Dogs and All About Them
Robert Leighton

Part 1 out of 7

Produced by Wendy Crockett







[Frontispiece: SMOOTH-COATED ST. BERNARD: CH. THE VIKING. (_From the
Painting by Lilian Cheviot.)]

[Transcriber's Note: The capital letter "P" has been used throughout
to represent the pound sign of British currency.]


The popularity of the dog as a companion, as a guardian of property,
as an assistant in the pursuit of game, and as the object of a
pleasurable hobby, has never been so great as it is at the present
time. More dogs are kept in this country than ever there formerly
were, and they are more skilfully bred, more tenderly treated, and
cared for with a more solicitous pride than was the case a generation
ago. There are fewer mongrels in our midst, and the family dog has
become a respectable member of society. Two million dog licences were
taken out in the British Isles in the course of 1909. In that year,
too, as many as 906 separate dog shows were sanctioned by the Kennel
Club and held in various parts of the United Kingdom. At the present
time there exist no fewer than 156 specialist clubs established for
the purpose of watching over the interests of the different breeds.

Recognising this advance in our national love of dogs and the growing
demand for information on their distinguishing characteristics, I
am persuaded that there is ample room for a concise and practical
handbook on matters canine. In preparing the present volume, I have
drawn abundantly upon the contents of my larger and more expensive
_New Book of The Dog_, and I desire to acknowledge my obligations
to the eminent experts who assisted me in the production of the
earlier work and whose contributions I have further utilised in these
pages. I am indebted to Mr. W. J. Stubbs for his clear exposition
of the points of the Bulldog, to Colonel Claude Cane for his
description of the Sporting Spaniels, to Lady Algernon Gordon Lennox
for her authoritative paragraphs on the Pekinese, to Mr. Desmond
O'Connell for his history of the Fox-terrier, and to Mr. Walter S.
Glynn, Mr. Fred Gresham, Major J. H. Bailey, Mr. E. B. Joachim and
other specialists whose aid I have enlisted.

In the following chapters the varieties of the dog are classified
in the order of (1) Non-Sporting and Utility breeds, (2) Hounds,
Gundogs and other Sporting breeds, (3) the Terriers, (4) Toy and
Miniature breeds.



1. General History of the Dog
2. The English Mastiff
3. The Bulldog
4. The St. Bernard
5. The Newfoundland
6. The Great Dane
7. The Dalmatian
8. The Collie
9. The Old English Sheepdog
10. The Chow Chow
11. The Poodle
12. The Schipperke
13. The Bloodhound
14. The Otterhound
15. The Irish Wolfhound
16. The Deerhound
17. The Borzoi, or Russian Wolfhound
18. The Greyhound
19. The Whippet
20. The Foxhound
21. The Harrier and the Beagle
22. The Pointer
23. The Setters
24. The Retrievers
25. The Sporting Spaniel
26. The Basset-Hound
27. The Dachshund
28. The Old Working Terrier
29. The White English Terrier
30. The Black and Tan Terrier
31. The Bull-Terrier
32. The Smooth Fox-Terrier
33. The Wire-Hair Fox-Terrier
34. The Airedale Terrier
35. The Bedlington Terrier
36. The Irish Terrier
37. The Welsh Terrier
38. The Scottish Terrier
39. The West Highland White Terrier
40. The Dandie Dinmont
41. The Skye and Clydesdale Terriers
42. The Yorkshire Terrier
43. The Pomeranian
44. The King Charles Spaniels
45. The Pekinese and Japanese
46. The Maltese Dog and the Pug
47. The Brussels Griffon
48. The Miniature Breeds
49. Practical Management
50. Breeding and Whelping
51. Some Common Ailments of the Dog and their Treatment
52. The Dog and the Law


The Smooth-Coated St. Bernard, Ch. The Viking (From the painting by
Lilian Cheviot.) _Frontispiece_

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Mayor's Bulldog, Ch. Silent Duchess

Mr. George Sinclair's St. Bernard, Ch. Lord Montgomery

Mrs. Vale Nicolas's Newfoundland, Ch. Shelton Viking

Mrs. H. Horsfall's Great Dane, Ch. Viola of Redgrave

Mr. R. A. Tait's Collie, Ch. Wishaw Leader

Bloodhound, Ch. Chatley Beaufort. Bred and owned by Mrs. G. A.
Oliphant, Shrewton, Wilts.

Mrs. Armstrong's Deerhound, Ch. Talisman

Mrs. Aitcheson's Borzoi, Ch. Strawberry King

Mr. H. Reginald Cooke's Retriever, Ch. Worsley Bess

Three generations of Mr. R. de C. Peele's Blue Roan Cocker Spaniels,
Ch. Ben Bowdler (Father), Ch. Bob Bowdler (Son), and Ch. Dixon Bowdler

1. Mrs. J. H. Brown's, Ch. Captain Double
2. Mr. J. C. Tinne's, Ch. The Sylph
3. Mr. T. J. Stephen's Wire-Hair, Ch. Sylvan Result

Mr. Fred. W. Breakell's Irish Terrier, Ch. Killarney Sport

Mrs. Spencer's Dandie Dinmont, Ch. Braw Lad

A Typical Airedale Head

Mr. W. L. McCandlish's Scottish Terrier, Ems Cosmetic

Col. Malcolm's West Highland White Terriers Sonny and Sarah

Miss E. McCheane's Skye Terriers, Ch. Fairfield Diamond and Ch.
Wolverley Chummie

Toy Dogs:
Miss Stevens' Typical Japanese Puppy
Mrs. Vale Nicolas's Pomeranian, Ch. The Sable Mite
Miss M. A. Bland's Pomeranian, Ch. Marland King
Lady Hulton's Blenheim, Ch. Joy
The Hon. Mrs. Lytton's King Charles, Ch. The Seraph

Toy Dogs:
1. Mrs. Gresham's Pug, Ch. Grindley King
2. Mrs. T. Whaley's Brussels Griffon, Glenartney Sport
3. Pekinese, Ch. Chu-erh of Alderbourne



There is no incongruity in the idea that in the very earliest period
of man's habitation of this world he made a friend and companion of
some sort of aboriginal representative of our modern dog, and that
in return for its aid in protecting him from wilder animals, and in
guarding his sheep and goats, he gave it a share of his food, a corner
in his dwelling, and grew to trust it and care for it. Probably the
animal was originally little else than an unusually gentle jackal,
or an ailing wolf driven by its companions from the wild marauding
pack to seek shelter in alien surroundings. One can well conceive
the possibility of the partnership beginning in the circumstance of
some helpless whelps being brought home by the early hunters to be
tended and reared by the women and children. The present-day savage
of New Guinea and mid-Africa does not, as a rule, take the trouble
to tame and train an adult wild animal for his own purposes, and
primitive man was surely equally indifferent to the questionable
advantage of harbouring a dangerous guest. But a litter of woolly
whelps introduced into the home as playthings for the children would
grow to regard themselves, and be regarded, as members of the family,
and it would soon be found that the hunting instincts of the maturing
animal were of value to his captors. The savage master, treading the
primeval forests in search of food, would not fail to recognise the
helpfulness of a keener nose and sharper eyes even than his own
unsullied senses, while the dog in his turn would find a better
shelter in association with man than if he were hunting on his own
account. Thus mutual benefit would result in some kind of tacit
agreement of partnership, and through the generations the wild wolf
or jackal would gradually become gentler, more docile, and tractable,
and the dreaded enemy of the flock develop into the trusted guardian
of the fold.

In nearly all parts of the world traces of an indigenous dog family
are found, the only exceptions being the West Indian Islands,
Madagascar, the eastern islands of the Malayan Archipelago, New
Zealand, and the Polynesian Islands, where there is no sign that any
dog, wolf, or fox has existed as a true aboriginal animal. In the
ancient Oriental lands, and generally among the early Mongolians,
the dog remained savage and neglected for centuries, prowling in
packs, gaunt and wolf-like, as it prowls to-day through the streets
and under the walls of every Eastern city. No attempt was made to
allure it into human companionship or to improve it into docility.
It is not until we come to examine the records of the higher
civilisations of Assyria and Egypt that we discover any distinct
varieties of canine form.

Assyrian sculptures depict two such, a Greyhound and a Mastiff, the
latter described in the tablets as "the chained-up, mouth-opening
dog"; that is to say, it was used as a watch-dog; and several
varieties are referred to in the cuneiform inscriptions preserved
in the British Museum. The Egyptian monuments of about 3000 B.C.
present many forms of the domestic dog, and there can be no doubt
that among the ancient Egyptians it was as completely a companion
of man, as much a favourite in the house, and a help in the chase,
as it is among ourselves at present. In the city of Cynopolis it was
reverenced next to the sacred jackal, and on the death of a dog the
members of the household to which he had belonged carefully shaved
their whole bodies, and religiously abstained from using the food,
of whatever kind, which happened to be in the house at the time.
Among the distinct breeds kept in Egypt there was a massive wolf-dog,
a large, heavily-built hound with drooping ears and a pointed head,
at least two varieties of Greyhound used for hunting the gazelle,
and a small breed of terrier or Turnspit, with short, crooked legs.
This last appears to have been regarded as an especial household pet,
for it was admitted into the living rooms and taken as a companion
for walks out of doors. It was furnished with a collar of leaves,
or of leather, or precious metal wrought into the form of leaves,
and when it died it was embalmed. Every town throughout Egypt had
its place of interment for canine mummies.

The dog was not greatly appreciated in Palestine, and in both the
Old and New Testaments it is commonly spoken of with scorn and
contempt as an "unclean beast." Even the familiar reference to the
Sheepdog in the Book of Job--"_But now they that are younger than
I have me in derision, whose fathers I would have disdained to set
with the dogs of my flock_"--is not without a suggestion of contempt,
and it is significant that the only biblical allusion to the dog as
a recognised companion of man occurs in the apocryphal Book of Tobit
(v. 16), "_So they went forth both, and the young man's dog with

The pagan Greeks and Romans had a kindlier feeling for dumb animals
than had the Jews. Their hounds, like their horses, were selected
with discrimination, bred with care, and held in high esteem,
receiving pet names; and the literatures of Greece and Rome contain
many tributes to the courage, obedience, sagacity, and affectionate
fidelity of the dog. The Phoenicians, too, were unquestionably lovers
of the dog, quick to recognise the points of special breeds. In their
colony in Carthage, during the reign of Sardanapalus, they had already
possessed themselves of the Assyrian Mastiff, which they probably
exported to far-off Britain, as they are said to have exported the
Water Spaniel to Ireland and to Spain.

It is a significant circumstance when we come to consider the probable
origin of the dog, that there are indications of his domestication
at such early periods by so many peoples in different parts of the
world. As we have seen, dogs were more or less subjugated and tamed
by primitive man, by the Assyrians, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks,
and Romans, as also by the ancient barbaric tribes of the western
hemisphere. The important question now arises: Had all these dogs
a common origin in a definite parent stock, or did they spring from
separate and unrelated parents?

