon, l.
l. 414. "The distinction between wesan and weorðan [in passive relations]
is not very clearly defined, but wesan appears to indicate a state, weorðan
generally an action."--Sw. Cf. Mod. German _werden_ and _sein_ in similar
l. 414. Gr. translates hādor by _receptaculum_; cf. Gering, _Zachers
Zeitschr._ xii. 124. Toller-Bosw. ignores Gr.'s suggestion.
ll. 420, 421. B. reads: þǣr ic (_on_) fīfelgeban (= _ocean_) ȳðde eotena
cyn. Ten Br. reads: þǣr ic fīfelgeban ȳðde, eotena hām. Ha. suggests
fīfelgeband = _monster-band_, without further changes.
l. 420. R. reads þǣra = _of them_, for þǣr.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 399;
_Beit._ xii. 367.
l. 420. "niht has a gen., nihtes, used for the most part only adverbially,
and almost certainly to be regarded as masculine."--Cook's Sievers' Gram.,
l. 425. Cf. also ll. 435, 635, 2345, for other examples of Beowulf's
determination to fight single-handed.
l. 441. þe hine = _whom_, as at l. 1292, etc. The indeclinable þe is often
thus combined with personal pronouns, = relative, and is sometimes
separated from them by a considerable interval.--Sw.
l. 443. The MS. has Geotena. B. and Fahlbeck, says H.-So., do not consider
the Gēatas, but the Jutes, as the inhabitants of Swedish West-Gothland.
Alfred translates Juti by Gēatas, but _Jutland_ by _Gotland_. In the laws
they are called Guti.--_Beit._ xii. 1, etc.
l. 444. B., Gr., and Ha. make unforhte an adv. = _fearlessly_, modifying
etan. Kl. reads anforhte = _timid_.
l. 446. Cf. l. 2910. Th. translates: _thou wilt not need my head to hide_
(i.e. _bury_). Simrock supposes a dead-watch or lyke-wake to be meant.
Wood, _thou wilt not have to bury so much as my head!_ H.-So. supposes
hēafod-weard, _a guard of honor_, such as sovereigns or presumptive rulers
had, to be meant by hafalan hȳdan; hence, _you need not give me any
guard_, etc. Cf. Schmid, _Gesetze der A._, 370-372.
l. 447. S. places a colon after nimeð.
l. 451. H.-So., Ha., and B. (_Beit._ xii. 87) agree essentially in
translating feorme, _food_. R. translates _consumption of my corpse.
Maintenance, support_, seems preferable to either.
l. 452. Rönning (after Grimm) personifies Hild.--_Beovulfs Kvadet_, l. 59.
Hildr is the name of one of the Scandinavian Walkyries, or battle-maidens,
who transport the spirits of the slain to Walhalla. Cf. Kent's _Elene_, l.
l. 455. "The war-smiths, especially as forgers of the sword, were garmented
with legend, and made into divine personages. Of these Weland is the type,
husband of a swan maiden, and afterwards almost a god."-- Br., p. 120. Cf.
A. J. C. Hare's account of "Wayland Smith's sword with which Henry II. was
knighted," and which hung in Westminster Abbey to a late date.--_Walks in
London_, ii. 228.
l. 455. This is the ǣlces mannes wyrd of Boethius (Sw., p. 44) and the wyrd
bið swīðost of Gnomic Verses, 5. There are about a dozen references to it
l. 455. E. compares the fatalism of this concluding hemistich with the
Christian tone of l. 685 _seq._
ll. 457, 458. B. reads wǣre-ryhtum ( = _from the obligations of
l. 480. Cf. l. 1231, where the same sense, "flown with wine," occurs.
l. 488. "The duguð, the mature and ripe warriors, the aristocracy of the
nation, are the support of the throne."--E. The M. E. form of the word,
_douth_, occurs often. Associated with geogoð, ll. 160 and 622.
l. 489. Kl. omits comma after meoto and reads (with B.) sige-hrēð-secgum, =
_disclose thy thought to the victor-heroes_. Others, as Körner, convert
meoto into an imperative and divide on sǣl = _think upon happiness_. But
cf. onband beadu-rūne, l. 501. B. supposes onsǣl meoto =_speak courteous
words_. _Tidskr._ viii. 292; _Haupts Zeitschr._ xi. 411; _Eng. Stud._ ii.
l. 489. Cf. the invitation at l. 1783.
l. 494. Cf. Grimm's _Andreas_, l. 1097, for deal, =_proud, elated,
exulting_; _Phoenix_ (Bright), l. 266.
l. 499. MS. has Hunferð, but the alliteration requires Unferð, as at ll.
499, 1166, 1489; and cf. ll. 1542, 2095, 2930. See _List of Names_.
l. 501. sīð = _arrival_ (?); cf. l. 353.
l. 504. þon mā = _the more_ (?), may be added to the references under þon.
l. 506. E. compares the taunt of Eliab to David, I Sam. xvii. 28.
l. 509. dol-gilp = _idle boasting_. The second definition in the Gloss. is
l. 513. "Eagor-stream might possibly be translated the stream of Eagor, the
awful terror-striking stormy sea in which the terrible [Scandinavian] giant
dwelt, and through which he acted."--Br., p. 164. He remarks, "The English
term _eagre_ still survives in provincial dialect for the tide-wave or bore
on rivers. Dryden uses it in his _Threnod. Angust._ 'But like an _eagre_
rode in triumph o'er the tide.' Yet we must be cautious," etc. Cf. Fox's
_Boethius_, ll. 20, 236; Thorpe's _Cǣdmon_, 69, etc.
l. 524. Krüger and B. read Bānstānes.--_Beit._ ix. 573.
l. 525. R. reads wyrsan (= wyrses: cf. Mod. Gr. _guten Muthes_) geþinges;
but H.-So. shows that the MS. wyrsan ... þingea = wyrsena þinga, _can
stand_; cf. gen. pl. banan, _Christ_, l. 66, etc.
l. 545 _seq._ "Five nights Beowulf and Breca kept together, not swimming,
but sailing in open boats (to swim the seas is to sail the seas), then
storm drove them asunder ... Breca is afterwards chief of the Brondings, a
tribe mentioned in _Wīdsíth_. The story seems legendary, not
mythical."--Br., pp. 60, 61.
ll. 574-578. B. suggests swā þǣr for hwæðere, = _so there it befell me_.
But the word at l. 574 seems = _however_, and at l. 578 = _yet_; cf. l.
