Final Report of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission
Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission
Part 7 out of 16
introduced in cornices or keystones to give a note of white in the
color scheme. The long hall ended in circular anterooms. In the
replica, at St. Louis, of Wren's building, the only departure from the
original was the introduction of an enriched plaster ceiling, such as
would be found in a house of the period; the real Orangery was left
bare and whitewashed.
The architects used the Orangery as the principal front to a
quadrangular building, the necessary offices and accommodation for royal
commissioners and executive staff being provided in wings that led from
the two circular anterooms. The fourth side of the open court was made
by a colonnade, the royal arms being above the central opening. The
character and details of the Orangery were carried through as far as
possible, so that harmony and unity was given to this pleasant
In the garden surrounding the pavilion an attempt was made to reproduce
on a small scale the style of garden that was generally attached to the
mansion residences in England during the reign of William III and Mary,
in the latter part of the seventeenth century, and at the time of Queen
Anne, in the early part of the eighteenth century. The old-fashioned
garden with characteristic features of shady terraces of "peached
alleys," as they would be called, inclosed by hedges clipped into shapes
and embellished with topiary work with the forms of animals and birds
cut out of yews and boxes attracted much attention. The garden was
filled with old-fashioned flowers. A water basin and fountain, typical
of the old English gardens, were there, as also were stone statues and
lead urns and vases. The garden became one of the sights of the
exposition and was usually crowded with interested and delighted
His Majesty King Edward VII was graciously pleased to lend the Queen
Victoria jubilee presents to the exposition. The valuable and unique
collection was placed in the upper story of the Hall of Congresses, one
of the permanent stone buildings, now a part of the Washington
University, and, according to the terms of loan, admission was free to
the public. The royal presents included in the collection chiefly
consisted of gifts made to Her Majesty the late Queen Victoria on the
occasion of the jubilee celebrations of 1887 and 1897. Of these, the
greater number came from India, where native princes of all grades and
representatives of all nationalities and religions vied with each other
in offering to her majesty the splendid tribute of her Indian Empire.
These Indian presents were of great interest, not merely on account of
the precious metals and rare woods in which they were worked, but as
showing how in recent years European ideas have influenced native Indian
art, which, in many instances, was represented in its most
characteristic and unaffected form.
The remainder of the collection included gifts offered by the
representatives of the British colonies, many of them richly illuminated
addresses, inclosed in caskets handsomely worked in metal or in native
woods, or, as in the case of Cape Colony, which was represented by a
magnificent screen of ostrich feathers, by objects recalling an
important industry of the colony. These presents formed only a small
proportion of the thousands sent from every part of the British Empire.
The presents were guarded night and day by members of the constabulary
force of the city of London. Policemen from the same body patrolled the
British Pavilion and grounds. The uniform courtesy of these men and
their patience in answering the many questions put to them by a curious
public spoke well for the corps which they represented.
The grant voted by the British Government for participation at the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition was L150,000. Private exhibitors bore all
the expense connected with the collection, installation, and maintenance
of their exhibits.
GOVERNMENT OF GUATEMALA.
The small but artistic pavilion erected by the Government of Guatemala
was situated at the extreme northern end of the World's Fair grounds,
just east of the Administration Building and beside the pavilion of the
Argentine Republic. It was intended as an exhibit palace, with the
object of installing all the Guatemalan exhibits, as well as being a
bureau of information.
In its exterior facade appeared an extensive, semicircular peristyle,
sustained by columns of the renaissance style, and in front two doors
leading to the two rooms into which the building was divided. In the
upper part of the middle of the doors was placed the national shield,
with the American flag on the right and the Guatemalan ensign on the
left, both surrounding the bust of Extrada Cabrera, the present
President of this wealthy and prosperous section of Central America.
The salon to the left was decorated with pictures by Guatemalan artists
and had other artistic features, such as native pottery, statuettes,
etc. Here every afternoon the coffee for which Guatemala is so justly
famous was served to visitors. In the same room also were placed an
extensive collection of newspapers and a series of literary works,
scientific and didactic, by Guatemalan authors.
In the department to the right, arranged very tastefully and skillfully,
were samples of valuable products, demonstrating the agricultural and
mineral wealth of Guatemala. Among the exhibits was a collection of
specimens of all classes of coffee, arranged in 160 receptacles and two
small crystal columns. A magnificent collection of 186 specimens of
cabinet work wood, beautiful in construction and coloring, attracted
much attention by its wonderful variety.
The mineralogical section was not so extensive as that devoted to wood,
but it showed magnificent specimens from the gold mines, also samples of
silver, copper, lead, isinglass, coal, marble, kaolin, etc. Another
installation showed some samples of native beer of excellent quality.
There were also samples of rum and brandies, distilled from sugar cane
and native fruits, among these products being the "banana whisky," a
delicious liquor, exhibited for the first time to the public. The
manufacture of this whisky is a new industry, and promises an excellent
The cereal and grain section was notable for the great variety of corn,
frejols, wheat, barley, etc. The famous cocoas known by the name of
"Socomusco," and which since the earliest time have been recognized as
among the best produced on the continent, were also represented in this
section, as well as sugar, which is being produced in the country in
respectable quantities. The attention of visitors was attracted by the
silk (or "ceiba") cotton, installed in the same section. It is
remarkable for fineness, softness, and special color. It is locally
known as "Algodon de Cajeta."
The extensive and variegated collection of roots, barks, and medicinal
plants constituted a special section. Among them were different kinds of
quinine, sarsaparilla, ipecacuana, and other herbs. Elastic or "india
rubber," stearin, gums, vanilla, etc., made up an interesting exhibition
of native products. Tobacco, similar to the kind grown in Cuba, which is
produced in great abundance in Guatemala, was presented in its various
processes of development, from the native leaf to the finished cigar or
cigarette. Samples of fibers, grasses, flowers, roots, and palms were
shown in abundance. From the palms of Guatemala are manufactured the
so-called "Panama hats." Visitors were much interested in their extreme
lightness and the uniformity of tissue of the Guatemalan hand-made straw
The building was erected at a cost of $10,000. This sum included
ornamentation and the landscape gardening. The cost of the exhibits,
freight, and installation was approximately $10,000, and the expenses of
the commission extant during the exposition was estimated at $5,000.
This brought up the expenditure to the amount appropriated by the
Guatemalan Government for the expenses of the exhibit.
The exhibit was authorized by a decree issued by the President of
Guatemala appointing the commission to represent the Government at the
St. Louis Universal Exposition, dated the 7th of April, 1904, which
reads as follows:
The constitutional President of the Republic has resolved that the
official representation of Guatemala at the Universal Exposition of St.
Louis shall be in charge of the legation of this Republic at Washington,
D.C., and designates Mr. Carlos F. Irigoyen as special commissioner to
be in charge of the exhibition, and appoints Mr. Manuel M. Jiron as
attendant to the commission and to have charge of the degustation of our
coffee. Mr. Jiron shall receive orders from the special commissioner,
who in turn shall receive his instructions from the minister of fomento.
_Members of Haiti commission._--Mr. J.N. Leger, president; Mr. Edmond
Roumain, commissioner-general; Mr. Joseph Duque, commissioner; Mr. Price
The participation of the Government of Haiti in the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition was decided by the deliberation of the ministerial council,
presided over by the President of the country. The decision was taken
previously in 1901, under the former government of Gen. Tiresias Simon
Sam, and maintained by the actual government of Gen. Nord Alexis, in
February and March of this year. The amount of the appropriation by the
Haitian Government spent in its exhibit was $50,000.
Haiti unfortunately arrived too late at the fair to construct a special
building, but installed excellent exhibits in the Forestry, Fish, and
Game Building and in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy.
The Haitian exhibit at the World's Fair was located in the southwestern
section of the Forestry, Fish, and Game Building, next the California
exhibit, and covered a space of 30 by 75 feet. In the center was a
beautiful pavilion in which the following species of native woods were
represented: Mahogany, Santa Maria, tacha, rosewood, and tavernon. The
woods most used in the construction were mahogany and Santa Maria. Most
of the panels and all of the columns were made of these two woods, and
they blended in such a manner that they looked as if they were one and
the same wood. The other varieties were used in the smaller decorations.
The object in making the pavilion was to show the native cabinet woods
of Haiti, especially that of Santa Maria, a wood which very much
resembles mahogany. Four columns of the pavilion were made of Santa
Maria, one of mahogany, and one partly of each. In the pavilion were
served coffee and cocoa, native products.
Just at the rear of the pavilion was a display of imported liquors and
sirups from the land of Haiti, including anisette, maraschuino, repikes,
creme de menthe, sirup d'orfeat, sirup de granadine, and creme de cocoa;
also triple-distilled bay rum and rum of good quality from four
distilleries in Haiti. On either side were glass cases in which were
shown other interesting exhibits. First a collection of cigars and of
beeswax in molds. Next a sectional case containing, samples of cotton
mapon, used for the filling of mattresses and pillows. Then the cocoa
bean; also coffee taken from the cherry, peanuts, sugar from the sugar
cane, and bottled honey. In the next case were hides, leather, and a
collection of fine shoes made in Haiti. Next to this case was a display
of coffee beans and an interesting exhibit of hats made from palm leaves
and corn husks. The chairs were made from the osier, or water willow. In
the rear was a cabin made from the natural woods imported from Haiti.
The roof was covered with palm leaves. The entrance was draped with an
American flag on the, left and the red and blue flag of Haiti on the
right. This Haitian; flag was made entirely by hand. In the interior was
a fine collection of hand-carved vases, pedestals, mortar and pestles,
bowls, urns, and tobacco boxes.
_Members of Honduras commission_.--Mr. Salvador Cordova,
commissioner-general; Mr. Howard S. Reed, executive commissioner; Mr.
Alejandro Bauer, assistant commissioner.
In the Palace of Agriculture, surrounded by a tropical bower of graceful
palms and thousands of yards of long gray Spanish moss, was shown a
collective exhibit of the wondrous and little known country of Honduras,
Central America. Upon all sides the visitor was confronted by most
curious and interesting samples of its varied resources. Crowds were
constantly gathered about the rubber tree with its white, milk-like sap,
and everyone seemed interested in the great bales of dried raw rubber,
while questions, opinions, and discussions were many regarding this
little known raw product. Even the great scarlet and blue macaw, from
his high perch overhead, joined in with wild screeches when the crowds
got too noisy.
Curious bales of sarsaparilla wrapped in white cowhide, great clusters
of cocoanuts in their thick hulls, long tables with hundreds of
specimens of dug plants and medicinal barks and roots, attracted curious
crowds. The banana bulbs and stalks, 20 feet high, eleven months'
growth, with the fruit which they had produced, gave the visitor an idea
of what is possible by systematic culture, as a banana plantation with
the proper care will produce fifty-two crops a year, which means a
cutting every week. The consumption of the banana has increased with
greater rapidity than any other fruit, and it occupies a position second
to none as a food and fruit. The sarsaparilla in its original packing
case was unique, and it represented its share in the country's
exportations. Honduras sarsaparilla has taken the highest award at the
last five expositions.