Half a century ago it was believed that all the evidence which could
be brought to bear upon the problem pointed to an independent origin
of the dog. Youatt, writing in 1845, argued that "this power of
tracing back the dog to the very earliest periods of history, and
the fact that he then seemed to be as sagacious, as faithful, and
as valuable as at the present day, strongly favours the opinion that
he was descended from no inferior and comparatively worthless animal;
and that he was not the progeny of the wolf, the jackal, or the fox,
but was originally created, somewhat as we now find him, the associate
and friend of man."

When Youatt wrote, most people believed that the world was only six
thousand years old, and that species were originally created and
absolutely unchangeable. Lyell's discoveries in geology, however,
overthrew the argument of the earth's chronology and of the antiquity
of man, and Darwin's theory of evolution entirely transformed the
accepted beliefs concerning the origin of species and the supposed
invariability of animal types.

The general superficial resemblance between the fox and many of our
dogs, might well excuse the belief in a relationship. Gamekeepers
are often very positive that a cross can be obtained between a dog
fox and a terrier bitch; but cases in which this connection is alleged
must be accepted with extreme caution. The late Mr. A. D. Bartlett,
who was for years the superintendent of the Zoological Gardens in
London, studied this question with minute care, and as a result of
experiments and observations he positively affirmed that he had never
met with one well-authenticated instance of a hybrid dog and fox.
Mr. Bartlett's conclusions are incontestable. However much in
appearance the supposed dog-fox may resemble the fox, there are
certain opposing characteristics and structural differences which
entirely dismiss the theory of relationship.

One thing is certain, that foxes do not breed in confinement, except
in very rare instances. The silver fox of North America is the only
species recorded to have bred in the Zoological Gardens of London;
the European fox has never been known to breed in captivity. Then,
again, the fox is not a sociable animal. We never hear of foxes
uniting in a pack, as do the wolves, the jackals, and the wild dogs.
Apart from other considerations, a fox may be distinguished from a
dog, without being seen or touched, by its smell. No one can produce
a dog that has half the odour of Reynard, and this odour the dog-fox
would doubtless possess were its sire a fox-dog or its dam a vixen.

Whatever may be said concerning the difference existing between dogs
and foxes will not hold good in reference to dogs, wolves, and
jackals. The wolf and the jackal are so much alike that the only
appreciable distinction is that of size, and so closely do they
resemble many dogs in general appearance, structure, habits,
instincts, and mental endowments that no difficulty presents itself
in regarding them as being of one stock. Wolves and jackals can be,
and have repeatedly been, tamed. Domestic dogs can become, and again
and again do become, wild, even consorting with wolves, interbreeding
with them, assuming their gregarious habits, and changing the
characteristic bark into a dismal wolf-like howl. The wolf and the
jackal when tamed answer to their master's call, wag their tails,
lick his hands, crouch, jump round him to be caressed, and throw
themselves on their backs in submission. When in high spirits they
run round in circles or in a figure of eight, with their tails between
their legs. Their howl becomes a business-like bark. They smell at
the tails of other dogs and void their urine sideways, and lastly,
like our domestic favourites, however refined and gentlemanly in other
respects, they cannot be broken of the habit of rolling on carrion
or on animals they have killed.

This last habit of the domestic dog is one of the surviving traits
of his wild ancestry, which, like his habits of burying bones or
superfluous food, and of turning round and round on a carpet as if
to make a nest for himself before lying down, go far towards
connecting him in direct relationship with the wolf and the jackal.

The great multitude of different breeds of the dog and the vast
differences in their size, points, and general appearance are facts
which make it difficult to believe that they could have had a common
ancestry. One thinks of the difference between the Mastiff and the
Japanese Spaniel, the Deerhound and the fashionable Pomeranian, the
St. Bernard and the Miniature Black and Tan Terrier, and is perplexed
in contemplating the possibility of their having descended from a
common progenitor. Yet the disparity is no greater than that between
the Shire horse and the Shetland pony, the Shorthorn and the Kerry
cattle, or the Patagonian and the Pygmy; and all dog breeders know
how easy it is to produce a variety in type and size by studied

In order properly to understand this question it is necessary first
to consider the identity of structure in the wolf and the dog. This
identity of structure may best be studied in a comparison of the
osseous system, or skeletons, of the two animals, which so closely
resemble each other that their transposition would not easily be

The spine of the dog consists of seven vertebrae in the neck, thirteen
in the back, seven in the loins, three sacral vertebrae, and twenty
to twenty-two in the tail. In both the dog and the wolf there are
thirteen pairs of ribs, nine true and four false. Each has forty-two
teeth. They both have five front and four hind toes, while outwardly
the common wolf has so much the appearance of a large, bare-boned
dog, that a popular description of the one would serve for the other.

Nor are their habits different. The wolf's natural voice is a loud
howl, but when confined with dogs he will learn to bark. Although
he is carnivorous, he will also eat vegetables, and when sickly he
will nibble grass. In the chase, a pack of wolves will divide into
parties, one following the trail of the quarry, the other endeavouring
to intercept its retreat, exercising a considerable amount of
strategy, a trait which is exhibited by many of our sporting dogs
and terriers when hunting in teams.

A further important point of resemblance between the _Canis lupus_
and the _Canis familiaris_ lies in the fact that the period of
gestation in both species is sixty-three days. There are from three
to nine cubs in a wolf's litter, and these are blind for twenty-one
days. They are suckled for two months, but at the end of that time
they are able to eat half-digested flesh disgorged for them by their
dam--or even their sire.

We have seen that there is no authenticated instance of a hybrid
between the dog and the fox. This is not the case with the dog and
the wolf, or the dog and the jackal, all of which can interbreed.
Moreover, their offspring are fertile. Pliny is the authority for
the statement that the Gauls tied their female dogs in the wood that
they might cross with wolves. The Eskimo dogs are not infrequently
crossed with the grey Arctic wolf, which they so much resemble, and
the Indians of America were accustomed to cross their half-wild dogs
with the coyote to impart greater boldness to the breed. Tame dogs
living in countries inhabited by the jackal often betray the jackal
strain in their litters, and there are instances of men dwelling in
lonely outposts of civilisation being molested by wolves or jackals
following upon the trail of a bitch in season.

These facts lead one to refer to the familiar circumstance that the
native dogs of all regions approximate closely in size, coloration,
form, and habit to the native wolf of those regions. Of this most
important circumstance there are far too many instances to allow of
its being looked upon as a mere coincidence. Sir John Richardson,
writing in 1829, observed that "the resemblance between the North
American wolves and the domestic dog of the Indians is so great that
the size and strength of the wolf seems to be the only difference.
I have more than once mistaken a band of wolves for the dogs of a
party of Indians; and the howl of the animals of both species is
prolonged so exactly in the same key that even the practised ear of
the Indian fails at times to discriminate between them."

As the Eskimo and Indian dogs resemble the North American wolf, so
the dog of the Hare Indians, a very different breed, resembles the
prairie wolf. Except in the matter of barking, there is no difference
whatever between the black wolf-dog of the Indians of Florida and
the wolves of the same country. The same phenomenon is seen in many
kinds of European dogs. The Shepherd Dog of the plains of Hungary
is white or reddish-brown, has a sharp nose, short erect ears, shaggy
coat, and bushy tail, and so much resembles a wolf that Mr. Paget,
who gives the description, says he has known a Hungarian mistake a
wolf for one of his own dogs. Many of the dogs of Russia, Lapland,
and Finland are comparable with the wolves of those countries. Some
of the domestic dogs of Egypt, both at the present day and in the
condition of mummies, are wolf-like in type, and the dogs of Nubia
have the closest relation to a wild species of the same region, which
is only a form of the common jackal. Dogs, it may again be noted,
cross with the jackal as well as with wolves, and this is frequently
the case in Africa, as, for example, in Bosjesmans, where the dogs
have a marked resemblance to the black-backed jackal, which is a South
African variety.

It has been suggested that the one incontrovertible argument against
the lupine relationship of the dog is the fact that all domestic dogs
bark, while all wild _Canidae_ express their feelings only by howls.
But the difficulty here is not so great as it seems, since we know
that jackals, wild dogs, and wolf pups reared by bitches readily
acquire the habit. On the other hand, domestic dogs allowed to run
wild forget how to bark, while there are some which have not yet
learned so to express themselves.

The presence or absence of the habit of barking cannot, then, be
regarded as an argument in deciding the question concerning the origin
of the dog. This stumbling block consequently disappears, leaving
us in the position of agreeing with Darwin, whose final hypothesis
was that "it is highly probable that the domestic dogs of the world
have descended from two good species of wolf (_C. lupus_ and
_C. latrans_), and from two or three other doubtful species of
wolves--namely, the European, Indian, and North African forms; from
at least one or two South American canine species; from several races
or species of jackal; and perhaps from one or more extinct species";
and that the blood of these, in some cases mingled together, flows
in the veins of our domestic breeds.



Of the many different kinds of dogs now established as British, not
a few have had their origin in other lands, whence specimens have
been imported into this country, in course of time to be so improved
by selection that they have come to be commonly accepted as native
breeds. Some are protected from the claim that they are indigenous
by the fact that their origin is indicated in their names. No one
would pretend that the St. Bernard or the Newfoundland, the Spaniel
or the Dalmatian, are of native breed. They are alien immigrants whom
we have naturalised, as we are naturalising the majestic Great Dane,
the decorative Borzoi, the alert Schipperke, and the frowning Chow
Chow, which are of such recent introduction that they must still be
regarded as half-acclimatised foreigners. But of the antiquity of
the Mastiff there can be no doubt. He is the oldest of our British
dogs, cultivated in these islands for so many centuries that the only
difficulty concerning his history is that of tracing his descent,
and discovering the period when he was not familiarly known.

It is possible that the Mastiff owes his origin to some remote
ancestor of alien strain. The Assyrian kings possessed a large dog
of decided Mastiff type, and used it in the hunting of lions. It is
supposed by many students that the breed was introduced into early
Britain by the adventurous Phoenician traders who, in the sixth
century B.C., voyaged to the Scilly Islands and Cornwall to barter
their own commodities in exchange for the useful metals. Knowing the
requirements of their barbarian customers, these early merchants from
Tyre and Sidon are believed to have brought some of the larger
_pugnaces_, which would be readily accepted by the Britons to
supplant, or improve, their courageous but undersized fighting dogs.

In Anglo-Saxon times every two villeins were required to maintain
one of these dogs for the purpose of reducing the number of wolves
and other wild animals. This would indicate that the Mastiff was
recognised as a capable hunting dog; but at a later period his hunting
instincts were not highly esteemed, and he was not regarded as a peril
to preserved game; for in the reign of Henry III. the Forest Laws,
which prohibited the keeping of all other breeds by unprivileged
persons, permitted the Mastiff to come within the precincts of a
forest, imposing, however, the condition that every such dog should
have the claws of the fore-feet removed close to the skin.

The name Mastiff was probably applied to any massively built dog.
It is not easy to trace the true breed amid the various names which
it owned. Molossus, Alan, Alaunt, Tie-dog, Bandog (or Band-dog), were
among the number. The names Tie-dog and Bandog intimate that the
Mastiff was commonly kept for guard, but many were specially trained
for baiting bears, imported lions, and bulls.

