George Washington, Vol. I
Henry Cabot Lodge
Part 5 out of 6
day of his retirement from the Presidency, he worked unceasingly to
establish union and strong government in the country he had made
independent. He accomplished this great labor more successfully
by honest and lawful methods than if he had taken the path of the
strong-handed savior of society, and his work in this field did more
for the welfare of his country than all his battles. To have restored
order at the head of the army was much easier than to effect it in the
slow and law-abiding fashion which he adopted. To have refused supreme
rule, and then to have effected in the spirit and under the forms
of free government all and more than the most brilliant of military
chiefs could have achieved by absolute power, is a glory which belongs
to Washington alone.
Nevertheless, at that particular juncture it was, as he himself had
said, "high time for a peace." The danger at Newburgh had been averted
by his commanding influence and the patriotic conduct of the army. But
it had been averted only, not removed. The snake was scotched, not
killed. The finishing stroke was still needed in the form of an end to
hostilities, and it was therefore fortunate for the United States that
a fortnight later, on March 23, news came that a general treaty
of peace had been signed. This final consummation of his work, in
addition to the passage by Congress of the half-pay commutation and
the settlement of the army accounts, filled Washington with deep
rejoicing. He felt that in a short time, a few weeks at most, he would
be free to withdraw to the quiet life at Mount Vernon for which he
longed. But public bodies move slowly, and one delay after another
occurred to keep him still in the harness. He chafed under the
postponement, but it was not possible to him to remain idle even when
he awaited in almost daily expectation the hour of dismissal. He saw
with the instinctive glance of statesmanship that the dangerous point
in the treaty of peace was in the provisions as to the western posts
on the one side, and those relating to British debts on the other. A
month therefore had not passed before he brought to the attention
of Congress the importance of getting immediate possession of those
posts, and a little later he succeeded in having Steuben sent out as a
special envoy to obtain their surrender. The mission was vain, as he
had feared. He was not destined to extract this thorn for many years,
and then only after many trials and troubles. Soon afterward he made a
journey with Governor Clinton to Ticonderoga, and along the valley of
the Mohawk, "to wear away the time," as he wrote to Congress. He wore
away time to more purpose than most people, for where he traveled he
observed closely, and his observations were lessons which he never
forgot. On this trip he had the western posts and the Indians always
in mind, and familiarized himself with the conditions of a part of the
country where these matters were of great importance.
On his return he went to Princeton, where Congress had been sitting
since their flight from the mutiny which he had recently suppressed,
and where a house had been provided for his use. He remained there two
months, aiding Congress in their work. During the spring he had been
engaged on the matter of a peace establishment, and he now gave
Congress elaborate and well-matured advice on that question, and on
those of public lands, western settlement, and the best Indian policy.
In all these directions his views were clear, far-sighted, and wise.
He saw that in these questions was involved much of the future
development and wellbeing of the country, and he treated them with a
precision and an easy mastery which showed the thought he had given to
the new problems which now were coming to the front. Unluckily, he was
so far ahead, both in knowledge and perception, of the body with which
he dealt, that he could get little or nothing done, and in September
he wrote in plain but guarded terms of the incapacity of the
lawmakers. The people were not yet ripe for his measures, and he was
forced to bide his time, and see the injuries caused by indifference
and short-sightedness work themselves out. Gradually, however, the
absolutely necessary business was brought to an end. Then Washington
issued a circular letter to the governors of the States, which was
one of the ablest he ever wrote, and full of the profoundest
statesmanship, and he also sent out a touching address of farewell to
the army, eloquent with wisdom and with patriotism.
From Princeton he went to West Point, where the army that still
remained in service was stationed. Thence he moved to Harlem, and
on November 25 the British army departed, and Washington, with his
troops, accompanied by Governor Clinton and some regiments of local
militia, marched in and took possession. This was the outward sign
that the war was over, and that American independence had been won.
Carleton feared that the entry of the American army might be the
signal for confusion and violence, in which the Tory inhabitants would
suffer; but everything passed off with perfect tranquillity and good
order, and in the evening Governor Clinton gave a public dinner to the
commander-in-chief and the officers of the army.
All was now over, and Washington prepared to go to Annapolis and lay
down his commission. On December 4 his officers assembled in Fraunces'
Tavern to bid him farewell. As he looked about on his faithful
friends, his usual self-command deserted him, and he could not control
his voice. Taking a glass of wine, he lifted it up, and said simply,
"With a heart full of love and gratitude I now take my leave of you,
most devoutly wishing that your latter days may be as prosperous and
happy as your former ones have been glorious and honorable." The toast
was drunk in silence, and then Washington added, "I cannot come to
each of you and take my leave, but shall be obliged if you will come
and take me by the hand." One by one they approached, and Washington
grasped the hand of each man and embraced him. His eyes were full of
tears, and he could not trust himself to speak. In silence he bade
each and all farewell, and then, accompanied by his officers, walked
to Whitehall Ferry. Entering his barge, the word was given, and as
the oars struck the water he stood up and lifted his hat. In solemn
silence his officers returned the salute, and watched the noble and
gracious figure of their beloved chief until the boat disappeared from
sight behind the point of the Battery.