The cocoanut in its fibrous hull was a surprise to many, as the market
shows them only clear of the hull. It is said that each cocoanut tree in
Honduras averages about 365 nuts a year, or a nut each day. Brazil nuts
were shown, with their hard outside shell, in which some 15 to 20 of the
nuts are closely packed.
Of the 400 specimens of cabinet woods which were displayed, only about
100 are known to commercial uses; the rest are awaiting development. In
this exhibit were the woods which neither burn nor float. Lignum-vitae,
which is one of the heaviest woods known to science, and used
extensively in the manufacture of mallets, etc., was displayed; also the
San Juan wood, which has lately been discovered, and is found
extensively on the coast. This wood is practically non-combustible, and
is said to be the coming wood for car building, furniture, and interior
finishing, being susceptible of a high polish. The mahogany, for which
Honduras is noted, was shown in many varieties, as were rosewood,
redwood, hard pine, cedar, etc.
The exhibit of native drug plants received special recognition. Among
other herbs were the Peruvian and cinchona-bark quinine, rhubarb,
vegetable wax, and many others unknown to science. Sugar planters were
astounded at the cane only three months old and 12 feet high, grown
without cultivation, and stalks were exhibited 24 feet high of twelve
months' growth. At present there is not a sugar refinery in the country.
The ores exhibited were many specimens of quartz and placer gold,
silver, lead, copper, and magnetic iron, of which there is practically
an inexhaustible supply. The work of the natives was shown in hats,
baskets, hammocks, etc., being of a high order of perfection. Many of
the finest panama hats are made by the Indians in Honduras. The
different kinds of sisal and hemp shown were pronounced by manufacturers
to be of the very highest grade.
Many people, when the name Honduras, Central America, is mentioned,
think of a far-away land untrodden by man. As a matter of fact, it was
pointed out that it is not as far from New Orleans to Honduras as it is
from St. Louis to either New York or Boston.
Several causes prevented an appropriation by Parliament for Hungary's
participation at the Universal Exposition held in St. Louis;
consequently the royal Hungarian minister of commerce, anxious that
Hungary should be represented at the Congress of Nations in St. Louis,
decided to furnish a sufficient sum out of funds at his disposal to make
this participation possible.
Acting upon this decision, he appointed George de Szogyeny, LL.D., at
that time commissioner of commerce, and accredited to the State
Department in Washington, D.C., as commissioner-general, and
commissioned the Hungarian Society of Fine Arts and the Hungarian
Society of Applied Arts to arrange the exhibits in the Fine Arts
Building and to arrange for the exhibit of applied arts.
The Hungarian Society of Applied Arts sent Paul Horti as its
representative. Mr. Paul Horti is a well known art critic of Hungary.
Mr. R.E. Rombauer was also a member of the commission.
The cost of Hungary's participation was approximately 200,000 crowns.
The value of exhibits was as follows:
Fine arts, 150,000 crowns; applied arts in the Manufactures Building,
600,000 crowns. There were other individual exhibits scattered through
the palaces of Agriculture, Mines and Metallurgy, and Education, but
they represented only a small value.
The government of India and the provincial governments of Bengal, Assam,
and Mysore jointly contributed the sum of 105,000 rupees (equivalent to
about $35,000), and the Indian Tea Association, Indian Tea Cess
Committee, and the United Planters' Association of southern India,
contributed 90,000 rupees (equal to about $30,000) for the erection of a
building and expenses attendant on the work of the exhibition proper,
which was designed to promote and encourage the use of India tea and
coffee in America. When it was decided that India should take part in
the exhibition, exhibitors of Indian manufactures, for whom no space had
been reserved in the exhibition palaces, were referred by the government
of India, the exhibition authorities, and by the British royal
commission to the commissioners in charge, and their exhibits, together
with those made of tea, coffee, cardamoms, and pepper, were installed in
the government building and formed practically the entire exhibit from
Mr. R. Blechynden was the only executive officer appointed for East
India. F.C. Williams, of New York, was subsequently appointed as
honorary assistant commissioner.
The exhibit would not have been made but for the urgent request of those
representing the tea interests, through the Bengal Chamber of Commerce,
and it was intended primarily and mainly for the exploitation of Indian
teas in America, thus finding a wider market for their use. In addition
to the erection of a building and the serving of tea in liquid form to
the visitors at a nominal charge, a considerable fund was set apart for
advertising the merits of these teas in the Middle West. Part of this
sum was expended during the continuance of the exhibition, and the work
was all coordinated and in the hands of the commissioner. The
exploitation may continue for several years. Advertisements have
appeared in newspapers in St. Louis, Omaha, Chicago, Columbus,
Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Louisville, and many other smaller towns. The
aggregate of expenditure in the next few years will be much more than
set apart for the exhibition.
All of the East India exhibits were contributed by individuals and were
confined to the East India Building, but were grouped under the heads of
art, liberal arts, manufactures, and agriculture.
_Members of Italian commission_.--His Excellency Baron E. Mayor des
Planches, honorary commissioner-general; Mr. Giovanni Branchi,
commissioner-general; Mr. Adolfo Appoloni, commissioner of fine arts;
Chev. Vittorio Zeggio; Mr. Guido Pantaleoni; Mr. Alberto Alfani, Mr.
Tullio Giordana, Mr. Cesare Della Chiesa, Mr. Jerome Zeggio,
secretaries; Mr. Giuseppe Sommarauga, architect of the pavilion.
The Italian pavilion was one of the most artistic and beautiful, if not
one of the smallest, foreign buildings on the World's Fair grounds. It
was a construction of Roman travertine stone, ornamented with bronze and
marble sculptures. It was an architectonic fancy, Graeco-Roman, on the
style of the ancient villas of the emperors of the Caesarian age, with
garden and fountains.
The front colonnade ended in two stout lateral "pillars," crowned by two
"victories" of gilded bronze (a work by Bialetti, of Milan), one of
which bore the Italian laurel and the others the olive branch, as a
token of peace and welfare.
After ascending the first stairs, about 90 feet wide, and passing
through all the colonnade of ionic style, was the garden where the
ancient Romans used to grow their laurel, an image of glory.
The building was erected on a strong base more than 15 feet high, with
another flight of stairs more than 45 feet wide.
The front was formed by a central body of the Corinthian style of the
best epoch, flanked by two lower parts ornamented by marble and bronze
works. The caryatides of the three latticed windows were authentic
copies of the ancient caryatides of Greek origin now in the Castle of
Abano, near Rome.
In the hall, together with cases and various ancient works, there was a
faithful copy of the famous Etruscan vase called "Of Francois,"
belonging to the gallery of Florence, and a good copy in marble of the
Roman group of wrestlers. Also in the same halls, in the cavities at the
end under the frieze, with the inscription in Roman characters, "Italia
lux alma preevit," were two great oil paintings of their Royal Majesties
the King and Queen of Italy.
This monument of art was the work of Giuseppe Sommarauga, architect, of
Milan, who had also the task of originating and directing all the
principal decorations made and shipped from Italy.
The participation of Italy at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was
authorized by a law of the Italian Parliament dated December 27, 1903.
The participation was prepared by the department of agriculture,
industry, and commerce, under the direct supervision of the minister,
Hon. Luigi Rava. A special committee was appointed for that purpose by
the King, and the Hon. Angelo Pavis, a prominent member of the Italian
Parliament, was elected chairman of the committee. The Italian
ambassador to the United States, the Baron Edmondo Mayor des Planches,
who advised the Italian Government to let Italy appear officially at the
exposition, was appointed honorary commissioner-general, and Hon.
Giovanni Branchi, the Italian consul-general in New York, was appointed
commissioner-general. Adolfo Appoloni, one of the members of the royal
commission in Rome, was appointed special commissioner for fine arts,
and Mr. Branchi chose as members of the commission Guido Pantaleoni,
electrical engineer, of St. Louis, and Chev. Vittorio Zeggio, who was
special delegate from the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, to promote the
participation of Italy to the World's Fair. Besides these members of the
commission four secretaries and several assistants helped the commission
in the work of arranging and distributing the different exhibits.
The appropriation of the Italian Government for the exposition was
650,000 lire ($130,000), but this appropriation was raised in progress
to 800,000 lire ($170,000). A small fee of $4 per square meter was
assessed to the exhibitors, but the artists and the schools had nothing
to pay. No private contributions were accepted by the Government. The
Government paid the cost of transporting and maintenance of exhibits,
which amounted to about $30,000. The number of exhibitors was about
1,100. Many more firms would have sent their products to this exposition
had they had time to arrange a fitting display. For this reason the
Italian display was not a full demonstration of what Italy produces.
The largest Italian displays were in the Fine Arts, the Manufactures,
and the Agriculture buildings. The paintings and the sculptures
exhibited were sufficient to give an idea of the modern art in Italy.
They were all quite recent, with the exception of some pictures
exhibited as loan, which were painted before the Chicago Exposition. The
largest and most important art societies of Italy took a great interest
in the exposition, but lack of time prevented the artists from preparing
special works to be exhibited. The spirit of modern Italian art was
individual, all working for the development of a national art. Among the
sculptures were Monteverde, Fontana, Origo, and Romanelli. Among the
painters, Previati, Rizzi, Mancini, Gioli, Morbelli, Dall'Oca Bianca
Laurenti, Ciardi, Fattori de Karolis, Nomellini, Gelli, etc.
In the Manufactures Building the exhibits of carved wood furniture was
displayed, together with ceramics, pottery, marble, bronzes, silks,
textiles, laces, embroideries, paving bricks, and many other exhibits of
great importance. Among the show cases was a large and artistic one, in
which was exhibited the silk factories' display.
In the Agriculture Building Italy had a large display of samples of the
many kinds of wines and olive oils it produces, and there was a large
display of seeds sent by the department of agriculture.
In the Mines Building a beautiful collection of marbles and sulphur
showed the wealth of the under-soil resources of Italy.
The photographs, the plans, and the maps of the electrical power houses
and diverting works for the production of electricity in the Electricity
Building attracted many visitors.
In the Transportation Building the Rete Mediterranes, one of the
railroads that operates in Italy, exhibited the electrical system used
on some of its lines.
One of the best and most important Italian exhibits was in the
Educational and Social Economy Building. In both these lines Italy stood
among the most progressive nations in the world. The results of the
schools, the people's banks and savings banks, and the mutual help
societies were an excellent demonstration.
In the Liberal Arts were to be seen musical instruments, books, and
products of the paper factories.
Corals, cameos, and mosaics were exhibited in the Varied Industries
Building, and some of them were remarkable works of art.
On July 10, 1903, an imperial ordinance for the organization of the
imperial Japanese commission to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was
issued by the Mikado to the effect that the imperial commission to the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition should be under the supervision of the
minister of state for agriculture and commerce, and should deal with all
the matters relating to the participation of the Japanese Empire in the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition; that the imperial commission should
consist of the following:
Nonresident: Baron Keigo Kiyoura, president; Baron Masanao Matsudaira,
vice-president. Resident: Mr. Seiichi Tegima, commissioner-general; Mr.
Hiromichi Shugio; Mr. Ushitaro Beppu; Mr. Naozo Kanzaki. Nonresident
commissioners: Mr. Hajime Ota, Mr. Haruke Yamawaki, Mr. Masanao
Hanihara, Mr. M. Isobe, Mr. J. Koyama, Mr. M. Oka, Mr. Okamoto.