891; see S.; _Beit._ ix. 138; _Tidskr._ viii. 48; _Zacher_, iii. 387, etc.
l. 586. Gr. and Grundt. read fāgum sweordum (no ic þæs fela gylpe!),
supplying fela and blending the broken half-lines into one. Ho. and Kl.
l. 599. E. translates nȳd-bāde by _blackmail_; adding "nēd bād, _toll_;
nēd bādere, _tolltaker_."--Land Charters, Gloss, v.
l. 601. MS. has ond = _and_ in three places only (601, 1149, 2041);
elsewhere it uses the symbol 7 = _and_.
l. 612. _seq._ Cf. the drinking ceremony at l. 1025. "The royal lady offers
the cup to Beowulf, not in his turn where he sate among the rest, but after
it has gone the round; her approach to Beowulf is an act apart."--E.
l. 620. "The [loving] cup which went the round of the company and was
tasted by all," like the Oriel and other college anniversary cups.--E.
l. 622. Cf. ll. 160, 1191, for the respective places of young and old.
l. 623. Cf. the circlet of gold worn by Wealhþēow at l. 1164.
l. 631. gyddode. Cf. Chaucer, _Prol._ l. 237 (ed. Morris):
"Of _yeddynges_ he bar utterly the prys."
l. 648. Kl. suggests a period after geþinged, especially as B. (_Tidskr._
viii. 57) has shown that oþþe is sometimes = ond. Th. supplies ne.
l. 650. oþþe here and at ll. 2476, 3007, probably = _and_.
l. 651. Cf. 704, where sceadu-genga (the _night-ganger_ of _Leechdoms_, ii.
344) is applied to the demon.--E.
l. 659. Cf. l. 2431 for same formula, "to have and to hold" of the Marriage
l. 681. B. considers þēah ... eal a precursor of Mod. Eng. _although_.
l. 682. gōdra = _advantages in battle_ (Gr.), _battle-skill_ (Ha.), _skill
in war_ (H.-So.). Might not nāt be changed to nah = ne + āh (cf. l. 2253),
thus justifying the translation _ability_ (?) --_he has not the ability
l. 695. Kl. reads hiera.--_Beit._ ix. 189. B. omits hīe as occurring in the
previous hemistich.--_Beit._ xii. 89.
l. 698. "Here Destiny is a web of cloth."--E., who compares the Greek
Clotho, "spinster of fate." Women are also called "weavers of peace," as l.
1943. Cf. Kent's _Elene_, l. 88; _Wīdsīð_, l. 6, etc.
l. 711. B. translates þā by _when_ and connects with the preceding
sentences, thus rejecting the ordinary canto-division at l. 711. He objects
to the use of cōm as principal vb. at ll. 703, 711, and 721. (_Beit_, xii.)
l. 711. "Perhaps the Gnomic verse which tells of Thyrs, the giant, is
written with Grendel in the writer's mind,--þyrs sceal on fenne gewunian
āna inuan lande, _the giant shall dwell in the fen, alone in the land_
(Sweet's Read., p. 187)."--Br. p. 36.
l. 717. Dietrich, in _Haupt._ xi. 419, quotes from AElfric, _Hom._ ii. 498:
hē beworhte þā bigelsas mid gyldenum lǣfrum, _he covered the arches with
gold-leaf_,--a Roman custom derived from Carthage. Cf. Mod. Eng. _oriel_ =
_aureolum_, a gilded room.--E. (quoting Skeat). Cf. ll. 2257, 1097, 2247,
2103, 2702, 2283, 333, 1751, for various uses of gold-sheets.
l. 720. B. and ten Br. suggest _hell-thane_ (Grendel) for heal-þegnas, and
make hæle refer to Beowulf. Cf. l. 142.
l. 723. Z. reads [ge]hrān.
l. 727. For this use of standan, cf. ll. 2314, 2770; and Vergil, _Ecl._ ii.
"Cum placidum ventis _staret_ mare."
l. 757. gedræg. _Tumult_ is one of the meanings of this word. Here, appar.
= _occupation, lair_.
l. 759. R. reads mōdega for gōda, "because the attribute cannot be
separated from the word modified unless the two alliterate."
l. 762. Cf. _Andreas_, l. 1537, for a similar use of ūt = _off_.--E.
l. 769. The foreign words in _Bēowulf_ (as ceaster-here) are not numerous;
others are (aside from proper names like _Cain, Abel_, etc.) dēofol
(diabolus), candel (l. 1573), ancor (l. 303), scrīfan (for- ge-), segn (l.
47), gīgant (l. 113), mīl- (l. 1363), strǣt (l. 320), ombeht (l. 287), gim
(l. 2073), etc.
l. 770. MS. reads cerwen, a word conceived by B. and others to be part of a
fem. compd.: -scerwen like -wenden in ed-wenden, -rǣden, etc. (cf.
meodu-scerpen in _Andreas_, l. 1528); emended to -scerwen, _a great scare
under the figure of a mishap at a drinking-bout_; one might compare
bescerwan, _to deprive_, from bescyrian (Grein, i. 93), hence ealu-seerwen
would = _a sudden taking away, deprivation, of the beer_.--H.-So., p. 93.
See B., _Tidskr._ viii. 292.
l. 771. Ten Br. reads rēðe, rēnhearde, = _raging, exceeding bold_.
l. 792. Instrumental adverbial phrases like ǣnige þinga, nǣnige þinga (_not
at all_), hūru þinga (_especially_) are not infrequent. See Cook's Sievers'
Gram., p. 178; March, _A.-S. Gram._, p. 182.
l. 811. myrðe. E. translates _in wanton mood_. Toller-Bosw. does not
recognize _sorrow_ as one of the meanings of this word.
ll. 850, 851. S. reads dēop for dēog and erases semicolon after wēol, =
_the death-stained deep welled with sword-gore_; cf. l. 1424. B. reads
dēað-fǣges dēop, etc., = _the deep welled with the doomed one's
gore_.--_Beit._ xii. 89.
l. 857. The meaning of blaneum is partly explained by fealwe mēaras below,
l. 866. Cf. Layamon's "and leop on his _blancke" = steed_, l. 23900; Kent's
_Elene_, l. 1185.
l. 859. Körner, _Eng. Stud._ i. 482, regards the oft-recurring be sǣm
twēonum as a mere formula = _on earth_; cf. ll. 1298, 1686. twēone is part
of the separable prep. _between_; see be-. Cf. Baskerville's _Andreas_, l.
l. 865. Cf. _Voyage of Ōhthere and Wulfstān_ for an account of funeral
horse-racing, Sweet's Read., p. 22.
l. 868. See Ha., p. 31, for a variant translation.
l. 871 _seq._ R. considers this a technical description of improvised
alliterative verse, suggested by and wrought out on the spur of the moment.
l. 872. R. and B. propose secg[an], = _rehearse_, for secg, which suits the
verbs in the next two lines.
ll. 878-98. "It pleases me to think that it is in English literature we
possess the first sketch of that mighty saga [the Volsunga Saga = Wælsinges
gewin] which has for so many centuries engaged all the arts, and at last in
the hands of Wagner the art of music."--Br., p. 63. Cf. _Nibelung. Lied_,
l. 894. Intransitive verbs, as gān, weorðan, sometimes take habban, "to
indicate independent action."--Sw. Cf. hafað ... geworden, l. 2027.
l. 895. "brūcan (_enjoy_) always has the genitive."--Sw.; cf. l. 895; acc.,
gen., instr., dat., according to March, _A.-S. Gram._, p. 151.
l. 898. Scherer proposes hāte, = _from heat_, instr. of hāt, _heat_; cf. l.
l. 901. hē þæs āron þāh = _he throve in honor_ (B.). Ten Br. inserts comma
after þāh, making siððan introduce a depend. clause.--_Beit._ viii. 568.
