Canada under British Rule 1760-1900
John G. Bourinot

Part 6 out of 6

the conventions, understandings,
and maxims of responsible or
parliamentary government.

Privy councillors hold, as the Executive councillors administer
crown may designate, certain such departments as
departments of state, not limited governor-general from time to
in name or number, but left to time establishes. Until other
the discretionary action of provision is made by parliament,
parliament. Such heads of number of such officers, who
departments must seek a new may sit in parliament, shall not
election on accepting these exceed seven.
office of emolument.

_Command of Military and _Command of Military and
Naval Forces_ Naval Forces_
Vested in the Queen. In the Queen's representative.

_Parliament_ _Parliament_
The Queen. The Queen.
Senate. Senate.
House of commons. House of representatives.
Session once at least every The same.
Privileges, immunities and Such as declared by the parliament
powers held by senate and house of the commonwealth,
of commons, such as are defined and, until declared, such as are
by act of the parliament of held by the commons' house of
Canada, but not to exceed those parliament of Great Britain at
enjoyed at the passing of such the date of the establishment of
act by the commons' house of the commonwealth.
parliament of Great Britain.


Senate composed of twenty-four Senate composed of six
members for each of the senators for each state, directly
three following divisions (1) chosen for six years by the
Ontario, (2) Quebec, and (3) people of the state voting as
maritime provinces of Nova one electorate; half the number
Scotia, New Brunswick, and shall retire every three years,
Prince Edward Island. Other but shall be eligible for
provinces can be represented re-election. No property
under the constitution, but the qualification is required, but the
total number of senators shall senators must be British subjects
not at any time exceed of the full age of twenty-one years.
seventy-eight, except in the In Queensland the people can
case of the admission of vote in divisions, instead of in
Newfoundland, when the maximum one electorate.
may be eighty-two. Senators
appointed by the crown for life,
but removable for certain
disabilities. They must have
a property qualification and be
of the full age of thirty years.

Speaker of the senate appointed President of the senate elected
by the governor-general by that body.
(in council).

Fifteen senators form a quorum One-third of whole number of
until parliament of Canada senators form a quorum until
otherwise provides. parliament of commonwealth
otherwise provides.
Non-attendance for two whole Non-attendance for two consecutive
sessions vacates a senator's seat. months of any session
vacates a senator's seat.
Members of house of commons Every three years.
elected every five years,
or whenever parliament is dissolved
by the governor-general.

No property qualification, but The same.
must be British subjects of full
age of twenty-one years.

The electors for the Dominion Qualification of electors for
commons are the electors of the members of the house of
several provinces, under the representatives is that
limitations of a statute passed prescribed by the law of each
by the Dominion parliament in state for the electors of the
1878. Qualifications vary, but more numerous house of the
universal suffrage, qualified by parlianment of the state.
residence, generally prevails.

A fresh apportionment of The same.
representatives to be made after
each census, or not longer than
intervals of ten years.

Speaker of house of commons The same.
elected by the members of the

Quorum of house of commons Quorum of house of representatives
--twenty members, of whom the --one-third of the
speaker counts one. whole number of members
until otherwise provided by

No such provision. Member vacates his seat
when absent, without permission,
for two months of a

No such provision. Parliament to be called together
not later than thirty days
after that appointment for return
of writs.

Allowance to each member of Allowance of L400 to members
senate and commons $1,000 for of both houses until other
a session of thirty days, and provision is made by parliament.
mileage expenses, 10 cents a
mile going and returning. Not
expressly provided for by
constitution but by statute of
parliament from time to time.

Canadian statutes disqualify Same classes disqualified in
contractors and certain persons the constitution.
holding office on receiving emoluments
or fees from the crown
while sitting in parliament.

Each house determines the The constitution has a special
rules, and orders necessary for provision on the subject.
the regulation of its own proceedings;
not in the constitution.

_Money And Tax Bills_ _Money and Tax Bills_
The same. Money and tax bills can only
originate in the house of

|Same by practice. The senate can reject, but not
amend, taxation or appropriation

Not in Canadian constitution. The senate may return money
and appropriation bills to the
house of representatives,
requesting the omission or
amendment of any provision
therein, but it is optional
for the house to make such
omissions or amendments.

No such provision. If bills, other than money
have twice been passed by the
house of representatives and
twice been rejected by the
senate or passed by that body
with amendments to which the
house of representatives will
not agree, the governor-general
may dissolve the two houses
simultaneously; and if, after
the new election
they continue to disagree,
the governor-general may convene
a joint sitting of the members
of the two houses, who shall
deliberate and vote upon the
bill, which can only become
law if passed by an absolute
majority of the members sitting
and voting.

_Legislative Powers of the _Legislative Powers of the
Parliament of the Dominion_. Parliament of the

Respective powers of the federal The Legislative powers of the
parliament and provincial federal parliament are alone
legislatures are enumerated and enumerated, and the states
defined in the constitution; the expressly retain all the powers
residuum of power rests with the vested in them by their
central government in relation respective constitutions at the
to all matters not coming within establishment of the
the classes of subjects by the commonwealth as to matters not
British North America act of specified as being within the
1867 assigned exclusively to the exclusive jurisdiction of the
legislatures. federal parliament.

_The Provinces._ _The States._

Legislatures may alter provincial Constitutions may be altered
constitutions except as under the authority of the
regards the office of lieutenant parliaments thereof.

Lieutenant-governors are appointed The constitution of each state
by the governor-general-in-council, continues (subject to the
and removable by constitution) as at the
him within five years only for establishment of the
cause assigned and communicated commonwealth, or as at the
by message to the two admission or establishment
houses of parliament. of the states, as the case
may be, until altered in
accordance with the
constitution of the
states. In other words,
the powers of the states
over their own constitutions
are preserved.

Acts of the provincial When a law of the state is
legislatures may be disallowed inconsistent with one of the
by the governor-general-in-council commonwealth, the latter shall,
one year after their receipt. to the extent of such
inconsistency, be invalid.

Education is within exclusive No special provisions in the
jurisdiction of the provinces, constitution; education being
but with conditions for the one of the subjects exclusively
maintenance and protection of within the powers of the state
rights and privileges of parliaments, under the clause
religious bodies in a province leaving them in possession of
with respect to denominational all powers not expressly given
schools. to the federal parliament.

The federal parliament can A state shall not impose any
alone impose duties or taxes on taxes or duties upon imports
imports. except such as are necessary
for executing the inspection
laws of a state, but the net
produce of all charges so
levied shall be for use of the,
commonwealth, and such
inspection laws may be annulled
by the parliament of the

Similar power. The parliament of the
commonwealth may from time to
time admit new states, and make
laws for the provisional
administration and government
of any territory surrendered by
any state to the commonwealth,
or of any territory placed by
the Queen under the
commonwealth, or otherwise
acquired by the same.


_The Judiciary._ _The Judiciary._

The same. The parliament of the
commonwealth can establish a
federal supreme court, called
the High Court of Australia,
and other federal courts for
the commonwealth; the judges
to be appointed by the
governor-general, to hold
office during good behaviour,
No such provision with respect not to be removed except upon
to diminution of salary during an address of both houses of
tenure of office. parliament, but so that the
salary paid to any judge shall
not be diminished during his
continuance in office.

Similar provisions by statutory The high court can adjudicate
enactments of Dominion in cases arising out of the
parliament. constitution, or controversies
between states, or in which the
commonwealth is a party.

No such stringent provision Appeals only allowed to
exists in the Canadian Queen-in-council from high court
constitution, but appeals in all on constitutional issues between
civil--though not in commonwealth and any state,
criminal--cases are allowed, by or between two or more states,
virtue of the exercise of the when high court gives leave to
royal prerogative, from appeal. Otherwise, the royal
provincial courts as well as prerogative to grant appeals is
from the supreme court of Canada not impaired. Parliament may,
to the Queen-in-council; however, make laws limiting
_i.e._, in practice, to the such appeals, but they must
judicial committee of the privy be reserved for her Majesty's
council. pleasure.


Judges of the superior and Judges in the states are appointed
county courts in the provinces and removable under existing state
(except those of probate in New constitutions, which the state
Brunswick, Nova Scotia and parliaments can change at will.
Prince Edward Island) are appointed
by the governor-general-in-council,
and removable only
by the same on the address of
the two houses of parliament.
Their salaries and allowances
are fixed by the parliament of

The provinces have jurisdiction Similar powers in the states.
over the administration of
justice in a province, including
the constitution, maintenance,
and organisation of provincial
courts, both of civil and criminal
jurisdiction, and including the
procedure in civil matters in
those courts.