Resident: Mr. Keisuke Niwa, director of works; Mr. Yukio Itchikawa,
landscape architect; Mr. Saizo Tajima; Prof. Yoshitaro Wantanabe; Mr.
Mosuke Matsumura, secretary education department; Mr. Kannosuke
Miyashima, expert home department. Secretaries (resident): Mr. Harukazu
Miyabe, Mr. Michio Hattori, Mr. Toyozo Kobayashi. Attaches (resident):
Mr. Shun Suzuki, Mr. Kiro Harada, Mr. Teiichiro Gejyo, Mr. Risaburo Ota.
Beginning with the international exposition held at Vienna in 1873, and
including the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, Japan has participated in
twenty-seven world's fairs. Her participation in the exposition at St.
Louis was more memorable in many respects than at any preceding
exposition. In the first place, the exhibits never before occupied such
an extensive area. It was three times as large as that occupied by Japan
at the Chicago World's Fair of 1893 and the Paris Exposition of 1900,
respectively. In each department where Japan took any part at the fair
her location was excellent. The enthusiasm of Japanese manufacturers and
traders in their desire to participate in the exposition was so intense
that despite the effort of the Government to discriminate between
numerous applicants the quantity of exhibits was swelled to such an
extent that it was a matter of no small difficulty to find places for
all the articles sent in for exhibition. Notwithstanding the fact that
there was only a short period of nine months between Japan's decision to
participate and the opening of the fair, and that in the course of that
comparatively short period the rupture of friendly relations between
Russia and Japan greatly handicapped the latter's endeavors concerning
the exposition, the officials and exhibitors pursued their preconceived
plan without an interruption. In view of such disadvantages, the
promptness and accuracy with which articles were brought into their
destination, arranged, and displayed seasonably in proper form may well
be regarded as remarkable. By the time the gates of the fair were thrown
open to the public the display had been well-nigh completed, to the
gratification of the Exposition Company and the Japanese exhibitors.
When Japan was first invited to take part in the exposition she was
busily engaged in preparing for the Fifth National Exhibition held in
the city of Osaka. For that reason she declined reluctantly to accept
the invitation; but as the inauguration of the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition was consequently postponed until the 1st day of May, 1904,
Japan was later enabled to accept the invitation.
Early in the year 1904 the imperial Government sent a corps of officials
to St. Louis to select a suitable location for the Government buildings,
and to apply for space in the various departments of the exposition. Due
to the prompt attention of the Japanese Government and the courtesy of
the managers of the exposition, the desired arrangements were
accomplished without the slightest difficulty. A bill appropriating
$400,000 to be expended for the exposition was passed by both houses of
the legislature, and in July, 1903, the Government formally notified the
Exposition Company at St. Louis that Japan would be represented at the
The Japanese commission for the exposition took great care not to accept
for exhibition any articles which had mere virtue of novelty, without
practical value, or any articles not produced in large volume. The idea
of the Government in employing such discrimination was to so plan the
exhibition that it would leave some lasting effects after the exposition
upon the world's trade and commerce. The exhibition of matters relating
to education was executed under the direct supervision of the department
of education, and was so planned as to make it represent a complete
system of the education now in vogue in Japan. In regard to the
exhibitions of mines, fish, forestry, agriculture, and horticulture, the
department of agriculture and commerce exercised the authority of
deciding what articles should be displayed. The arrangement of articles
exhibited in various departments of the exposition was made so that
those independent of the Japan Exhibits Association were arranged by
individual exhibitors under the supervision of the Japanese commission,
while others were set out in proper order by the association.
There was no department or palace in which Japan did not exhibit.
Displays on an especially elaborate scale, however, could be found in
the following eleven palaces, namely: Palaces of Education and Social
Economy, Fine Arts, Liberal Arts, Manufactures, Varied Industries,
Transportation, Mines, Forestry, Fish, and Game, Electricity, and
Agriculture. The total area of space of the Japanese sections in these
departments was distributed among different sections as follows:
Palace of Education ............................... 6,299
Palace of Fine Arts ............................... 6,825
Palace of Liberal Arts ............................ 400
Palace of Industry ................................ 27,384
Palace of Manufactures ............................ 54,737
Palace of Transportation .......................... 14,160
Palace of Electricity ............................. 1,100
Palace of Mines ................................... 6,903
Palace of Forestry, Fish, and Game ................ 2,982
Palace of Agriculture ............................. 8,667
Total ...................................... 129,457
Besides the above areas in the various departments, a garden of a
genuine Japanese style covered an extensive space of ground, in which
stood the Government building. Attached to it was a reception hall and
several artistic mansions. Displays of Japanese garden and floricultural
arts were exhibited in the garden. In the reception hall were exhibited
various data showing the growth and present status of the Red Cross
Society of Japan. Altogether, the dimension of space taken by Japan for
the garden aggregated approximately 148,361 square feet. Artistically
distributed within the precincts of the garden were the reception hall,
the office building, the Formosa tea house, the Kinkaku tea house, and
several cottages and a bazaar. Hills and waterfalls, ponds and bridges
were presented in miniature scale. In the verdant lawns flowers of
different colors were all harmonized into an artistic unit in unique
landscape gardening. Beautifully trained dwarf trees, centuries old,
were brought from Japan for the special purpose of ornamenting the
garden. There were also the drooping wisteria and gay peony, the scented
lily and blushing maple.
The building materials for the reception hall, the office building, and
resting cottages were brought from Japan. The reception hall was built
entirely by native carpenters, after the style of a daimyo's goten
(palace of feudal lord) of some six hundred years ago. The architectural
style of the building was what is termed Heike, a style prevailing at
the time when a military family called Heike held a paramount power. The
artistically curved roofs, projecting one upon another, were a modest
representation of architectural accomplishment already attained in Japan
several centuries ago. Hanging on the inner wall of the hall was the
portrait of Her Majesty the Empress of Japan, and occupying a section of
the room were the exhibits of the Red Cross Society of Japan, in which
the Empress takes a keen interest. The resting cottage was modeled after
a cottage in a shogun's (military magistrate) garden, two or three
centuries ago. Close to the south bank of the lake was a small
reproduction of Kinkaku Temple. Close to the right of the front gate of
the garden stood the Formosa mansion, a fair representation of
characteristic native dwellings. The Kinkaku Temple was built under the
auspices of the Japan Tea Traders' Association, and the Formosa mansion
by the initiative of the Formosa government.
_Members of Mexico commission_.--Engineer Albino R. Nuncio,
commissioner-general; Mr. Benito Navarro, assistant to the
commissioner-general; Mr. Juan Renteria, assistant to the commissioners
general; Engineer Lauro Viadas, chief department of agriculture; Mr.
Daniel R. De la Vega, assistant to the chief; Mr. Isidoro Aldasoro,
chief department of art and ethnology; Mr. Leopoldo Tell and Mr. Octavio
Andrade, assistants to the chief; Mr. Maximiliano M. Chabert, chief
department of liberal arts; Mr. Alberto Ocampo, assistant to the chief;
Mr. Julio Poulat, chief department of education; Mr. Manuel Costa,
assistant to the chief; Mr. Enrique Garibay, chief department of
forestry, fish, and game; Mr. Jorge Salazar, assistant to the chief;
Mr. J. Alberto MacDowell, chief department of horticulture; Mr. J.M.
Nuncio, chief department of manufactures; Mr. Antonio Sierra Cruz,
assistant to the chief; Engineer Eduardo Mantinez Baca, chief department
of mines and metallurgy; Mr. Miguel Peinado, assistant to the chief;
Maj. S. Garcia Cuellar, chief department of transportation; Lieut.
Manuel Garcia Lugo and Lieut. Jose Ortiz Monasterio, assistants to the
chief; Mrs. Laura M. De Cuenca, Dr. Plutarco Ornelas, Prof Teofilo
Frezieres, Mr. E.H. Talbot, Mr. Jose M. Trigo De Claver, Mr. Roberto
Garcia, Mr. Jose A. Bonilla.
The amounts voted by the Mexican Congress, according to dates since the
organization of the work, for the participation of Mexico at the
Universal Exposition of St. Louis, were as follows:
October 22, 1901 ............................... $50,000
July 1, 1902 ................................... 70,000
November 23, 1902 .............................. 15,000
July 1, 1903 ................................... 90,000
December 3, 1903 ............................... 250,000
July 1, 1904 ................................... 100,000
November, 1904 ................................. 300,000
Total ....................................... 875,000
The Mexican exhibit in the department of education, as a whole,
demonstrated the remarkable development of public instruction from
primary to scientific, and at the same time the progress made by
adopting new plans and systems. The exhibit as a whole could also be
studied in detail by looking over the regulations, plans of study,
statistics, texts, etc., which were displayed there.
The Gallery No. 94 of the west pavilion of the Fine Arts Building was
the one assigned by the Exposition Company to the exhibition of fine
arts from the Republic of Mexico. This small gallery contained 38 oil
paintings, 2 pen drawings, and 2 sculptures. The paintings belonged to
The importance of the exhibition as relates to the art cultivated in
Mexico was represented by the famous works of the Artist Fabres, which
attracted a great deal of attention.
In the Palace of Liberal Arts Mexico exhibited technical works and
diversified industrial products. Among the most important were those of
official character, such as geographical maps, the system used for the
illumination of the seashores, the construction of buildings for special
works, etc. Also plans and constructions of architectural character
from' prominent architects of Mexico.
Displayed here were exhibits from the manufactures of drugs and chemical
products, perfumes, paper, printing and binding companies, and many
others comprised in the extensive official classification. One most
important exhibit was that of chemical products and pharmacy.
Another very important branch of liberal arts, and very well developed,
was that of photography. Very remarkable works of the most expert
photographers of the country were exhibited.
In the Department of Manufactures the industrial concerns from Mexico
were represented as follows: The cotton and woolen mills, which have
greatly developed in the Republic; the leather and shoe industry was
well demonstrated by a number of factories which exhibited their
products; there were also shown a number of samples from the manufacture
of furniture and decorating fixtures for buildings and residences.
Full information about the railroad lines, general railroad map, and
great number of photographs of the most important points on the lines,
plaster models of the Tehuantepec Railroad connecting the two oceans,
and statistical information of the railroad development were exhibited
in the Transportation Building. Models of light-houses and original
light-houses that will be used in the Vera Cruz Harbor were displayed
also, as well as models of the harbors of Mazanillo, Salina, Curz,
Coatzacoalcos, and Tampico. Tools, bags, scales, etc., used in the mail
service, and statistical information of the development of the service
were shown, as were carriages, harness, saddles, and all kinds of
implements used for driving and riding.
The war department had a general display of educational methods used in
the military and naval academies, and maps, military library,
improvements invented by some member of the army and samples of
materials made by its factories.
In the Electricity Building were maps and reports of the most important
electrical installations of the country.
In the Machinery Hall were displayed machines made in the factories of
the army for the manufacture of cartridges, and antiscaling substance.
