Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Vol. 53, No. 331, May, 1843

Part 6 out of 6


Cotton goods imported into
Spain, according to the
Government returns, L.1,331,608


Cotton goods through Spanish ports, 34,637
Through Gibraltar, 608,581
Through Portugal, 540,000
Through Leghorn, Genoa, &c. &c. 500,000
Total, L.3,014,826

An extravagant writer, of the name of Pebrer, carried the estimate up to
L5,850,000. Senor Inclan, more moderate, still valued the import and
consumption at L2,720,000. A "Cadiz merchant," with another anonymous
writer of practical authority, calculated the amount, with more
sagacity, at L2,000,000 and L2,110,000 respectively. Senor Marliani is,
moreover, of opinion--considering the weight of tobacco, from six to
eight millions of pounds, assumed to be imported into Gibraltar for
illicit entrance into Spain, on the authority of Mr Porter, but the
words and work not expressly quoted; the tobacco, dressed skins, corn,
flour, &c. from France, with the illegal import of cottons--that the
whole contraband trade carried on in Spain cannot amount to less than
the enormous mass of one thousand millions of reals, or say _ten
millions_ sterling a-year. Conceding to the full the millions of pounds
of tobacco here registered as smuggled from Gibraltar, of which,
notwithstanding, we cannot stumble upon the official trace for half the
quantity, we must, after due reflection, withhold our assent wholly to
this very wide, if not wild, assumption of our Spanish friend. We are
inclined, on no slight grounds, to come to the conclusion, that the
amount of contraband trade really carried on is here surcharged by not
far short of one-half; that it cannot in any case exceed six millions
sterling--certainly still a bulk of illegitimate values sufficiently
monstrous, and almost incredible. We shall proceed to deal conclusively,
however, with that special branch of the traffic for which the materials
are most accessible and irrecusable, and the verification of truth
therefore scarcely left to the chances of speculation.

First, for the rectification for exact, or official, quantities and
values, we give the returns of the total exports of cotton manufactures,
taken from the tables of the Board of Trade:--

1840. Cotton manufactures, L.17,567,310
Yarns, 7,101,308

And for 1840 here are the exports to the countries specified:--

Declared Value.
1840. Cottons to Portugal, yards 37,002,209 L.681,787
Hosiery, lace, small wares, -- 20,403
Yarn, lbs. 175,545 2,796
Id. Cottons to Spain, yards 355,040 7,987
Hosiery, &c. -- 2,819
Yarn, lbs. -- 345
Id. Cottons to Gibraltar, yards 27,609,345 610,456
Hosiery, &c. -- 21,996
Yarn, lbs. -- 3,369
Id. Cottons to Italy and Italian Islands,yds.58,866,278 1,119,135
Hosiery, &c. -- 41,197
Yarn, lbs.11,490,034 510,040
Total, L.3,022,430

The discrepancies between some of the figures in these returns and those
cited by Senor Marliani, arise probably from their respective reference
to different years; they are, however, unimportant. We have already
shown, that, deducting the re-exports of cottons to Ceuta and the coast
of Africa opposite to Gibraltar, the value of those destined for Spain,
by way of the Rock; in 1840, could not exceed

We shall assume that _one-fourth_ only of the cottons exported
to Portugal find their way fraudulently into Spain--say 176,290
Say re-exports of cottons from Genoa to Gibraltar, assumed to
be for Spain, as per official return of that port for 1839, 31,400
Cotton goods direct to Spain from the United Kingdom, 11,150
Total value of British cottons which could find their way into
Spain, direct and indirect, in 1840, L.784,640
Instead of the amount exaggerated of Senor Marliani, L.1,663,268
Or the large excess in estimation, of 898,628

We have the official returns of the whole imports of cotton
manufactures, with the exports, of the Sardinian States for 1840, now
lying before us.