The enactment and amendment With the states.
of the criminal law rest
with the Dominion parliament.

The enactment and amendment With the states.
of all laws relating to property
and civil rights rest with
the provinces.

_Trade and Finance._ _Trade and Finance._
Customs and excise, trade and The parliament of the commonwealth
commerce, are within exclusive has sole power to
jurisdiction of Dominion parliament. impose uniform duties of customs
and excise, and to grant bounties
upon goods when it thinks it
expedient. As soon as
such duties or customs
are imposed, trade and
intercourse throughout the
commonwealth, whether by
internal carriageor ocean
navigation, is to be free.

The Dominion government The parliament of the commonwealth
can veto any such unconstitutional may annul any state
law. law interfering with the freedom
of trade or commerce between
the different parts of the
commonwealth, or giving preference
to the ports of one part over
those of another.

The power of direct taxation Direct taxation may be imposed
is within the jurisdiction of both by the commonwealth
Dominion parliament and provincial and by each state within its own
legislatures, the one for limits--but taxation, when
Dominion and the other solely exercised by the commonwealth,
for provincial purposes. must be uniform.

Both Dominion and provincial Same is true of commonwealth
governments have unlimited and states.
borrowing power under the authority
of parliament and legislatures.

Certain money subsidies are Of the net revenue of the
paid annually to the provinces commonwealth from duties of
towards the support of their customs and excise, not more
governments and legislatures. than one-fourth shall be applied
annually by the commonwealth
towards its expenditure. The
balance shall, in accordance
with certain conditions of the
constitution, be paid to the
several states, or applied
towards the payment of
interest on debts of the
several states. This arrangement
is limited to ten years. Financial
aid may be granted to any state
upon such terms as the federal
parliament may deem expedient.
Western Australia may, subject
to certain restrictions, impose
duties on goods imported from
other parts of the commonwealth.

No such provision; but the For the administration of the
Dominion parliament and provincial laws relating to interstate trade
legislatures could by the governor-general-in-council
legislation arrange a similar may appoint an interstate
commission. commission.

Canada is liable for amount of The parliament of the commonwealth
the debts and liabilities of the may consolidate or
provinces existing at the time of take over state debts by general
the union, under the conditions consent, but a state shall
and terms laid down in the indemnify the commonwealth, and
constitution. the amount of interest payable in
respect to a debt shall be
deducted from its share of the
surplus revenue of the

_Imperial Control over_ _Imperial Control over_
_Dominion Legislation._ _Australian Legislation._
Bills may be reserved by the The same.
governor-general for the Queen's
pleasure, and her Majesty in As the old state constitutions
council may within two years continue in force until amended
after receipt of any Dominion by the state, state legislation is
act disallow the same. still subject to power of
disallowance by Queen in council.

No such provision. The governor-general may return
any "law" presented to him for
the Queen's assent and suggest
amendments therein, and
the houses may deal with them
as they think fit.

The recommendation of the The same.
crown is required before initiation
of a money vote in parliament.

_Amendments to the _Amendments to the
Constitution_. Constitution._

By the imperial parliament on Any proposed amendment to
an address of the houses of the the constitution must be first
Dominion parliament to the passed by an absolute majority
Queen. of each house of parliament,
and submitted in each state to
the electors qualified to vote for
members of the house of
representatives. If in majority of
the states a majority of the
electors voting approve the
proposed law, and if a majority
of all the electors
voting also approve the
proposed law, it shall be
presented to the governor-general
for the royal assent.



I confine these notes to the most accurate and available books and
essays on the history of Canada.

For the French regime consult.--_Jacques Cartier's Voyages_, by Joseph
Pope (Ottawa, 1889), Charlevoix's _History and General Description of
New France_, translated by J. Gilmary Shea (New York, 1868); _Cours
d'histoire du Canada_, by Abbe Ferland (Quebec, 1861); _Histoire du
Canada_, by F.X. Garneau (4th ed., Montreal, 1882); F. Parkman's series
of admirable histories of the French regime (Boston, 1865--1884), _The
Story of Canada_ (Nations' Series, London, New York and Toronto, 1896),
by J.G. Bourinot, necessarily written in a light vein, is largely
devoted to the days of French rule, and may profitably be read on that
account in connection with this later book, chiefly devoted to British

For the history of Acadia, consult.--_Acadia_, by James Hannay (St.
John, N.B., 1879); _History of Nova Scotia_, by Thomas C. Haliburton
(Halifax, N.S., 1829). A valuable compilation of annals is _A History of
Nova Scotia or Acadie_, by Beamish Murdoch (Halifax, 1867). _Builders of
Nova Scotia_, by J.G. Bourinot (Toronto, and "Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.,"
1900), contains many portraits of famous Nova Scotians down to
confederation, and appendices of valuable historical documents.

_Cape Breton and its Memorials of the French Regime_ ("Trans. Roy. Soc.
Can.," vol. IX, and in separate form, Montreal, 1891) by J.G. Bourinot,
gives a full bibliography of voyages of Northmen, the Cabots, Carrier,
and Champlain, and of the Histories of the Seven Years' War. The same
remarks apply to Winsor's _Narrative and Critical History of America_
(Boston, 1886--89). The "Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.," since 1894, have
several important papers by Archbishop O'Brien, Dr. S.E. Dawson, and
others on the Cabot discovery.

British rule, 1760-1900:--Garneau's _History_, already mentioned, gives
the French Canadian view of the political situation from 1760 until
1840; William Kingsford's _History of Canada_ (Toronto, 1887-1898) has a
fairly accurate account of events from 1760 until 1840, in vols. V-X; _A
History of Lower Canada_, by R. Christie, a member of the assembly of
the province (Quebec, 1848-1854) is very useful for copies of public
documents from 1774 until 1840.

The most important accounts of the U.E. Loyalists of the American
Revolution by writers in the United States are:--L. Sabine's _Loyalists_
(Boston, 1864), and Tyler's _Literary History of the American
Revolution_ (New York, 1897). Canadian accounts are to be found in
Egerton Ryerson's _Loyalists of America_ (Toronto, 1880)--remarkably
prosaic--and Canniff's _History of Upper Canada_ (Toronto, 1872).
Consult also articles of J.G. Bourinot in the _Quarterly Review_ for
October, 1898, and the _Canadian Magazine_ for April, 1898, in which
names of prominent Canadian descendants of Loyalists are given.

Kingsford's _History_, vol. VIII, has the best Canadian account of the
War of 1812-15. The most impartial American record of its causes and
progress is Henry Adams's _History of the United States of America_ (New
York, 1860), vols VI and VII.

Garneau's _History_ gives the most favourable estimate of Papineau and
his party, who brought about the Rebellion in Lower Canada. Kingsford
(vols. IX and X) writes impartially on the risings in the two Canadas.

Other works to be consulted are:--Lord Durham's _Report on the Affairs
of British North America_ (London, 1839); _Life of W. Lyon Mackenzie_,
by Charles Lindsey, his son-in-law (Toronto, 1863); _The Upper Canadian
Rebellion_, by J. Charles Dent (Toronto, 1885). The _Speeches and
Letters_ of the Hon. Joseph Howe (Boston, 1858) contain the ablest
expositions of the principles of responsible government by its greatest
advocate in British North America. See also Campbell's _History of
Prince Edward Island_ (Charlottetown, 1875). New Brunswick has not a
single good history. _The Life and Times of Sir Leonard Tilley_, by
James Hannay (St. John, N.B. 1897), can be read with advantage. See
Prof. Ganong's valuable essays on the early history of New Brunswick in
"Trans. Roy. Soc. Can," New Series, vols. I--v. Rev. Dr. Withrow's
_History of Canada_ (Toronto, 1888) has chapters on affairs of Prince
Edward Island, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, to date of publication.