There is constant record of the Mastiff having been kept and carefully
bred for many generations in certain old English families. One of
the oldest strains of Mastiffs was that kept by Mr. Legh, of Lyme
Hall, in Cheshire. They were large, powerful dogs, and longer in
muzzle than those which we are now accustomed to see. Another old
and valuable strain was kept by the Duke of Devonshire at Chatsworth.
It is to these two strains that the dogs of the present day trace

Mr. Woolmore's Crown Prince was one of the most celebrated of
Mastiffs. He was a fawn dog with a Dudley nose and light eye, and
was pale in muzzle, and whilst full credit must be given to him for
having sired many good Mastiffs, he must be held responsible for the
faults in many specimens of more recent years. Unfortunately, he was
indiscriminately bred from, with the result that in a very short time
breeders found it impossible to find a Mastiff unrelated to him.

It is to be deplored that ever since his era there has been a
perceptible diminution in the number of good examples of this fine
old English breed, and that from being an admired and fashionable
dog the Mastiff has so declined in popularity that few are to be seen
either at exhibitions or in breeders' kennels. At the Crystal Palace
in 1871 there were as many as sixty-three Mastiffs on show, forming
a line of benches two hundred yards long, and not a bad one among
them; whereas at a dog show held twenty-five years later, where more
than twelve hundred dogs were entered, not a single Mastiff was

The difficulty of obtaining dogs of unblemished pedigree and
superlative type may partly account for this decline, and another
reason of unpopularity may be that the Mastiff requires so much
attention to keep him in condition that without it he is apt to become
indolent and heavy. Nevertheless, the mischief of breeding too
continuously from one strain such as that of Crown Prince has to some
extent been eradicated, and we have had many splendid Mastiffs since
his time. Special mention should be made of that grand bitch Cambrian
Princess, by Beau. She was purchased by Mrs. Willins, who, mating
her with Maximilian (a dog of her own breeding by The Emperor),
obtained Minting, who shared with Mr. Sidney Turner's Beaufort the
reputation of being unapproached for all round merit in any period.

The following description of a perfect Mastiff, taken from the Old
English Mastiff Club's _Points of a Mastiff_, is admirable as a
standard to which future breeders should aim to attain.

* * * * *

powerful, symmetrical and well-knit frame. A combination of grandeur
and good nature, courage and docility. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF HEAD--In
general outline, giving a square appearance when viewed from any
point. Breadth greatly to be desired, and should be in ratio to length
of the whole head and face as 2 to 3. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF
BODY--Massive, broad, deep, long, powerfully built, on legs wide
apart, and squarely set. Muscles sharply defined. Size a great
desideratum, if combined with quality. Height and substance important
if both points are proportionately combined. SKULL--Broad between
the ears, forehead flat, but wrinkled when attention is excited. Brows
(superciliary ridges) slightly raised. Muscles of the temples and
cheeks (temporal and masseter) well developed. Arch across the skull
of a rounded, flattened curve, with a depression up the centre of
the forehead from the medium line between the eyes, to half way up
the sagittal suture. FACE OR MUZZLE--Short, broad under the eyes,
and keeping nearly parallel in width to the end of the nose;
truncated, _i.e._ blunt and cut off square, thus forming a right angle
with the upper line of the face, of great depth from the point of
the nose to under jaw. Under jaw broad to the end; canine teeth
healthy, powerful, and wide apart; incisors level, or the lower
projecting beyond the upper, but never sufficiently so as to become
visible when the mouth is closed. Nose broad, with widely spreading
nostrils when viewed from the front; flat (not pointed or turned up)
in profile. Lips diverging at obtuse angles with the septum, and
slightly pendulous so as to show a square profile. Length of muzzle
to whole head and face as 1 to 3. Circumference of muzzle (measured
midway between the eyes and nose) to that of the head (measured before
the ears) as 3 to 5. EARS--Small, thin to the touch, wide apart, set
on at the highest points of the sides of the skull, so as to continue
the outline across the summit, and lying flat and close to the cheeks
when in repose. EYES--Small, wide apart, divided by at least the space
of two eyes. The stop between the eyes well marked, but not too
abrupt. Colour hazel-brown, the darker the better, showing no haw.
NECK, CHEST AND RIBS--Neck--Slightly arched, moderately long, very
muscular, and measuring in circumference about one or two inches less
than the skull before the ears. Chest--Wide, deep, and well let down
between the fore-legs. Ribs arched and well-rounded. False ribs deep
and well set back to the hips. Girth should be one-third more than
the height at the shoulder. Shoulder and Arm--Slightly sloping, heavy
and muscular. FORE-LEGS AND FEET--Legs straight, strong, and set wide
apart; bones very large. Elbows square. Pasterns upright. Feet large
and round. Toes well arched up. Nails black. BACK, LOINS AND
FLANKS--Back and loins wide and muscular; flat and very wide in a
bitch, slightly arched in a dog. Great depth of flanks. HIND-LEGS
AND FEET--Hind-quarters broad, wide, and muscular, with well developed
second thighs, hocks bent, wide apart, and quite squarely set when
standing or walking. Feet round. TAIL--Put on high up, and reaching
to the hocks, or a little below them, wide at its root and tapering
to the end, hanging straight in repose, but forming a curve, with
the end pointing upwards, but not over the back, when the dog is
excited. COAT--COLOUR--Coat short and close lying, but not too fine
over the shoulders, neck and back. Colour, apricot or silver fawn,
or dark fawn-brindle. In any case, muzzle, ears, and nose should be
black, with black round the orbits, and extending upwards between

* * * * *

Size is a quality very desirable in this breed. The height of many
dogs of olden days was from thirty-two to thirty-three inches. The
height should be obtained rather from great depth of body than length
of leg. A leggy Mastiff is very undesirable. Thirty inches may be
taken as a fair average height for dogs, and bitches somewhat less.
Many of Mr. Lukey's stood 32 inches and over; Mr. Green's Monarch
was over 33 inches, The Shah 32 inches, and Cardinal 32 inches.

The method of rearing a Mastiff has much to do with its ultimate size,
but it is perhaps needless to say that the selection of the breeding
stock has still more to do with this. It is therefore essential to
select a dog and bitch of a large strain to obtain large Mastiffs.
It is not so necessary that the dogs themselves should be so large
as that they come from a large strain. The weight of a full-grown
dog should be anything over 160 lb. Many have turned over the scale
at 180 lb. The Shah, for instance, was 182 lb. in weight, Scawfell
over 200 lb.

One of the great difficulties that breeders of Mastiffs and all other
large dogs have to contend against is in rearing the puppies; so many
bitches being clumsy and apt to kill the whelps by lying on them.
It is, therefore, always better to be provided with one or more foster
bitches. At about six weeks old a fairly good opinion may be formed
as to what the puppies will ultimately turn out in certain respects,
for, although they may change materially during growth, the good or
bad qualities which are manifest at that early age will, in all
probability, be apparent when the puppy has reached maturity. It is,
therefore, frequently easier to select the best puppy in the nest
than to do so when they are from six to nine or ten months old.

Puppies should be allowed all the liberty possible, and never be tied
up: they should be taken out for steady, gentle exercise, and not
permitted to get too fat or they become too heavy, with detrimental
results to their legs. Many Mastiff puppies are very shy and nervous,
but they will grow out of this if kindly handled, and eventually
become the best guard and protector it is possible to have.

The temper of a Mastiff should be taken into consideration by the
breeder. They are, as a rule, possessed of the best of tempers. A
savage dog with such power as the Mastiff possesses is indeed a
dangerous creature, and, therefore, some inquiries as to the temper
of a stud dog should be made before deciding to use him. In these
dogs, as in all others, it is a question of how they are treated by
the person having charge of them.

The feeding of puppies is an important matter, and should be carefully
seen to by anyone wishing to rear them successfully. If goat's milk
is procurable it is preferable to cow's milk. The price asked for
it is sometimes prohibitory, but this difficulty may be surmounted
in many cases by keeping a goat or two on the premises. Many breeders
have obtained a goat with the sole object of rearing a litter of
puppies on her milk, and have eventually discarded cow's milk
altogether, using goat's milk for household purposes instead. As soon
as the puppies will lap they should be induced to take arrowroot
prepared with milk. Oatmeal and maizemeal, about one quarter of the
latter to three quarters of the former, make a good food for puppies.
Dog biscuits and the various hound meals, soaked in good broth, may
be used with advantage, but no dogs, either large or small, can be
kept in condition for any length of time without a fair proportion
of meat of some kind. Sheep's paunches, cleaned and well boiled, mixed
with sweet stale bread, previously soaked in cold water, make an
excellent food and can hardly be excelled as a staple diet. In feeding
on horseflesh care should be taken to ascertain that the horse was
not diseased, especially if any is given uncooked.

Worms are a constant source of trouble from the earliest days of
puppy-hood, and no puppy suffering from them will thrive; every
effort, therefore, should be made to get rid of them.

With proper feeding, grooming, exercise, and cleanliness, any large
dog can be kept in good condition without resort to medicine, the
use of which should be strictly prohibited unless there is real need
for it. Mastiffs kept under such conditions are far more likely to
prove successful stud dogs and brood bitches than those to which
deleterious drugs are constantly being given.



The Bulldog is known to have been domiciled in this country for
several centuries. Like the Mastiff, of which it is a smaller form,
it is a descendant of the "Alaunt," Mastive, or Bandog, described
by Dr. Caius, who states that "the Mastyve or Bandogge is vaste, huge,
stubborne, ougly and eager, of a hevy, and burthenous body, and
therefore but of little swiftnesse, terrible and frightful to beholde,
and more fearce and fell than any Arcadian curre."

The first mention of "Bulldog" as the distinctive name of this now
national breed occurs in a letter, written by Prestwich Eaton from
St. Sebastian to George Wellingham in St. Swithin's Lane, London,
in 1631 or 1632, "for a good Mastive dogge, a case of bottles
replenished with the best lickour, and pray proceur mee two good
bulldoggs, and let them be sent by ye first shipp." Obviously the
name was derived from the dog's association with the sport of
bull-baiting. The object aimed at in that pursuit was that the dog
should pin and hold the bull by the muzzle, and not leave it. The
bull was naturally helpless when seized in his most tender part. As
he lowered his head in order to use his horns it was necessary for
the dog to keep close to the ground, or, in the words of the old
fanciers of the sport, to "play low." Larger dogs were at a
disadvantage in this respect, and, therefore, those of smaller
proportions, which were quite as suitable for the sport, were
selected. The average height of the dogs was about 16 inches, and
the weight was generally about 45 lbs., whilst the body was broad,
muscular, and compact, as is shown in Scott's well-known engraving
of "Crib and Rosa."

When bull-baiting was prohibited by law the sportsmen of the period
turned their attention to dog-fighting, and for this pastime the
Bulldogs were specially trained. The chief centres in London where
these exhibitions took place were the Westminster Pit, the Bear Garden
at Bankside, and the Old Conduit Fields in Bayswater. In order to
obtain greater quickness of movement many of the Bulldogs were crossed
with a terrier, although some fanciers relied on the pure breed. It
is recorded that Lord Camelford's Bulldog Belcher fought one hundred
and four battles without once suffering defeat.