Cf. weorð-myndum þāh, l. 8; ll. 1155, 1243.--H.-So.
l. 902. Heremōdes is considered by Heinzel to be a mere epithet = _the
valiant_; which would refer the whole passage to Sigmund (Sigfrid), the
eotenas, l. 903, being the Nibelungen. This, says H.-So., gets rid of the
contradiction between the good "Heremōd" here and the bad one, l. 1710
_seq._--B. however holds fast to Heremōd.--_Beit._ xii. 41. on fēonda
geweald, l. 904,--_into the hands of devils_, says B.; cf. ll. 809, 1721,
2267; _Christ_, l. 1416; _Andreas_, l. 1621; for hine fyren onwōd, cf.
_Gen._ l. 2579; Hunt's _Dan._ 17: hīe wlenco anwōd.
l. 902 _seq._ "Heremōd's shame is contrasted with the glory of Sigemund,
and with the prudence, patience, generosity, and gentleness of Beowulf as a
chieftain."--Br., p. 66.
l. 906. MS. has lemede. Toller-Bosw. corrects to lemedon.
l. 917. Cf. Hunt's _Exod._, l. 170, for similar language.
l. 925. hōs, G. hansa, _company_, "the word from which the mercantile
association of the 'Hanseatic' towns took their designation."--E.
l. 927. on staþole = _on the floor_ (B., Rask, ten Br.).--_Beit._ xii. 90.
l. 927. May not stēapne here = _bright_, from its being immediately
followed by golde fāhne? Cf. Chaucer's "his eyen _stepe_," _Prol._ l. 201
(ed. Morris); Cockayne's _Ste. Marherete_, pp. 9, 108; _St. Kath._, l.
l. 931. grynna may be for gyrnna (= _sorrows_), gen. plu. of gyrn, as
suggested by one commentator.
l. 937. B. (_Beit._ xii. 90) makes gehwylcne object of wīd-scofen (hæfde).
Gr. makes wēa nom. absolute.
l. 940. scuccum: cf. G. scheuche, scheusal; Prov. Eng. _old-shock_; perhaps
the pop. interjection _O shucks!_ (!)
l. 959. H. explains wē as a "plur. of majesty," which Bēowulf throws off at
l. 963. fēond þone frætgan (B. _Beit._ xii. 90).
l. 976. synnum. "Most abstract words in the poetry have a very wide range
of meanings, diverging widely from the prose usage, synn, for instance,
means simply _injury, mischief, hatred_, and the prose meaning _sin_ is
only a secondary one; hata in poetry is not only _hater_, but _persecutor,
enemy_, just as nīð is both _hatred_ and _violence, strength_; heard is
_sharp_ as well as _hard_."--Sw.
l. 986. S. places wæs at end of l. 985 and reads stīðra nægla, omitting
gehwylc and the commas after that and after scēawedon. _Beit._ ix. 138;
stēdra (H.-So.); hand-sporu (H.-So.) at l. 987.
l. 986. Miller (_Anglia_, xii. 3) corrects to ǣghwylene, in apposition to
l. 987. hand-sporu. See _Anglia_, vii. 176, for a discussion of the
intrusion of u into the nom. of n-stems.
l. 988. Cf. ll. 2121, 2414, for similar use of unhēoru = ungeheuer.
l. 992. B. suggests hēatimbred for hāten, and gefrætwon for -od; Kl.,
hroden (_Beit._ ix. 189).
l. 995, 996. Gold-embroidered tapestries seem to be meant by web =
l. 997. After þāra þe = _of those that_, the depend, vb. often takes sg.
for pl.; cf. ll. 844, 1462, 2384, 2736.--Sw.; Dietrich.
l. 998. "Metathesis of l takes place in seld for setl, bold for botl,"
etc.--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 96. Cf. Eng. proper names, _Bootle,
Battle_field, etc.--Skeat, _Principles_, i. 250.
l. 1000. heorras: cf. Chaucer, _Prol._ (ed. Morris) l. 550:
"Ther was no dore that he nolde heve of _harre_."
ll. 1005-1007. See _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 391, and _Beit._ xii. 368, for
R.'s and B.'s views of this difficult passage.
l. 1009. Cf. l. 1612 for sǣl and mǣl, surviving still in E. Anglia in "mind
your _seals and meals_," = _times and occasions_, i.e. have your wits about
ll. 1012, 1013. Cf. ll. 753, 754 for two similar comparatives used in
l. 1014. Cf. l. 327 for similar language.
ll. 1015, 1016. H.-So. puts these two lines in parentheses (fylle ...
þāra). Cf. B., _Beit._ xii. 91.
l. 1024. One of the many famous swords spoken of in the poem. See Hrunting,
ll. 1458, 1660; Hūnlāfing, l. 1144, etc. Cf. Excalibur, Roland's sword, the
Nibelung Balmung, etc.
l. 1034. scūr-heard. For an ingenious explanation of this disputed word see
Professor Pearce's article in _Mod. Lang. Notes_, Nov. 1, 1892, and ensuing
l. 1039. eoderas is of doubtful meaning. H. and Toller-Bosw. regard the
word here = _enclosure, palings of the court_. Cf. _Cǣdmon_, ll. 2439,
2481. The passage throws interesting light on horses and their trappings
l. 1043. Grundt. emends wīg to wicg, = _charger_; and E. quotes Tacitus,
l. 1044. "Power over each and both"; cf. "all and some," "one and all."
For Ingwin, see _List of Names_.
l. 1065. Gr. contends that fore here = de, _concerning, about_ (Ebert's
_Jahrb._, 1862, p. 269).
l. 1069. H.-So. supplies fram after eaferum, to govern it, = _concerning_
(?). Cf. _Fight at Finnsburg_, Appendix.
l. 1070. For the numerous names of the Danes, "bright-" "spear-" "east-"
"west-" "ring-" Danes, see these words.
l. 1073. Eotenas = _Finn's people, the Frisians_; cf. ll. 1089, 1142, 1146,
etc., and _Beit._ xii. 37. Why they are so called is not known.
l. 1084. R. proposes wiht Hengeste wið gefeohtan (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii.
394). Kl., wið H. wiht gefeohtan.
ll. 1085 and 1099. wēa-lāf occurs in Wulfstan, _Hom._ 133, ed. Napier.--E.