Among the Mexican exhibits at St. Louis, the largest number was in the
Agricultural Building, where the display occupied over 900 square feet
of space. The exhibits made by the three leading breweries of Mexico was
noticeable as to elegance and artistic good taste. Great importance was
attached to the exhibits of leaf and manufactured tobacco. The coffee
exhibit attracted general attention.
The exhibit of fibers, especially that of Henequen, from Yucatan, was
very important and complete, the last named being the cause of
flourishing trade with the United States. The exhibit of sugar showed
the great resources of Mexico in this product. A splendid exhibit of
Mexican vanila attracted the attention of all visitors. The exhibit of
agronomical maps by the Mexican Commission was of much scientific value,
and the collection of insects and injurious parasitical plants was also
worthy of attention.
The Mexican exhibit in the Department of Forestry, Fish and Game
consisted of 600 specimens, arranged and classified by the Medical and
National Institute of Mexico, and attracted considerable attention. The
magnificent exhibit of animals and stuffed birds was also admired. The
exhibit was arranged and presented by the Geographical Commission of
Mexico. The collection of woods presented by the governments of the
States of Colima, Durahgo, Mexico, Puebla, San Luis Potosi, Michoacan,
Yucatan, and the department of fomento was noticeable for the diversity
of kinds of woods forming the collection, amounting to 800. The exhibit
of broom root from Mexico was the only one of its kind in all the
Department of Forestry, and concerning which the largest number of
inquiries was made.
In the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy Mexico occupied 13,000 square feet
of space. A great variety of ores and minerals was displayed, viz, gold,
silver, lead, iron, copper, antimony, zinc, etc. The number of
exhibitors amounted to 330. The Geological Institute of Mexico presented
maps, geological plans, mineral rocks, publications, etc. Among the
latter a very interesting study of the veins of the mines of Pachuca and
Real de Monte, also another of the Rhyolitas of Mexico.
The social and economical conditions of the Republic of Mexico were
splendidly represented in the Department of Social Economy by numerous
official and private publications and photographs. The wise steps taken
by the Government, which have changed the economical conditions of the
country, constituting an intellectual, material, and positive
development, were logically collected according to the department of
state to which they belong. The exhibit was completed by a numerous
collection of photographs of cities, ports, public buildings, monuments,
residences, etc., showing how Mexican cities have been improved and
beautified and how the Republic of the south has progressed from a
material and artistical standpoint.
_Members of commission_.--Mr. T.E. Donne, representative; Mr. Frederick
Moorhouse and Mr. Thomas Clarkson, attaches.
When the New Zealand government received the invitation of the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition executive to be represented at the World's Fair the
colonial parliament gave the utmost publicity to the proposal and
offered to allow any of its business firms a share of the space that was
to be placed at its disposal. The tariffs of the United States, however,
proved a serious obstacle, as the chief business houses of the young
nation failed to see how their interests would be served by advertising
in a country which placed a heavy tariff on their goods. However, the
executive of the government, recognizing the cordiality of the
invitation and with a desire to emphasize its wishes for the closest
relationship with the American people, decided to be represented
directly by one of its own departments--the department of tourist and
health resorts. The chief of that branch of the public service, Mr. T.
E. Donne, was therefore authorized to prepare an exhibit setting forth
the attractions of New Zealand to tourists and the work the department
is doing in that connection. When compiling the exhibit Commissioner
Donne represented to his government that it would be advisable also to
include a few of the country's general products, and it therefore
extended the original idea in this direction.
In the Department of Forestry, Fish, and Game New Zealand had a unique
and tastefully arranged display that attracted keenest interest. A
collection of Scotch red deer and fallow deer heads testified to the
magnificent hunting that is obtained among the virgin forests of New
Zealand, and specimens of trout--rainbow, salmon, fario, and
fontinalis--taken from the mountain-fed streams that intersect the
country from one end to the other appealed to the fishing enthusiast.
Pictures and paintings around the walls were fascinating in that they
served to indicate to visitors the character of a country which nature
has blessed, when judged from a point of view of the beautiful and
picturesque. Mount Cook, majestically rising to a height of nearly
13,000 feet, was shown in paintings and photographs. Lakes Taupo, Te
Anau, Wakatipu, Manawapouri, Waikaremona, and others, whose clear,
glassy waters, surrounded by verdure-covered hills, gave some idea of
the loveliness of New Zealand lakes. The Wanganui River, Milford Sound,
one of the world's wonderful fiords, and the canyons known as the Otira
and Buller gorges were some of the features that interested the
The thermal districts were chiefly represented by the great Waimangu
geyser and its crater, 21/2 acres in extent, which throws up boiling
water, mud, and stones to a height of 1,500 feet, claiming a place as
one of the "wonders of the world."
Forestry was represented by beautifully finished ornamental wood and a
splendid exhibit of the famous Kauri gum. This gum, which is used
principally in the manufacture of varnish, takes an important place
among New Zealand products, no less than five million dollars worth
being exported last year. Of special interest to ornithologists were the
native wingless birds of New Zealand.
The ancient habits of that interesting and progressive race, the Maori,
who preceded white people in New Zealand, were shown in some remarkably
realistic and unique carvings and paintings. The Maori has long since
passed the savage state and has shown his ability to attain the highest
stages of modern civilization. The contrast between the position of the
Maori in 1840 and in 1904 constitutes a remarkable progress in racial
development. Formerly the Maori was a savage, clever and enterprising,
but ferocious, cruel, and a cannibal. To-day he tills the soil, speaks
English, and sends his children to school and college, where they study
for the highest professions, such as medicine, law, teaching, etc.
Contact with a highly civilized community has diverted the natural
intelligence of the Maori to useful channels, while Christianity has
developed the best instincts of a fine race of people. In the to-day the
Maori stands side by side with the white man, a welcome comrade in the
building of a new nation. Six Maoris occupy positions in the New Zealand
legislature, and one is a cabinet minister.
In the Agricultural Building a score of sacks containing wheat, oats,
peas, beans, clover, grass seed, etc., paid tribute to the climate and
soil of New Zealand. The extreme interest shown by all visitors
constituted a very high compliment to the country. The demand by farmers
for samples of wheat and oats was great. The attention bestowed by
farmers and grain merchants upon the New Zealand grain display had its
counterpart in the attitude of women visitors toward the exhibit of
woolen rugs and blankets. Its exceptional soil and climate enable the
New Zealand farmer to rear sheep with a grade of wool that can seldom be
obtained elsewhere. Factories that have been established in the
principal cities weave the wool into clothing, rugs, and blankets of an
excellent strength and quality. Fleeces, both scoured and greasy,
afforded wool experts an opportunity of closely examining the staple in
raw material. Other products shown in the Palace of Agriculture were
bales of hemp manufactured from New Zealand flax, a very fine sample of
hops grown in the Nelson district, rabbit skins packed and ready for
export, kegs of tallow, crude petroleum, etc. These served to indicate
partially the resources of a wonderfully rich and productive country.
A chief attraction of the New Zealand exhibit was the opportunity it
provided Americans for personally interrogating the New Zealand
representatives concerning the government of their country. Political
economists in America, as in other parts of the world, have in recent
years been pointing to New Zealand as a country where a government
fulfills its proper functions in caring for the welfare of the whole of
the people, where each man and woman takes a recognized and effective
part in the making of the laws which govern them, and where high ideals
of modern civilization are lived up to.
NORWAY AND SWEDEN.
The Norwegian Storthing (Parliament) on the 20th of January, 1904,
failed to pass a bill appropriating funds for Norway's participation in
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The Government, however, being aware
that there would be some individual exhibitors, decided to accept the
invitation from the American authorities to have a commission appointed.
By resolution of the Crown Prince Regent on March 25, Frederick L.M.
Waage, vice-consul for Sweden and Norway to St. Louis, was appointed
commissioner-general for Norway. No Government appropriation and no
money was raised by private subscriptions.
Three individual exhibitors displayed goods:
David Andersen, Christiana, in the Varied Industries Building,
silverware and enamel. Cost of exhibit, $40,000; installation, $500,
Chr. Knag, Bergen, furniture of the old Norwegian style in the east wing
of the Fine Arts Building. Cost of exhibit, $3,000; transportation,
Nordenfjeldske Kunstindustrimuseum, Dortheim, tapestries, old and new
Norwegian patterns and designs by Gerhard Munthe. Cost of exhibit,
$10,000; transportation, $35.
Sweden's participation at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was
authorized by the following decree addressed by King Oscar, of Sweden
and Norway, to A.R. Akerman, director-general and president of the
board of trade, which decree appointed Mr. Akerman commissioner-general
to the exposition. The decree gives fully an account of the Swedish
participation and was as follows:
Since the President of the United States has invited the governments of
other states, including Sweden, to participate in a Universal Exposition
in St. Louis, originally intended to be held in 1903, but now being
decided to be open during the period from May 1 to December 1, 1904, and
we, through gracious proposition, of which a copy is herewith attached,
suggested to the Riksdag to appropriate, on an extra budget for 1904, an
amount of 120,000 kronor for Sweden's participation in the art and
educational exhibits of the exposition has the Riksdag in a
communication of May 22, 1903, with reference to the arrangements of
expenses of the State budget, eighth section, communicated the
The Riksdag had considered the advisability that Sweden be
officially represented at the Universal Exposition in St. Louis
1904, especially as this could be supposed as being in line with
the desire of the Swedes residing in the United States and
serving to strengthen the ties that still unite them with their
Fatherland, and in accordance with the expression of the chief
of our ecclesiastic department in the minutes of our ministry
had the Riksdag embraced the opinion that the official
participation of Sweden should embrace the departments of art
and education, in which sections our country seems to have
especially good possibilities successfully to compete with the
greater countries of culture.
In a letter to the Academy of Fine Arts, incorporated in the
minutes of our ministry, the three societies of artists had
expressed the desire that from the collections of art belonging
to the State works of art should be contributed that might be
required in order that the exposition in question should give a
complete illustration of the development of art in our country.
In consequence of this, the Riksdag had considered it necessary
to point out the fact that as it has occurred that works of art
contributed from the collection of the States to be exhibited at
other places at the return of the same were more or less
damaged, and that as in consequence of the transport that would
be necessary in this case absolute guarantee for the restitution
of these works of art in an undamaged condition could hardly be
had, doubts seemed to meet as to such a contribution as had been
suggested by the societies of artists.
Calling attention to what has just been pointed out, the Riksdag
stated that the Riksdag, with consent to our proposition in
question regarding the participation of Sweden in the art and
educational departments of the Universal Exposition in St. Louis
1904, had appropriated on an extra budget for the year 1904 the
sum of 120,000 kronor.
Having had this presented before us, we have, accepting on
Sweden's behalf the above-mentioned invitation as far as
concerns the art and the educational departments of the
exposition, resolved to appoint a committee, who is hereby
empowered to take all measures necessary for the participation
of Sweden in these departments of the exposition and to transact
all business belonging to the same which is not of a nature to
be submitted to our gracious consideration; and we have
appointed you as president of the committee and as members of
the same selected the principal of the technical school of
Stockholm, Bror Viktor Adler; the inspector of the common
schools at Stockholm, Carl Gustaf Bergman; the vice-general
consul, Bror Axel Fredrik Georgii; the assistant professor at
Ostermalms public secondary school, Stockholm, Nols Gerhard,
Eilhelm Lagerstedt, and the superintendent of the art section of
the National Museum, Carl Ludvig Loostroem.