The imports were to the value of only L.443,360
Of which from the United Kingdom 242,680
Exported, or re-exported, 458,680

The _whole_ of which to Tuscany, the Two Sicilies, the Roman States,
Parma and Placentia, the Isle of Sardinia, and Austria. It will be
observed that there had been a great falling off in the trade with the
Sardinian States in 1840, as compared with 1838 and 1839; and here, for
greater convenience, we make free to extract the following remarks and
returns from our esteemed contemporary of the _Morning Herald_, with
some slight corrections of our own, when appropriately correcting
certain misrepresentations of Mr Henderson, similar to those of Senor
Marliani, respecting the assumed clandestine ingress of British cotton
goods into Spain from the Italian states:--

"Now the official customhouse returns of most of the Italian states are
lying before us--the returns of the Governments themselves--but
unfortunately none of them come down later than 1839, so that it is
impossible, however desirable, to carry out fully the comparison for
1840. Not that it is of any signification for more than uniformity,
because, on referring to years antecedent to 1839, the relation between
imports of cottons and re-exports, with the places from which imported
and to which re-exports took place, is not sensibly disturbed. The
returns for the whole of Sardinia are not possessed later than 1838, but
those for Genoa, its chief port, are for 1839, and nearly the whole
imports into Sardinia, as well as exports, are effected at Genoa. Thus
of the total imports of cotton goods into Sardinia in 1838, to the value
of about L.843,000, the amount into Genoa alone was L.823,000. That year
was one of excessive imports and 1839 one of equal depression, but this
can only bear upon the facts of the case so far as proportionate

In 1839, total imports of cottons
into Genoa--value L.494,000
Of which from England 313,680
Total re-exports 475,000
Of which to Tuscany L.131,760
Naples and Sicily 110,800
Austria 61,080
Parma and Placentia 40,840
Sardinia Island 28,320
Switzerland 22,240
Roman States 14,880

The total value of cottons introduced into the Roman states is stated
for 1839 at L.108,640, of which the whole imported from France,
Sardinia, and Tuscany--

1839. Total imports of cotton and
hempen manufactures classed
together into Tuscany
(Leghorn) L.440,000
Of woollens 117,200

"The total imports of woollen, cotton, and hempen goods together, in the
same year, were to the amount of L.155,000.

"Of the imports and exports of Naples, unfortunately, no accounts are
possessed; but the imports of cottons into the island of Sicily for 1839
were only to the extent of L.26,000, of which to the value of L.8,000
only from England. In 1838 the total imports of cottons were for
L.170,720, but no re-exportation from the island. The whole of the
inconsiderable exports of cottons from Malta are made to Turkey, Greece,
the Barbary States, Egypt, and the Ionian Isles, according to the
returns of 1839."

From these facts and figures, derived from official documents, of the
existence of which it is probable Senor Marliani was not aware, it will
be observed at once how extremely light and fallacious are the grounds
on which he jumps to conclusions. What more preposterous than the vague
assumption founded on data little better then guess-work, that
_one-fourth_ of the whole exports of British cottons to Italy and the
Italian islands, say L.500,000 out of L.2,000,000, go to Spain, when, in
point of fact, not one-tenth of the amount does, or can find its way
there--or could, under any conceivable circumstances short of an
absolute famine crop of fabrics in France and England. Neither prices
nor commercial profits could support the extra charges of a longer
voyage out, landing charges, transhipment and return voyage to the
coasts of Spain. It has been shown that in the year 1840, not the
shipment of a single yard of cottons took place from Genoa, the only
port admitting of the probability of such an operation.

Not less preposterous is the allegation, that three-fourths of the whole
exports of British cottons to Portugal are destined for, and introduced
into Spain by contraband. Assuming that Spain, with thirteen and a half
millions of people, consumes, in the whole, cotton goods to the value of

Why should not Portugal, with more than
three and a half millions of inhabitants,
that is more than one-fourth the population
of Spain, consume also more than one-fourth
the value of cotton goods, or say only 550,000?

Brazil, a _ci-devant_ colony of
Portugal, and with a Portuguese population,
as may be said, of 5,400,000, consumed
British cotton fabrics to the value, in
1840, of 1,525,000

So, also, why should not Italy and the
Italian islands, with twenty-two millions
of people, be able to consume as much
cotton values as Spain with 13-1/2 millions;
or say only the whole amount really exported
there from this country of 2,005,000?