Cf. daroða lāf, _Brunanb._, l. 54; ādes lāfe, _Phoenix_, 272 (Bright), etc.
l. 1098. elne unflitme = _so dass der eid (der inhalt des eides) nicht
streitig war_.--B., _Beit._ iii. 30. But cf. 1130, where Hengist and Finn
are again brought into juxtaposition and the expression ealles (?) unhlitme
l. 1106. The pres. part. + be, as myndgiend wǣre here, is comparatively
rare in original A.-S. literature, but occurs abundantly in translations
from the Latin. The periphrasis is generally meaningless. Cf. l. 3029.
l. 1108. Körner suggests ecge, = _sword_, in reference to a supposed old
German custom of placing ornaments, etc., on the point of a sword or spear
(_Eng. Stud._ i. 495). Singer, ince-gold = _bright gold_; B., andīege =
Goth, _andaugjo, evidently_. Cf. incge lāfe, l. 2578. Possibly: and inge (=
_young men_) gold āhōfon of horde. For inge, cf. Hunt's _Exod._ l. 190.
ll. 1115-1120. R. proposes (hēt þā ...) bānfatu bærnan ond on bǣl dōn,
earme on eaxe = _to place the arms in the ashes_, reading gūðrēc =
_battle-reek_, for -rinc (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 395). B., Sarrazin
(_Beit._ xi. 530), Lichtenfeld (_Haupts Zeitschr._ xvi. 330), C., etc.,
propose various emendations. See H.-So., p. 97, and _Beit._ viii. 568. For
gùðrinc āstāh, cf. Old Norse, _stiga á bál_, "ascend the bale-fire."
l. 1116. sweoloðe. "On Dartmoor the burning of the furze up the hillsides
to let new grass grow, is called _zwayling_."--E. Cf. _sultry_, G.
l. 1119. Cf. wudu-rēc āstāh, l. 3145; and _Exod._ (Hunt), l. 450: wǣlmist
l. 1122. ætspranc = _burst forth, arose_ (omitted from the Gloss.), < æt +
l. 1130. R. and Gr. read elne unflitme, = _loyally and without contest_, as
at l. 1098. Cf. Ha., p. 39; H.-So., p. 97.
l. 1137. scacen = _gone_; cf. ll. 1125, 2307, 2728.
l. 1142. "The sons of the Eotenas" (B., _Beit._ xii. 31, who conjectures a
gap after 1142).
l. 1144. B. separates thus: Hūn Lāfing, = _Hūn placed the sword Lāfing_,
etc.--_Beit._ xii. 32; cf. R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 396. Heinzel and
Homburg make other conjectures (Herrig's _Archiv_, 72, 374, etc.).
l. 1143. B., H.-So., and Möller read: worod rǣdenne, þonne him Hūn Lāfing,
= _military brotherhood, when Hūn laid upon his breast_ (the sword)
_Lāfing_. There is a sword _Laufi, Lövi_ in the Norse sagas; but swords,
armor, etc., are often called the _leaving_ (lāf) of files, hammers, etc.,
especially a precious heirloom; cf. ll. 454, 1033, 2830, 2037, 2629, 796,
l. 1152. roden = _reddened_ (B., _Tidskr._ viii. 295).
l. 1160. For ll. 1069-1160, containing the Finn episode, cf. Möller,
_Alteng. Volksepos_, 69, 86, 94; Heinzel, _Anz. f. dtsch. Altert._, 10,
226; B., _Beit._ xii. 29-37. Cf. _Wīdsīð_, l. 33, etc.
ll. 1160, 1161. lēoð (lied = _song, lay_) and gyd here appear synonyms.
ll. 1162-1165. "Behind the wars and tribal wanderings, behind the
contentions of the great, we watch in this poem the steady, continuous life
of home, the passions and thoughts of men, the way they talked and moved
and sang and drank and lived and loved among one another and for one
another."--Br., p. 18.
l. 1163. Cf. _wonderwork_. So _wonder-death, wonder-bidding,
wonder-treasure, -smith, -sight_, etc. at ll. 1748, 3038, 2174, 1682, 996,
etc. Cf. the German use of the same intensive, = _wondrous_, in
l. 1165. þā gȳt points to some future event when "each" was not "true to
other," undeveloped in this poem, suhtor-gefæderan = Hrōðgār and Hrōðulf,
l. 1018. Cf. āðum-swerian, l. 84.
l. 1167 almost repeats l. 500, æt fōtum, etc., where Unferð is first
l. 1191. E. sees in this passage separate seats for youth and middle-aged
men, as in English college halls, chapels, convocations, and churches
l. 1192. ymbutan, _round about_, is sometimes thus separated: ymb hīe ūtan;
cf. _Voyage of Ōhthere_, etc. (Sw.), p. 18, l. 34, etc.; _Bēowulf_, ll.
859, 1686, etc.
l. 1194. bewægned, a ἃπαξ λεγόμενον, tr. _offered_ by Th. Probably a p. p.
wægen, made into a vb. by -ian, like _own, drown_, etc. Cf. hafenian ( <
hafen, < hebban), etc.
l. 1196. E. takes the expression to mean "mantle and its rings or
broaches." "Rail" long survived in Mid. Eng. (_Piers Plow._, etc.).
l. 1196. This necklace was afterwards given by Beowulf to Hygd, ll. 2173,
ll. 1199-1215. From the obscure hints in the passage, a part of the poem
may be approximately dated,--if Hygelāc is the _Chochi-laicus_ of Gregory
of Tours, _Hist. Francorum_, iii. 3,--about A.D. 512-20.
l. 1200. The Breosinga men (Icel. _Brisinga men_) is the necklace of the
goddess Freya; cf. _Elder Edda, Hamarshemt._ Hāma stole the necklace from
the Gothic King Eormenrīc; cf. _Traveller's Song_, ll. 8, 18, 88, 111. The
comparison of the two necklaces leads the poet to anticipate Hygelāc's
history,--a suggestion of the poem's mosaic construction.
l. 1200. For Brōsinga mene, cf. B., _Beit._ xii. 72. C. suggests flēah, =
_fled_, for fealh, placing semicolon after byrig, and making hē subject of
flēah and gecēas.
l. 1202. B. conjectures gecēas ēcne rǣd to mean _he became a pious man and
at death went to heaven_. Heime (Hāma) in the _Thidrekssaga_ goes into a
cloister = to choose the better part (?). Cf. H.-So., p. 98. But cf.
Hrōðgār's language to Beowulf, ll. 1760, 1761.
l. 1211. S. proposes feoh, = _property_, for feorh, which would be a
parallel for brēost-gewǣdu ... bēah below.
l. 1213. E. remarks that in the _Laws of Cnut_, i. 26, the devil is called
se wōdfreca werewulf, _the ravening werwolf_.
l. 1215. C. proposes heals-bēge onfēng. _Beit._ viii. 570. For hreā- Kl.
l. 1227. The son referred to is, according to Ettmüller, the one that
reigns after Hrōðgār.
l. 1229. Kl. suggests sī, = _be_, for _is_.
l. 1232. S. gives _wine-elated_ as the meaning of druncne.--_Beit._ ix.