The decline of bull-baiting and dog-fighting after the passing of
the Bill prohibiting these sports was responsible for a lack of
interest in perpetuating the breed of Bulldogs. Even in 1824 it was
said to be degenerating, and gentlemen who had previously been the
chief breeders gradually deserted the fancy. At one time it was stated
that Wasp, Child, and Billy, who were of the Duke of Hamilton's
strain, were the only remaining Bulldogs in existence, and that upon
their decease the Bulldog would become extinct--a prophecy which all
Bulldog lovers happily find incorrect.

The specimens alive in 1817, as seen in prints of that period, were
not so cloddy as those met with at the present day. Still, the outline
of Rosa in the engraving of Crib and Rosa, is considered to represent
perfection in the shape, make, and size of the ideal type of Bulldog.
The only objections which have been taken are that the bitch is
deficient in wrinkles about the head and neck, and in substance of
bone in the limbs.

The commencement of the dog-show era in 1859 enabled classes to be
provided for Bulldogs, and a fresh incentive to breed them was offered
to the dog fancier. In certain districts of the country, notably in
London, Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, and Dudley, a number of
fanciers resided, and it is to their efforts that we are indebted
for the varied specimens of the breed that are to be seen at the
present time.

In forming a judgment of a Bulldog the general appearance is of most
importance, as the various points of the dog should be symmetrical
and well balanced, no one point being in excess of the others so as
to destroy the impression of determination, strength, and activity
which is conveyed by the typical specimen. His body should be
thickset, rather low in stature, but broad, powerful, and compact.
The head should be strikingly massive and large in proportion to the
dog's size. It cannot be too large so long as it is square; that is,
it must not be wider than it is deep. The larger the head in
circumference, caused by the prominent cheeks, the greater the
quantity of muscle to hold the jaws together. The head should be of
great depth from the occiput to the base of the lower jaw, and should
not in any way be wedge-shaped, dome-shaped, or peaked. In
circumference the skull should measure in front of the ears at least
the height of the dog at the shoulders. The cheeks should be well
rounded, extend sideways beyond the eyes, and be well furnished with
muscle. Length of skull--that is, the distance between the eye and
the ear--is very desirable. The forehead should be flat, and the skin
upon it and about the head very loose, hanging in large wrinkles.
The temples, or frontal bones, should be very prominent, broad, square
and high, causing a wide and deep groove known as the "stop" between
the eyes, and should extend up the middle of the forehead, dividing
the head vertically, being traceable at the top of the skull. The
expression "well broken up" is used where this stop and furrow are
well marked, and if there is the attendant looseness of skin the
animal's expression is well finished.

The face, when measured from the front of the cheek-bone to the nose,
should be short, and its skin should be deeply and closely wrinkled.
Excessive shortness of face is not natural, and can only be obtained
by the sacrifice of the "chop." Such shortness of face makes the dog
appear smaller in head and less formidable than he otherwise would
be. Formerly this shortness of face was artificially obtained by the
use of the "jack," an atrocious form of torture, by which an iron
instrument was used to force back the face by means of thumbscrews.
The nose should be rough, large, broad, and black, and this colour
should extend to the lower lip; its top should be deeply set back,
almost between the eyes. The distance from the inner corner of the
eye to the extreme tip of the nose should not be greater than the
length from the tip of the nose to the edge of the under lip. The
nostrils should be large and wide, with a well-defined straight line
visible between them. The largeness of nostril, which is a very
desirable property, is possessed by few of the recent prize-winners.

When viewed in profile the tip of the nose should touch an imaginary
line drawn from the extremity of the lower jaw to the top of the
centre of the skull. This angle of the nose and face is known as the
lay-back, and can only properly be ascertained by viewing the dog
from the side.

The inclination backward of the nose allows a free passage of the
air into the nostrils whilst the dog is holding his quarry. It is
apparent that if the mouth did not project beyond the nose, the
nostrils would be flat against the part to which the dog was fixed,
and breathing would then be stopped.

The upper lip, called the "chop," or flews, should be thick, broad,
pendant and very deep, hanging completely over the lower jaw at the
sides, but only just joining the under lip in front, yet covering
the teeth completely. The amount of "cushion" which a dog may have
is dependent upon the thickness of the flews. The lips should not
be pendulous.

The upper jaw should be broad, massive, and square, the tusks being
wide apart, whilst the lower jaw, being turned upwards, should project
in front of the upper. The teeth should be large and strong, and the
six small teeth between the tusks should be in an even row. The upper
jaw cannot be too broad between the tusks. If the upper and lower
jaws are level, and the muzzle is not turned upwards the dog is said
to be "down-faced," whilst if the underjaw is not undershot he is
said to be "froggy." A "wry-faced" dog is one having the lower jaw
twisted, and this deformity so detracts from the general appearance
of the dog as seriously to handicap him in the show-ring.

The underjaw projects beyond the upper in order to allow the dog,
when running directly to the front, to grasp the bull, and, when
fixed, to give him a firmer hold. The eyes, seen from the front,
should be situated low down in the skull, as far from the ears, the
nose, and each other as possible, but quite in front of the forehead,
so long as their corners are in a straight line at right angles with
the stop, and in front of the forehead. They should be a little above
the level of the base of the nasal bone, and should be quite round
in shape, of moderate size, neither sunken nor prominent, and be as
black in colour as possible--almost, if not quite, black, showing
no white when looking directly to the front.

A good deal of a Bulldog's appearance depends on the quality, shape,
and carriage of his ears. They should be small and thin, and set high
on the head; that is, the front inner edge of each ear should, as
viewed from the front, join the outline of the skull at the top corner
of such outline, so as to place them as wide apart, as high, and as
far from the eyes as possible. The shape should be that which is known
as "rose," in which the ear folds inward at the back, the upper or
front edge curving over outwards and backwards, showing part of the
inside of the burr. If the ears are placed low on the skull they give
an appleheaded appearance to the dog. If the ear falls in front,
hiding the interior, as is the case with a Fox-terrier, it is said
to "button," and this type is highly objectionable. Unfortunately,
within the last few years the "button" and "semi-tulip" ear have been
rather prevalent amongst the specimens on the show bench.

If the ear is carried erect it is known as a "tulip" ear, and this
form also is objectionable. Nevertheless at the beginning of the
nineteenth century two out of every three dogs possessed ears of this

The neck should be moderate in length, very thick, deep, muscular,
and short, but of sufficient length to allow it to be well arched
at the back, commencing at the junction with the skull. There should
be plenty of loose, thick, and wrinkled skin about the throat, forming
a dewlap on each side from the lower jaw to the chest.

The chest should be very wide laterally, round, prominent, and deep,
making the dog appear very broad and short-legged in front. The
shoulders should be broad, the blades sloping considerably from the
body; they should be deep, very powerful, and muscular, and should
be flat at the top and play loosely from the chest.

The brisket should be capacious, round, and very deep from the
shoulder to the lowest part, where it joins the chest, and be well
let down between the fore-legs. It should be large in diameter, and
round behind the fore-legs, neither flat-sided nor sinking, which
it will not do provided that the first and succeeding ribs are well
rounded. The belly should be well tucked up and not pendulous, a small
narrow waist being greatly admired. The desired object in body
formation is to obtain great girth at the brisket, and the smallest
possible around the waist, that is, the loins should be arched very
high, when the dog is said to have a good "cut-up."

The back should be short and strong, very broad at the shoulder and
comparatively narrow at the loins. The back should rise behind the
shoulders in a graceful curve to the loins, the top of which should
be higher than the top of the shoulders, thence curving again more
suddenly to the tail, forming an arch known as the "roach" back, which
is essentially a characteristic of the breed, though, unfortunately,
many leading prize-winners of the present day are entirely deficient
in this respect. Some dogs dip very considerably some distance behind
the shoulders before the upward curve of the spine begins, and these
are known as "swamp-backed"; others rise in an almost straight line
to the root of the tail, and are known as "stern-high."

The tail should be set on low, jut out rather straight, then turn
downwards, the end pointing horizontally. It should be quite round
in its whole length, smooth and devoid of fringe or coarse hair. It
should be moderate in length, rather short than long, thick at the
root, and taper quickly to a fine point. It should have a downward
carriage, and the dog should not be able to raise it above the level
of the backbone. The tail should not curve at the end, otherwise it
is known as "ring-tailed." The ideal length of tail is about six

Many fanciers demand a "screw" or "kinked" tail, that is, one having
congenital dislocations at the joints, but such appendages are not
desirable in the best interests of the breed.

The fore-legs should be very stout and strong, set wide apart, thick,
muscular, and short, with well-developed muscles in the calves,
presenting a rather bowed outline, but the bones of the legs must
be straight, large, and not bandy or curved. They should be rather
short in proportion to the hind-legs, but not so short as to make
the back appear long or detract from the dog's activity and so cripple

The elbows should be low and stand well away from the ribs, so as
to permit the body to swing between them. If this property be absent
the dog is said to be "on the leg." The ankles or pasterns should
be short, straight, and strong. The fore-feet should be straight and
turn very slightly outwards; they should be of medium size and
moderately round, not too long or narrow, whilst the toes should be
thick, compact, and well split up, making the knuckles prominent and

The hind-legs, though of slighter build than the fore-legs, should
be strong and muscular. They should be longer, in proportion, than
the fore-legs in order to elevate the loins. The stifles should be
round and turned slightly outwards, away from the body, thus bending
the hocks inward and the hind-feet outward. The hocks should be well
let down, so that the leg is long and muscular from the loins to the
point of the hock, which makes the pasterns short, but these should
not be so short as those of the fore-legs. The hind-feet, whilst being
smaller than the forefeet, should be round and compact, with the toes
well split up, and the knuckles prominent.

The most desirable weight for a Bulldog is about 50 lbs.

The coat should be fine in texture, short, close, and smooth, silky
when stroked from the head towards the tail owing to its closeness,
but not wiry when stroked in the reverse direction.

The colour should be whole or smut, the latter being a whole colour
with a black mask or muzzle. It should be brilliant and pure of its
sort. The colours in order of merit are, first, whole colours and
smuts, viz., brindles, reds, white, with their varieties, as whole
fawns, fallows, etc., and, secondly, pied and mixed colours. Opinions
differ considerably on the colour question; one judge will set back
a fawn and put forward a pied dog, whilst others will do the reverse.
Occasionally one comes across specimens having a black-and-tan colour,
which, although not mentioned in the recognised standard as being
debarred, do not as a rule figure in the prize list. Some of the best
specimens which the writer has seen have been black-and-tans, and
a few years ago on the award of a first prize to a bitch of this
colour, a long but non-conclusive argument was held in the canine
press. Granted that the colour is objectionable, a dog which scores
in all other properties should not be put down for this point alone,
seeing that in the dog-fighting days there were many specimens of
this colour.

In action the Bulldog should have a peculiarly heavy and constrained
gait, a rolling, or "slouching" movement, appearing to walk with
short, quick steps on the tip of his toes, his hind-feet not being
lifted high but appearing to skim the ground, and running with the
right shoulder rather advanced, similar to the manner of a horse when

The foregoing minute description of the various show points of a
Bulldog indicates that he should have the appearance of a thick-set
Ayrshire or Highland bull. In stature he should be low to the ground,
broad and compact, the body being carried between and not on the
fore-legs. He should stand over a great deal of ground, and have the
appearance of immense power. The height of the fore-leg should not
exceed the distance from the elbow to the centre of the back, between
the shoulder blades.