For the history of Canada since 1840, consult.--_Canada since the Union_
(1840--1880), by J. Charles Dent (Toronto, 1880--81); _Le Canada sous
l'Union_, by Louis Turcotte (Quebec, 1871); _Memoirs of the Right Hon.
Sir John A. Macdonald_, by Joseph Pope, his private secretary (London
and Ottawa, 1894); _Debates on Confederation_ (Quebec, 1865);
_Confederation_, by Hon. J.H. Gray, M.P., a delegate to the Quebec
Conference (Toronto, 1872).

For the constitutional development of Canada, consult.--_A Manual_, by
J.G. Bourinot (Montreal, 1888, and included in latest edition of his
_Parliamentary Procedure_, 1891); _How Canada is Governed_, by the same
(Toronto, 1897--1900); _Parliamentary Government in the Colonies_, by
Alpheus Todd (London, 1894); _Documents illustrative of the Canadian
Constitution_, by W. Houston (Toronto, 1891). _Parliamentary Government
in Canada_, by J.G. Bourinot (Amer. Hist. Association, Washington, 1892,
and "Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.," 1892), contains a long list of books
relating to the constitutional history of Canada. Also consult _How
Canada is Governed_ for works on constitutional, legal, municipal and
educational history of the provinces of Canada.

For Manitoba and the North-west Territories the reader may
consult:--_Manitoba. Its Infancy, Growth and Present Condition_, by Rev.
Prof. Bryce (London, 1882); _History of the North-west_, by A. Begg
(Toronto, 1894); _The Great Company_, by Beckles Wilson (Toronto and
London, 1899); _Reminiscences of the North-west Rebellions_, by Major
Boulton (Toronto, 1886). A remarkable _History of the Hudson's Bay
Company_, by Rev. Prof. Bryce (London, New York and Toronto, 1900). For
British Columbia:--A. Begg's _History_ (Toronto, 1896).

For the literary progress of Canada, consult:--_The Intellectual
Development of the Canadian People_, by J.G. Bourinot (Toronto, 1881);
_Canada's Intellectual Strength and Weakness_ ("Trans. Roy. Soc.
Canada," vol. XI, also in separate form, Montreal, 1893), by the same,
contains an elaborate list of Canadian literature, French and English,
to date. The 17 volumes of the same Transactions contain numerous
valuable essays on French Canadian literary progress.

Other valuable books to be consulted are:--_Canada and Newfoundland_ in
Stanford's _Compendium of Geography and Travel_ (London, 1897), by Dr.
S.E. Dawson, F.R.S.C.; _The Statistical Year Book of Canada_, a
government publication issued annually at Ottawa, and edited by Geo.
Johnson, F.S.S.; _The Great Dominion_ (London, 1895), by Dr. G.R.
Parkin, C.M.G., LL.D., the eloquent advocate of imperial federation for
many years, merits careful reading. _Canada and the United States_, in
Papers of the Amer. Hist Assoc. (Washington, July, 1891), and _Canada
and the United States: their Past and Present Relations_, in the
_Quarterly Review_ for April, 1891, both by the present author, have
been largely used in the preparation of the last chapter of this book.

With respect to the boundaries of Canada and the English colonies during
the days of French dominion, and from 1763 until 1774--_i.e._ from the
Treaty of Paris until the Quebec Act--consult a valuable collection of
early French and English maps, given in _A Report on the Boundaries of
Ontario_ (Toronto, 1873), by Hon. David Mills, now Minister of Justice
in the Laurier government, who was an Ontario commissioner to collect
evidence with respect to the western limits of the province. Consult
also Prof. Hinsdale's _Old North-west_ (New York, 1888); _Epochs of
American History_, edited by Prof. Hart, of Harvard University (London
and Boston, 1893); _Remarks on the French Memorials concerning the
Limits of Acadia_ (London, 1756) by T. Jefferys, who gives maps showing
clearly French and English claims with respect to Nova Scotia or Acadia
"according to its ancient limits" (Treaty of Utrecht). These and other
maps are given in that invaluable compilation, Winsor's _Narrative and
Critical History of America_. See also Mitchell's map of British and
French possessions in North America, issued by the British Board of
Plantations in 1758, and reprinted (in part) in the _Debates on the
Quebec Act_, by Sir H. Cavendish (London, 1839). For text of Treaties of
Utrecht (1612), of Paris (1763), of Quebec Act (1774), and other
treaties and imperial acts relating to Canada, see Houston's
_Documents_, cited above, p. 329. The maps of Canada and the disputed
boundary in Alaska, which I give in this book, are taken from the small
maps issued in 1899 by the Department of the Interior at Ottawa.


Abbott, Sir John; prime minister of Canada, 257; death of, ib

Aberdeen, Earl of; governor-general of Canada, 265-267

Aberdeen, Lady, 267

Acadia College, N.S., founded, 163

_Acadie_ or _La Cadie_; name of, 8; settled by France, 8, 9; ceded to
Great Britain by Treaty of Utrecht (1713), 9; French inhabitants
expelled from, 22, 23

Adams, President John; on the U.K. Loyalists, 76

Alaskan Boundary, 310-312; map of, 311

Alexander, Sir William (Lord Stirling); names Nova Scotia, 11

Allan, Sir Hugh; contributes funds to Conservative elections, 236;
results of, 237

Allouez, Father; founds mission at La Pointe (Ashland), 17

Almon, M, B.; banker and politician of Nova Scotia, 178

American Revolution; causes of, 56-65; momentous events of, 63-67; its
effects upon Canada and Maritime Provinces, 67-74, 81

Angers, lieutenant-governor; dismisses Mercier ministry in Quebec, 247

Anglican Church: first built in Upper Canada, 84

Annand, William; Nova Scotian journalist, and first minister of province
after Confederation, 218

Annapolis (Port Royal) named, 9

Archibald, Sir Adams, delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 204; first
lieutenant-governor of Manitoba, 230

Architecture in Canada, 288, 289

Art in Canada, 288

Assiniboia; name of Lord Selkirk's domain in North-west, 225

Australia, Commonwealth of; constitution of, 282, 283; comparisons
between Canadian and Australian federal systems, 315-326 (Appendix A)

Baccalaos, or Newfoundland, 8

Bagot, Sir Charles, governor-general of Canada, 169

Baldwin, Robert, efforts of, for responsible government, 168, 169; joint
leader with Lafontaine in Reform ministry, 170, 173; admirable character
of, 184

Ballot, vote by; established, 239

Basques in Canada, 5

Batoche, N.W.T.; victory of loyal Canadian forces at, in second
North-west rebellion of 1885, 253

Bay of Chaleurs Railway; scandal connected with, 247

Bering Sea dispute, 308, 309

Bibliographical notes, see App. B

Bidwell, Marshall Spring; reformer of Upper Canada, 146, 149, 151;
unjust treatment of, by lieutenant-governor Head, 153

Big Bear, Indian Chief in N.W.T.; rebels against Canada and is punished,

Bishop's Palace; first parliament house of Lower Canada, 92, 160

Blair, Mr.; Canadian statesman, 265

Blake, Edward; Canadian statesman, 230, 231, 234, 241, 244, 255

Blanchard, Hiram; Nova Scotia, Unionist, defeated in 1867, 218

Botsford, Amos; first speaker of assembly of New Brunswick, 88

Boucherville, M. de; prime minister of Quebec, 245, 247

Bouchette, Joseph, Canadian general and author, 164

Boundary disputes; in North-west, 292; in Maine, 296-300; in Oregon,
300-302; in British Columbia (San Juan) 301, 302; in Alaska, 310-312.
See _Maps_

Boundary of Ontario settled, 238

Bourgeoys, Sister, 34

Bowell, Sir Mackenzie; prime minister of Canada, 257

Brant, Joseph (Thayendanega), Mohawk Chief, 84; his loyalty to Great
Britain, ib.

Brebeuf, Jean de, Jesuit martyr, 12

Bretons in Canada, 51

Briand, Bishop; consecrated after conquest, 43; loyal _mandement_ of, in
1775, 58

British American League suggests federal union of provinces, 194

British Columbia, province of; its early history, 231, 232; enters
Confederation, 232

British North America Act of 1867; passed to unite provinces, 215. See
_Constitution of Canada._

Brock, General; services of, during war of 1812-15, 114, 119; death of,

Brown, George; Canadian journalist and reformer, suggests federal union,
196; advocates representation by population, 197; assists in bringing
about Confederation, 197; joins the Tache-Macdonald government with
other reformers, 198; leaves the coalition ministry, 217; unsuccessful
mission to Washington to obtain reciprocity, 306; assassination of, 256;
character of, 197, 202

Brown, Thomas Storrow; leads Canadian rebels at St. Charles in 1837, 134

By, Colonel, founder of Bytown (Ottawa), 158; engineer of Ruleau Canal,

Cabot, John; voyages of, to North America, 4, 5

Caldwell, Receiver-General; defaulter to government, 126

Calvet, Pierre du; opponent of Governor Haldimand, 72; disloyalty of,
72, 73

Campbell, Sir Alexander; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 203

Campbell, Sir Colin; governor of Nova Scotia, 173; opposes responsible
government, ib.