We, intending to appoint in the future, on the recommendation of
the committee, a commissioner for Sweden at the exposition,
herewith empower the committee to appoint a secretary and
necessary assistants and in as far as it is found necessary to
secure the cooperation of persons whose insight and ability can
secure for Sweden a successful and honorable representation at
Finally, we authorize the committee to collect after the
beginning of 1904, at our exchequer department, the
above-mentioned amount appropriated by the Riksdag to be used as
demands require for the purpose intended, with the obligation to
account for same and with the understanding that the committee
assumes the responsibility that this amount under no
circumstances is exceeded; and we have ordered the exchequer
department to pay from moneys on hand in advance, on requisition
and to be deducted from the mentioned appropriation, what is
necessary to carry on the work of the committee during the year
1903, not exceeding an amount of 20,000 kronor. Which we
herewith communicate for your knowledge and abeyance as far as
you are concerned, at the same time as a gracious letter is sent
to the exchequer department.
For the representation of Peru at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, the
Peruvian Government appropriated approximately $100,000. The President
of Peru appointed Mr. Alexander Garland, a distinguished Peruvian
and noted writer of international and economical matters,
commissioner-general. Mr. Garland, it is said, has always been noted in
his country as a strong upholder of favorable trade relations with the
United States. Mr. Miguel Miro-Queseda, a newspaper man of Peru, was
appointed secretary to the commission. Subsequently Mr. Ernest H. Wands,
of New York, and Wilfred H. Schoff were appointed commissioners and Mr.
Manual C. Velarde secretary.
A variety of samples of cotton and woolen goods manufactured by
factories lately established in Peru, at La Victoria, Vitarte, La
Providencia, San Jacinto, Malastesta, etc., was displayed in the
Peruvian section of the Agriculture Building, together with abundant
samples of different qualities of Peruvian cotton. In the same building
were exhibited excellent samples of sugar cane from Grande, Cartavio,
Roma, and Chiquitoy. Samples of other products of the soil, as cotton,
coffee, cacao, cocoa, cocaine, rice, etc., which figure under the
exports of Peru, were also exhibited. In the same section were samples
of Peruvian maize, white, yellow, and red, at least double the size of
the corn raised in other parts of the world, as well as other specimens
of the agricultural products of Peru.
The mines section showed the mineral resources of the country. Gold,
silver, copper, lead, cinnabar, manganese, and all kinds of minerals
were represented by a large variety of rich samples. Large blocks of
lignite, anthracite, etc., gave an idea of the importance of the coal
fields of Peru. Mineral oils, mineral waters, sands from placers, and a
variety of salts samples were exhibited demonstrating that Peru is well
endowed in minerals. There was also a mineral map of Peru made under the
direction of the Sociedad Nacional de Mineria.
The Peruvian section in the Forestry, Fish, and Game Palace had samples
of rubber of the Peruvian varieties in large quantities. Samples of wood
gave an idea of the inexhaustible amount of raw materials that are
contained in the vast forests of Peru, valuable for civil and naval
construction and cabinetwork. Barks, resins, nuts, roots, seeds, and
leaves for medical use and dyeing and tanning purposes confirmed the
richness of Peruvian soil.
_Russian Commission._--Mr. Edward Grunwaldt, executive commissioner; Mr.
Jacob Godberg, Mr. Max Berkowitz, Mr. L.A. Robinson.
Russia was at different times invited to participate in the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition of 1904, but no definite acceptance was received
until Mr. Thomas H. Cridler, the foreign representative of the
Exposition Company, made a personal visit to the Emperor. His Majesty
was heartily in favor of the proposition, and in proof of his good
feeling toward the American people, ordered an appropriation of 450,000
rubles be set aside to meet the preliminary expense of the Russian
A commissioner-general was appointed. He was instructed to proceed to
St. Louis and secure the necessary space for exhibits and a site for
Committees were appointed for the purpose of collecting exhibits and to
look after the work of installation and maintenance.
On the outbreak of the Russia-Japan war it was deemed advisable to
withdraw the Government exhibit. This was a cause of considerable
concern to the Russian Emperor, who had been anxious to show his
appreciation of the friendship that existed between Russia and the
The commissioner-general then made a report that was unfavorable to
Russia's participation at the exposition, and he was then informed
through the minister of finance of the withdrawal of Russia as a
The question of having Russia represented at the exposition by private
exhibitors was then considered. The minister of finance informed Mr.
Grunwaldt that the Government would offer no objection to individual
The Exposition Company allotted space to Mr. Grunwaldt in the various
buildings. Exhibits were installed in the Fine Arts, Liberal Arts,
Manufactures, Varied Industries, and Agricultural buildings. The
exhibits were very extensive in all the departments.
The entire cost of collecting, transportation, and installation of
exhibits, and the maintenance of same, was borne by Mr. Grunwaldt.
While making an extended tour of the United States in 1902, His Royal
Highness the Crown Prince of Siam visited St. Louis and was the guest of
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company. His entertainment was so
generous and his reception throughout the entire country so cordial that
he decided to use his influence toward inducing His Siamese Majesty to
participate in the exposition of 1904. The plan, consequently, that
suggested itself as to the character of Siam's display was to send to
St. Louis the most interesting articles and the best examples of Siamese
The National Siamese Pavilion, a typical specimen of the architecture of
the country, was a reproduction of the Wat (or temple), Benchamabopit,
now in the course of erection at Bangkok. The plans were closely
followed, thus creating a type of Siamese architecture which in itself
was an exhibit of interest and instruction. The building cost $25,000.
Within the pavilion were placed many objects from the Royal, Museum,
notably a large collection of ancient weapons, drums, cymbals, temple
gongs, howdahs, some wonderful examples of mother-of-pearl work,
hammered silver of antique designs, old lacquer, enormous elephant
tusks, ancient theatrical costumes and properties, and portraits of
Their Majesties the King and the Queen and His Royal Highness the Crown
In the Agricultural Building were displayed models of farming implements
of all kinds and examples of the agricultural products of the land.
Especially noticeable was the large collection of rice, the most
important of Siam's exports.
The exhibit in forestry, fish, and game showed the great variety of
woods that grow in Siam, the appliances that are used for fishing, skins
of the many wild animals of the country, and a large collection of
Teak, for which Siam is famous, was shown in a number of ways--cross
sections, longitudinal cuts, and portions of the outer surface.
In the Transportation Pavilion were shown models of boats, panniers, and
carts, howdahs, a buffalo cart, and a buggy in full size. The boat
models were especially interesting. Because of the many navigable rivers
and canals a greater part of transportation is by water; consequently a
large variety of boats has been evolved to meet the various conditions.
The collection of spinning and weaving appliances in the Manufacturers'
Building was large and instructive. Here, too, were many fine examples
of mother-of-pearl work, pottery, hammered silver, and lacquer; also a
collection of mats and textiles, both cotton and silk.
In the Mines and Metallurgy Building were displayed samples of the many
minerals that are found in the country and models of the appliances used
to secure them.
Altogether nearly six thousand individual articles were on exhibition
and represented more completely the industries and resources of Siam
than has any previous collection. In each State or Province of Siam a
local committee was appointed with instructions to gather and forward to
Bangkok at least one example of every article produced either for home
use or sale. From these consignments a selection was made by the
Commission and forwarded to St. Louis. In this way objects representing
every section and all the arts and industries were shown. The total cost
of the exhibition of the Government of Siam was approximately $120,000.
Although the trade of Siam has developed very rapidly during the past
few years, the exhibits sent did not have for their purpose the
extension of commerce with this country. The relations between the
United States and Siam are most cordial. The latter recently accredited
to the United States a minister, and Congress very promptly elevated the
rank of the United States representative to that of minister
plenipotentiary. Thus when the invitation to participate in the
exposition was accepted, prospects of commercial gain were not in
contemplation. The one idea was to contribute in every conceivable
manner to the attractiveness of the exposition and add to its
educational possibilities. The invitation was looked upon by the Siamese
Government as a compliment, and the unselfish manner in which its
acceptance was shown proved conclusively that the compliment was
On the occasion of the exposition there was published by the Commission
a richly illustrated book entitled "The Kingdom of Siam." This work was
presented to the educational institutions of this country, to public
libraries, and to all persons who were known to be interested in Siam.
The book, written by experts, will be an authority for years to come
upon Siam, its climate, resources, people, institutions, and industries,
and will doubtless supplant the writings of hurrying traveler and
The commissioners appointed by the King of Siam were as follows: His
Royal Highness the Crown Prince, president. Vice-presidents: His Royal
Highness Prince Devawongse Varopakar, minister of foreign affairs; His
Royal Highness Prince Mahisra Rajaharudhai, minister of finance; His
Excellency Chow Phya Devesra Wongse Vivadhna, minister of agriculture;
Mr. A. Cecil Carter, M.A., department of education, secretary-general.
Members: His Royal Highness Prince Sanbasiddhi Prasong, His Royal
Highness Prince Marubongse Siribadhna, His Highness Prince Vadhana, His
Excellency Phya Vorasiddhi Sevivatra, His Excellency Phya Sukhum
Nayavinit, His Excellency Phya Amarindra Lujae, His Excellency Phya
Surasih Visisth Sakdi, His Excellency Phya Kamheng Songkram, His
Excellency Phya Sunthorn Buri, His Excellency Phya Rasda Nupradit, His
Excellency Phya Kraibej Ratana Raja Sonkram, His Excellency Phya
Vijayadibadi, Phra Phadung-Sulkrit. Prof. James H. Gore, Columbian
The only Spanish exhibits at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition were
shown in the Agricultural Building. There were but three displays, one
being of pure sherry brandy, another of wines, and another of olive oil.
D. Mauricio Mandil was the only exhibitor from Spain, and he had the
brandies, wines, and olive oil analyzed by well-known analytical
chemists. The brandy exhibit consisted of a pyramid of ten barrels, well
finished and varnished, placed on a fancy stand in the center of a
well-polished platform, in the corners and sides of which were piled up
polished pine cases of pure brandy distilled from sherry wine. On the
top box of each pile were pyramids of bottles of different fancy
packings artistically located.
The wine exhibit occupied a square 20 feet on each side. It represented
a vine in full growth, being 18 feet high. The four corners were the
trunks, on which were painted life-size figures of Spanish girls
surmounted by the vine, bearing grapes. This square was covered by a
silk awning made in the Spanish colors. In the center of the tent and on
a platform was located a pyramid 15 feet high, composed of barrels and
bottles artistically placed. The wines exhibited were mostly of old
vintages, dating as far back as 1809, and among these was a special
brand brought to America for the first time, and called Solera Lincoln,
it being of the vintage of 1865, the year of Lincoln's assassination.
The olive-oil exhibit was made by one of the largest exporters of olive
oil in the world.
The Imperial Government of Turkey with great regret decided, for
financial reasons, not to participate officially in the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition, and therefore no official pavilion was built. The
three functionaries appointed for the Turkish commission were instructed
to aid and to give advice to private exhibitors only who were Turkish
subjects and who could be accommodated in exhibit buildings.