Considerable importance is attached to the freedom and activity
displayed by the animal in its movements. Deformed joints, or
weakness, are very objectionable. The head should be strikingly
massive and carried low, the face short, the muzzle very broad, blunt,
and inclined upwards. The body should be short and well-knit, the
limbs, stout and muscular. The hind-quarters should be very high and
strong, but rather lightly made in comparison with the heavily-made

It must be acknowledged that there are many strains of this breed
which are constitutionally unsound. For this reason it is important
that the novice should give very careful consideration to his first
purchase of a Bulldog. He should ascertain beyond all doubt, not only
that his proposed purchase is itself sound in wind and limb, but that
its sire and dam are, and have been, in similarly healthy condition.
The dog to be chosen should be physically strong and show pronounced
muscular development. If these requirements are present and the dog
is in no sense a contradiction of the good qualities of its
progenitors, but a justification of its pedigree, care and good
treatment will do the rest. It is to be remembered, however, that
a Bulldog may be improved by judicious exercise. When at exercise,
or taking a walk with his owner, the young dog should always be held
by a leash. He will invariably pull vigorously against this restraint,
but such action is beneficial, as it tends to develop the muscles
of the shoulders and front of the body.

When taking up the Bulldog fancy, nine out of every ten novices choose
to purchase a male. The contrary course should be adopted. The female
is an equally good companion in the house or on the road; she is not
less affectionate and faithful; and when the inevitable desire to
attempt to reproduce the species is reached the beginner has the means
at once available.

It is always difficult for the uninitiated to select what is likely
to be a good dog from the nest. In choosing a puppy care should be
taken to ensure it has plenty of bone in its limbs, and these should
be fairly short and wide; the nostrils should be large and the face
as short as possible. The chop should be thick and heavily wrinkled
and the mouth square. There should be a distinct indent in the upper
jaw, where the bone will eventually curve, whilst the lower jaw should
show signs of curvature and protrude slightly in front of the upper
jaw. The teeth from canine to canine, including the six front teeth,
should be in a straight line.

See that the ears are very small and thin, and the eyes set well
apart. The puppy having these properties, together with a domed,
peaked, or "cocoanut" shaped skull, is the one which, in nine cases
out of ten, will eventually make the best headed dog of the litter.

The breeding of Bulldogs requires unlimited patience, as success is
very difficult to attain. The breeder who can rear five out of every
ten puppies born may be considered fortunate. It is frequently found
in what appears to be a healthy lot of puppies that some of them begin
to whine and whimper towards the end of the first day, and in such
cases the writer's experience is that there will be a speedy burial.

It may be that the cause is due to some acidity of the milk, but in
such a case one would expect that similar difficulty would be
experienced with the remainder of the litter, but this is not the
usual result. Provided that the puppies can be kept alive until the
fourth day, it may be taken that the chances are well in favour of
ultimate success.


Many breeders object to feeding the mother with meat at this time,
but the writer once had two litter sisters who whelped on the same
day, and he decided to try the effect of a meat _versus_ farinaceous
diet upon them. As a result the bitch who was freely fed with raw
beef reared a stronger lot of puppies, showing better developed bone,
than did the one who was fed on milk and cereals.

Similarly, in order that the puppy, after weaning, may develop plenty
of bone and muscle, it is advisable to feed once a day upon finely
minced raw meat. There are some successful breeders, indeed, who
invariably give to each puppy a teaspoonful of cod liver oil in the
morning and a similar dose of extract of malt in the evening, with
the result that there are never any rickety or weak dogs in the
kennels, whilst the development of the bones in the skull and limbs
is most pronounced.

Owing to their lethargic disposition, young Bulldogs are somewhat
liable to indigestion, and during the period of puppyhood it is of
advantage to give them a tablespoonful of lime water once a day in
their milk food.

Many novices are in doubt as to the best time to breed from a Bull
bitch, seeing that oestrum is present before she is fully developed.
It may be taken as practically certain that it is better for her to
be allowed to breed at her first heat. Nature has so arranged matters
that a Bull bitch is not firmly set in her bones until she reaches
an age of from twelve to eighteen months, and therefore she will have
less difficulty in giving birth to her offspring if she be allowed
to breed at this time. Great mortality occurs in attempting to breed
from maiden bitches exceeding three years of age, as the writer knows
to his cost.

It is desirable, in the case of a young bitch having her first litter,
for her master or mistress to be near her at the time, in order to
render any necessary assistance; but such attentions should not be
given unless actual necessity arises.

Some bitches with excessive lay-back and shortness of face have at
times a difficulty in releasing the puppy from the membrane in which
it is born, and in such a case it is necessary for the owner to open
this covering and release the puppy, gently shaking it about in the
box until it coughs and begins to breathe.

The umbilical cord should be severed from the afterbirth about four
inches from the puppy, and this will dry up and fall away in the
course of a couple of days.

In general, it is true economy for the Bulldog breeder to provide
a foster-mother in readiness for the birth of the expected litter;
especially is this so in the case of a first litter, when the
qualifications for nursing by the mother are unknown. Where there
are more than five puppies it is also desirable to obtain a
foster-mother in order that full nourishment may be given to the
litter by both mothers.

The best time of the year for puppies to be born is in the spring,
when, owing to the approaching warm weather, they can lead an outdoor
life. By the time they are six months old they should have sufficient
stamina to enable them to withstand the cold of the succeeding winter.
It has been ascertained that Bulldogs which have been reared out of
doors are the least liable to suffer from indigestion, torpidity of
the liver, asthma or other chest ailments, whilst they invariably
have the hardiest constitution.

Bulldogs generally require liberal feeding, and should have a meal
of dry biscuit the first thing in the morning, whilst the evening
meal should consist of a good stew of butcher's offal poured over
broken biscuit, bread, or other cereal food. In the winter time it
is advantageous to soak a tablespoonful of linseed in water overnight,
and after the pods have opened to turn the resulting jelly into the
stew pot. This ensures a fine glossy coat, and is of value in toning
up the intestines. Care must, however, be taken not to follow this
practice to excess in warm weather, as the heating nature of the
linseed will eventually cause skin trouble.

With these special points attended to, the novice should find no
difficulty in successfully becoming a Bulldog fancier, owner, and

In conclusion, it cannot be too widely known that the Bulldog is one
of the very few breeds which can, with perfect safety, be trusted
alone to the mercy of children, who, naturally, in the course of play,
try the patience and good temper of the firmest friend of man.


Fifty or sixty years ago, Toy--or, rather, as a recent edict of the
Kennel Club requires them to be dubbed, Miniature--Bulldogs were
common objects of the canine country-side. In fact, you can hardly
ever talk for ten minutes to any Bulldog breeder of old standing
without his telling you tall stories of the wonderful little Bulldogs,
weighing about fifteen or sixteen pounds, he either knew or owned
in those long-past days!

Prominent among those who made a cult of these "bantams" were the
laceworkers of Nottingham, and many prints are extant which bear
witness to the excellent little specimens they bred. But a wave of
unpopularity overwhelmed them, and they faded across the Channel to
France, where, if, as is asserted, our Gallic neighbours appreciated
them highly, they cannot be said to have taken much care to preserve
their best points. When, in 1898, a small but devoted band of admirers
revived them in England, they returned _most_ attractive, 'tis true,
but hampered by many undesirable features, such as bat ears, froggy
faces, waving tails, and a general lack of Bulldog character. However,
the Toy Bulldog Club then started, took the dogs vigorously in hand,
and thanks to unceasing efforts, Toy Bulldogs have always since been
catered for at an ever increasing number of shows. Their weight, after
much heated discussion and sundry downs and ups, was finally fixed
at twenty-two pounds and under.

The original aim of Miniature Bulldogs--_i.e._ to look like the larger
variety seen through the wrong end of a telescope--if not actually
achieved, is being rapidly approached, and can no longer be looked
upon as merely the hopeless dream of a few enthusiasts.

To enumerate in detail the Miniature Bulldog scale of points is quite
unnecessary, as it is simply that of the big ones writ small. In other
words, "the general appearance of the Miniature Bulldog must as nearly
as possible resemble that of the Big Bulldog"--a terse sentence which
comprises in itself all that can be said on the subject.

As companions and friends Miniature Bulldogs are faithful, fond, and
even foolish in their devotion, as all true friends should be. They
are absolutely and invariably good-tempered, and, as a rule,
sufficiently fond of the luxuries of this life--not to say greedy--to
be easily cajoled into obedience. Remarkably intelligent, and caring
enough for sport to be sympathetically excited at the sight of a
rabbit without degenerating into cranks on the subject like terriers.
Taking a keen interest in all surrounding people and objects, without,
however, giving way to ceaseless barking; enjoying outdoor exercise,
without requiring an exhausting amount, they are in every way ideal
pets, and adapt themselves to town and country alike.

As puppies they are delicate, and require constant care and
supervision; but that only adds a keener zest to the attractive task
of breeding them, the more so owing to the fact that as mothers they
do not shine, being very difficult to manage, and generally
manifesting a strong dislike to rearing their own offspring. In other
respects they are quite hardy little dogs, and--one great
advantage--they seldom have distemper. Cold and damp they particularly
dislike, especially when puppies, and the greatest care should be
taken to keep them thoroughly dry and warm. When very young indeed
they can stand, and are the better for, an extraordinary amount of


There appears to be no doubt that the French Bulldog originated in
England, and is an offshoot of the English miniature variety Bulldog,
not the Bulldog one sees on the bench to-day, but of the tulip-eared
and short underjawed specimens which were common in London,
Nottingham, Birmingham, and Sheffield in the early 'fifties. There
was at that time a constant emigration of laceworkers from Nottingham
to the coast towns of Normandy, where lace factories were springing
into existence, and these immigrants frequently took a Bulldog with
them to the land of their adoption. The converse method was also
adopted. Prior to 1902 French Bulldogs were imported into this country
with the object of resuscitating the strain of bantam Bulldogs, which
in course of years had been allowed to dwindle in numbers, and were
in danger of becoming extinct.

There are superficial similarities between the English and the French
toy Bulldog, the one distinguishing characteristic being that in the
French variety the ears are higher on the head and are held erect.
Until a few years ago the two were interbred, but disputes as to their
essential differences led the Kennel Club to intervene and the types
have since been kept rigidly apart, the smart little bat-eared
Bulldogs of France receiving recognition under the breed name of
Bouledogues Francais.



The history of the St. Bernard dog would not be complete without
reference being made to the noble work that he has done in
Switzerland, his native land: how the Hospice St. Bernard kept a
considerable number of dogs which were trained to go over the
mountains with small barrels round their necks, containing
restoratives, in the event of their coming across any poor travellers
who had either lost their way, or had been overcome by the cold. We
have been told that the intelligent animals saved many lives in this
way, the subjects of their deliverance often being found entirely
buried in the snow.