At Philadelphia he stopped a few days and adjusted his accounts, which
he had in characteristic fashion kept himself in the neatest and most
methodical way. He had drawn no pay, and had expended considerable
sums from his private fortune, which he had omitted to charge to the
government. The gross amount of his expenses was about 15,000 pounds
sterling, including secret service and other incidental outlays. In
these days of wild money-hunting, there is something worth pondering
in this simple business settlement between a great general and his
government, at the close of eight years of war. This done, he started
again on his journey. From Philadelphia he proceeded to Annapolis,
greeted with addresses and hailed with shouts at every town and
village on his route, and having reached his destination, he addressed
a letter to Congress on December 20, asking when it would be agreeable
to them to receive him. The 23d was appointed, and on that day, at
noon, he appeared before Congress.
The following year a French orator and "maitre avocat," in an oration
delivered at Toulouse upon the American Revolution, described this
scene in these words: "On the day when Washington resigned his
commission in the hall of Congress, a crown decked with jewels was
placed upon the Book of the Constitutions. Suddenly Washington seizes
it, breaks it, and flings the pieces to the assembled people. How
small ambitious Caesar seems beside the hero of America." It is worth
while to recall this contemporary French description, because its
theatrical and dramatic untruth gives such point by contrast to the
plain and dignified reality. The scene was the hall of Congress. The
members representing the sovereign power were seated and covered,
while all the space about was filled by the governor and state
officers of Maryland, by military officers, and by the ladies and
gentlemen of the neighborhood, who stood in respectful silence with
uncovered heads. Washington was introduced by the Secretary of
Congress, and took a chair which had been assigned to him. There was
a brief pause, and then the president said that "the United States
in Congress assembled were prepared to receive his communication."
Washington rose, and replied as follows:--
"Mr. President: The great events, on which my resignation depended,
having at length taken place, I have now the honor of offering my
sincere congratulations to Congress, and of presenting myself before
them, to surrender into their hands the trust committed to me, and to
claim the indulgence of retiring from the service of my country.
"Happy in the confirmation of our independence and sovereignty, and
pleased with the opportunity afforded the United States of becoming
a respectable nation, I resign with satisfaction the appointment I
accepted with diffidence; a diffidence in my abilities to accomplish
so arduous a task, which, however, was superseded by a confidence in
the rectitude of our cause, the support of the supreme power of the
Union, and the patronage of Heaven. The successful termination of the
war has verified the most sanguine expectations; and my gratitude for
the interposition of Providence, and the assistance I have received
from my countrymen, increases with every review of the momentous
contest." Then, after a word of gratitude to the army and to his
staff, he concluded as follows: "I consider it an indispensable duty
to close this last solemn act of my official life by commending the
interests of our dearest country to the protection of Almighty God,
and those who have the superintendence of them to his holy keeping.
"Having now finished the work assigned me, I retire from the great
theatre of action; and bidding an affectionate farewell to this
august body, under whose orders I have so long acted, I here offer my
commission, and take my leave of all the employments of public life."
In singularly graceful and eloquent words his old opponent, Thomas
Mifflin, the president, replied, the simple ceremony ended, and
Washington left the room a private citizen.
The great master of English fiction, touching this scene with skillful
hand, has said: "Which was the most splendid spectacle ever witnessed,
the opening feast of Prince George in London, or the resignation
of Washington? Which is the noble character for after ages to
admire,--yon fribble dancing in lace and spangles, or yonder hero
who sheathes his sword after a life of spotless honor, a purity
unreproached, a courage indomitable, and a consummate victory?"
There is no need to say more. Comment or criticism on such a farewell,
from such a man, at the close of a long civil war, would be not only
superfluous but impertinent. The contemporary newspaper, in its meagre
account, said that the occasion was deeply solemn and affecting, and
that many persons shed tears. Well indeed might those then present
have been thus affected, for they had witnessed a scene memorable
forever in the annals of all that is best and noblest in human nature.
They had listened to a speech which was not equaled in meaning and
spirit in American history until, eighty years later, Abraham Lincoln
stood upon the slopes of Gettysburg and uttered his immortal words
upon those who died that the country might live.