The three officials appointed were Chekib Bey, envoy extraordinary and
minister plenipotentiary to the United States, commissioner-general; Dr.
Hermann Schoenfeld, consul-general in Washington, associate
commissioner-general; George Eli Hall, consul-general in San Francisco,
secretary-general of the commission.
The participation of Venezuela in the St. Louis Exposition was
authorized in the month of October, 1903, immediately after the end of
one of the most sanguinary civil wars known in the history of the
country. The following-named gentlemen were appointed as commissioners
of the Venezuela Government: Gen. Cipriano Castro, honorary president;
Eugenio M. Ambard, commissioner-general; Dr. H. Lameda, attache; H.
The amount of the Government appropriation was at first $25,000, but
this amount was soon exhausted and smaller amounts were subsequently
sanctioned for the maintenance, transportation, and installation of
exhibits. The total amount of appropriation was $30,000. There was
absolutely no private contribution in cash. The approximate value of the
exhibits was about $105,000.
Some of the most interesting features of the exhibition were:
First. A collection of over 200 varieties of fibers prepared under
different processes and taken from different altitudes. Nearly all were
prepared by a machine invented by Dr. J. Lameda, who collected and took
the greatest interest in the fiber exhibit. From the coarsest to the
finest were to be found among these fibers. The longest was of the musa
variety, a coarse fiber which grows to the length of 10 feet. The
_Annanassa sativa_, a fine fiber, grows to the length of 5 feet. This
was the only collection of the kind at the exposition or which has ever
been shown at any other exposition.
Second. The magnificent collection of hard woods from the Government
States of Carabobo, Zulia, and Guayana, each comprising over 600
specimens of native logs, woods for cabinetwork, for building
construction, lumber, staves, dyewoods, tanning, resinous, oil, rubber,
and fragrant woods.
Third. A most unique and complete collection of forest plants, roots,
herbs, leaves, barks, seeds, fruits, resins, gums, and dyeing and
flavoring materials used by herbalists and pharmacists. These were
collected, prepared, and classified by E.M. Ambard.
Fourth. A complete collection of all the minerals and precious stones
(uncut) found in South America, prepared, collected, classified, and
catalogued by Dr. Louis Plazard, who devoted nearly all his life to this
Fifth. A collection of cocoa beans from different regions, which is
considered to be one of the best and most nutritious cocoas in the
world, and has always obtained a far higher price than any other cocoa;
also a collection of coffee from different altitudes, considered by
authorities to be of very fine flavor and high grade.
The Venezuela Government had no special building. The exhibits were
shown in the various exhibit palaces on the grounds.
The Holy See having been requested to take part in the Louisiana
Purchase Exhibition, accepted the invitation and sent to St. Louis, Mo.,
as its commissioner, Mr. Francis Cagiati, of Rome.
The exhibits sent by the Vatican to the fair were phototypical
reproductions of the most valuable manuscripts existing in the Vatican
Library, as well as some excellent specimens of works in mosaic,
manufactured by the Studio del Mosaico Vaticano.
No special building was erected for the Vatican exhibit, but as the
special nature of the objects required, the entire exhibit was placed in
the Administration Building.
The exhibits sent by the Holy See to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
were as follows:
Copies of valuable manuscripts, codes, and documents from the Vatican
The Roman Virgil (fifth century), the miniatures of the Greek Palatine
Balter (twelfth century), the famous Greek Vatican Bible (fourth
century), the Vatican Virgil (fifth century), the miniatures of the
Bible of the Patricins Leo (tenth century), selected pages from the
Papal Letter Book (eleventh century), Papal letters regarding Greenland
(ninth century), earliest Papal documents regarding America (sixteenth
century), the miniatures of the Ottobonian Pontifical (fifteenth
century), the Palmipsett manuscript of the (de republica) of Cicero
(fifth century), the ivories of the Christian, Museum of the Vatican
Many phototypical and photographical reproductions of the Borgia rooms,
Sistine Chapel, Raphael's Stanze.
Forty-one different pieces of mosaic work.
The death mask of Leo XIII.
Cast of the right hand of Leo XIII.
REPORTS OF STATES, TERRITORIES, AND DISTRICTS.
Committee on Birmingham district exhibit: Fred M. Jackson, president; J.
B. Gibson, secretary; J.A. MacKnight, special representative; Rufus N.
Rhodes, Culpepper Exum, F.H. Dixon, George H. Clark.
The legislature of Alabama failed to provide any funds for an exhibit of
the resources of that State. A commission which had been appointed by
the governor to attend to the business for the State was powerless to
act and gave up the undertaking. In consequence of this failure the
Commercial Club of Birmingham decided, when it was almost too late to
arrange for any kind of an exhibit, to make a display of the State's
mineral resources by means of a fund raised by popular subscription. The
actual amount of money raised was approximately $20,000.
After considerable discussion the Commercial Club decided, upon a
suggestion made by J.A. Mac Knight, to build a colossal statue of
Vulcan, god of fire and metals, in iron. F.M. Jackson, president of the
club, and J.B. Gibson, secretary, took a deep interest in the matter,
and as a result the work was commenced in October, 1903. Great
difficulty was met with in securing the services of a competent sculptor
who was willing to build the model for such a statue, which was to be of
a height of at least 50 feet. Mr. Mac Knight was appointed special
representative of the club to promote this work and finally secured the
services of Mr. G. Moretti, a sculptor residing in New York, who
undertook to perform the task and to complete it in time for the
The model of this colossal statue of Vulcan was first built in clay at
Passaic, N.J., where Mr. Moretti carried on the work under adverse
circumstances and through the zero weather of the winter of 1903-4. It
was then cast in plaster of Paris in sections, which were braced and
stayed with scantling on the inside of the shell, to be used as patterns
in the foundry. The entire model was shipped to Birmingham, Ala., on
seven flat cars, its bulk rendering it impossible to put it in box cars.
As soon as it reached Birmingham the work of casting the figure in iron
was begun in the foundry of the Birmingham Steel and Iron Company.
Mr. Moretti went to Birmingham to keep the patterns in condition during
the process of casting, and it was well that he did so, because the
extreme cold had frozen the plaster casts before they were dry,
rendering them so brittle that many of them were broken in handling, and
the head itself was crumbled into a hundred pieces and had to be
Iron manufacturers from all parts of the world have said in regard to
this statue that it was the most remarkable piece of iron casting they
had ever seen. An agent of the Japanese Government was present at
Passaic to watch the building of the model, and followed the work to
Birmingham to make notes on the methods of casting it in iron. He also
went to St. Louis and remained during its erection in the Mines Palace,
and made an extended report to his Government on the subject.
The statue was successfully completed and set up in the exposition
within three weeks after the day of opening. At the close of the
exposition it was taken down and removed to Birmingham, where it is to
be set up in a public park. Its height is 56 feet, and its weight a
little more than 60 tons. The head was cast in one piece and weighed
over 17,000 pounds. There were 20 casts in all, including the anvil and
anvil block. The statue, which was intended to show forth the colossal
iron deposits of Alabama, representing primitive man at the time he
discovered the method of hardening iron into steel. Vulcan held aloft in
his right hand the finished spearhead as a result of his knowledge and
handicraft. It is the largest cast statue in the world, and it could not
be duplicated for less than $40,000.
The space occupied by the exhibit collected and installed by the
Commercial Club was 62 by 32 feet on the south side of the Mines
Building, and contained approximately 2,000 square feet. The statue of
Vulcan stood in the center of one side of the space facing the center of
the Mines Palace. It was placed on a platform built upon nine heavy
piles, which were driven to bedrock. The figure was perfectly poised
when set up, but as an additional safeguard anchor bars were run down
through the legs and through a heavy timber, which was bolted to the
piles. These passed through plates on the inside of the timber and were
screwed up tight. The rest of the space was occupied by a complete
exhibit of raw mineral products from all parts of Alabama and especially
iron and coal from the Birmingham district. The raw materials embraced
the following: Brown hematite iron ore, soft red ore, hard red ore,
bituminous coals, building stone, gray iron, limestone, dolomite,
kaolin, clays, cement rocks, gold ores, copper ore, lignite, and glass
sand, and a long list of other minerals which have not been developed.
The products of coal and iron were coke and pig iron. The finished
products were as follows: Open-hearth steel rails, bar and angle iron,
car wheels, bar steel, steel plate, sewer pipe, and vitrified brick.
This entire exhibit was displayed in an attractive manner and was the
object of a great deal of comment by visitors to the exposition and by
newspapers throughout the country and Europe.
A display of Alabama marble was made in the form of a head of Christ,
which was carved by Moretti, while he was at work on the Vulcan statue
at Birmingham. This marble is of exceedingly fineness and whiteness.
Moretti gave it as his opinion that this marble is equal to the best
Carara or Parian marbles, and it is believed that the making of this
exhibit will lead to the development of the marble deposits of Alabama,
which are believed to be very extensive and of superior quality. The raw
materials displayed offer to capital and enterprise a number of splendid
opportunities. The glass sands are probably destined to place Alabama in
the front rank in glass making in the future, while the following
resources were displayed in such abundance and were of such excellent
quality as to offer the greatest inducements to capital and skill:
An exhibit of porcelain clays and kaolins, which should lead to the
establishment of the manufacture of all kinds of crockery and pottery
ware near these deposits.
The cement rocks, which formed a principal part of the exhibit, have
already attracted capital, and Portland cement of the highest quality is
now being manufactured to a limited extent. Large industries in this
line are to be located near these deposits, which are among the finest
in the world and in inexhaustible quantity.
The beds of lignite, of which samples were on exhibition, are said to be
of very superior quality. No artificial binder is required to make this
material up into briquettes for fuel. It is understood that very
profitable enterprises in this line are to be built up near these
The marble deposits, gold and copper ores, and other mineral deposits
were sufficiently exhibited to warrant the assertion that they were
worthy of the fullest investigation. The large deposits of low-grade
gold ore in the eastern part of Alabama, according to exhibitors, will
undoubtedly prove immensely profitable to anyone who may establish a
system to extract the gold economically.
Owing to the failure of the State to make an exhibit, the authorities of
the exposition recognized the Birmingham committee as the State
commission of Alabama and extended to them the courtesies due to a State
commissioner. The exhibit was maintained through the period of the
exposition, and many thousands of souvenirs of the great statue of
Vulcan were sold at the exhibit. An electric picture machine was
installed, which gave a large series of moving pictures representing the
scenery and life of the Birmingham district. The business of the exhibit
was under the direction of J.A. MacKnight, of Birmingham, throughout
the exposition, and he had his office at the exhibit.
Members of the Alaska commission.--Thomas Ryan, First Assistant
Secretary of the Interior, chairman; Governor John F. Brady executive
commissioner; Joseph B. Marvin, resident representative; Mrs. Mary E.
Hart, hostess. Honorary commissioners: M.E. Martin, mayor of Ketchikan;
Peter Jensen, mayor of Wrangell; O.H. Adsit, mayor of Juneau; Frank
Bach, mayor of Douglas; John Goodell, mayor of Valdez; L.S. Keller,
mayor of Skagway; D.B. Miller, mayor of Eagle City; W.H. Bard, ex-mayor
of Nome; Anthony Tubbs, mayor of Treadwell; H.P. King, mayor of Nome.