Handsome as the St. Bernard is, with his attractive colour and
markings, he is a cross-bred dog. From the records of old writers
it is to be gathered that to refill the kennels at the Hospice which
had been rendered vacant from the combined catastrophes of distemper
and the fall of an avalanche which had swept away nearly all their
hounds, the monks were compelled to have recourse to a cross with
the Newfoundland and the Pyrenean sheepdog, the latter not unlike
the St. Bernard in size and appearance. Then, again, there is no doubt
whatever that at some time the Bloodhound has been introduced, and
it is known for a certainty that almost all the most celebrated St.
Bernards in England at the present time are closely allied to the

The result of all this intermixture of different breeds has been the
production of an exceedingly fine race of dogs, which form one of
the most attractive features at our dog shows, and are individually
excellent guards and companions. As a companion, the St. Bernard
cannot be surpassed, when a large dog is required for the purpose.
Most docile in temperament and disposition, he is admirably suited
as the associate of a lady or a child.

The St. Bernard is sensitive to a degree, and seldom forgets an
insult, which he resents with dignity. Specimens of the breed have
occasionally been seen that are savage, but when this is the case
ill-treatment of some sort has assuredly been the provoking cause.

The dogs at the Hospice of St. Bernard are small in comparison with
those that are seen in England belonging to the same race. The Holy
Fathers were more particular about their markings than great size.
The body colour should be brindle or orange tawny, with white
markings; the muzzle white, with a line running up between the eyes,
and over the skull, joining at the back the white collar that
encircles the neck down to the front of the shoulders. The colour
round the eyes and on the ears should be of a darker shade in the
red; in the centre of the white line at the occiput there should be
a spot of colour. These markings are said to represent the stole,
chasuble and scapular which form part of the vestments worn by the
monks; but it is seldom that the markings are so clearly defined;
they are more often white, with brindle or orange patches on the body,
with evenly-marked heads.

In England St. Bernards are either distinctly rough in coat or smooth,
but the generality of the Hospice dogs are broken in coat, having
a texture between the two extremes. The properties, however, of the
rough and smooth are the same, so that the two varieties are often
bred together, and, as a rule, both textures of coat will be the
result of the alliance. The late M. Schumacher, a great authority
on the breed in Switzerland, averred that dogs with very rough coats
were found to be of no use for work on the Alps, as their thick
covering became so loaded with snow and their feet so clogged that
they succumbed under the weight and perished. On that account they
were discarded by the monks.

In connection with the origin of the St. Bernard, M. Schumacher wrote
in a letter to Mr. J. C. Macdona, who was the first to introduce the
breed into Great Britain in any numbers: "According to the tradition
of the Holy Fathers of the Great Saint Bernard, their race descends
from the crossing of a bitch (a Bulldog species) of Denmark and a
Mastiff (Shepherd's Dog) of the Pyrenees. The descendants of the
crossing, who have inherited from the Danish dog its extraordinary
size and bodily strength, and from the Pyrenean Mastiff the
intelligence, the exquisite sense of smell, and, at the same time,
the faithfulness and sagacity which characterise them, have acquired
in the space of five centuries so glorious a notoriety throughout
Europe that they well merit the name of a distinct race for

From the same authority we learn that it is something like six hundred
years since the St. Bernard came into existence. It was not, however,
till competitive exhibitions for dogs had been for some years
established that the St. Bernard gained a footing in Great Britain.
A few specimens had been imported from the Hospice before Mr. Cumming
Macdona (then the Rev. Cumming Macdona) introduced us to the
celebrated Tell, who, with others of the breed brought from
Switzerland, formed the foundation of his magnificent kennel at West
Kirby, in Cheshire. Albert Smith, whom some few that are now alive
will remember as an amusing lecturer, brought a pair from the Hospice
when returning from a visit to the Continent and made them take a
part in his attractive entertainment; but the associations of the
St. Bernard with the noble deeds recorded in history were not then
so widely known, and these two dogs passed away without having created
any particular enthusiasm.

Later on, at a dog show at Cremorne held in 1863, two St. Bernards
were exhibited, each of whom rejoiced in the name of Monk, and were,
respectively, the property of the Rev. A. N. Bate and Mr. W. H. Stone.
These dogs were exhibited without pedigrees, but were said to have
been bred at the Hospice of St. Bernard. Three years later, at the
National Show at Birmingham, a separate class was provided for the
saintly breed, and Mr. Cumming Macdona was first and second with Tell
and Bernard. This led to an immediate popularity of the St. Bernard.
But Tell was the hero of the shows at which he appeared, and his owner
was recognised as being the introducer into this country of the
magnificent variety of the canine race that now holds such a prominent
position as a show dog.

The names of Tell and Bernard have been handed down to fame, the
former as the progenitor of a long line of rough-coated offspring;
the latter as one of the founders of the famous Shefford Kennel, kept
by Mr. Fred Gresham, who probably contributed more to the perfecting
of the St. Bernard than any other breeder. His Birnie, Monk, Abbess,
Grosvenor Hector, and Shah are names which appear in the pedigrees
of most of the best dogs of more recent times. When Mr. Gresham drew
his long record of success to a close there came a lull in the
popularity of the breed until Dr. Inman, in partnership with Mr. B.
Walmsley, established a kennel first at Barford, near Bath, and then
at The Priory, at Bowden, in Cheshire, where they succeeded in
breeding the finest kennel of St. Bernards that has ever been seen
in the world. Dr. Inman had for several years owned good dogs, and
set about the work on scientific principles. He, in conjunction with
Mr. Walmsley, purchased the smooth-coated Kenilworth from Mr. Loft,
bred that dog's produce with a brindle Mastiff of high repute, and
then crossed back to his St. Bernards with the most successful
results. Dr. Inman was instrumental in forming the National St.
Bernard Club, which was soon well supported with members, and now
has at its disposal a good collection of valuable challenge cups.
The dogs bred at Bowden carried all before them in the show ring,
and were continually in request for stud purposes, improving the breed
to a remarkable extent.

At the disposal of Messrs. Inman and Walmsley's kennel, there were
such admirable dogs as the rough-coated Wolfram--from whom were bred
Tannhauser, Narcissus, Leontes and Klingsor--the smooth-coated dogs,
the King's Son and The Viking; the rough-coated bitch, Judith Inman,
and the smooth Viola, the last-named the finest specimen of her sex
that has probably ever been seen. These dogs and bitches, with several
others, were dispersed all over England, with the exception of
Klingsor, who went to South Africa.

Almost all the best St. Bernards in Great Britain at the present time
have been bred or are descended from the Bowden dogs.

Photograph by C. Reid, Wishaw]

The following is the description of the St. Bernard as drawn up by
the members of the St. Bernard Club:

* * * * *

HEAD--The head should be large and massive, the circumference of the
skull being more than double the length of the head from nose to
occiput. From stop to tip of nose should be moderately short; full
below the eye and square at the muzzle; there should be great depth
from the eye to the lower jaw, and the lips should be deep throughout,
but not too pendulous. From the nose to the stop should be straight,
and the stop abrupt and well defined. The skull should be broad and
rounded at the top, but not domed, with somewhat prominent brow.
EARS--The ears should be of medium size, lying close to the cheek,
but strong at the base and not heavily feathered. EYES--The eyes
should be rather small and deep set, dark in colour and not too close
together; the lower eyelid should droop, so as to show a fair amount
of haw. NOSE--The nose should be large and black, with well developed
nostrils. The teeth should be level. EXPRESSION--The expression should
betoken benevolence, dignity, and intelligence. NECK--The neck should
be lengthy, muscular, and slightly arched, with dewlap developed,
and the shoulders broad and sloping, well up at the withers. GENERAL
DESCRIPTION OF BODY--The chest should be wide and deep, and the back
level as far as the haunches, slightly arched over the loins; the
ribs should be well rounded and carried well back; the loin wide and
very muscular. TAIL--The tail should be set on rather high, long,
and in the long-coated variety bushy; carried low when in repose,
and when excited or in motion slightly above the line of the back.
LEGS--The fore-legs should be perfectly straight, strong in bone,
and of good length; and the hind-legs very muscular. The feet large,
compact, with well-arched toes. SIZE--A dog should be at least 30
inches in height at the shoulder, and a bitch 27 inches (the taller
the better, provided the symmetry is maintained); thoroughly well
proportioned, and of great substance. The general outline should
suggest great power and capability of endurance. COAT--In the
long-coated variety the coat should be dense and flat; rather fuller
round the neck; the thighs feathered but not too heavily. In the
short-coated variety, the coat should be dense, hard, flat, and short,
slightly feathered on thighs and tail. COLOUR AND MARKINGS--The colour
should be red, orange, various shades of brindle (the richer colour
the better), or white with patches on body of one of the above named
colours. The markings should be as follows; white muzzle, white blaze
up face, white collar round neck; white chest, forelegs, feet, and
end of tail; black shadings on face and ears. If the blaze be wide
and runs through to the collar, a spot of the body colour on the top
of the head is desirable.

The weight of a dog should be from 170 lbs. to 210 lbs.; of a bitch
160 lbs. to 190 lbs.

* * * * *

During the past twenty-five years St. Bernards have been bred in this
country very much taller and heavier than they were in the days of
Tell, Hope, Moltke, Monk, Hector, and Othman. Not one of these
measured over 32 inches in height, or scaled over 180 lbs., but the
increased height and greater weight of the more modern production
have been obtained by forcing them as puppies and by fattening them
to such an extent that they have been injured in constitution, and
in many cases converted into cripples behind. The prizewinning
rough-coated St. Bernard, as he is seen to-day is a purely
manufactured animal, handsome in appearance certainly, but so
cumbersome that he is scarcely able to raise a trot, let alone do
any tracking in the snow. Usefulness, however, is not a consideration
with breeders, who have reared the dog to meet the exigencies of the
show ring. There is still much left to be desired, and there is room
for considerable improvement, as only a few of the more modern dogs
of the breed approach the standard drawn up by the Clubs that are
interested in their welfare.



The dogs which take their name from the island of Newfoundland appeal
to all lovers of animals, romance, and beauty. A Newfoundland formed
the subject of perhaps the most popular picture painted by Sir Edwin
Landseer; a monument was erected by Byron over the grave of his
Newfoundland in proximity to the place where the poet himself hoped
to be buried, at Newstead Abbey, and the inscription on his monument
contains the lines so frequently quoted:

"But the poor dog in life the firmest friend,
The first to welcome, foremost to defend,
Whose honest heart is still his master's own,
Who labours, fights, lives, breathes for him alone.

To mark a friend's remains these stones arise:
I never knew but one, and here he lies."