INDEX for Volumes I & II
describes Washington's personal appearance, ii. 386-388.
on Washington's appearance in 1775, i. 137.
moves appointment of Washington as commander-in-chief, i. 134;
on political necessity for his appointment, 135;
and objections to it, 135;
statement as to Washington's difficulties, 163;
over-sanguine as to American prospects, 171;
finds fault with Washington, 214, 215;
one of few national statesmen, 252;
on Washington's opinion of titles, ii. 52;
advocates ceremony, 54;
returns to United States, 137;
attacked by Jefferson as a monarchist, 226;
praised by Democrats as superior to Washington, 251;
his administration upheld by Washington, 259;
advised by Washington, 260;
his inauguration, 276;
sends special mission to France, 284;
urges Washington to take command of provisional army, 285;
wishes to make Knox senior to Hamilton, 286;
censured by Washington, gives way, 287;
lack of sympathy with Washington, 287;
his nomination of Murray disapproved by Washington, 292, 293;
letter of Washington to, on immigration, 326.
on weights and measures, ii. 81.
not sympathized with by Washington in working for independence, i. 131;
his inability to sympathize with Washington, 204;
an enemy of Constitution, ii. 71;
a genuine American, 309.
Alcudia, Duke de,
interviews with Pinckney, ii. 166.
hunts with Washington, i. 115.
Alien and Sedition Laws,
approved by Washington and Federalists, ii. 290, 297.
speech on behalf of administration in Jay treaty affair, ii. 210.
meets Arnold, i. 282;
announces capture to Arnold, 284;
condemned and executed, 287;
justice of the sentence, 287, 288;
Washington's opinion of, 288, ii. 357.
Armstrong, John, Major,
writes Newburg address, i. 335.
Army of the Revolution,
at Boston, adopted by Congress, i. 134;
its organization and character, 136-143;
sectional jealousies in, at New York, 162;
goes to pieces after defeat, 167, 175, 176;
condition in winter of 1777, 186;
difficulties between officers, 189;
with foreign officers, 190-192;
improvement as shown by condition after Brandywine and Germantown,
hard winter at Valley Forge, 228;
maintained alive only by Washington, 227, 228, 232;
improved morale at Monmouth, 239;
mutinies for lack of pay, 258;
suffers during 1779, 270;
bad condition in 1780, 279;
again mutinies for pay, 291, 292, 295;
conduct of troops, 292, 293;
jealousy of people towards, 332;
badly treated by States and by Congress, 333;
grows mutinous, 334;
adopts Newburg addresses, 335, 336;
ready for a military dictatorship, 338, 340;
farewell of Washington to, 345.
sent by Washington to attack Quebec, i. 144;
sent against Burgoyne, 210;
plans treason, 281;
shows loyalist letter to Washington, 282;
meets Andre, 282;
receives news of Andre's capture, 284;
escapes, 284, 285;
previous benefits from Washington, 286;
Washington's opinion of, 288;
ravages Virginia, 303;
sent back to New York, 303;
one of the few men who deceived Washington, ii. 336.
entertains Washington at time of her husband's treachery, i. 284, 285.
Articles of Confederation,
their inadequacy early seen by Washington, i. 297, 298; ii. 17.
selected for retaliation for murder of Huddy, i. 328;
efforts for his release, 329;
release ordered by Congress, 330.
publishes Jay treaty in "Aurora," ii. 185;
joins in attack on Washington, 238, 244;
rejoices over his retirement, 256.
works out a pedigree for Washington, i. 31.
advises against sending Washington to sea, i. 49, 50.
Washington's description of, i. 64.
accuses Washington of embezzling, ii. 245.
his conversation with Washington referred to, i. 58, 107;
describes encounter with Washington, ii. 281-283;
his description of Washington's conversation, 343-348.
Blackwell, Rev. Dr.,
calls on Washington with Dr. Logan, ii. 264.
appointed to Supreme Court, ii. 73.
"Lowland Beauty," admired by Washington, i. 95, 96.
pacifies Cherokees, ii. 94.
visit of Washington to, i. 97, 99;
political troubles in, 120;
British measures against condemned by Virginia, 122, 123;
appeals to colonies, 124;
protests against Jay treaty, ii. 186;
answered by Washington, 190.
Botetourt, Lord, Governor of Virginia,
quarrels with Assembly, i. 121;
manages to calm dissension, 122;
on friendly terms with Washington, 122.
Braddock, General Edward,
arrives in Virginia, i. 82;
invites Washington to serve on his staff, 82;
respects him, 83;
his character and unfitness for his position, 83;
despises provincials, 83;
accepts Washington's advice as to dividing force, 84;
rebukes Washington for warning against ambush, 85;
insists on fighting by rule, 85;
defeated and mortally wounded, 85;
death and burial, 87.
succeeds Randolph, ii. 246.
battle of, i. 196-198.
question of Washington regarding battle of, i. 136.