139; Kl. _ibid._ 189, 194. But cf. _Judith_, ll. 67, 107.
l. 1235. Cf. l. 119 for similarity of language.
l. 1235. Kl. proposes gea-sceaft; but cf. l. 1267.
l. 1246. Ring armor was common in the Middle Ages. E. points out the
numerous forms of byrne in cognate languages,--Gothic, Icelandic, OHG.,
Slavonic, O. Irish, Romance, etc. Du Chaillu, _The Viking Age_, i. 126. Cf.
Murray's _Dict._ s. v.
l. 1248. ānwīg-gearwe = _ready for single combat_ (C.); but cf. Ha. p. 43;
_Beit._ ix. 210, 282.
l. 1252. Some consider this _fitt_ the beginning of Part (or Lay) II. of
the original epic, if not a separate work in itself.
l. 1254. K., W., and Ho. read farode = _wasted;_ Kolbing reads furode; but
cf. wēsten warode, l. 1266. MS. has warode.
ll. 1255-1258. This passage is a good illustration of the constant
parallelism of word and phrase characteristic of A.-S. poetry, and is
quoted by Sw. The changes are rung on ende and swylt, on gesȳne and
l. 1259. "That this story of Grendel's mother was originally a separate lay
from the first seems to be suggested by the fact that the monsters are
described over again, and many new details added, such as would be inserted
by a new singer who wished to enhance and adorn the original tale."--Br.,
l. 1259. Cf. l. 107, which also points to the ancestry of murderers and
monsters and their descent from "Cain."
l. 1261. The MS. has sē þe, m.; changed by some to seo þe. At ll. 1393,
1395, 1498, Grendel's mother is referred to as m.; at ll. 1293, 1505,
1541-1546, etc., as f., the uncertain pronoun designating a creature female
in certain aspects, but masculine in demonic strength and
savageness.--H.-So.; Sw. p. 202. Cf. the masc. epithets at ll. 1380, 2137,
l. 1270. āglǣca = _Grendel_, though possibly referring to Beowulf, as at l.
l. 1273. "It is not certain whether anwalda stands for onwealda, or whether
it should be read ānwealda, = _only ruler_.--Sw.
l. 1279. The MS. has sunu þeod wrecan, which R. changes to sunu
þēod-wrecan, þēod- = _monstrous_; but why not regard þēod as opposition to
sunu, = _her son, the prince?_ See Sweet's Reader, and Körner's discussion,
_Eng. Stud._ i. 500.
l. 1281. Ten Br. suggests (for sōna) sāra = _return of sorrows._
l. 1286. "geþuren (twice so written in MSS.) stands for geþrúen, _forged_,
and is an isolated p. p."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., 209. But see Toller-Bosw.
for examples; Sw., Gloss.; March, p. 100, etc.
ll. 1292. þe hine = _whom;_ cf. ll. 441, 1437, 1292; _Hēliand_, l. 1308.
l. 1298. be sǣm tweonum; cf. l. 1192; Hunt's _Exod._ l. 442; and Mod. Eng.
"to _us_-ward, etc.--Earle's _Philol._, p. 449. Cf. note, l. 1192.
l. 1301. C. proposes ōðer him ærn = _another apartment was assigned him_.
l. 1303. B. conjectures under hrōf genam; but Ha., p. 45, shows this to be
unnecessary, under also meaning _in_, as _in_ (or _under_) these
l. 1319. E. and Sw. suggest nǣgde or nēgde, _accosted_, < nēgan = Mid. Ger.
_nēhwian_, pr. p. _nēhwiandans, approach_. For hnǣgan, _press down,
vanquish_, see ll. 1275, 1440, etc.
l. 1321. C. suggests nēad-lāðum for nēod-laðu, _after crushing hostility_;
but cf. frēond-laðu, l. 1193.
l. 1334. K. and ten Br. conjecture gefægnod = _rejoicing in her fill_, a
parallel to ǣse wlanc, l. 1333.
l. 1340. B. translates: "and she has executed a deed of blood-vengeance of
far-reaching consequence."--_Beit._ xii. 93.
l. 1345. B. reads gēo for ēow (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 205).
ll. 1346-1377. "This is a fine piece of folk-lore in the oldest extant
form.... The authorities for the story are the rustics (ll. 1346, 1356)."
l. 1347. Cf. sele-rǣdende at l. 51.
l. 1351. "The ge [of gewitan] may be merely a scribal error,--a repetition
(dittography) of the preceding ge of gewislīcost."--Sw.
l. 1352. ides, like fīras, _men_, etc., is a poetic word supposed by Grimm
to have been applied, like Gr. νύμφη, to superhuman or semi-divine women.
ll. 1360-1495 _seq._ E. compares this Dantesque tarn and scenery with the
poetical accounts of _AEneid_, vii. 563; _Lucretius_, vi. 739, etc.
l. 1360. firgenstrēam occurs also in the _Phoenix_ (Bright, p. 168) l. 100;
_Andreas_, ll. 779, 3144 (K.); _Gnomic Verses_, l. 47, etc.
l. 1363. The genitive is often thus used to denote measure = by or in
miles; cf. l. 3043; and contrast with partitive gen. at l. 207.
l. 1364. The MS. reads hrinde = hrīnende (?), which Gr. adopts; K. and Th.
read hrinde-bearwas; hringde, _encircling_ (Sarrazin, _Beit._ xi. 163);
hrīmge = _frosty_ (Sw.); _with frost-whiting covered_ (Ha.). See Morris,
_Blickling Hom._, Preface, vi., vii.
l. 1364. Cf. Ruin, hrīmige edoras behrofene, _rimy, roofless halls_.
l. 1366. nīðwundor may = nið- (as in nið-sele, _q. v._) wundor, _wonder of
l. 1368. The personal pronoun is sometimes omitted in subordinate and even
independent clauses; cf. wite here; and Hunt's _Exod._, l. 319.
l. 1370. hornum. Such "datives of manner or respect" are not infrequent
l. 1371. "seleð is not dependent on ǣr, for in that case it would be in the
subjunctive, but ǣr is simply an adverb, correlative with the conjunction
ǣr in the next line: 'he will (sooner) give up his life, before he will,'
l. 1372. Cf. ll. 318 and 543 for willan with similar omitted inf.
l. 1373. heafola is found only in poetry.--Sw. It occurs thirteen or
fourteen times in this poem. Cf. the poetic gamol, swāt (l. 2694), etc.,
for eald, blōd.
l. 1391. uton: hortatory subj. of wītan, _go_, = _let us go;_ cf. French
_allons_, Lat. _eamus_, Ital. _andiamo_, etc. + inf. Cf. ll. 2649, 3102.
l. 1400. H. is dat. of person indirectly affected, = advantage.