Robert Burns, also, in his poem, "The Twa Dogs," written in 1786,
refers to a Newfoundland as being an aristocrat among dogs. Doubtless,
other breeds of dogs have been the subjects of popular pictures and
have had their praises sung by poets, but the Newfoundlands have yet
a further honour, unique amongst dogs, in being the subject for a
postage stamp of their native land. All these distinctions and honours
have not been conferred without reason for no breed of dogs has
greater claim to the title of friend of man, and it has become famous
for its known readiness and ability to save persons in danger,
especially from drowning. It is strong and courageous in the water,
and on land a properly trained Newfoundland is an ideal companion
and guard. Innumerable are the accounts of Newfoundlands having proved
their devotion to their owners, and of the many lives saved by them
in river and sea; and when Sir Edwin Landseer selected one of the
breed as the subject of his picture entitled, "A Distinguished Member
of the Humane Society," he was justified not only by the sentiment
attaching to this remarkable race of dogs, but also by the deeds by
which Newfoundlands have made good their claim to such great
distinction, and the popular recognition of this, no doubt, in some
degree added to the great esteem in which this painting has always
been held.

The picture was painted in 1838, and, as almost everyone knows,
represents a white and black Newfoundland. The dog portrayed was
typical of the breed, and after a lapse of over seventy years, the
painting has now the added value of enabling us to make a comparison
with specimens of the breed as it exists to-day. Such a comparison
will show that among the best dogs now living are some which might
have been the model for this picture. It is true that in the interval
the white and black Newfoundlands have been coarser, heavier, higher
on the legs, with an expression denoting excitability quite foreign
to the true breed, but these departures from Newfoundland character
are passing away--it is to be hoped for good. The breed is rapidly
returning to the type which Landseer's picture represents--a dog of
great beauty, dignity, and benevolence of character, showing in its
eyes an almost human pathos.

Some twenty-five to thirty years ago there was considerable discussion
among owners of Newfoundlands in this country as to the proper colour
of the true breed, and there were many persons who claimed, as some
still claim, that the black variety is the only true variety, and
that the white and black colouring indicates a cross-breed. Again
Landseer's picture is of value, because, in the first place, we may
be almost certain that he would have selected for such a picture a
typical dog of the breed, and, secondly, because the picture shows,
nearly half a century prior to the discussion, a white and black dog,
typical in nearly every respect, except colour, of the black
Newfoundland. There is no appearance of cross-breeding in Landseer's
dog; on the contrary, he reveals all the characteristics of a
thoroughbred. Seventy years ago, therefore, the white and black
variety may be fairly considered to have been established, and it
is worthy of mention here that "Idstone" quoted an article written
in 1819 stating that back in the eighteenth century Newfoundlands
were large, rough-coated, liver and white dogs. It is clear, also,
that in 1832 Newfoundlands in British North America were of various
colours. Additional evidence, too, is provided, in the fact that when
selecting the type of head for their postage stamp the Government
of Newfoundland chose the Landseer dog. Therefore, there are very
strong arguments against the claim that the true variety is
essentially black.

However that may be, there are now two established varieties, the
black and the white and black. There are also bronze-coloured dogs,
but they are rare and are not favoured. It is stated, however, that
puppies of that colour are generally the most promising in all other

The black variety of the Newfoundland is essentially black in colour;
but this does not mean that there may be no other colour, for most
black Newfoundlands have some white marks, and these are not
considered objectionable, so long as they are limited to white hairs
on the chest, toes, or the tip of the tail. In fact, a white marking
on the chest is said to be typical of the true breed. Any white on
the head or body would place the dog in the other than black variety.
The black colour should preferably be of a dull jet appearance which
approximates to brown. In the other than black class, there may be
black and tan, bronze, and white and black. The latter predominates,
and in this colour, beauty of marking is very important. The head
should be black with a white muzzle and blaze, and the body and legs
should be white with large patches of black on the saddle and
quarters, with possibly other small black spots on the body and legs.

Apart from colour, the varieties should conform to the same standard.
The head should be broad and massive, but in no sense heavy in
appearance. The muzzle should be short, square, and clean cut, eyes
rather wide apart, deep set, dark and small, not showing any haw;
ears small, with close side carriage, covered with fine short hair
(there should be no fringe to the ears), expression full of
intelligence, dignity, and kindness.

The body should be long, square, and massive, loins strong and well
filled; chest deep and broad; legs quite straight, somewhat short
in proportion to the length of the body, and powerful, with round
bone well covered with muscle; feet large, round, and close. The tail
should be only long enough to reach just below the hocks, free from
kink, and never curled over the back. The quality of the coat is very
important; the coat should be very dense, with plenty of undercoat;
the outer coat somewhat harsh and quite straight. A curly coat is
very objectionable. A dog with a good coat may be in the water for
a considerable time without getting wet on the skin.

The appearance generally should indicate a dog of great strength,
and very active for his build and size, moving freely with the body
swung loosely between the legs, which gives a slight roll in gait.
This has been compared to a sailor's roll, and is typical of the

As regards size, the Newfoundland Club standard gives 140 lbs. to
120 lbs. weight for a dog, and 110 lbs. to 120 lbs. for a bitch, with
an average height at the shoulder of 27 inches and 25 inches
respectively; but it is doubtful whether dogs in proper condition
do conform to both requirements. At any rate, the writer is unable
to trace any prominent Newfoundlands which do, and it would be safe
to assume that for dogs of the weights specified, the height should
be quite 29 inches for dogs, and 27 inches for bitches. A dog weighing
150 lbs. and measuring 29 inches in height at the shoulder would
necessarily be long in body to be in proportion, and would probably
much nearer approach the ideal form of a Newfoundland than a taller

In that respect Newfoundlands have very much improved during the past
quarter of a century. Twenty-five years ago, the most noted dogs were
stated as a rule to be well over 30 inches in height, but their weight
for height would indicate legginess, which is an abomination in a
Newfoundland. A 29-inch Newfoundland is quite tall enough, and even
that height should not be gained at the expense of type and symmetry.

The white and black variety are, as a rule, slightly taller, smaller
in loin and longer in head, but these differences in the two varieties
are being rapidly removed, and at no distant date the white and black
variety will probably be as correct in type and symmetry as the black
variety now is.

For very many years the black variety has been the better in type;
and in breeding, if blacks are desired, it will be safer as a general
rule to insist upon the absence of white and black blood in any of
the immediate ancestors of the sire and dam. But if, on the contrary,
white and black dogs are required, the proper course is to make
judicious crosses between the black and white, and black varieties,
and destroy any black puppies, unless they are required for further
crosses with white and black blood. In any case the first cross is
likely to produce both black and mis-marked white and black puppies;
but the latter, if bred back to the white and black blood, would
generally produce well-marked white and black Newfoundlands.

In mating, never be guided solely by the good points of the dog and
bitch. It is very desirable that they should both have good points,
the more good ones the better, but it is more important to ensure
that they are dissimilar in their defects, and, if possible, that
in neither case is there a very objectionable defect, especially if
such defect was also apparent in the animal's sire or dam.

Photograph by T. Fall]

It is, therefore, important to study what were the good, and still
more so the bad, points in the parents and grandparents. If you do
not know these, other Newfoundland breeders will willingly give
information, and any trouble involved in tracing the knowledge
required will be amply repaid in the results, and probably save great

When rearing puppies give them soft food, such as well-boiled rice
and milk, as soon as they will lap, and, shortly afterwards, scraped
lean meat. Newfoundland puppies require plenty of meat to induce
proper growth. The puppies should increase in weight at the rate of
3 lbs. a week, and this necessitates plenty of flesh, bone and
muscle-forming food, plenty of meat, both raw and cooked. Milk is
also good, but it requires to be strengthened with Plasmon, or casein.
The secret of growing full-sized dogs with plenty of bone and
substance is to get a good start from birth, good feeding, warm, dry
quarters, and freedom for the puppies to move about and exercise
themselves as they wish. Forced exercise may make them go wrong on
their legs. Medicine should not be required except for worms, and
the puppies should be physicked for these soon after they are weaned,
and again when three or four months old, or before that if they are
not thriving. If free from worms, Newfoundland puppies will be found
quite hardy, and, under proper conditions of food and quarters, they
are easy to rear.



The origin of the Great Dane, like that of many other varieties
of dogs, is so obscure that all researches have only resulted in
speculative theories, but the undoubted antiquity of this dog is
proved by the fact that representatives of a breed sufficiently
similar to be considered his ancestors are found on some of the
oldest Egyptian monuments.

A few years ago a controversy arose on the breed's proper designation,
when the Germans claimed for it the title "Deutsche Dogge." Germany
had several varieties of big dogs, such as the Hatzrude, Saufanger,
Ulmer Dogge, and Rottweiler Metzgerhund; but contemporaneously with
these there existed, as in other countries in Europe, another very
big breed, but much nobler and more thoroughbred, known as the Great
Dane. When after the war of 1870 national feeling was pulsating very
strongly in the veins of reunited Germany, the German cynologists
were on the lookout for a national dog, and for that purpose the Great
Dane was re-christened "Deutsche Dogge," and elected as the champion
of German Dogdom. For a long time all these breeds had, no doubt,
been indiscriminately crossed.

The Great Dane was introduced into this country spasmodically some
thirty-five years ago, when he was commonly referred to as the
Boarhound, or the German Mastiff, and for a time the breed had to
undergo a probationary period in the "Foreign Class" at dog shows,
but it soon gained in public favour, and in the early 'eighties a
Great Dane Club was formed, and the breed has since become one of
the most popular of the larger dogs.

The Kennel Club has classed the Great Dane amongst the Non-Sporting
dogs, probably because with us he cannot find a quarry worthy of his
mettle; but, for all that, he has the instincts and qualifications
of a sporting dog, and he has proved himself particularly valuable
for hunting big game in hot climates, which he stands very well.

Respecting the temperament of the Great Dane and his suitability as
a companion writers have gone to extremes in praise and condemnation.
In his favour it must be said that in natural intelligence he is
surpassed by very few other dogs. He has a most imposing figure, and
does not, like some other big breeds, slobber from his mouth, which
is a particularly unpleasant peculiarity when a dog is kept in the
house. On the other hand, it must be admitted that with almost the
strength of a tiger he combines the excitability of a terrier, and
no doubt a badly trained Great Dane is a very dangerous animal. It
is not sufficient to teach him in the haphazard way which might be
successful in getting a small dog under control, but even as a
companion he ought to be trained systematically, and, considering
his marked intelligence, this is not difficult of accomplishment.

The Great Dane attains his full development in about a year and a
half to two years, and, considering that puppies have to build up
in that time a very big skeleton and straight limbs, special attention
must be given to the rearing of them. The dam whelps frequently eight
puppies, and sometimes even a few more. Mr. Larke's Princess Thor
had a litter of seventeen, but even eight is too great a number for
a bitch to suckle in a breed where great size is a desideratum. Not
more than four, or at the outside five, should be left with the bitch;
the others should be put to a foster mother, or if they are weaklings
or foul-marked, it is best to destroy them. After the puppies are
weaned, their food should be of bone-making quality, and they require
ample space for exercise and play. Nothing is worse than to take the
youngsters for forced marches before their bones have become firm.

Before giving the description and standard which have been adopted
by the Great Dane Clubs, a few remarks on some of the leading points
will be useful. The general characteristic of the Great Dane is a
combination of grace and power, and therefore the lightness of the
Greyhound, as well as the heaviness of the Mastiff, must be avoided.

The head should be powerful, but at the same time show quality by
its nice modelling.

The eyes should be intelligent and vivacious, but not have the hard
expression of the terrier. The distance between the eyes is of great
importance; if too wide apart they give the dog a stupid appearance,
and if too close he has a treacherous look.