Burgoyne, General John,
junction of Howe with, feared by Washington, i. 194, 195, 205, 206;
significance of his defeat, 202;
danger of his invasion foreseen by Washington, 203-206;
captures Ticonderoga, 207;
outnumbered and defeated, 210;
understands significance of Washington's leadership, i. 202;
unsettled by French Revolution, ii. 294.
entertains Lafayette's son, ii. 366.
fails to cross Delaware to help Washington, i. 180;
duel with Conway, 226.
misgivings of Washington over her marriage to John Custis, i. 111.
Camden, battle of, i. 281.
captured by Wolfe, i. 94;
expedition of Montgomery against, 143, 144;
project of Conway cabal against, 222; 253;
project of Lafayette to attack, 254;
plan considered dangerous by Washington, 254, 255;
not undertaken by France, 256.
Carleton, Sir Guy,
informs Washington of address of Commons for peace, i. 324;
suspected by Washington, 325;
remonstrates against retaliation by Washington for murder of
disavows Lippencott, 328;
fears plunder of New York city, 345;
urges Indians to attack the United States, ii. 102, 175.
Carlisle, Earl of,
peace commissioner, i. 233.
sneers at Washington, i. 4, 14;
calls him "a bloodless Cromwell," i. 69, ii. 332;
fails to understand his reticence, i. 70;
despises him for not seizing power, 341.
minister at Madrid, ii. 165;
on commission regarding the Mississippi, 166.
letter of Washington to, ii. 208;
Washington's friendship for, 363.
early love affair of Washington with, i. 96.
entertains Washington at Williams' Ferry, i. 101.
siege and capture of, i. 273, 274, 276.
Chastellux, Marquis de,
Washington's friendship for and letter to, ii. 351;
on Washington's training of horses, 380.
beaten by Sevier, ii. 89;
pacified by Blount, 94,101.
researches on Washington pedigree, i. 31.
desert from St. Clair, ii. 96.
honors Washington, i. 6.
peaceable in 1788, ii. 89.
Cincinnati, Society of the,
Washington's connection with, ii. 4.
thinks Washington is invading popular rights, i. 215.
complimented by Washington, ii. 359.
appealed to by Washington to attack Burgoyne, i. 210;
journey with Washington to Ticonderoga, 343;
enters New York city, 345;
letter of Washington to, ii. 1;
meets Washington on journey to inauguration, 45;
opponent of the Constitution, 71;
orders seizure of French privateers, 153.
Clinton, Sir Henry,
fails to help Burgoyne, i. 210;
replaces Howe at Philadelphia, his character, 232;
tries to cut off Lafayette, 233;
leaves Philadelphia, 234;
defeats Lee at Monmouth, 236;
retreats to New York, 238;
withdraws from Newport, 248;
makes a raid, 265;
fortifies Stony Point, 268;
his aimless warfare, 269, 270;
after capturing Charleston returns to New York, 276;
tries to save Andre, 287;
alarmed at attacks on New York, 306;
jealous of Cornwallis, refuses to send reinforcements, 308;
deceived by Washington, 311;
sends Graves to relieve Cornwallis, 312.
Washington's journey to, i. 128;
its character and ability, 129;
its state papers, 129;
in second session, resolves to petition the king, 133;
adopts Massachusetts army and makes Washington commander, 134;
reasons for his choice, 135;
adheres to short-term enlistments, 149;
influenced to declare independence by Washington, 160;
hampers Washington in campaign of New York, 167;
letters of Washington to, 170, 179, 212, 225, 229, 266, 278, 295,
321, 323, 333;
takes steps to make army permanent, 171;
its over-confidence, 171;
insists on holding Forts Washington and Lee, 174;
dissatisfied with Washington's inactivity, 187;
criticises his proclamation requiring oath of allegiance, 189;
makes unwise appointments of officers, 189;
especially of foreigners, 190-192; 248, 249;
applauds Washington's efforts at Germantown, 200;
deposes Schuyler and St. Clair, 208;
appoints Gates, 210;
irritation against Washington, 212-215;
falls under guidance of Conway cabal, 221, 222;
discovers incompetence of cabal, 223;
meddles with prisoners and officers, 231;
rejects English peace offers, 233;
makes alliance with France, 241;
suppresses protests of officers against D'Estaing, 244;
decline in its character, 257;
becomes feeble, 258;
improvement urged by Washington, 259, 266;
appoints Gates to command in South, 268;
loses interest in war, 278;
asks Washington to name general for the South, 295;
considers reduction of army, 313;
elated by Yorktown, 323;
its unfair treatment of army, 333, 335;
driven from Philadelphia by Pennsylvania troops, 340;
passes half-pay act, 342;
receives commission of Washington, 347-349;
disbands army, ii. 6;
indifferent to Western expansion, 15;
continues to decline, 22;
merit of its Indian policy, 88.