l. 1402. geatolīc probably = _in his equipments_, as B. suggests (_Beit._
xii. 83), comparing searolīc.
ll. 1402, 1413 reproduce the wk. form of the pret. of gān (Goth,
_gaggida_). Cf. _Andreas_, l. 1096, etc.
l. 1405. S. (_Beit._ ix. 140) supplies [þǣr hēo] gegnum fōr; B. (_ibid._
xii. 14) suggests hwǣr hēo.
l. 1411. B., Gr., and E. take ān-paðas = paths wide enough for only one,
like Norwegian _einstig_; cf. stīge nearwe, just above. _Trail_ is the
meaning. Cf. enge ānpaðas, uncūð gelād, _Exod._ (Hunt), l. 58.
l. 1421. Cf. oncȳð, l. 831. The whole passage (ll. 1411-1442) is replete
with suggestions of walrus-hunting, seal-fishing, harpooning of sea-animals
(l. 1438), etc.
l. 1425. E. quotes from the 8th cent. Corpus Gloss., "_Falanx_ foeða."
l. 1428. For other mention of nicors, cf. ll. 422, 575, 846. E. remarks,
"it survives in the phrase 'Old Nick' ... a word of high authority ...
Icel. _nykr_, water-goblin, Dan. _nök, nisse_, Swed. _näcken_, G. _nix,
nixe_, etc." See Skeat, _Nick._
l. 1440. Sw. reads gehnǣged, _prostrated_, and regards nīða as gen. pl.
"used instrumentally," = _by force._
l. 1441. -bora = _bearer, stirrer;_ occurs in other compds., as mund-,
l. 1447. him = _for him_, a remoter dative of reference.--Sw.
l. 1455. Gr. reads brondne, = _flaming_.
l. 1457. lēon is the inf. of lāh; cf. onlāh (< onlēon) at l. 1468. līhan
was formerly given as the inf.; cf. lǣne = lǣhne.
l. 1458. Cf. the similar dat. of possession as used in Latin.
l. 1458. H.-So. compares the Icelandic saga account of Grettir's battle
with the giant in the cave. hæft-mēce may be = Icel. _heptisax_ (_Anglia_,
iii. 83), "hip-knife."
l. 1459. "The sense seems to be 'pre-eminent among the old treasures.' ...
But possibly foran is here a prep. with the gen.: 'one before the old
treasures.'".--Sw. For other examples of foran, cf. ll. 985, 2365.
l. 1460. āter-tēarum = _poison-drops_ (C., _Beit._ viii. 571; S., _ibid._
l. 1467. þæt, comp. relative, = _that which_; "we testify _that_ we do
l. 1480. forð-gewitenum is in appos. to me, = _mihi defuncto_.--M.
Callaway, _Am. Journ. of Philol._, October, 1889.
l. 1482. nime. Conditional clauses of doubt or future contingency take gif
or būton with subj.; cf. ll. 452, 594; of fact or certainty, the ind.; cf.
ll. 442, 447, 527, 662, etc. For būton, cf. ll. 967, 1561.
l. 1487. "findan sometimes has a preterit funde in W. S. after the manner
of the weak preterits."--Cook's Sievers' Cram., p, 210.
l. 1490. Kl. reads wæl-sweord, = _battle-sword_.
l. 1507. "This cave under the sea seems to be another of those natural
phenomena of which the writer had personal knowledge (ll. 2135, 2277), and
which was introduced by him into the mythical tale to give it a local
color. There are many places of this kind. Their entrance is under the
lowest level of the tide."--Br., p. 45.
l. 1514. B. (_Beit._ xii. 362) explains niðsele, hrōfsele as _roof-covered
hall in the deep_; cf. Grettir Saga (_Anglia_, iii. 83).
l. 1538. Sw., R., and ten Br. suggest feaxe for eaxle, = _seized by the
l. 1543. and-lēan (R.); cf. l. 2095. The MS. has hand-lēan.
l. 1546. Sw. and S. read seax.--_Beit._ ix. 140.
l. 1557. H.-So. omits comma and places semicolon after ȳðelīce; Sw. and S.
place comma after gescēd.
l. 1584. ōðer swylc = _another fifteen_ (Sw.); = _fully as many_ (Ha.).
ll. 1592-1613 _seq._ Cf. _Anglia_, iii; 84 (Grettir Saga).
l. 1595. blondenfeax = _grizzly-haired_ (Bright, Reader, p. 258); cf.
_Brunanb._, l. 45 (Bright).
l. 1599. gewearð, impers. vb., = _agree, decide = many agreed upon this,
that_, etc. (Ha., p. 55; cf. ll. 2025-2027, 1997; B., _Beit._ xii. 97).
l. 1605. C. supposes wiston = wīscton = _wished_.--_Beit._ viii. 571.
l. 1607. brōden mǣl is now regarded as a comp. noun, = _inlaid or
damascened sword_.--W., Ho.
l. 1611. wæl-rāpas = _water-ropes = bands of frost_ (l. 1610) (?). Possibly
the Prov. Eng. weele, _whirlpool_. Cf. wǣl, _gurges_, Wright, Voc., _Gnom.
Verses_, l. 39.--E.
l. 1611. wǣgrāpas (Sw.) = _wave-bands_ (Ha.).
l. 1622. B. suggests eatna = eotena, eardas, _haunts of the giants_
(Northumbr. ea for eo).
l. 1635. cyning-holde (B., _Beit._ xii. 369); cf. l. 290.
l. 1650. H., Gr., and Ettmüller understand idese to refer to the queen.
l. 1651. Cf. _Anglia_, iii. 74, _Beit._ xi. 167, for coincidences with the
Grettir Saga (13th cent.).
l. 1664. B. proposes eotenise ... èste for ēacen ... oftost, omitting
brackets (_Zackers Zeitschr._ iv. 206). G. translates _mighty ... often_.
l. 1675. ondrǣdan. "In late texts the final n of the preposition on is
frequently lost when it occurs in a compound word or stereotyped phrase,
and the prefix then appears as a: abútan, amang, aweg, aright,
adr'ǣdan."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 98.
ll. 1680-1682. Giants and their work are also referred to at ll. 113, 455,
1563, 1691, etc.
l. 1680. Cf. ceastra ... orðanc enta geweorc, _Gnomic Verses_, l. 2;
Sweet's Reader, p. 186.
ll. 1687-1697. "In this description of the writing on the sword, we see the
process of transition from heathen magic to the notions of Christian times
.... The history of the flood and of the giants ... were substitutes for
names of heathen gods, and magic spells for victory."--E. Cf. Mohammedan
ll. 1703, 1704. þæt þē eorl nǣre geboren betera (B., _Tidskr._ 8, 52).
l. 1715. āna hwearf = _he died solitary and alone_ (B., _Beit._ xii. 38); =
_lonely_ (Ha.); = _alone_ (G.).
l. 1723. lēod-bealo longsum = _eternal hell-torment_ (B., _Beit._ xii. 38,
who compares _Ps. Cott._ 57, līf longsum).
l. 1729. E. translates on lufan, _towards possession_; Ha., _to
l. 1730. mōdgeþonc, like lig, sǣ, segn, niht, etc., is of double gender
(m., n. in the case of mōdgeþ.).
l. 1741. The doctrine of nemesis following close on ὓβρις, or overweening
pride, is here very clearly enunciated. The only protector against the
things that "assault and hurt" the soul is the "Bishop and Shepherd of our
souls" (l. 1743).
l. 1745 appears dimly to fore-shadow the office of the evil archer Loki,
who in the Scandinavian mythology shoots Balder with a mistletoe twig. The
language closely resembles that of Psalm 64.
l. 1748. Kl. regards wom = wō(u)m; cf. wōh-bogen, l. 2828. See Gloss., p.