Another very important point is the graceful carriage of the tail.
When it is curled over the back it makes an otherwise handsome dog
look mean, and a tail that curls at the end like a corkscrew is also
very ugly. In former times "faking" was not infrequently resorted
to to correct a faulty tail carriage, but it is easily detected. Great
Danes sometimes injure the end of the tail by hitting it against a
hard substance, and those with a good carriage of tail are most liable
to this because in excitement they slash it about, whereas the faulty
position of the tail, curled over the back, insures immunity from

Until recently British Great Dane breeders and exhibitors have paid
very little attention to colour, on the principle that, like a good
horse, a good Great Dane cannot be a bad colour. The English clubs,
however, have now in this particular also adopted the German standard.
The orthodox colours are brindle, fawn, blue, black, and harlequin.
In the brindle dogs the ground colour should be any shade from light
yellow to dark red-yellow on which the brindle appears in darker
stripes. The harlequins have on a pure white ground fairly large black
patches, which must be of irregular shape, broken up as if they had
been torn, and not have rounded outlines. When brindle Great Danes
are continuously bred together, it has been found that they get
darker, and that the peculiar "striping" disappears, and in that case
the introduction of a good fawn into the strain is advisable. The
constant mating of harlequins has the tendency to make the black
patches disappear, and the union with a good black Great Dane will
prevent the loss of colour.

The following is the official description issued by the Great Dane

* * * * *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--The Great Dane is not so heavy or massive as the
Mastiff, nor should he too nearly approach the Greyhound type.
Remarkable in size and very muscular, strongly though elegantly built;
the head and neck should be carried high, and the tail in line with
the back, or slightly upwards, but not curled over the hind-quarters.
Elegance of outline and grace of form are most essential to a Dane;
size is absolutely necessary; but there must be that alertness of
expression and briskness of movement without which the Dane character
is lost. He should have a look of dash and daring, of being ready to
go anywhere and do anything. TEMPERAMENT--The Great Dane is
good-tempered, affectionate, and faithful to his master, not
demonstrative with strangers; intelligent, courageous, and always
alert. His value as a guard is unrivalled. He is easily controlled
when well trained, but he may grow savage if confined too much, kept
on chain, or ill treated. HEIGHT--The minimum height of an adult dog
should be 30 ins.; that of a bitch, 28 ins. WEIGHT--The minimum weight
of an adult dog should be 120 lbs.; that of a bitch, 100 lbs. The
greater height and weight to be preferred, provided that quality and
proportion are also combined. HEAD--Taken altogether, the head should
give the idea of great length and strength of jaw. The muzzle, or
foreface, is broad, and the skull proportionately narrow, so that
the whole head, when viewed from above and in front, has the
appearance of equal breadth throughout. LENGTH OF HEAD--The entire
length of head varies with the height of the dog, 13 ins. from the
tip of the nose to the back of the occiput is a good measurement for
a dog of 32 ins. at the shoulder. The length from the end of the nose
to the point between the eyes should be about equal, or preferably
of greater length than from this point to the back of the occiput.
SKULL--The skull should be flat rather than domed, and have a slight
indentation running up the centre, the occipital peak not prominent.
There should be a decided rise or brow over the eyes, but no abrupt
stop between them. FACE--The face should be chiselled well and
foreface long, of equal depth throughout, and well filled in below
the eyes with no appearance of being pinched. MUSCLES OF THE
CHEEK--The muscles of the cheeks should be quite flat, with no
lumpiness or cheek bumps, the angle of the jaw-bone well defined.
LIPS--The lips should hang quite square in front, forming a right
angle with the upper line of foreface. UNDERLINE--The underline of
the head, viewed in profile, runs almost in a straight line from the
corner of the lip to the corner of the jawbone, allowing for the fold
of the lip, but with no loose skin to hang down. JAW--The lower jaw
should be about level, or at any rate not project more than the
sixteenth of an inch. NOSE AND NOSTRILS--The bridge of the nose should
be very wide, with a slight ridge where the cartilage joins the bone.
(This is quite a characteristic of the breed.) The nostrils should
be large, wide, and open, giving a blunt look to the nose. A butterfly
or flesh-coloured nose is not objected to in harlequins. EARS--The
ears should be small, set high on the skull, and carried slightly
erect, with the tips falling forward. NECK--Next to the head, the
neck is one of the chief characteristics. It should be long, well
arched, and quite clean and free from loose skin, held well up,
snakelike in carriage, well set in the shoulders, and the junction
of head and neck well defined. SHOULDERS--The shoulders should be
muscular but not loaded, and well sloped back, with the elbows well
under the body, so that, when viewed in front, the dog does not stand
too wide. FORE-LEGS AND FEET--The fore-legs should be perfectly
straight, with big flat bone. The feet large and round, the toes well
arched and close, the nails strong and curved. BODY--The body is very
deep, with ribs well sprung and belly well drawn up. BACK AND
LOINS--The back and loins are strong, the latter slightly arched,
as in the Greyhound. HIND-QUARTERS--The hind-quarters and thighs are
extremely muscular, giving the idea of great strength and galloping
power. The second thigh is long and well developed as in a Greyhound,
and the hocks set low, turning neither out nor in. TAIL--The tail
is strong at the root and ends in a fine point, reaching to or just
below the hocks. It should be carried, when the dog is in action,
in a straight line level with the back, slightly curved towards the
end, but should not curl over the back. COAT--The hair is short and
dense, and sleek-looking, and in no case should it incline to
coarseness. GAIT OR ACTION--The gait should be lithe, springy, and
free, the action high. The hocks should move very freely, and the
head should be held well up. COLOUR--The colours are brindle, fawn,
blue, black, and harlequin. The harlequin should have jet black
patches and spots on a pure white ground; grey patches are admissible
but not desired; but fawn or brindle shades are objectionable.

* * * * *

Photograph by Coe, Norwich]



Before the Kennel Club found it necessary to insist upon a precise
definition of each breed, the Dalmatian was known as the Coach Dog,
a name appropriately derived from his fondness for following a
carriage, for living in and about the stable, and for accompanying
his master's horses at exercise. As an adjunct to the carriage he
is peculiarly suitable, for in fine weather he will follow between
the wheels for long distances without showing fatigue, keeping easy
pace with the best horses. He appears almost to prefer equine to
human companionship, and he is as fond of being among horses as the
Collie is of being in the midst of sheep. Yet he is of friendly
disposition, and it must be insisted that he is by no means so
destitute of intelligence as he is often represented to be. On the
contrary, he is capable of being trained into remarkable cleverness,
as circus proprietors have discovered.

The earliest authorities agree that this breed was first introduced
from Dalmatia, and that he was brought into this country purely on
account of his sporting proclivities. Of late years, however, these
dogs have so far degenerated as to be looked upon simply as
companions, or as exhibition dogs, for only very occasionally can it
be found that any pains have been taken to train them systematically
for gun-work.

The first of the variety which appeared in the show ring was Mr. James
Fawdry's Captain, in 1873. At that period they were looked upon as
a novelty, and, though the generosity and influence of a few admirers
ensured separate classes being provided for the breed at the leading
shows, it did not necessitate the production of such perfect specimens
as those which a few years afterwards won prizes. At the first they
were more popular in the North of England than in any other part of
Great Britain. It was at Kirkby Lonsdale that Dr. James's Spotted
Dick was bred, and an early exploiter of the breed who made his dogs
famous was Mr. Newby Wilson, of Lakeside, Windermere. He was indebted
to Mr. Hugo Droesse, of London, for the foundation of his stud,
inasmuch as it was from Mr. Droesse that he purchased Ch. Acrobat
and Ch. Berolina. At a later date the famed Coming Still and Prince
IV. were secured from the same kennel, the latter dog being the
progenitor of most of the best liver-spotted specimens that have
attained notoriety as prize-winners down to the present day.

In appearance the Dalmatian should be very similar to a Pointer except
in head and marking. Still, though not so long in muzzle nor so
pendulous in lip as a Pointer, there should be no coarseness or common
look about the skull, a fault which is much too prevalent. Then,
again, some judges do not attach sufficient importance to the eyelids,
or rather sears, which should invariably be edged round with black
or brown. Those which are flesh-coloured in this particular should
be discarded, however good they may be in other respects. The density
and pureness of colour, in both blacks and browns, is of great
importance, but should not be permitted to outweigh the evenness of
the distribution of spots on the body; no black patches, or even
mingling of the spots, should meet with favour, any more than a
ring-tail or a clumsy-looking, heavy-shouldered dog should command

The darker-spotted variety usually prevails in a cross between the
two colours, the offspring very seldom having the liver-coloured
markings. The uninitiated may be informed that Dalmatian puppies are
always born pure white. The clearer and whiter they are the better
they are likely to be. There should not be the shadow of a mark or
spot on them. When about a fortnight old, however, they generally
develop a dark ridge on the belly, and the spots will then begin to
show themselves; first about the neck and ears, and afterwards along
the back, until at about the sixteenth day the markings are distinct
over the body, excepting only the tail, which frequently remains white
for a few weeks longer.

The standard of points as laid down by the leading club is
sufficiently explicit to be easily understood, and is as follows:--

* * * * *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--The Dalmatian should represent a strong, muscular,
and active dog, symmetrical in outline, and free from coarseness and
lumber, capable of great endurance combined with a fair amount of
speed. HEAD--The head should be of a fair length; the skull flat,
rather broad between the ears, and moderately well defined at the
temples--_i.e._ exhibiting a moderate amount of stop and not in one
straight line from the nose to the occiput bone as required in a
Bull-terrier. It should be entirely free from wrinkle. MUZZLE--The
muzzle should be long and powerful; the lips clean, fitting the jaws
moderately close. EYES--The eyes should be set moderately well apart,
and of medium size, round, bright, and sparkling, with an intelligent
expression, their colour greatly depending on the markings of the
dog. In the black spotted variety the eyes should be dark (black or
dark brown), in the liver-spotted variety they should be light (yellow
or light brown). THE RIM ROUND THE EYES in the black-spotted variety
should be black, in the liver-spotted variety brown--never flesh-colour
in either. EARS--The ears should be set on rather high, of moderate
size, rather wide at the base, and gradually tapering to a round
point. They should be carried close to the head, be thin and fine
in texture, and always spotted--the more profusely the better.
NOSE--The nose in the black-spotted variety should always be black,
in the liver-spotted variety always brown. NECK AND SHOULDERS--The
neck should be fairly long, nicely arched, light and tapering, and
entirely free from throatiness. The shoulders should be moderately
oblique, clean, and muscular, denoting speed. BODY, BACK, CHEST, AND
LOINS--The chest should not be too wide, but very deep and capacious,
ribs moderately well sprung, never rounded like barrel hoops (which
would indicate want of speed), the back powerful, loin strong,
muscular, and slightly arched. LEGS AND FEET--The legs and feet are
of great importance. The fore-legs should be perfectly straight,
strong, and heavy in bone; elbows close to the body; fore-feet round,
compact with well-arched toes (cat-footed), and round, tough, elastic
pads. In the hind-legs the muscles should be clean, though


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