establishes departments, ii. 64;
opened by Washington, 78, 79;
ceremonial abolished by Jefferson, 79;
recommendations made to by Washington, 81-83;
acts upon them, 81-83;
creates commission to treat with Creeks, 90;
increases army, 94, 99;
fails to solve financial problems, 106;
debates Hamilton's report on credit, 107, 108;
establishes national bank, 109;
establishes protective revenue duties, 113;
imposes an excise tax, 123;
prepares for retaliation on Great Britain, 176;
Senate ratifies Jay treaty conditionally, 184;
House demands papers, 207;
debates over its right to concur in treaty, 208-210;
refuses to adjourn on Washington's birthday, 247;
prepares for war with France, 285;
passes Alien and Sedition Laws, 296.
necessity of, foreseen by Washington, ii. 17-18, 23, 24;
the Annapolis Convention, 23-29;
the Federal Convention, 30-36;
Washington's attitude in, 31,34;
his influence, 36;
campaign for ratification, 38-41.
leader of French and Indians in Virginia, i. 75.
elements of in Congress, i. 214, 215;
in the army, 215;
organized by Conway, 217;
discovered by Washington, 220;
gets control of Board of War, 221;
tries to make Washington resign, 222, 224;
fails to invade Canada or provide supplies, 222, 223;
harassed by Washington's letters, 223,226;
breaks down, 226.
Conway, Moncure D.,
his life of Randolph, ii. 65, note, 196;
his defense of Randolph in Fauchet letter affair, 196;
on Washington's motives, 200;
on his unfair treatment of Randolph, 201, 202.
demand for higher rank refused by Washington, i. 216;
plots against him, 217;
his letter discovered by Washington, 221;
made inspector-general, 221, 222;
complains to Congress of his reception at camp, 225;
resigns, has duel with Cadwalader, 226;
apologizes to Washington and leaves country, 226.
remonstrated with by Washington for raising state troops, i. 186.
pursues Washington in New Jersey, i. 175;
repulsed at Assunpink, 181;
outgeneraled by Washington, 182;
surprises Sullivan at Brandywine, 197;
defeats Lee at Monmouth, 236;
pursues Greene in vain, 302;
wins battle of Guilford Court House, 302;
retreats into Virginia, 302;
joins British troops in Virginia, 303;
his dangerous position, 304;
urged by Clinton to return troops to New York, 306;
plunders Virginia, 307;
defeats Lafayette and Wayne, 307;
wishes to retreat South, 307;
ordered by ministry to stay on the Chesapeake, 307;
abandoned by Clinton, 308;
establishes himself at Yorktown, 308;
withdraws into town, 315;
besieged, 316, 317;
outgeneraled by Washington, 319, 320.
battle of, i. 301.
attends Washington in last illness, ii. 300-302;
Washington's friendship with, 363.
their relations with Spaniards, ii. 89, 90;
quarrel with Georgia, 90;
agree to treaty with United States, 91;
stirred up by Spain, 101.
on Washington's appearance, i. 137.
appointed to Supreme Court, ii. 72.
Custis, Daniel Parke,
first husband of Martha Washington, i. 101.
tells mythical story of Washington and the colt, i. 45;
Washington's care for, ii. 369.
Washington's tenderness toward, i. 111;
care for his education and marriage, 111;
hunts with Washington, 141;
death of, 322.
marriage with Washington's nephew, ii. 281, 369;
letter of Washington to, 377.
claims to outrank Washington in Virginia army, i. 91, 97.
protests to Genet against sailing of Little Sarah, ii. 155.
entertains Washington at Newburyport, ii. 359.
promises commissions to foreign military adventurers, i. 190.
jealous of De Grasse, decides not to aid him, i. 310;
persuaded to do so by Washington and Rochambeau, 311;
reaches Chesapeake, 312.