Canada, name of, 6; discovery and settlement of, by France, 4-15; French
exploration of, 15-21; conquered by Great Britain, 21-27; political,
economic, and social conditions of, during French rule, 27-36;
beginnings of British rule in, 37-45; influence of Quebec Act of 1774
upon, 45-48; during American Revolution, 67-74; United Empire Loyalists
settle in, 81-86; political divisions of (in 1792), 91; effects of war
of 1812-15 upon, 110-123; rebellion in, 134-156; social and economic
condition of, in 1838, 156-164; union of, in 1840, 166; responsible
government in, 167-173; social and economic conditions of, in 1866,
185-192; Confederation of, 215, 216; federal constitution of, 273-284,
315-326; first ministry of, under Confederation, 216, first parliament
of, 218, 219; trade and revenue of, in 1899, 273; literature in,
284-287, art in, 288; sculpture in, ib.; architecture in, 288, 289;
education in 289, 290; libraries in, ib.; relations with England and the
United States, 390-314; bibliographical notes of, 327-330; maps of, see

Canada's representation at "Diamond Jubilee" (1897), 35, 36, 270, 271

Canada Temperance Act. See _Temperance Legislation_

Canada and the United States, relations between (1783-1900), 290-313

_Canadien, Le_; established in French Canada, 95

Canadian Pacific Railway; history of 232, 233, 236, 242, 244

Canadian Trade Acts; respecting Upper and Lower Canada, 153

Canals of Canada, 273

Cape Breton, name of, 5

Carignan-Salieres regiment settled in Canada 14

Carleton, Guy (Lord Dorchester); governor general of Canada, 44; his
just treatment of French Canadians, ib.; his part in framing of the
Quebec Act, 45; saves Canada during American revolution, 67; again
governor-general, 89; his tribute to the U.E. Loyalists, ib.

Carleton, Colonel John; first governor of New Brunswick, 87

Carnarvon, Earl of; introduces British North America Act of 1867 in
British Parliament, 215

Caroline steamer; seized by Canadians 295; international complications
respecting 295, 296

Caron Father le; French missionary, 16

Caron, Sir Adolphe; minister of militia during North-west rebellion of
1885, 252; resists Riel agitation in French Canada, 254

Carter, Frederick B.T.; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Cartier, Sir George; a father of Confederation, 201; great public
services of, ib.; death of, 233

Cartier, Jacques, discovers the St. Lawrence, 6, 7

Cartwright, Sir Richard; Canadian statesman, 94, 265

Casgrain, Abbe; Canadian author, 284

Cathcart, Lord; governor-general of Canada, 171, 172

Champlain, Samuel; founds Quebec, 9; career of, in Canada, 9-12,
character of, ib.

Chandler, Edward Barron delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 205;
public career of, 206

Chapais, J.C., delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 304

Chapleau, Sir Adolphe; resists popular clamour in French Canada for
Riel's pardon after rebellion of 1885, 254

Charlesbourg-Royal, 7

Charlevoix, Jesuit priest; historian of New France, 19

Chartier, Abbe; Canadian rebel of 1837, 135

Chartrand, murder of, in Lower Canadian rebellion of 1837, 135

Chateauguay, battle of; won by French Canadians, 116, 121

Chateau of St. Louis; founded at Quebec, 31; destroyed by fire, 160

Chauveau, Pierre O.J.; his services to education, 192; first prime
minister of Quebec after Confederation, 217

Chenier, Dr.; Canadian rebel, 134; monument to, 135

Christie, Mr.; expelled from assembly of Lower Canada, 127;

Chrystler's Farm, battle at; won by British troops in 1813, 116

Civil Law of French Canada, 29; established under British rule, 46, 278

Clergy Reserves Question; origin of, 141; powerful factor in political
controversy for years, ib.; settled, 186

Cockburn, James; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 204; first
speaker of commons' house of Dominion parliament, ib.

Code Napoleon in French Canada, 278

Colbert, French minister, 27

Colborne, Sir John (Lord Seaforth); represses rebellion in Lower Canada,
134, 138; governor-general of Canada, 138

Colebrooke, Sir William; lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, 174

Coles, George; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Colonial Conference at Ottawa (1894), 200

Commissions, International, affecting Canada; Maine boundary, 296,
Washington (1871), 302, 304-306; Washington (1887), 307, 308, Bering
Sea, 309; joint high commission (Quebec and Washington, 1897-98),

Commonwealth of Australia. See _Australia_

Confederation of the British North American provinces; foreshadowed,
194; beginnings of, 195-198; initiated at Quebec Convention of 1864,
199; fathers of, 199-206, consummated, 206-215; birth of Dominion of
Canada, 216; constitution of, 206-209, 273-284; first ministry under,
216; first parliament under, 217; results of, 272, 273

Congregation de Notre-Dame established, 34

Constitutional Act of 1791; forms provinces of Upper and Lower Canada,
90, 91; general provisions of, 91, 92

Constitution of Canadian Dominion, 273-281; compared with that of
Australian Commonwealth, 282-284, 315, 326 (App. A)

Cornwallis, Colonel, founds Halifax, 49

Corrupt elections: measures to restrain and punish, 239

Cortereal, Gaspar and Miguel; voyages of, to North America, 5

_Coureurs-de-bois,_ 17, 18

_Coutume de Paris_ established in French Canada, 29

Craig, Sir James; governor-general of Canada, 96; quarrels of, with
leading French Canadians, character of, 96, 97

Cremazie, Canadian poet, 192

Crozier, Superintendent; defeated by half-breeds in North-west rebellion
of 1885, 252

Cut Knife Greek, N.W.T.; Colonel Otter engages Indians at, in North-west
rebellion of 1885, 253

Dalhousie College, Nova Scotia; founded, 163

Dalhousie, Lord, governor-general of Canada; quarrel of, with Papineau,

Daly, Sir Dominick; first minister of Canada under Lord Metcalfe, 170

Davies, Sir Louis; Canadian statesman, 265

Davies, English navigator; voyages of, to Canada, 7

Dawson, Sir William; Canadian scientist, 192, 286

Dickey, R.B.; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 305

Dochet Island (St. Croix River); first settlement of French on, 8

Dominion of Canada; origin of name, 215; established, 215, 216; first
ministry of, 216; first parliament of, 217; completed from Atlantic to
Pacific, 227, 232, 234; history of, from 1873-1900, 236-272; map of, _at

Dorchester, Lord; see _Carleton, Sir Guy_

Douglas, Sir James; governor of British Columbia, 232

Drew, Captain; seizes steamer Caroline on U.S. frontier, 154. See

Drummond, Attorney-General; member of MacNab-Morin ministry, 186

Drummond, Dr., Canadian poet, 285

Drummond, General, services of, during war of 1812-15, 116, 117, 122

Duck Lake, N.W.T., defeat of government forces at, in Canadian rebellion
of 1885, 252

Dumont Gabriel; takes part in Riel's North-west revolt of 1885, 252, 253

Dufferin, Lord; governor-general of Canada, 241, 243, 267

Durham, Earl of; high commissioner to Canada after rebellion of 1837,
136; his humanity and justice, 137; returns from Canada when rebuked in
England, ib., his report on Canadian affairs, 165

Durham Terrace, constructed, 160

Education in Canada; state of, under French rule, 33, 34, in 1838, 162,
163; after union of 1840, 192; present condition of, 290; contributions
by government and people, ib.