It is necessary for the interests of truth, for the interests also of
both countries, that the popular mind, the mind of the public men of
Spain also, should be disabused in respect of two important errors. The
first is, that an enormous balance of trade against Spain, that is, of
British exports, licit and illicit too, compared with imports from
Spain--results annually in favour of this country, from the present
state of our commercial exchanges with her. The second is, the greatly
exaggerated notion of the transcendant amount of the illicit trade
carried on with Spain in British commodities, cottons more especially.
In correction of the latter misconception, we have shown that the amount
of British cotton introduced by contraband cannot exceed, _nor equal_,

Instead, as asserted by Senor Marliani, of 1,683,268

And, in correction of the first error
relative to the balance of trade, we have
established the feet by calculations of
approximate fidelity--for exactitude is out
of the question and unattainable with the
materials to be worked up--that an excess
of values, that is, of exports, results to
Spain upon such balance as against imports,
licit and illicit, to the extent per annum
of 550,000

It is therefore Great Britain, and not Spain, which is entitled to
demand that this adverse balance be redressed, and which would stand
justified in retaliating the restrictions and prohibitions on Spanish
products, with which, so unjustly, Spain now visits those of Great
Britain. Far from us be the advocacy of a policy so harsh--we will add,
so unwise; but at least let our disinterested friendship and moderation
be appreciated, and provoke, in reason meet, their appropriate

The more formidable, because far more extensive and facile abuses,
arising out of the unparalleled contraband traffic of which Spain is,
and long has been, the theatre, and the attempted repression of which
requires the constant employment of entire armies of regular troops, are
elsewhere to be found in action and guarded against; they concern a
neighbour nearer than Great Britain. According to an official report
made to his Government by Don Mateo Durou, the active and intelligent
consul for Spain at Bordeaux, and the materials for which were extracted
from the customhouse returns of France, the trade betwixt France and
Spain is thus stated, but necessarily abridged:--

1840.--Total exports from France into Spain, 104,679,141
1840.--Total imports into France from Spain, 42,684,761
Deficit against Spain, 61,994,380

France, therefore, exported nearly two and a half times as much as she
imported from Spain; a result greatly the reverse of that established in
the trade of Spain with Great Britain. In these exports from France,
cotton manufactures figure for a total of

34,251,068 fr.
Or, in sterling, L.1,427,000
Of which smuggled in by the
land or Pyrennean frontier, 32,537,992 fr.
By sea, only 1,713,076 ...
Linen yarns, entered for 15,534,391 ...
Silks, for 8,953,423 ...
Woollens, for 8,919,760 ...

Among these imports from France, various other prohibited articles are
enumerated besides cottons. As here exhibited, the illicit introduction
of cotton goods from France into Spain is almost double in amount that
of British cottons. The fact may be accounted for from the closer
proximity of France, the superior facilities and economy of land
transit, the establishment of stores of goods in Bayonne, Bordeaux, &c.,
from which the Spanish dealers may be supplied in any quantity and
assortment to order, however small; whilst from Great Britain heavy
cargoes only can be dispatched, and from Gibraltar quantities in bulk
could alone repay the greater risk of the smuggler by sea.

Senor Durou adds the following brief reflections upon this _expose_ of
the French contraband trade. "Let the manufactures of Catalonia be
protected; but there is no need to make all Spain tributary to one
province, when it cannot satisfy the necessities of the others, neither
in the quantity, the quality, nor the cost of its fabrics. What would
result from a protecting duty? Why, that contraband trade would be
stopped, and the premiums paid by the assurance companies established
in Bayonne, Oleron, and Perpignan, would enter into the Exchequer of
the State."

The active measures decreed by the Spanish Government in July and
October 1841, supported by cordons of troops at the foot of the
Pyrenees, have, indeed, very materially interfered with and checked the
progress of this contraband trade. In consequence of ancient compact,
the Basque, that is frontier provinces of Spain, enjoyed, among other
exclusive privileges, that of being exempt from Government customhouses,
or customs' regulations. For this privilege, a certain inconsiderable
subsidy was periodically voted for the service of the State. Regent
Espartero resolutely suspended first, and then abrogated, this branch of
the _fueros_. He carried the line of the customhouses from the Ebro,
where they were comparatively useless and scarcely possible to guard, to
the very foot and passes of the Pyrenees. The advantageous effect of
these vigorous proceedings was not long to wait for, and it may be found
developed in the Report to the Chamber of Deputies in Paris, before
referred to; in which M. Chegaray, the _rapporteur_ on the part of the
complaining petitioners of Bayonne, Bordeaux, &c., after stating that
the general exports of France to Spain in

1839 represented the aggregate sum of 83,000,000 francs,
1840 " " 104,000,000 francs,
1841 " " 101,000,000 francs,

proceeds to say, that the general returns for 1842 were not yet (April
11) made up, but that "_M. le directeur-general des douanes nous a
declare que la diminution avait ete enorme_." But although the general
returns could not be given, those specially referring to the single
customhouse of Bayonne had been obtained, and they amply confirmed the
assertion of the enormous diminution. The export of cottons, woollens,
silks, and linens, from that port to Spain, which in

1840 amounted in value to 15,800,000 francs,
1841 also 15,800,000 francs,
1842 had fallen to 5,700,000 francs.