The district of Alaska appeared at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition as
an exhibitor in a national exposition for the first time. The conception
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and its plans were presented for
the consideration of the Congress of the United States at a time when
the reports of the committees of Congress sent to Alaska to investigate
its resources and needs had aroused the Congress to the duty of enacting
legislation for the development of this great region. In appropriating
the large sum of $50,000 for an Alaska Building and an Alaska exhibit at
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition it was the purpose of Congress to
afford an object lesson as a means of education to the millions of
people who should attend the exposition as to the extent and resources
of this country or territory. The sequel showed that the money was
wisely expended, as the Alaska exhibit had the distinction of being
regarded by the thousand of its visitors as forming one of the most
interesting, instructive, an surprising exhibits shown at the great
When the United States, thirty-seven years ago, paid to Russia the sum
of $7,200,000 for the almost unknown territory of Alaska, the purchase
was not generally approved; and even members of Congress denounced it,
regarding the acquisition as a region of icebergs and glaciers. Later,
when gold was discovered in Alaska, the region was regarded as being one
of ice and almost inaccessible gold, and few had the hardihood to
venture within its precincts, even with the possibility of finding gold
as an inducement for the venture.
Still later, after the reports of the Revenue-Cutter Service and the
recognizances of army officers and naval commanders, the United States
Geological Survey sent men into Alaska to investigate its resources. The
Department of Agriculture tested its capacity for agriculture, the
Bureau of Education established schools and introduced reindeer from
Siberia, the Signal Service began to build telegraph lines and to
inspect the country as to the availability of its rivers and harbors for
navigation, and it became known by the Government that Alaska was richer
in resources by far than had been supposed. This knowledge was not
common to the public, and emigration to that region was tardy.
The United States could hardly have done more for the furtherance of the
development of the great rich district of Alaska, with its untold wealth
in minerals and its great possibilities in agriculture, than it did by
securing to the people of Alaska an opportunity to display their
resources and products to the inspection of the millions who have
visited the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The exhibits shown by them
excited the utmost wonder and surprise in the minds of many witnessing
them, who had been in ignorance of the resources of their country.
Thousands have been led to investigate and seek further information. The
effect of the Alaska exhibit will undoubtedly be far-reaching and
permanent; nor can it be doubted that Congress will supplement this
contribution to Alaska's welfare in the near future by legislation which
shall secure the one great need of Alaska--inland transportation.
An appropriation of $50,000 for the Alaskan exhibit at the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition was made by act of Congress March 3, 1903, as
To enable the inhabitants of the district of Alaska to provide
and maintain an appropriate and creditable exhibit of the
products and resources of that district at the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition in the city of St. Louis, Missouri, in
nineteen hundred and four, and to erect and maintain on the site
of said exposition a suitable building to be used for the
purposes of exhibiting the products and resources of said
district, the sum of fifty thousand dollars, to be subject to
the order of the Secretary of the Interior, who is hereby
authorized to expend the same in such manner as in his judgment
will best promote the objects for which said sum is appropriated
in accordance with the rules and regulations to be prescribed by
After the passage of the act of Congress which made appropriation for
the Alaska exhibit, providing that the sum appropriated should be
expended by the Secretary of the Interior in such manner as in his
judgment would promote the objects for which the sum was appropriated,
in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed by him, one of his
first acts was the appointment of Hon. Thomas Ryan, First Assistant
Secretary of the Interior, chairman of the Alaska commission, to have
immediate charge at the Department of the elaboration of the exhibit.
Later Governor John G. Brady was appointed executive commissioner, and
entered upon the task of gathering together and forwarding to the
exposition such collections of exhibits as would best represent and
illustrate the products and resources of Alaska.
Still later Mr. Joseph B. Marvin was appointed special agent of the
Alaska exhibit and was sent to St. Louis in December, 1903, to
superintend the construction of the Alaska Building, to attend to all
accounts with the Department, and to arrange for the installation of the
exhibits as they arrive.
Mrs. Mary E. Hart was employed January 1, 1904, to assist in the
securing of the exhibits in Alaska, especially in the Department of
Education, and upon the opening of the exposition Mrs. Hart was directed
to proceed to St. Louis, where she was designated as hostess and placed
in charge of the bureau of information in the Alaska Building. At the
same time attendants were selected, whose duty it was to explain the
exhibits to visitors.
The executive commissioner, the honorary commissioners, the hostess, all
of the attendants, and those employed in collecting exhibits in Alaska
were all Alaskans, the attendants being especially selected because of
their acquaintance with Alaska and its products.
It was the desire of the executive commissioner that the utmost
hospitality should be shown to all visitors at the Alaska Building, and
the commodious and homelike parlors on the second floor of the building
were free to the public, maids being employed for special attention to
the wants of ladies and children.
The principal exhibits in the Alaska Building related naturally to the
mining interest of the country.
One of the most impressive and significant exhibits was a gilded cube,
about 3 feet in diameter, representing the size of a block of gold worth
$7,200,000, which was the amount paid by the United States to Russia for
Alaska, and beside it, inclosed in a brass railing, a gilded pyramid of
blocks representing the amount of gold taken each year since 1882 from
the Treadwell mine in Alaska, aggregating $21,800,000, a sum which is
three times the amount paid for Alaska taken from one mine.
The ore exhibit, especially of gold and copper ores, was very large,
filling a glass case 75 feet long and 5 feet high. These ores were
collected by an expert mineralogist employed by the Alaska commission,
and included specimens from nearly all the mines in Alaska.
Following is a list of exhibits, showing the principal industries the
country, as displayed throughout the building: Marble, canned goods,
furs, coal, oils, guano, vegetables and fruit, Indian basketry and
curios, and mounted specimens of game and fish.
An interesting exhibit of Alaskan ethnology was made, twenty totem poles
and two native houses and one war canoe being located about the
building. The totem poles came from different places on Prince of Wales
Island and from two different tribes. At an old village called Tuxekan
four were obtained. These represented the totem or heraldic sign of each
family, and the back part of the totem was excavated to receive the
charred bones of friends and ancestors of the man who raised it. The
Thlingits were in the habit of burning their dead, but carefully
preserved all the charred embers from the funeral pile. These totem
poles were always erected on great occasions, and the bones were usually
carefully wrapped in a new blanket and incased in the back part of the
The Commission was fortunate in securing for the exhibit a fine
collection of samples of grains raised at the experiment stations at
Alaska, consisting of the grains in the straw and thrashed grains,
including wheat, rye, barley, and oats. These samples were handsomely
displayed, some of the grains and straw being tastefully arranged on the
walls, covering a space 10 by 40 feet, and the balance in a pyramid some
10 feet high and 8 feet in diameter. The thrashed grains were displayed
in glass jars. The grasses were shown in bales of hay. The display of
cereals and grasses was one of the most important, instructive, and
surprising to visitors of any display in the Alaska Building, for it
demonstrated the fact that agriculture is possible in Alaska, and
seekers of the treasures of the mines may always feel sure of
Arizona commission.--A.J. Doran, chairman; B.F. Packard, treasurer;
H.B. St. Claire, secretary; Mrs. J.A. Black, commissioner; R.N.
Leatherwood, superintendent of exhibits.
The Arizona Building stood near the southeast entrance of the grounds.
Its architecture was Spanish, belonging to the sixteenth century. It
contained seven rooms, elegantly furnished and decorated. The cost of
the building was approximately $5,000. During the exposition period a
large amount of literature descriptive of the Territory and its various
resources was distributed.
The exhibits in the Arizona State Building other than those placed
therein by the board of managers were a prehistoric collection loaned by
Mrs. M. Aguria, of Tucson, Ariz., valued at $5,000; an oil painting of a
mountain scene in southern Arizona, loaned by Mr. A.J. Scofield and
valued at $4,000; a collection of Indian baskets, rugs, and blankets
(Navaho), valued at $600; an exhibit of cactus picture frames, loaned by
F.E. White, of Florence, Ariz., valued at $250.
The Territory made exhibits in the departments of Mines and Metallurgy,
Education, Agriculture and Horticulture. The exhibit in the Palace of
Mines and Metallurgy occupied a space of 80 feet frontage by 20 feet in
depth. In all, nearly 300 mines were represented by characteristic ores
showing actual values rather than specimens, including in nearly every
exhibit the inclosing and country rocks in which the vein matter
occurred. These exhibits were arranged in two tiers, running the full
length of the space, each mine having its distinctive ore placed on
wooden mounts, appropriately labeled, giving the county, district,
owner, name and character of ore, and its value per ton in gold, silver,
copper, or lead. The exhibit also showed free gold, native silver,
native copper, copper bars, lead-silver bars, copper ingots, onyx (rough
and polished), marble (rough and polished) building stone of various
kinds, lithographic stone, petrified wood in rough and polish, meteoric
iron, etc.; also photographic views of many of the mines, mills,
reduction works, and localities from which the exhibits were taken. The
value of the exhibit was approximately $20,000 and the cost of
The educational exhibit in the Education and Social Economy Building
represented the school work of the Territory from the kindergarten to
the academic grade, showing the educational system and the progress made
in Arizona. The value of the exhibit was approximately $2,500 and the
cost of installation $750.
The agricultural exhibit in the Agricultural Building showed the various
products of the soil of the Territory. Wheat, oats, barley, corn, Kaffir
corn, sorghum, millet, alfalfa seed, alfalfa, hay, vegetables, olives,
olive oil, preserved fruits, dates, etc., were displayed The exhibit
cost approximately $875. The cost of installation was $1,500.
In the Horticultural Building there were maintained throughout the fair
from 130 to 160 plates on the table, which held the following: Valencia
late oranges, Washington navel oranges, Mediterranean sweets, lemons,
limes, grape fruit, citronella, tangarines, grapes, plums, quinces,
apricots, plum grabites, pears, cantaloupes, melons, olives, olive oil,
pickled olives, etc. The value of the exhibit was approximately $2,500
and the cost of installation $950.
The amount appropriated by the legislative act for the participation of
Arizona was $30,000 in bonds, which were sold for 7 per cent. premium,
thus making available from that source $32,000. No other funds from any
source came into the hands of the board of managers.
_Members of Arkansas commission_.--George R. Belding, president; J.C.
Rembert, secretary; Thomas W. Milan, manager; George T. Lake; John P.
Logan, superintendent horticultural department; A.H. Purdue,
superintendent mines; H.T. Bradford, agriculture department; Miss
Lizzie Cage, assistant lady manager.
In May, 1901, the legislature of the State of Arkansas enacted a bill
appropriating the sum of $30,000 for the erection and maintenance of a
State building at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, and for the
installation and maintenance of the exhibits of the State. Subsequently,
in 1903, the State legislature appropriated a further sum of $50,000 for
the purpose of the State exhibit. There were no private subscriptions,
the entire cost of the State building and maintenance thereof being
borne by the State appropriation.
The cost of the installation and transportation of the different
exhibits made by the commission was $18,102, besides the cost of
returning the exhibits.