De Grasse, Comte,
announces intention of coming to Washington, i. 305;
warned by Washington not to come to New York, 305;
sails to Chesapeake, 306;
asked to meet Washington there, 308;
reaches Chesapeake, 312;
repulses British fleet, 312;
wishes to return to West Indies, 315;
persuaded to remain by Washington, 315;
refuses to join Washington in attack on Charleston, 322;
returns to West Indies, 322.
commander of French fleet in West Indies, i. 280;
appealed to for aid by Washington, 281;
returns home, 282.
escapes American attack, i. 306.
its formation as a French party, ii. 225;
furnished with catch-words by Jefferson, 226;
with a newspaper organ, 227;
not ready to oppose Washington for president in 1792, 235;
organized against treasury measure, 236;
stimulated by French Revolution, 238;
supports Genet, 237;
begins to attack Washington, 238;
his opinion of it, 239, 240, 258, 261, 267, 268;
forms clubs on French model, 241;
Washington's opinion of, 242, 243;
continues to abuse him, 244, 245, 250, 252;
exults at his retirement, 256;
prints slanders, 257.
betrays plans of Fort Washington to Howe, i. 175.
reaches America, i. 242;
welcomed by Washington, 243;
fails to cut off Howe and goes to Newport, 243;
after battle with Howe goes to Boston, 244;
letter of Washington to, 246;
sails to West Indies, 246;
second letter of Washington to, 247;
attacks Savannah, 248;
De Rochambeau, Comte,
arrives at Newport, i. 277;
ordered to await second division of army, 278;
refuses to attack New York, 280;
wishes a conference with Washington, 282;
meets him at Hartford, 282;
disapproves attacking Florida, 301;
joins Washington before New York, 306;
persuades De Barras to join De Grasse, 311;
accompanies Washington to Yorktown, 314.
commands scouts at Monmouth, i. 326.
bitter comments of Washington on, i. 325.
remonstrates against French encroachments, i. 66;
sends Washington on mission to French, 66;
quarrels with the Virginia Assembly, 71;
letter of Washington to, 73;
wishes Washington to attack French, 79;
tries to quiet discussions between regular and provincial troops, 80;
military schemes condemned by Washington, 91;
prevents his getting a royal commission, 93.
refusal by Washington of special privileges to French minister,
slow growth of idea of non-intervention, 132, 133;
difficulties owing to French Revolution, 134;
to English retention of frontier posts, 135;
attitude of Spain, 135;
relations with Barbary States, 136;
mission of Gouverneur Morris to sound English feeling, 137;
assertion by Washington of non-intervention policy toward Europe,
issue of neutrality proclamation, 147, 148;
its importance, 148;
mission of Genet, 148-162;
guarded attitude of Washington toward emigres, 151;
excesses of Genet, 151;
neutrality enforced, 153, 154;
the Little Sarah episode, 154-157;
recall of Genet demanded, 158;
futile missions of Carmichael and Short to Spain, 165, 166;
successful treaty of Thomas Pinckney, 166-168;
question as to binding nature of French treaty of commerce, 169-171;
irritating relations with England, 173-176;
Jay's mission, 177-184;
the questions at issue, 180, 181;
terms of the treaty agreed upon, 182;
good and bad points, 183;
ratified by Senate, 184;
signing delayed by renewal of provision order, 185;
war with England prevented by signing, 205;
difficulties with France over Morris and Monroe, 211-214;
doings of Monroe, 212, 213;
United States compromised by him, 213, 214;
Monroe replaced by Pinckney, 214;
review of Washington's foreign policy, 216-219;
mission of Pinckney, Marshall, and Gerry to France, 284;
the X.Y.Z. affair, 285.
drives Griffin out of New Jersey, i. 180;
killed at Fort Mercer, 217.
letters of Washington to, i. 294, 329.
describes enthusiasm of people for Washington, i. 288.
connection with Braddock's expedition, i. 84, 87.
arrives in Virginia as governor, i. 122;
on friendly terms with Washington, 122, 123;
dissolves assembly, 123.
Duplaine, French consul,
exequatur of revoked, ii. 159.
peace commissioner, i. 233.
a typical New England American, ii. 309.
Emerson, Rev. Dr.,
describes Washington's reforms in army before Boston, i. 140.
Washington's treatment of, ii. 151, 253.
honors Washington, i. 20;
arrogant behavior toward colonists, 80, 81, 82, 148;
its policy towards Boston condemned by Virginia, 119, 121, 123, 126;
by Washington, 124, 125,126;
sends incompetent officers to America, 155, 201, 202, 233;
stupidity of its operations, 203, 205, 206, 265;
sincerity of its desire for peace doubted by Washington, 324, 325;
arrogant conduct of toward the United States after peace, ii. 24, 25;
stirs up the Six Nations and Northwestern Indians, 92, 94, 101;
folly of her policy, 102;
sends Hammond as minister, 169;
its opportunity to win United States as ally against France, 171, 172;
adopts contrary policy of opposition, 172, 173;
adopts "provision order," 174;
incites Indians against United States, 175;
indignation of America against, 176;
receives Jay well, but refuses to yield points at issue, 180;
insists on monopoly of West India trade, 180;
and on impressment, 181;
later history of, 181;
renews provision order, 185;
danger of war with, 193;
avoided by Jay treaty, 205;
Washington said to sympathize with England, 252;
his real hostility toward, 254;
Washington's opinion of liberty in, 344.