A fall, really tremendous, of nearly two-thirds.

M. Chegaray, unfortunately, can find no other grievance to complain of
but the too strict enforcement of the Spanish custom laws, by which
French and Spanish contrabandists are harassed and damaged--can suggest
no other remedy than the renewal of the "family compact" of the
Bourbons--no hopes for the revival of smuggling prosperity from the
perpetuation of the French reciprocity system of trade all on one side,
but in the restoration of the commercial privileges so long enjoyed
exclusively by French subjects and shipping, but now broken or breaking
down under the hammering blows of Espartero--nor discover any prospect
of relief until the Spanish customhouse lines are transferred to their
old quarters on the other side of the Ebro, and the _fueros_ of the
Biscaiano provinces, which, by ancient treaty, he claims to be under the
guarantee of France, re-established in all their pristine plenitude.

It is surely time for the intelligence, if not the good sense, of France
to do justice by these day-dreams. The tutelage of Spain has escaped
from the Bourbons of Paris, and the ward of full majority will not be
allowed, cannot be, if willing, to return or remain under the trammels
of an interested guardian, with family pretensions to the property in
default of heirs direct. France, above all countries, has the least
right to remonstrate against the reign of prohibitions and restrictions,
being herself the classic land of both. Let her commence rather the work
of reform at home, and render tardy justice to Spain, which she has
drained so long, and redress to Great Britain, against whose more
friendly commercial code she is constantly warring by differential
preferences of duties in favour of the same commodities produced in
other countries, which consume less of what she abounds in, and have
less the means of consumption. Beyond all, let her cordially join this
country in urging upon the Spanish Government, known to be nowise averse
to the urgency of a wise revision and an enlightened modification of the
obsolete principles of an absurd and impracticable policy both fiscal
and commercial--a policy which beggars the treasury, whilst utterly
failing to protect native industry, and demoralizes at the same time
that it impoverishes the people. We are not of the number of those who
would abandon the assertion of a principle _quoad_ another country, the
wisdom and expediency of which we have advocated, and are still prepared
to advocate, in its regulated application to our own, from the sordid
motive of benefiting British manufactures to the ruin of those of Spain.
Rather, we say to the government of Spain, let a fair protection be the
rule, restrictions the exceptions, prohibition the obsolete outcast, of
your fiscal and commercial policy. We import into this country, the
chief and most valuable products of Spain, those which compose the
elements and a very considerable proportion of her wealth and industry,
are either untaxed, or taxed little more than nominally. We may still
afford, with proper encouragement and return in kind, to abate duties on
such Spanish products as are taxed chiefly because coming into
competition with those of our own colonial possessions, and on those
highly taxed as luxuries, for revenue; and this we can do, and are
prepared to do, although Spain is so enormously indebted to us already
on the balance of commercial exchanges.

This revision of her fiscal system, and reconstruction, on fair and
reciprocal conditions, of her commercial code, are questions of far
deeper import--and they are of vital import--to Spain than to this
empire. Look at the following statement of her gigantic debt, upon
which, beyond some three or four hundred thousand pounds annually, for
the present, on the capitalized _coupons_ of over-due interest accruing
on the conversion and consolidation operation of 1834, the Toreno
abomination, not one _sueldo_ of interest is now paying, has been paid
for years, or can be paid for years to come, and then only as industry
furnishes the means by extended trade, and more abundant customhouse
revenues, resulting from an improved tariff.