Elgin, Lord; governor-general of Canada, character of, 172, 173;
established responsible government, 173; action of, on Rebellion Losses
Bill in 1849, 188, 189

Falkland, Lord; governor of Nova Scotia, 176; quarrels with Joseph Howe
and Liberal party, 177-179; returns to England, 179

Family Compact in Upper Canada; meaning of, 141; controls government,

Fenian raids; in 1866, 213; in 1870-71, 230, 231, Canada never
indemnified for, 305

Ferland, French Canadian historian, 192

Fielding, Mr., finance minister of Canada, 265, his budget of 1897, 209

Fish Creek, N.W.T.; General Middleton checked at, in engagement with
rebels of 1885, 253

Fisher, Charles; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 205

Fishery question between Canada and the United States, 293, 302, 304,
307, 308

Fitzgibbon, Lieutenant; successful strategy of, at Beaver Dams in 1813,

Franchise Act of Dominion, passed, 255, repealed, 268

Frechette, French Canadian poet, 285

Free Trade policy of England; its early effects upon Canada, 172, 187,

French Acadians See _Neutrals_

French Canada; during French regime (1534-1760), 4-37; under military
government after conquest by Great Britain, 37, 38; desire of British
government to do justice to, 44, 45, provisions of Quebec Act affecting,
45, 48; political struggles and rebellion in, 124-138; influence of
Union Act of 1840 upon, 170, 187; brought into confederation, 216;
results of union upon, 273; literature in, 284, 285

French exploration in great valleys of North America, 15-21

French language; use of, restricted by Union Act of 1840, 187;
restriction removed, ib.

Frobisher, English navigator; voyages of, to Canada, 8

Frog Lake, massacre at, in North-west rebellion of 1885, 252

Frontenac, Count de (Louis de La Buade); French governor of Canada, 13;
eminent services of, ib.

Galloway, Thomas; his scheme for readjusting relations between Great
Britain and her old Colonies, 79

Galt, Sir Alexander; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 20; public
services of, ib.

Garneau, French Canadian historian, 192

German and Belgian Treaties; denunciation of, 261, 271

Gilbert, Sir Humphrey; takes possession of Newfoundland, 8

Glenelg, Lord; colonial secretary in 1838, 137

Gordon, Lt.-Governor; promotes federal union in New Brunswick, 212

Gosford, Lord; governor-general of Canada, 132, 134

Gourlay, Robert; misfortunes of, as a reformer in Upper Canada, 143-145

Grasett, Colonel; assists in repressing North-west rebellion of 1885,

Gray, Colonel; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Gray, John Hamilton, delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 205

Grey, Earl; colonial secretary, 172

Haldimand, general; governor-general of Canada, 71, 72

Haliburton, Judge, author of _Sam Sack_, etc., 164

Halifax, founded, 49

Harvey, Colonel; victory of, at Stoney Creek in 1813, 116. See _Harvey,
Sir John._

Harvey, Sir John; governor of Nova Scotia, of New Brunswick, establishes
responsible government in the maritime provinces. See _Harvey, Colonel._

Haviland, Thomas Heath; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206;
public career of, ib.

Head, Sir Francis Bond; lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, 148; his
unjust treatment of reformers, 149-151; his rashness before rebellion,
152; represses rebellion, 153

Henry, William A.; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 204

Hincks, Sir Francis; Canadian statesman, melancholy death of, 233

Historian of Canada, 192, 284

Hochelaga (Montreal); Indian village of, visited by Jacques Cartier, 6

Howe, Joseph; father of responsible government in Nova Scotia, 175, 176;
his quarrel with Lord Falkland, 176-179; ability of, 183, 184; advocate
of imperial federation, 195; opposes confederation from 1864-1868, 212,
219; his reasons for receding from his hostile position, 219; enters the
Macdonald ministry, 220; lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, ib; sudden
death of, ib; orator, poet, and statesman, 220, 221

Howland, Sir William P.; delegate to Westminster Palace Conference of
1866-67, 214; lieutenant-governor of Ontario, 217

Hudson's Bay Company; its great territorial privileges, 231-324; its
claims purchased by the Canadian government, 227; map illustrating its
charter, 222

Hull, General; defeat of, by Brock at Detroit, 114

Hundred Associates, Company of; established in Canada, 10

"Hunter's Lodges"; formed in United States to invade Canada, 154

Huntington, Lucius Seth; makes charges against Sir John Macdonald, 236

Huron Indians; massacre of, by the Iroquois, 12

Hutchinson, Governor Thomas (of Massachusetts); on relations between
Great Britain and her old Colonies, 98

Iberville, founder of Louisiana, 19

Immigration to Canada, 78, 79

Independence of old Thirteen Colonies acknowledged, by Great Britain, 74

Indians; British treatment of, 41,42; Canadian relations with, 238, 239

Intellectual culture in Canada; under French rule, 35; under British
rule, 164, 192, 284, 285

Intercolonial Railway; history of, 191, 215, 219

Iroquois Indians; ferocity of, 10-13

Jameson, Miss Anna, her "Winter Studies and Summer Rambles" in Upper
Canada in 1838, 157-159

Jesuit College at Quebec, 34

Jesuits' Estates, Act; political controversies respecting, 248

Jesuits in Canada, 11, 12; their estates confiscated by the British
government, 38; restored in part, 248

Johnson, John; delegate to the Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Johnston, James William; public career of, 175; eminence of, 185; early
advocate of confederation, 194, 195

Joliet, Louis; discovers the Mississippi, 18

Journalism in Canada, 164, 287

Judiciary, independence of; political contests for, 128, 139

Keewatin, district of; established provisionally, 238

Kent, Duke of; commander of British forces in Canada, 193; gives name to
P.E. Island, 53; letter to, from Chief Justice B.C. Sewell on union of
provinces, 194

King, George E.; prime minister of New Brunswick after Confederation,

King's University, Nova Scotia; founded, 163

Kingsford, Dr.; Canadian historian, 284

Kingston, city of; first parliament of Canada meets at, in 1841, 167

Kirk, David; captures Quebec, 10, 11

Labrador, discovery of, 5; origin of name of, 7

Lafontaine-Baldwin Ministry, 170, 173; its successful administration of
Canadian affairs, 173

Lafontaine, Sir Louis Hippolyte; Canadian statesman and jurist, 170,
173, 184

La Gallissoniere, French governor of Canada, 35

Lake of Woods, international boundary at, 292, 293; map of, 293

Lalemant, Gabriel; Jesuit martyr, 12

Land question; in Upper Canada, 143; in Prince Edward Island, 54, 234

Langevin, Sir Hector; Canadian statesman, delegate to Quebec Convention
of 1864, 205; charges against, 258

Lansdowne, Marquess of; governor-general of Canada, 207

Lartigue, Bishop; _mandement_ of, against French Canadian rebels, 135,

La Salle, Sieur de (Rene Robert Cavelier); at Lachine, 18; descends the
Mississippi, 18, 19; assassination of, 19

Laurier government; formation of, 265; measures of, 268-272

Laurier, Rt Hon. Sir Wilfrid; prime minister of Canada, 265; settles
Manitoba school question, 266 267; represents Canada at celebration of
"Diamond Jubilee" (1897), 36, 270; his action on Canadian aid to England
in South African War, 372; his mastery of English, 267

Laval, Bishop; first Roman Catholic Bishop of Canada, 12; establishes
tithes, 29

Laval University, Quebec, 290

La Valmiere, a disloyal priest, 72

Lawrence, Governor; expels French Acadians from Nova Scotia, 23;
encourages New England emigration, 51; opens first assembly in Halifax,

Lepine, Canadian rebel; punished, 241; his sentence commuted, _ib_.

Letellier de Saint-Just; lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 246; dismissed,
246, 247

Levis, General; defeats Murray at St. Foye, 26

Liberal or Reform party; formed in Nova Scotia, 99; in Upper Canada, 141

Liberal Convention in Ottawa (1893), 259

Libraries in Canada, 290

Lisgar, Lord, governor-general of Canada, 267

Literature in Canada, during French regime, 35; before union of 1840,
164; after union, 192; since Confederation, 284-287

Londonderry in Nova Scotia; origin of name of, 51, 52

Lome, Marquess of; governor-general of Canada, 244; His services to Art,
Science, and Literature, 267

Louisiana, named by La Salle, 19

Louis XIV establishes royal government in Canada, 12, 27, 28

Lount, Samuel; Upper Canadian rebel of 1837, 148, 152-153; executed, 155

Loyalists. See _United Empire Loyalists_

Loyal and Patriotic Society of Upper Canada; usefulness of, during war
of 1819-15, 121

Lundy's Lane, battle of; won by British in 1814, 117, 120

Lymburner, Adam; opposes separation of Upper from Lower Canada, 90

Macdonald, Andrew Archibald; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Macdonald, Baroness (of Earnscliffe), 257

Macdonald, Colonel George; at Ogdensburg in 1813, 115; at Chateauguay,

Macdonald, John Sanfield; first prime minister of Ontario after
Confederation, 217

Macdonald, Rt. Hon. Sir John; enters public life, 173; member of
government, ib.; settles Clergy Reserves question, 186; takes lead in
establishing Confederation, 198, 199, 209; first prime minister of the
Dominion, 216; resigns under unfortunate circumstances, 236; initiates
the "National Policy" of Conservative party, 243; prime minister again,
ib.; death of, 256; great ability, and patriotism of, 200, 256; mourned
by all Canada, 257; monuments and tributes to his memory, ib.