Ewing, General James,
fails to help Washington at Trenton, i. 180.
hunts with Washington, i. 115;
remonstrates with Washington against violence of patriots, 124;
Washington's replies to, 124, 126, 127;
letter of Washington to in Revolution, ii. 366.
married to Miss Cary, i. 55;
accompanies Washington on surveying expedition, 58;
letter of Washington to, 133.
letter of Washington to, ii. 367.
Fairfax, Thomas, Lord,
his career in England, i. 55;
comes to his Virginia estates, 55;
his character, 55;
his friendship for Washington, 56;
sends him to survey estates, 56;
plans a manor across the Blue Ridge, 59;
secures for Washington position as public surveyor, 60;
probably influential in securing his appointment as envoy to
hunts with Washington, 115;
his death remembered by Washington, ii. 366.
amuses Washington, ii. 374.
Farewell Address, ii. 248, 249.
letter of, incriminating Randolph, ii. 195,196, 202.
love affair of Washington with, i. 97.
Fauquier, Francis, Governor,
at Washington's wedding, i. 101.
suggested by Washington, i. 150.
circulated by Washington, ii. 40.
begun by Hamilton's controversy with Jefferson, ii. 230;
supports Washington for reelection, 235;
organized in support of financial measures, 236;
Washington looked upon by Democrats as its head, 244, 247;
only its members trusted by Washington, 246, 247, 259, 260, 261;
becomes a British party, 255;
Washington considers himself a member of, 269-274;
the only American party until 1800, 273;
strengthened by X, Y, Z affair, 285;
dissensions in, over army appointments, 286-290;
its horror at French Revolution, 294, 295;
attempts of Washington to heal divisions in, 298.
used by Hamilton against the "National Gazette," ii. 230.
Finances of the Revolution,
effect of paper money on war, i. 258, 262;
difficulties in paying troops, 258;
labors of Robert Morris, 259, 264, 312;
connection of Washington with, 263;
continued collapse, 280, 290, 312.
bad condition in 1789, ii. 105;
decay of credit, paper, and revenue, 106;
futile propositions, 106;
Hamilton's report on credit, 107;
debate over assumption of state debt, 107;
bargain between Hamilton and Jefferson, 108;
establishment of bank, 109;
other measures adopted, 112;
protection in the first Congress, 112-115;
the excise tax imposed, 123;
opposition to, 123-127;
"Whiskey Rebellion," 127-128.
nomination rejected by Senate, ii. 63.
Fontanes, M. de,
delivers funeral oration on Washington, i. 1.
renews attack on French in Ohio, i. 93.
describes impressiveness of Washington, ii. 389.
Fox, Charles James,
understands significance of Washington's leadership, i. 202.
pays honors to Washington, i. I, 6;
war with England, see French and Indian war;
takes possession of Ohio, 65;
considers Jumonville assassinated by Washington, 74;
importance of alliance with foreseen by Washington, 191;
impressed by battle of Germantown, 200;
makes treaty of alliance with United States, 241;
sends D'Estaing, 243;
declines to attack Canada, 256;
sends army and fleet, 274, 277;
relations of French to Washington, 318, 319;
absolute necessity of their naval aid, 318, 319;
Revolution in, applauded by America, ii. 138, 139, 142;
real character understood by Washington and others, 139-142, 295;
debate over in America, 142;
question of relations with United States, 143, 144;
warned by Washington, 144, 145;
neutrality toward declared, 147;
tries to drive United States into alliance, 149;
terms of the treaty with, 169;
latter held to be no longer binding, 169-171;
abrogates it, 171;
demands recall of Morris, 211;
mission of Monroe to, 211-214;
makes vague promises, 212, 213;
Washington's fairness toward, 253;
tries to bully or corrupt American ministers, 284;
the X, Y, Z affair, 285;
war with not expected by Washington, 291;
danger of concession to, 292, 293;
progress of Revolution in, 294.
gets wagons for Braddock's expedition, i. 84;
remark on Howe in Philadelphia, 219;
national, like Washington, 252, ii. 8;
despairs of success of Constitutional Convention, 35;
his unquestioned Americanism, 309;
respect of Washington for, 344, 346, 364.
Frederick II., the Great,
his opinion of Trenton campaign, i. 183;
of Monmouth campaign, 239.