_Statement of the Spanish Debt at commencement of 1842_:--

Internal--Liquidated, that
is verified, L.50,130,565 Without interest.
Not liquidated 9,364,228 with 5 per cent in paper.
Not consolidated, 2,609,832
Bearing 5 per cent, 15,242,593 Interest, L.762,128
Do. 3 do. 5,842,632 -- 233,705
----------- -----------
L.83,189,850 L.995,833
----------- -----------

External Loan of 1834, and the conversion
of old debt, L.33,985,939 5 per cent, L.1,699,296
Balance of inscription to the public
treasury of France, 2,782,681 -- 160,000
Inscriptions in payment of
English claims, 600,000 -- 30,000
Ditto for American claims, 120,000 -- 6,000
----------- -----------
L.37,488,620 L.1,895,296

Capitalized _coupons_, treasury
bonds, &c., amount not stated,
but some millions more 3 per cent,
Deferred, 5,944,584
Ditto, 4,444,040 Calculated at 100 reals
Passive, 10,542,582 per L. sterling.
Grand total, exclusive of
capitalization L.141,669,676

The latest account of Spanish finance, that for 1842 before referred to,
exhibits an almost equally hopeless prospect of annual deficit, as
between revenue and expenditure; 1st, the actual receipts of revenue
being stated at

879,193,475 reals
The expenditure, 1,541,639,879
Deficit, 662,446,404

That is, with a revenue sterling of L.8,791,934
A deficiency besides uncovered, of 6,624,464

Assuming the amount of the contraband traffic in Spain at six millions
sterling per annum, instead of the ten millions estimated, we think most
erroneously, by Senor Marliani, the result of an average duty on the
amount of 25 per cent, would produce to the treasury L.1,500,000 per
annum; and more in proportion as the traffic, when legitimated, should
naturally extend, as the trade would be sure to extend, between two
countries like Great Britain and Spain, alone capable of exchanging
millions with each other for every million now operated. The L.1,500,000
thus gained would almost suffice to meet the annual interest on the
L.34,000,000 loan conversion of 1834, still singularly classed in stock
exchange parlance as "active stock." As for the remaining mass of
domestic and foreign debt, there can be no hope for its gradual
extinction but by the sale of national domains, in payment for which the
titles of debt of all classes may be, as some now are, receivable in
payment. As upwards of two thousand millions of reals of debt are said
to be thus already extinguished, and the national domains yet remaining
for disposal are valued at nearly the same sum, say L.20,000,000, it is
clear that the final extinction of the debt is a hopeless prospect,
although a very large reduction might be accomplished by that enhanced
value of these domains which can only flow from increase of population
and the rapid progression of industrial prosperity.

All Spain, excepting the confining provinces in the side of France, and
especially the provinces where are the great commercial ports, such as
Cadiz, Malaga,[27] Corunna, &c., have laid before the Cortes and
Government the most energetic memorials and remonstrances against the
prohibition system of tariffs in force, and ask why they, who, in favour
of their own industry and products, never asked for prohibitions, are to
be sacrificed to Catalonia and Biscay? The Spanish Government and the
most distinguished public men are well known to be favourable, to be
anxiously meditating, an enlightened change of system, and negotiations
are progressing prosperously, or would progress, but for France. When
will France learn to imitate the generous policy which announced to her
on the conclusion of peace with China--We have stipulated no conditions
for ourselves from which we desire to exclude you or other nations?

[27] See _Exposicion de que dirige a las Cortes et Ayuntamiento
Constitucional de Malaga_, from which the following are
extracts:--"El ayuntamiento no puede menos de indicar, que
entre los infinitos renglones fabriles aclimatados ya en
Espana, las sedas de Valencia, los panos de muchas provincias,
los hilados de Galicia, las blondas de Cataluna, las bayetas de
Antequera, los hierros de Vizcaya y los elaborados por
maquinaria en las ferrerias a un lado y otro de esta ciudad,
han adelantado, prosperan y compiten con los efectos
extranjeros mas acreditados. ?Y han solicitado acaso una
prohibicion? No jamas: un derecho protector, si; a su sombra se
criaron, con la competencia se formaron y llegaron a su
robustez.... Ingleterra figura en la exportacion por el mayor
valor sin admitir comparacion alguna. Su gobierno piensa en
reducir muy considerablemente todos los renglones de su
arancil; pero se ha espresado con reserva para negar o
conceder, si lo estima conveniente, esta reduccion a las
naciones que no correspondan a los beneficios que les ofrece;
ninguno puede esperar que le favorezcan sin compensacion."