Macdonell; Colonel John; first speaker of assembly of Upper Canada in
1792, 94

Macdonell, Vicar-General; first Roman Catholic Bishop of Upper Canada,

Mackenzie, Alexander; prime minister of Canada, 237; character of, ib.,
243; his administration of public affairs (1873-78), 238-242; death of,

Mackenzie, Sir Alexander; North-west explorer, 224

Mackenzie, William Lyon; journalist and reformer, 146; enters Upper
Canada legislature, 146; unjustly expelled, ib., first mayor of Toronto,
147; indiscretions of, ib.; moves for committee of grievances, 148, its
report, ib.; defeat of, at elections of 1836, 150, resorts to rebellion,
152; defeat of, at Montgomery's and flight from Canada, 153; on Navy
Island, 154; imprisoned in the United States, ib.; returns from exile,
182, exercises no influence in Canadian politics, ib.; poverty and death
of, ib.; character of, 182, 183

MacLeod, international dispute respecting, 295

MacNab, Sir Allan; leads loyal "Men of Gore" against Canadian rebels in
1837, 153; orders seizure of steamer Caroline on. U.S. frontier, 154;
prime minister of Canada, 186

Maine Boundary Dispute, 292, 296-300; map of, 296

Maisonneuve, Sieur de (Paul de Chomedey); founds Montreal, 12

Manitoba, first visited by French, 20; province of, established, 230

Manitoba school question, 262-265, 266, 267

Maps relating to Canada; of French, Spanish and British possessions in
North America in 1756-1761, _at end_; of British possessions in
1763-1775, at end; of boundary established in 1783 between Canada and
the United States, 75; of Hudson's Bay Co.'s territory, 222; of
North-west boundary in 1842, 293; of North-eastern boundary in 1842,
297; of Alaskan disputed boundary, 311; of the Dominion of Canada in
1900, at end.

Marquette, Father, founds mission of Sainte-Maria, 17; discovers the
Mississippi, 18; death of, _ib_.;

Marriage laws in early Canada, 97

Maseres, Attorney-general, 43

Matthews, Peter; Upper Canadian rebel, 148, 151, 153; executed, 155

McCully, Jonathan; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 205

McDougall, William, delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 203;
provisional lieutenant-governor of N.W.T., 227; Half-breed rebellion
prevents him assuming office, ib.; disappears from public life, 230

McGee, Thomas D'Arcy; historian and orator, delegate to Quebec
Convention of 1864, 203; his political career in Canada, ib.;
assassinated, 221

McGill University, Montreal; founded, 163

McGreevy, Thomas, impeached for serious misdemeanors, 258; punishment
of, ib.

McLane, executed for treason in 1793, 101, 102

McLure, General (United States General); burns Niagara in 1814, 116

Mercier, Honore, prime minister of Quebec, 247; dismissed, ib.

Merritt, W. Hamilton; originator of Welland Canal, 159

Metcalfe, Lord; governor-general of Canada, 170; antagonism of, to
responsible government, 171; retirement and death of, ib.

_Metis_ or Half-breeds of the Canadian North-west, 225, 228, 249

Middleton, Major-general; commands Canadian forces on Riel's revolt of
1885 in North-west, 252-254

Military rule in Canada after 1760, 37, 38

Mills, David; Canadian statesman, 206

Minto, Earl of; governor-general of Canada, 268

Mitchell, Peter; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 205; public
career of, ib.

Mohawks, members of the Iroquois confederacy, 10; humbled by the Marquis
de Tracy, 13. See _Brant Joseph, Iroquois._

Monk, Lord; governor-general of Canada at Confederation, 216, 267

Montcalm, Marquis de; loses battle on Plains of Abraham, 26; death of

Montgomery, Brigadier-General; invades Canada, 69, 70; death of, at
Quebec, 70

Montreal founded, 12

Monts, Sieur de; founder of French _Acadie_, 8

Monts-Deserts named by Champlain, 9

Mowat, Sir Oliver; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1804, 203; public
career of, 203, 265, 266

Municipal system of Canada; established, 185, 186; nature of, 278

Murray, General; in command at Quebec, 26; defeat of, at St. Foye, ib.;
governor-general of Canada, 42; his just treatment of French
Canadians, 43

Mutual or reciprocal preferential trade between Canada and England;
advocacy of, 260, 271

_Nation Canadienne, La_; Papineau's dream of, 130, 133, 134

"National Policy," or Protective system; established by Conservative
party (1879), 243, 244

Navigation Laws repealed, 187

Navy Island, see _Mackenzie, William Lyon_

Neilson, John; Canadian journalist and politician, 127, 131

Nelson, Robert; Canadian rebel of 1837-38, 138

Nelson, Dr. Wolfred; leader in Lower Canadian rebellion of 1837, 134

Neutrality of the Great Lakes, 294, 295

"Neutrals," on French Acadians; expulsion of from Nova Scotia, 22, 23

Newark (Niagara), meeting of first Upper Canadian legislature at, 93;
seat of government removed from, to York, 101

New Brunswick; originally part of Acadie and Nova Scotia, 53; province
of founded by Loyalists, 83; capital ib.; state of, in 1838, 162;
political struggle for self-government in, 173, 174; takes part in
Quebec Convention, 198, 205; brought into Confederation, 215, 216;
boundary dispute with Maine, 296-300

New Brunswick school question, 201, 2O2

New Brunswick University; founded at Fredericton, 163

New Caledonia; old name of British Columbia, 232

Newfoundland; delegates from, to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206; refuses
to join the Dominion, 235

Niagara, see _Newark_

Nicholson, General; captures Port Royal, 9

Norse voyages to Canada, 4

North-eastern Boundary question, 296-299; map of Boundary, 1842, 297

North-west Company; rival of the Hudson's Bay Company in North America,
224, 225

North-west Boundary dispute, 292, 293; map of, 293

North-west Territories, early history of, 221-227; annexation of, to
Canada, 227, 230; first rebellion in, 227-230; government of, 277;
second rebellion in, 249-255; districts of, 277

Nova Scotia (Acadie); first settled by France, 8, 9; foundation of Port
Royal (Annapolis), 8; ceded to Great Britain by Treaty of Utrecht, 9;
population of, at conquest, 15; first called Nova Scotia, 11; Halifax
founded, 49; settlement by colonists of New England, 50, 51;
expatriation of the Acadian French, 22, 23, 50, 51; population of, in
1767, 51; Irish immigration, ib.; Scotch immigration, 52; early
government of, 52, 53, included New Brunswick, C. Breton, and St. John's
Island (Pr. Edward I), 53; early courts of justice, 55; coming of
Loyalists to, 82; state of in 1837-38, 162, political struggles in, for
self-government, 174-180; take part in Quebec Convention of 1864, 198,
204; brought into Confederation, 215; people opposed to, 212, 218, 219;
repeal movement gradually ceases in, 233

Novelists, Canadian, 164, 285, 286

O'Callaghan, Dr.; Canadian journalist and rebel, 130

O'Donohue, Canadian rebel, 231; amnesty to, 241

Ohio Valley, French in, 23

Oregon Boundary, dispute respecting, 300-302

Osgoode, Chief Justice; first speaker of legislative council of Upper
Canada in 1792, 94

Ottawa, city of; founded, 158

Pacific Cable; action of Canadian government with respect to, 271

Palmer, Edward; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Panet, Joseph Antoine; first speaker of assembly of Lower Canada in
1792, 93