295, under wam. Contrast the construction of bebeorgan a few lines below
(l. 1759), where the dat. and acc. are associated.
l. 1748. See Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 167, for declension of wōh, _wrong_
= gen. wōs or wōges, dat. wō(u)m, etc.; pl. gen. wōra, dat. wō(u)m, etc.;
and cf. declension of hēah, hrēoh, rūh, etc.
l. 1748. wergan gāstes; cf. _Blickl. Hom._ vii.; _Andreas_, l. 1171. "_Auld
Wearie_ is used in Scotland, or was used a few years ago, ... to mean the
devil."--E. Bede's _Eccles. Hist._ contains (naturally) many examples of
the expression = devil.
l. 1750. on gyld = _in reward_ (B. _Beit._ xii. 95); Ha. translates
_boastfully_; G., _for boasting_; Gr., _to incite to boastfulness_. Cf.
_Christ_, l. 818.
l. 1767. E. thinks this an allusion to the widespread superstition of the
evil eye (_mal occhio, mauvais ǣil_). Cf. Vergil, _Ecl._ iii. 103. He
remarks that Pius IX., Gambetta, and President Carnot were charged by their
enemies with possessing this weapon.
l. 1784. wigge geweorðad (MS. wigge weorðad) is C.'s conjecture; cf.
_Elene_, l. 150. So G., _honored in war_.
l. 1785. The future generally implied in the present of bēon is plainly
seen in this line; cf. ll. 1826, 661, 1830, 1763, etc.
l. 1794. Some impers. vbs. take acc. (as here, Geat) of the person
affected; others (as þyncan) take the dat. of the person, as at ll. 688,
1749, etc. Cf. verbs of dreaming, being ashamed, desiring, etc.--March,
A.-S. Gram., p. 145.
l. 1802. E. remarks that the blaca hrefn here is a bird of good omen, as
opposed to se wonna hrefn of l. 3025. The raven, wolf, and eagle are the
regular epic accompaniments of battle and carnage. Cf. ll. 3025-3028;
_Maldon_, 106; _Judith_, 205-210, etc.
l. 1803. S. emends to read: "then came the light, going bright after
darkness: the warriors," etc. Cf. Ho., p. 41, l. 23. G. puts period before
"the warriors." For ōnettan, cf. Sw.'s Gloss, and Bright's Read., Gloss.
ll. 1808-1810. Müllenh. and Grundt. refer se hearda to Beowulf, correct
sunu (MS.) to suna Ecglāfes (i.e. Unferth); [_he_] (Beo.) _thanked him_
(Un.) _for the loan_. Cf. ll. 344, 581, 1915.
ll. 1823-1840. "Beowulf departing pledges his services to Hroðgar, to be
what afterwards in the mature language of chivalry was called his 'true
l. 1832. Kl. corrects to dryhtne, in appos. with Higelāce.
l. 1835 gār-holt more properly means _spear-shaft_; cf. æsc-holt.
l. 1855. sēl = _better_ (Grundt.; B., _Beit._ xii. 96), instead of MS. wēl.
ll. 1855-1866. "An ideal picture of international amity according to the
experience and doctrine of the eighth century."--E.
l. 1858. S. and Kl. correct to gemǣne, agreeing with sib.--_Beit._ ix. 140,
l. 1862. "The gannet is a great diver, plunging down into the sea from a
considerable height, such as forty feet."--E.
l. 1863. Kl. suggests heafu, = _seas_.
l. 1865. B. proposes geþōhte, = _with firm thought_, for geworhte; cf. l.
l. 1876. gesēon = _see again_ (Kl., _Beit._ ix. 190). S. and B. insert nā
to modify gesēon and explain Hrōðgār's tears. Ha. and G. follow Heyne's
text. Cf. l. 567.
l. 1881. Is beorn here = bearn (be-arn?) of l. 67? or more likely = born,
barn, = _burned?_--S., Th.
l. 1887. orleahtre is a ἃπαξ λεγόμενον. E. compares Tennyson's "blameless"
king. Cf. also ll. 2015, 2145; and the gōd cyning of l. 11.
l. 1896. scaðan = _warriors_ (cf. l. 1804) has been proposed by C.; but cf.
l. 1897. The boat had been left, at ll. 294-302, in the keeping of
Hrōðgār's men; at l. 1901 the bāt-weard is specially honored by Beowulf
with a sword and becomes a "sworded squire."--E. This circumstance appears
to weld the poem together. Cf. also the speed of the journey home with ymb
ān-tīd ōþres dōgores of l. 219, and the similarity of language in both
passages (fāmig-heals, clifu, næssas, sǣlde, brim, etc.).--The nautical
terms in Beowulf would form an interesting study.
l. 1904. R. proposes, gewāt him on naca, = _the vessel set out_, on
alliterating as at l. 2524 (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 402). B. reads on
nacan, but inserts irrelevant matter (_Beit._ xii. 97).
l. 1913. Cf. the same use of cēol, = _ship_, in the _A.-S. Chron._, ed.
Earle-Plummer; _Gnomic Verses_, etc.
l. 1914. S. inserts þæt hē before on lande.
l. 1916. B. makes lēofra manna depend on wlātode, = _looked for the dear
men ready at the coast_ (_Beit._ xii. 97).
l. 1924. Gr., W., and Ho. propose wunade, = _remained;_ but cf. l. 1929. S.
conceives ll. 1924, 1925 as "direct speech" (_Beit._ ix. 141).
l. 1927 _seq._ "The women of Beowulf are of the fine northern type; trusted
and loved by their husbands and by the nobles and people; generous, gentle,
and holding their place with dignity."--Br., p. 67. Thrytho is the
exception, l. 1932 _seq._
l. 1933. C. suggests frēcnu, = _dangerous, bold_, for Thrytho could not be
called "excellent." G. writes "Modthrytho" as her name. The womanly Hygd
seems purposely here contrasted with the terrible Thrytho, just as, at l.
902 _seq._, Sigemund and Heremōd are contrasted. For Thrytho, etc., cf.