We could have desired, for the pleasure and profit of the public, to
extend our notice of, and extracts from, the excellent work of Senor
Marliani, so often referred to, but our limits forbid. To show, however,
the state and progress of the cotton manufacture in Catalonia, how
little it gains by prohibitions, and how much it is prejudiced by the
contraband trade, we beg attention to the following extract:--

"Since the year 1769, when the cotton manufacture commenced in
Catalonia, the trade enjoyed a complete monopoly, not only in
Spain, but also in her colonies. To this protection were added
the fostering and united efforts of private individuals. In
1780, a society for the encouragement of the cotton manufacture
was established in Barcelona. Well, what has been the result?
Let us take the unerring test of figures for our guide. Let us
take the medium importation of raw cotton from 1834 to 1840
inclusive, (although the latter year presents an inadmissible
augmentation,) and we shall have an average amount of 9,909,261
lbs. of raw cotton. This quantity is little more than half that
imported by the English in the year 1784. The sixteen millions
of pounds imported that year by the English are less than the
third part imported by the same nation in 1790, which amounted
in all to thirty-one millions; it is only the sixth part of
that imported in 1800, when it rose to 56,010,732 lbs.; it is
less than the seventh part of the British importations in 1810,
which amounted to seventy-two millions of pounds; it is less
than the fifteenth part of the cotton imported into the same
country in 1820, when the sum amounted to 150,672,655 pounds;
it is the twenty-sixth part of the British importation in 1830,
which was that year 263,961,452 lbs.; and lastly, the present
annual importation into Catalonia is about the sixty-sixth part
of that into Great Britain for the year 1840, when the latter
amounted to 592,965,504 lbs. of raw cotton. Though the
comparative difference of progress is not so great with France,
still it shows the slow progress of the Catalonian manufactures
in a striking degree. The quantity now imported of raw cotton
into Spain is about the half of that imported into France from
1803 to 1807; a fourth part compared with French importations
of that material from 1807 to 1820; seventh-and-a-half with
respect to those of 1830; and a twenty-seventh part of the
quantity introduced into France in 1840."

And we conclude with the following example, one among several which
Senor Marliani gives, of the daring and open manner in which the
operations of the _contrabandistas_ are conducted, and of the scandalous
participation of authorities and people--incontestable evidences of a
wide-spread depravation of moral sentiments.

"Don Juan Prim, inspector of preventive service, gave
information to the Government and revenue board in Madrid, on
the 22d of November 1841, that having attempted to make a
seizure of contraband goods in the town of Estepona, in the
province of Malaga, where he was aware a large quantity of
smuggled goods existed, he entered the town with a force of
carabineers and troops of the line. On entering, he ordered the
suspected depot of goods to be surrounded, and gave notice to
the second alcalde of the town to attend to assist him in the
search. In some time the second alcalde presented himself, and
at the instance of M. Prim dispersed some groups of the
inhabitants who had assumed a hostile attitude. In a few
minutes after, and just as some shots were fired, the first
alcalde of the town appeared, and stated that the whole
population was in a state of complete excitement, and that he
could not answer for the consequences; whereupon he resigned
his authority. While this was passing, about 200 men, well
armed, took up a position upon a neighbouring eminence, and
assumed a hostile attitude. At the same time a carabineer,
severely wounded from the discharge of a blunderbuss, was
brought up, so that there was nothing left for M. Prim but to
withdraw his force immediately out of the town, leaving the
smugglers and their goods to themselves, since neither the
alcaldes nor national guards of the town, though demanded in
the name of the law, the regent, and the nation, would aid M.
Prim's force against them!"

All that consummate statesmanship can do, will be done, doubtless, by
the present Government of Great Britain, to carry out and complete the
economical system on which they have so courageously thrown themselves
_en avant_, by the negotiation and completion of commercial treaties on
every side, and by the consequent mitigation or extinction of hostile
tariffs. Without this indispensable complement of their own tariff
reform, and low prices consequent, he must be a bold man who can reflect
upon the consequences without dismay. Those consequences can benefit no
one class, and must involve in ruin every class in the country,
excepting the manufacturing mammons of the Anti-corn-law league, who,
Saturn-like, devour their own kindred, and salute every fall of prices
as an apology for grinding down wages and raising profits. It may be
well, too, for sanguine young statesmen like Mr Gladstone to turn to the
DEBT, and cast about how interest is to be forthcoming with falling
prices, falling rents, falling profits, (the exception above apart,)
excise in a rapid state of decay, and customs' revenue a blank!

* * * * *

_Edinburgh; Printed by Ballantyne and Hughes Paul's Work._


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