Papineau, Louis J.; leader of French Canadian malcontents in rebellion
of 1837, 129-134; conduct of, on outbreak of rebellion, 134, 135; return
of, from exile, 181; opposes responsible government, ib.; loses
political influence, ib.; character of, 180-182

Pardon, prerogative of; instructions respecting exercise of, 241

Parishes established in French Canada, 29

Parker, Gilbert; Canadian novelist, 286

Parr Town, first name of St. John, New Brunswick, 83

Perry, Peter; founder of Upper Canadian Reform party, 141, 146, 150

Pictou Academy, Nova Scotia; founded, 163

Pitt, the elder (Lord Chatham); gives Canada to Great Britain, 25, 35,

Pitt, William (the younger); introduces Act separating Upper from Lower
Canada (Constitutional Act of 1791), 90, 91

Plains of Abraham; Wolfe's victory on, 26

Plattsburg, battle of, pusillanimity of General Prevost at, 117

Plessis, Bishop (Roman Catholic); patriotism of, in war of 1812-15, 120

Poets in Canada, 192, 284, 285

Pontiac's Conspiracy, 39

Pope, William H., delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Portuguese discovery in Canada, 5

Post Office in Canada; under British management, 164; transferred to
Canada, 187

Poundmaker, Indian chief in North-west; rebels against Canadian
government, 253; punished, 254

Poutrincourt, Baron de; founder of Port Royal, 8

Powell, Chief Justice, his unjust treatment of Robert Gourlay, 145

Preferential trade with Great Britain, 200, 201, 269, 271

Prevost, Sir George (governor-general of Canada), retires from Sackett's
Harbour 1813, 115; retreats from Plattsburg in 1814, 117; character of,

Prince, Colonel; orders execution of American raiders in 1838, 155

Prince Edward Island. See _St. John's Island_

Prince of Wales visits Canada, 193

Princess Louise, arrives in Canada with the Marquess of Lome, 244; her
support of Art, 288

Proclamation of 1764; for government of Canada, 40-42

Procter, General, defeats General Winchester in 1813, 115; beaten at
Moraviantown in 1813, 116

Prohibitory Liquor Law; agitation for, 340; popular vote on, ib.

Protestantism unknown in French Canada, 28

Provincial governments established under Confederation, 217, 218

Provinces, constitution of, under Confederation, 275, 276

Puritan migration to Nova Scotia, 50

Put-in Bay (Lake Erie); British fleet defeated at, in 1813, 116

Quebec Act; origin of, 44, 45, its provisions, 45-47; how received in
Canada, 46; unpopularity of, in old British colonies, 67

Quebec, Convention of, 1864; delegates to, 199-206; passes resolutions
in favour of federal union, 206-209

Quebec founded, 9

Queenston Heights; battle of, in 1812, 114

Railways in Canada; in 1865, 191, in 1899, 273. See _Intercolonial R.
Canadian Pacific R._

Rebellion in Lower Canada; its origin, 124-133; Louis J. Papineau's part
in, 129-134; outbreak of, 134; prompt action of authorities against,
ib.; Dr. Nelson wins success at St. Denis, ib.; defeat of Brown at St.
Charles, ib.; flight of Papineau and rebel leaders, ib.; fight at St.
Eustache and death of Chenier, ib.; murder of Weir and Chartrand, 135;
collapse of the rebellion of 1837, 135, 136; loyal action of Bishop
Lartigue, 135; arrival of Lord Durham as British high-commissioner and
governor-general, 136; his career in Canada, 137-138; Sir John Colborne;
governor-general, 139; second outbreak of rebellion, 1838, ib.; promptly
subdued, ib.; punishment of prominent insurgents, ib.; action of United
States government during, 139; social and economic condition of Canada
during, 159-162; remedial policy of British government, and new era of
political development. See _Responsible Government in Canada._

Rebellion in Upper Canada; effect of family compact on, 140, 141; of
clergy reserves on, 141, 142; influence of Archdeacon, afterwards
Bishop, Strachan in public affairs, 142; unjust treatment of Robert
Gourlay, 143-145; persecution of William Lyon Mackenzie, 146-148; other
prominent actors in, 148; indiscretions of the lieutenant-governor, Sir
Francis Bond Head, 149-152; outbreak and repression of, 152, 153; flight
of Mackenzie and other rebel leaders, 153; Mackenzie's seizure of Navy
Island, 154; affair of the Caroline, ib.; filibustering expeditions
against Canada from United States in 1838, 154, 155; prompt execution of
filibusters by Colonel Prince, 155; action of U.S. authorities during,
ib.; execution of Von Schoultz, Lount, Matthews, and other rebels, ib.;
Sir George Arthur, harshness of, ib.; social and economic conditions of
Upper Canada at time of, 156-159; rebellion leads to the enlargement of
political privileges of people, See _Responsible Government in Canada._

Rebellion Losses Bill (of 1849); its nature, 188; assented to by Lord
Elgin, 189; consequent rioting and burning of parliament house at
Montreal, 189, Lord Elgin's life in danger, ib.; his wise constitutional
action, ib. Rebellions in North-west: See _North-western Territories,
_and _Riel, Louis._

Reciprocity of Trade between Canada and the United States; treaty of
1814, 190, 191; repeal of the same, 303; efforts to renew it, 304, 307;
Canadians not now so favourable to, 310

Recollets, or Franciscans, in Canada, 11

Redistribution Acts of 1882 and 1897; measures to amend, rejected by
Senate, 268

Representative institutions in Canada; established in Nova Scotia, 53;
in New Brunswick, 88; in French or Lower Canada (Quebec), 91; in Upper
Canada (Ontario), ib.; in Prince Edward Island, 54; in Manitoba, 230; in
British Columbia, 232

Responsible government in Canada; beginnings of, 165-175; consummated
by Lord Elgin, 173; struggle for, in New Brunswick, 173, 174; in Nova
Scotia, 174-180; in Prince Edward Island, 180; prominent advocates of,
183-185; results of (1841-1867), 185-192

Revenue of Canada in 1899, 273

Riall, General; defeated by United States troops at Street's Creek in
1814, 117

Richardson, Major; Canadian author, 164

Richelieu, Cardinal; his effort to colonise Canada, 10

Rideau Canal, constructed, 158

Riel, Louis; leads revolt of French half-breeds in North-west, 228;
murders Ross, 229; flies from the country, ib; elected to and expelled
from the Canadian Commons, 241; reappears in North-west, and leads
second revolt, 249-253; captured and executed, 253, 254; political
complications concerning, 240, 254

Roberval, Sieur de (Jean Francois de la Rocque); attempts to settle
Canada, 7

Robinson, Chief Justice; public career of, in Upper Canada, 145

Rocque, Jean Francois de la. See _Roberval_

Roebuck, Mr.; Canadian agent in England, 131

Rolph, Dr.; his part in Canadian rebellion of 1837, 151-153; character
of, 183

Roman Catholic Church in Canada, 28, 29, 43, 46, 47

Rose, Sir John, effort of, to obtain reciprocity with United States, 304

Rosebery, Earl of, unveils Sir John Macdonald's bust in St. Paul's
Cathedral, 256

Rouse's Point, boundary at, 302

Royal Society of Canada, 286

Rupert's Land; origin of name of, 224. See _North-west Territories of

Russell, Administrator, 101

Russell, Lord John; introduces resolutions respecting Canada in British
parliament in 1836, 132; also Act reuniting the Canadas in 1840, 166;
lays basis of responsible government in Canada, 167. See _Responsible
Government in Canada_.

Ryerson, Rev. Egerton; Loyalist, Methodist, and educationalist, 141,
147, 192

Sainte-Genevieve (Pillage Bay); named St. Laurens by Jacques Carrier, 7

Salaberry, Colonel de; defeats United States troops at Chateauguay, 121

Sanderson, Robert; first speaker of assembly of Nova Scotia, 53

San Juan Island; international dispute respecting, 301, 302

Sarrasin, Dr., French Canadian scientist, 35

Saskatchewan River (Poskoiac), discovery of, 20

Sculpture in Canada, 288

Seaforth, Lord. See _Colborne, Sir John_

Secord, Laura; heroic exploit of, in 1814, 120

Seigniorial tenure in French Canada, 14, 32; abolished under British
rule, 186

Selkirk, Lord; attempts to colonise North-west, 225; death of, _ib._

Seven Years' War; between France and Great Britain in America, 21-27

Sewell, Chief Justice (Loyalist); adviser of Sir James Craig, 96;
suggests union of provinces, 194

Shea, Ambrose; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Sheaffe, General; services of, during war of 1812-15, 114

Shelburne, in Nova Scotia, founded by Loyalists, 82

Sherbrooke, Sir John, governor of Nova Scotia, 118; occupies Maine in
war of 1812-15, ib.