Gr., _Jahrb. für rom. u. eng. Lit._ iv. 279; Müllenhoff, _Haupts Zeitschr._
xiv. 216; Matthew Paris; Suchier, _Beit._ iv. 500-521; R. _Zachers
Zeitschr._ iii. 402; B., _ibid._ iv. 206; Körner, _Eng. Stud._ i. 489-492;
H.-So., p. 106.
l. 1932-1963. K. first pointed out the connection between the historical
Offa, King of Mercia, and his wife Cwendrida, and the Offa and Þrȳðo
(Gr.'s _Drida_ of the _Vita Offǣ Secundi_) of the present passage. The tale
is told of her, not of Hygd.
l. 1936. Suchier proposes andǣges, = _eye to eye_; Leo proposes āndǣges, =
_the whole day_; G., _by day_. No change is necessary if an be taken to
govqern hire, = _on her_, and dæges be explained (like nihtes, etc.) as a
genitive of time, = _by day_.
l. 1943. R. and Suchier propose onsēce, = _seek, require_; but cf. 2955.
l. 1966. Cf. the _heofoncandel_ of _Exod._ l. 115 (Hunt). Shak.'s 'night's
l. 1969. Cf. l. 2487 _seq._ for the actual slayer of Ongenþēow, i.e. Eofor,
to whom Hygelāc gave his only daughter as a reward, l. 2998.
l. 1981. meodu-scencum = _with mead-pourers_ or _mead-cups_ (G., Ha.);
_draught or cup of mead_ (Toller-Bosw.).
l. 1982. K., Th., W., H. supply [heal-]reced; Holler [hēa-].
l. 1984. B. defends the MS., reading hǣ nū (for hǣðnū), which he regards as
= Heinir, the inhabitants of the Jutish "heaths" (hǣð). Cf. H.-So., p. 107;
_Beit._ xii. 9.
l. 1985. sīnne. "In poetry there is a reflexive possessive of the third
person, sīn (declined like mīn). It is used not only as a true reflexive,
but also as a non-reflexive (= Lat. _ejus_)"--Sw.; Cook's Sievers' Gram.,
p. 185. Cf. ll. 1508, 1961, 2284, 2790.
l. 1994. Cf. l. 190 for a similar use of sēað; cf. to "glow" with emotion,
"boil" with indignation, "burn" with anger, etc. weallan is often so used;
cf. ll. 2332, 2066, etc.
l. 2010. B. proposes fācne, = _in treachery_, for fenne. Cf. _Juliana_, l.
350; _Beit._ xii. 97.
l. 2022. Food of specific sorts is rarely, if at all, mentioned in the
poem. Drink, on the other hand, occurs in its primitive varieties,--_ale_
(as here: ealu-wǣg), _mead, beer, wine, līð_ (cider? Goth. _leiþus_, Prov.
Ger. _leit-_ in _leit-haus_, ale-house), etc.
l. 2025. Kl. proposes is for wæs.
l. 2027. Cf. l. 1599 for a similar use of weorðan, = _agree, be pleased
with_ (Ha.); _appear_ (Sw., Reader, 6th ed.).
ll. 2030, 2031. Ten Br. proposes: oft seldan ( = _gave_) wǣre æfter
lēod-hryre: lȳtle hwīle bongār būgeð, þēah sēo brȳd duge = _oft has a
treaty been given after the fall of a prince: but little while the
murder-spear resteth, however excellent the bride be._ Cf. Kl., _Beit._ ix.
190; B., _Beit._ xii. 369; R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ in. 404; Ha., p. 69; G.,
l. 2036. Cf. Kl, _Beit._ ix. 191; R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 404.
l. 2042. For bēah B. reads bā, = _both_, i.e. Freaware and the Dane.
l. 2063. Thorkelin and Conybeare propose wīgende, = _fighting_, for
l. 2068. W.'s edition begins section xxx. (not marked in the MS.) with this
line. Section xxxix. (xxxviii. in copies A and B, xxxix. in Thorkelin) is
not so designated in the MS., though þā (at l. 2822) is written with
capitals and xl. begins at l. 2893.
l. 2095. Cf. l. 1542, and note.
l. 2115 _seq._ B. restores thus:
Þǣr on innan gīong
niðða nāthwylc, nēode tō gefēng
hǣðnum horde; hond ætgenam
seleful since fāh; nē hē þæt syððan āgeaf,
þēah þe hē slǣpende besyrede hyrde
þēofes cræfte: þæt se þīoden onfand,
bȳ-folc beorna, þæt hē gebolgen wæs.
--_Beit._ xii. 99; _Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 210.
l. 2129. B. proposes fǣrunga, = _suddenly_, for Gr.'s reading in the
text.--_Beit._ xii. 98.
l. 2132. MS. has þine life, which Leo translates _by thy leave_ (= ON.
_leyfi_); B., _by thy life_.--_Beit._ xii. 369.
l. 2150. B. renders gēn, etc., by "now I serve thee alone again as my
gracious king" (_Beit._ xii. 99).
l. 2151. The forms hafu [hafo], hafast, hafað, are poetic archaisms.--Sw.
l. 2153. Kl. proposes ealdor, = _prince_, for eafor. W. proposes the compd.
eafor-hēafodsegn, = _helm_; cf. l. 1245.
l. 2157. The wk. form of the adj. is frequent in the vocative, especially
when postponed: "Beowulf lēofa," l. 1759. So, often, in poetry in nom.:
wudu selesta, etc.
l. 2158. ǣrest is possibly the verbal subs. from ārīsan, _to arise, =
arising, origin_. R. suggested ǣrist, _arising, origin_. Cf. Bede, _Eccles.
Hist._, ed. Miller, where the word is spelt as above, but = (as usual)
_resurrection_. See Sweet, Reader, p. 211; E.-Plummer's _Chronicle_, p.
302, etc. The MS. has est. See Ha., p. 73; S., _Beit._ x. 222; and cf. l.
l. 2188. Gr., W., H. supply [wēn]don, = _weened_, instead of Th.'s [oft
l. 2188. The "slack" Beowulf, like the sluggish Brutus, ultimately reveals
his true character, and is presented with a historic sword of honor. It is
"laid on his breast" (l. 2195) as Hun laid Lāfing on Hengest's breast, l.
l. 2188. "The boy was at first slothful, and the Geats thought him an
unwarlike prince, and long despised him. Then, like many a lazy third son
in the folk tales, a change came, he suddenly showed wonderful daring and
was passionate for adventure."--Br., p. 22.
l. 2196. "Seven of thousands, manor and lordship" (Ha.). Kl., _Beit._ ix.
191, thinks with Ettm. that þūsendo means a hide of land (see Schmid, _Ges.
der Angl_, 610), Bede's familia = 1/2 sq. meter; seofan being used (like
hund, l. 2995) only for the alliteration.
l. 2196. "A vast Honour of 7000 hides, a mansion, and a judgment-seat"
l. 2210. MS. has the more correct wintra.
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