The Arkansas Pavilion at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was a fine
specimen of Georgian architecture, of the type so much used throughout
the South in antebellum times. The adaptation of the colonial features
to the purpose for which the building was used was most admirable. The
location, with its foreground of grass and forest trees, produced an
effect suggesting age and permanency that few buildings on the ground
possessed. In fact, on coming upon the building unexpectedly, one would
presume that it had occupied its site for two generations at least. The
building was arranged for the entertainment of the Arkansans visiting
the fair, and served the purpose of a clubhouse and general headquarters
for thousands of people.
The principal feature of the plan of the building was the large
reception hall in the center, connecting through wide openings two
reception rooms, one on either side, and an exhibit room in the rear. On
this floor there were also four smaller rooms used as commissioners'
headquarters, manager's office, post-office, and lady manager's
headquarters; also wide hallways at right angles to the principal axis
of the building.
The second story of the building contained the library, auditorium,
headquarters of the State Bankers' Association, and ladies' parlor, four
sleeping rooms, together with the general toilet rooms.
The three exterior porticos were connected with wide terraces, affording
over 3,000 square feet of floor space. The building was constructed
entirely of Arkansas timber, and was designed by Frank W. Gibb, A.I.A.
A., architect, Little Rock, Ark., and constructed at a cost of
At the conclusion of the fair the building was sold to a citizen of
Arkansas, where it is to be reerected as a residence.
In the building were exhibited many handsome pieces of art and
fancywork, burnt-wood plaques and panels, china work, a large silk map
of the United States, showing States, rivers, railroads, principal
towns, etc.; oil paintings, pictures, and portraits, and miscellaneous
In the main exhibit hall of the building was a composite exhibit made by
the land department of the Iron Mountain Railroad, consisting of a
collection of minerals found in the State, samples of the various woods
of the State, a wooden library of seventy-five volumes, each book being
made of a different kind of Arkansas wood, paintings and pictures of
Arkansas scenes, and a historic clock made in Germany in 1763 for the
Duke of Saxony, and samples of mineral waters of Montgomery County.
The Arkansas State commission maintained five exhibits in the exhibition
palaces, viz, Agriculture, approximate value, $7,500; Horticulture,
approximate value, $9,300; Forestry, approximate value, $3,500; Mines
and Metallurgy, approximate value, $6,500; Education, approximate value,
$3,600. In addition to these State exhibits, the city of Hot Springs
maintained in the Government Building a unique exhibit in the nature of
a cave or grotto made of quartz, crystals.
_Members of California commission_.--Frank Wiggins; J. A Filcher; George
A. Dennison, secretary; Lewis E. Auburg, chief department of mining;
George C. Roeding, chief department of horticulture; W.H. Mills, chief
department of forestry; Robert Furlong, chief department of education.
On March 25, 1903, the legislature of the State of California passed a
bill appropriating the sum of $130,000 for the purpose of adequately
exploiting California's resources and progress at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, and providing for two commissioners--one to have had one
year's residence in the southern half of the State; both to have had
experience in installing and managing exhibits at former, expositions.
In addition to this appropriation, there was about $120,000 raised by
the various counties of the State for exclusive county displays to be
installed in the Agricultural Building. These displays were intended to
set forth the possibilities of California in an agricultural and
horticultural way. The cost of installation of said features was about
$40,000. The transportation of all the exhibits, including those of the
counties, which were paid by the State, amounted to, approximately,
The California State Building was located on "The Trail" in the vicinity
of the buildings erected by Georgia and other Southern States, and was
always an object of interest to sightseers at the fair. The pavilion was
built after the Mission style of architecture, modeled after the houses
in which the old Spanish settlers in California used to live. The front
of the building was an exact copy in reduced proportions of the Mission
at Santa Barbara, which was erected by the Franciscan monks in 1786. The
pavilion contained no special exhibits, but its furnishings and
decorations were entirely of Californian material, manufactured by
Californian labor. The cost of the building complete was about $17,000,
the balance of the appropriation by the State being consumed in the
collection of the exhibit, its maintenance, and in general
In the Forestry Pavilion California showed altogether 73 varieties of
commercial and cabinet woods. A separate exhibit in the same place
displayed an exhibit of the fish and game of the State. Just outside of
the building there was an exhibit of forestry containing five logs, or
timbers, which were too heavy to be placed on the Exhibition Building
In the Agricultural Building the State made a distinctive feature of
wine, dried fruits, canned fruit, processed vegetables, honey, hay,
hops, canned fish, seeds and cereals, grasses and vegetable fibers, etc.
A facade was erected in this department and decorated most artistically.
The counties made separate displays. Altogether 23,300 feet of space was
occupied by the State in agriculture, exclusive of aisles.
In the Horticultural Building the State occupied 9,000 square feet of
space and made a strong showing of processed fruits, fresh fruits, nuts,
and a panoramic scene illustrating methods of orchard irrigation. There
was also shown a cabinet containing the insects that prey on California
orchards, and their parasites.
An operating mill and concentrators were displayed in the Mining Gulch,
and in the Palace of Mines the State occupied 5,200 feet of floor space
with an exhibit showing all the commercial minerals of California.
Altogether there were forty-odd varieties.
In education a strong showing of the university work was made in one of
the alcoves, 40 by 40 feet, and 2,000 feet of floor space was occupied
for the general artistic exhibit of school work from the kindergarten to
the high school. This was inclosed within a characteristic facade of
California redwood, finished in natural color.
A handsome display was a butter feature in the refrigeration department
of agriculture with a beautiful modeled goddess of California, draped in
fruits. Incubators were shown in the proper department, and on the
grounds and in the conservatory were exhibited about 600 rare plants and
shrubs and some tropical fruit trees.
The Colorado legislature of 1901 appropriated $50,000 for the purpose of
making a display of Colorado products and resources at the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition and provided for the appointment by the governor of
the State of a board of five commissioners, of which the governor should
be a member and ex officio president. In 1903 an additional $100,000 was
appropriated and the board was increased from five to seven members.
The following-named persons composed the Colorado commission:
Governor James H. Peabody, president; T.J. O'Donnell, vice-president;
Paul Wilson, commissioner in chief; I.N. Stevens, secretary; Harry
Cassady, treasurer; Mrs. Lionel Rose Anthony; William F. Sperry; John A.
Wayne, assistant to commissioner in chief; Maria W. Stewart, assistant
The appropriation by the legislature of 1903 unfortunately was placed in
the fifth-class appropriation, and not all of the sum was available for
the use of the board; but by arrangement of other departments of the
State government and with the State institutions of Colorado $80,000 of
the $100,000 was made available for the State's participation in the
The work of the board was divided into six departments, all under the
direction of Commissioner in Chief Paul Wilson, as follows:
Mining Department, Mr. I.N. Stevens, chairman; Horticultural
Department, Mr. Paul Wilson, chairman; Agricultural Department, Mr.
Harry Cassady, chairman; Educational Department, Mrs. I.R. Anthony,
chairman; Forestry, Fish, and Game Department, Mr. T.J. O'Donnell,
chairman; Fine Arts Department, Mr. W.F. Sperry chairman.
The exhibits of the resources of the State were collected from every
portion of the State in these various departments.
The value of the mining exhibit placed by the State of Colorado on
exhibition in St. Louis was $500,000; the value of the agricultural
exhibit, $10,000; horticultural exhibit, $8,000; educational exhibit,
$15,000; forestry, fish, and game exhibit, $7,500.
The approximate cost of installing and caring for these exhibits was as
Mining Department ........................ $25,000
Horticultural Department ................. 10,000
Agricultural Department .................. 15,000
Educational Department ................... 12,000
Forestry, Fish, and Game Department ...... 10,000
The legislature of Connecticut appropriated $100,000 for the
participation of that State at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The
following commissioners were appointed by the governor of Connecticut,
according to an act of the legislature passed April 2, 1903:
Frank L. Wilcox, president: Charles Phelps, vice-president; J.A. Vail,
secretary-treasurer; Edgar J. Dolittle, Isaac W. Birdseye, Phelps
Montgomery, Mrs. Louis R. Cheney, Mrs. George H. Knight, Miss Anne H.
Chappell. National commissioners: Frederick Betts, Mrs. John M.
Holcombe. Resident commissioner, Hobart Brinsmade.
The Connecticut State Building was intended to represent colonial
design. In its main exterior features it was a replica of the Sigourney
mansion in Hartford, built about 1820 by Charles Sigourney, whose wife
Lydia Huntley Sigourney, was highly regarded as a poet in her time. In
later years it was the home of Lieut. Governor Julius Catlin. The
architect of the Connecticut building was Edward T. Hapgood, of
Hartford. The interior plan was designed to combine colonial ideas with
modern requirements, which were carried out to such extent as to make it
one of the most attractive and homelike structures on the exposition
grounds. It was erected by The H. Wales Lines Company, of Meriden,
Conn., at a cost of about $31,000, and official inspectors pronounced it
the best-built edifice at the exposition. The walls of the rooms on the
first floor and the upper hall were hung with five different designs of
exquisite silk tapestry, the gift of the Cheney Brothers, of South
Manchester. These added a "finishing touch" that found no comparison
elsewhere on the grounds. The furnishing of the building was in
excellent harmony with its colonial design. Highboys and lowboys,
Chippendale, Hepplewhite and Windsor chairs, Sheraton and
thousand-legged tables, flax wheels and warming pans were associated
with canopied high-post bedsteads, while corner cupboards revealed rare
copper-luster china of almost untold value. As a colonial exhibit it was
unique, and had it been entered in competition for reward would most
surely have been given the grand prize. The souvenir catalogue issued by
the Connecticut commission contains a list of 514 articles, most of them
loaned from various Connecticut homesteads. The catalogue also contains
a list of oil paintings and water colors, all by Connecticut artists,
which embellished the walls of the building, the selection being made by
Charles Noel Flagg, of Hartford, chosen by the commission for that
The collective exhibits of Connecticut were in the following-named
departments: Education, farm products, tobacco, dairy, horticulture
(including pomology), herbarium, public parks and residential grounds
(photographs), and shellfish. The grounds surrounding the Connecticut
Building form part of the State horticultural exhibit.
On account of the limited appropriation it was necessary to abandon the
live exhibit of Connecticut in the Fish and Game Building. With the
limited amount of stock which the oystermen had, owing to the lack of
"set" for a number of years, they considered it a detriment to
advertise, and it was only through a regard for the commission that any
of the larger cultivators would contribute to the exhibit.
The exhibit was advantageously placed in the center of the Forest, Fish,
and Game Building and attracted a great deal of attention from visitors
and will undoubtedly prove of material advantage to an immense State
On one side of the booth the strictly State exhibit was placed, showing
in the cases the oysters of all ages, their enemies, and various
curiosities in growth and development. Over the cases were maps of the
oyster grounds, with photographs showing the oyster houses, docks, and
steamers. On the opposite side were individual displays of several of
the larger cultivators.
Connecticut made a good display. Fifty-eight different specimens of nuts
attracted much attention, many of the varieties shown now growing in the
West and South, and being seen for the first time by many of the
Much interest was manifested in flint (Yankee) corn, as it was called by
people of the West and South, and many samples were given to people from
all parts of the United States and to some from foreign countries.
Samples of grass taken from a field yielding 121 tons to the acre far
surpassed any yield of alfalfa claimed from the rich soil of California
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