Shirley, Governor; deep interest of, in Nova Scotia, 49

Simcoe, Colonel; first lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, 93; public
career of, 94

Simultaneous polling at elections established, 239

Slavery in Canada, 98

Smith, Chief Justice (Loyalist); first president of legislative council
of Lower Canada in 1792, 92; suggests federal union of provinces, 194

Smith, Donald (Lord Strathcona); intervenes in North-west rebellion of
1870, 229

Social and economic conditions of the Canadian provinces; in 1838,
156-164; in 1866, 189-192; in 1900, 272-290

South African War; Canadians take part in, 271, 272

Square Gulf, or "golfo quadrado"; old name of St. Lawrence Gulf, 7

St. Charles; defeat of Canadian rebels in 1837 at, 134

St. Denis; Canadian rebels repulsed by British regulars in 1837 at, 134

St. Eustache; stand of Canadian rebels at, 134; death of Chenier, ib.

St. John, New Brunswick; founded, 83

St. John's, Island; named Prince Edward, 53; under government of Nova
Scotia, _ib_.; survey of, ib.; separated from Nova Scotia, 54; public
lands of, granted by lottery, ib.; political struggles in, for
self-government, 180, 185; takes part in Quebec Convention of 1864, 206;
enters Confederation, 234; settlement of its land question, ib.

St. Lawrence, River and Gulf of; origin of name of, 7

St. Lusson, Sieur; takes possession of the Sault, 18

St. Maurice forges founded, 30

Stadacona (Quebec), Indian village of, visited by Jacques Cartier, 6

Stanley, Lord, governor-general of Canada, 267

Steeves, William H.; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Strachan, Bishop (Anglican); patriotism of, during war of 1812-15, 121;
his influence in Upper Canadian politics, 142

Strange, Lt.-Col.; engaged in repressing North-west rebellion of 1885,

Stuart, Andrew; prominent Canadian lawyer and politician, 127, 131

Sulpitians in Canada, 37

Superior Council of French Canada. See _Supreme Council_

Supreme Council, established by Louis XIV in French Canada, 28, 29

Supreme Court, established in Canada, 239

Sydenham, Lord (Poulett Thomson); governor-general of Canada, 166;
carries out scheme of uniting the Canadas in 1840, 167; opinions of, on
responsible government, 168; death of, 169

Tache, Sir Etienne Paschal; chairman of Quebec Convention of 1864, 199;
character of, ib.

Talbot, Colonel, pioneer in Upper Canada, 157

Talon, Intendant, 13

Taite, Israel; accuses McGreevy of grave misdemeanours, 258; member of
Laurier ministry, 206

Temperance Legislation; "Scott Act" passed, 239; _plebiscite_ on
Prohibition, 240

Thompson, Sir John; prime minister of Canada, 257; sudden death of,
ib; great ability of, ib.

Thomson, Poulett. See _Sydenham, Lord_

Tilley, Sir Leonard; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 205; public
career of, ib.; introduces scheme of "National Policy," 244

Timber trade in Canada, in early time, 162

Tithes established in French Canada, 29

Todd, Dr.; Constitutional writer, 286

Tonge, William Cottnam Tonge; Nova Scotian Liberal, 99; his controversy
with Governor Wentworth, ib.

Trade of Canada in 1899, 273

Treaties, international, affecting Canada; of St. Germain-en-Laye
(1632), 11; of Utrecht (1713), 9, 21, 22; of Paris (1763), 38; of
Versailles, 292; of Ghent, 293; of 1818, 294; Ashburton (1842), 299;
Oregon (1846), 301; reciprocity (1854), 303; of Washington (1871), 305,
306; Bering Sea, 308, 309, Anglo-Russian (Alaska), 310-312

Treaties with Indian tribes of Canada, 41, 238

Trutch, Sir Joseph; first lieutenant-governor of British Columbia under
Confederation, 232

Tupper, Sir Charles; prime minister of Nova Scotia, 192; services of, to
education, ib.; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 204; introduces
legislation for construction of Canadian Pacific Railway, 244; high
commissioner of Canada in London, 258; re-enters political life, ib.;
action of, on Manitoba school question, 264; prime minister of Canada,
265; defeat of, at general elections of 1896, ib; difference with Lord
Aberdeen, when governor-general, ib.; remarkable ability of, 204, 258;
leader of Liberal Conservative party from 1896-1900, 258; policy of, on
"preferential trade" with Great Britain, 271

Tyler, Professor, on U.E. Loyalists, 76

Uniacke, James Boyle; Nova Scotian statesman, 175; advocate of
responsible government, 176; first minister of Nova Scotia, 180

Union of the Canadas in 1840, 166, 167

United Empire Loyalists; number of, during American Revolution, 76;
justice done to, ib.; opinions of, on issues of revolution, 77, 78;
suffering of, during revolution, 79; treatment of, after the peace of
1783, 80; compensation to, by British government, 81; settle in British
America, ib; privations of, in Nova Scotia, 80; founders of New
Brunswick, 83; of Upper Canada, 84; eminent descent of, 86; Canada's
debt to, ib origin of name of, 89; representatives of, in first
legislature of New Brunswick, 87, 88; of Upper Canada, 94; services of,
during war of 1812-15, 188-120

Universities in Canada, 163, 289

University of Toronto, beginning of, 164

Upper Canada, founded by Loyalists, 84; first districts of, 89, 94; made
separate province, 91, first government of, 93; Newark, first capital
of, ib.; York (Toronto), second capital of, 94; rebellion in, see
_Rebellion in Upper Canada_; state of, in 1838, 159; reunited with Lower
Canada, 166; joins Confederation as Ontario, 216

Upper Canada College, Toronto, founded, 163

Ursulines at Quebec, 34

Vancouver Island; history of, 231, 232

Verendrye, Sieur de la (Pierre Gauthier de Varennes); discovers
Manitoba and North-west of Canada, 19, 20

Verrazzano, Giovanni di; voyages of, to North America, 5

Victoria College, Upper Canada, founded, 164

Vincent, General; services of, in war of 1812-15, 115

Von Schoultz; leads filibusters into Canada, 155; executed, ib.

War of 1812-15; origin of, 103-110; population of Canada and United
States during, 110-112; loyalty of Canadian people during, 113; services
of General Brock during, 114; campaign of 1812 in Upper Canada, 114,
115; of 1813, 115, 116; of 1814, 117; maritime provinces during, 117,
118, close of, 118; services of Loyalists during, 118-120; Laura Secord,
heroism of, 120; description of striking incidents of battles during,

Washington, George; eminent character of, 66

Washington Treaty of 1871, 304, 305

Weir, Lieutenant, murder of, in Lower Canadian rebellion of 1837, 135

Welland Canal commenced, 159; completed, 190

Wentworth, Sir John; Loyalist governor of Nova Scotia, 99

Westminster Palace Conference in London; Canadian delegates arrange
final terms of federation at, 214, 215

Wetmore, Attorney-general; first minister of New Brunswick after
Confederation, 218

Whelan, Edward; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

White, Thomas; Canadian journalist and statesman, 256; sudden death of,

William IV visits Canada as Prince William Henry, 193

Williams, Lt.-Col.; death of, in North-west rebellion of 1885, 254

Williams, Sir Fenwick ("hero of Kars"); lieutenant-governor of Nova
Scotia, 213, 217

Wilmot, Lemuel A.; father of responsible government in New Brunswick,
174, 185; lieutenant-governor of the province, 217

Wolfe, General; at Quebec, 25; his bold ascent of heights, 25, 26; wins
battle on Plains of Abraham, 26; death of, 26; a maker of Canada, 35

York (Toronto) made capital of Upper Canada, 101

Young, Sir William; Nova Scotian statesman and jurist, 185

Yukon, district of; gold discovery in, 209; administration of, ib, 277;
boundaries of, 310-312





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