French and Indian war, i. 64-94;
inevitable conflict, 65;
efforts to negotiate, 66, 67;
hostilities begun, 72;
the Jumonville affair, 74;
defeat of Washington, 76;
Braddock's campaign, 82-88;
ravages in Virginia, 90;
carried to a favorable conclusion by Pitt, 93, 94.
brought to Philadelphia and given clerkship by Jefferson, ii. 227;
attacks Adams, Hamilton, and Washington in "National Gazette," 227;
makes conflicting statements as to Jefferson's share in the paper,
the first to attack Washington, 238.
commands a Virginia regiment against French and Indians, i. 71;
dies, leaving Washington in command, 75.
GAGE, GENERAL THOMAS,
conduct at Boston condemned by Washington, i. 126;
his treatment of prisoners protested against by Washington, 145;
sends an arrogant reply, 147;
second letter of Washington to, 147, 156.
connection with Whiskey Rebellion, ii. 129.
visits Mt. Vernon, his character, i. 132;
refuses to cooperate with Washington at Trenton, 180;
his appointment as commander against Burgoyne urged, 208;
chosen by Congress, 209;
his part in defeating Burgoyne, 210;
neglects to inform Washington, 211;
loses his head and wishes to supplant Washington, 215;
forced to send troops South, 216, 217;
his attitude discovered by Washington, 221;
makes feeble efforts at opposition, 221, 223;
correspondence with Washington, 221, 223, 226;
becomes head of board of war, 221;
quarrels with Wilkinson, 223;
sent to his command, 226;
fears attack of British on Boston, 265;
sent by Congress to command in South, 268;
defeated at Camden, 281, 294;
loses support of Congress, 294.
Genet, Edmond Charles,
arrives as French minister, ii. 148;
his character, 149;
violates neutrality, 151;
his journey to Philadelphia, 151;
reception by Washington, 152;
complains of it, 153;
makes demands upon State Department, 153;
protests at seizure of privateers, 153;
insists on sailing of Little Sarah, 155;
succeeds in getting vessel away, 157;
his recall demanded, 158;
reproaches Jefferson, 158;
remains in America, 158;
threatens to appeal from Washington to Massachusetts, 159;
demands denial from Washington of Jay's statements, 159;
loses popular support, 160;
tries to raise a force to invade Southwest, 161;
prevented by state and federal authorities, 162;
his arrival the signal for divisions of parties, 237;
hurts Democratic party by his excesses, 241;
suggests clubs, 241.
Washington's opinion of, ii. 346.
quarrels with Creeks, asks aid of United States, ii. 90;
becomes dissatisfied with treaty, 91;
disregards treaties of the United States, 103.
notifies Washington of return of D'Estaing, i. 246.
battle of, i. 199.
on special mission to France, ii. 284;
disliked by Washington, 292.
attacks Washington in Congress, ii. 251, 252.
accompanies Washington on his mission to French, i. 66;
wishes to shoot French Indians, 68.
letter of Washington to, i. 227.
sent to relieve Cornwallis, i. 312; defeated by De Grasse, 312.
hunts with Washington, i. 115; letter to, ii. 22.
battle of, i. 307.
Greene, General Nathanael,
commands at Long Island, ill with fever, i. 164;
wishes forts on Hudson held, 174;
late in attacking at Germantown, 199;
conducts retreat, 200;
succeeds Mifflin as quartermaster-general, 232;
selected by Washington to command in South, 268;
commands army at New York in absence of Washington, 282;
appointed to command Southern army, 295;
retreats from Cornwallis, 302;
fights battle of Guilford Court House, 302;
clears Southern States of enemy, 302;
strong position, 304;
reinforced by Washington, 322;
letter to, 325;
his military capacity early recognized by Washington, ii. 334;
amuses Washington, 374.
dances three hours with Washington, ii. 380.
denies that ministry has incited Indians against United States,
receives Jay, 180;
declines to grant United States trade with West Indies, 181.
commissioner to treat with Creeks, ii. 90.
fails to help Washington at Trenton, i. 180.
the "Lowland Beauty," love affair of Washington with, i. 95;
marries Henry Lee, 96.
HALDIMAND, SIR FREDERICK,
leads Indians against colonists, i. 325.
Hale, Nathan, compared with Andre, i. 288.
kept to English alliance by Washington, i. 68;
his criticism of Washington's first campaign, 76.
forces Gates to send back troops to Washington, i. 216, 217;
remark on councils of war before Monmouth, 234;
informs Washington of Arnold's treason, 284;
sent to intercept Arnold, 285;
writes letters on government and finance, 298;
leads attack at Yorktown, i. 316;
requests release of Asgill, 329;
aids Washington in Congress, 333;
only man beside Washington and Franklin to realize American future,
letters of Washington to on necessity of a strong government, 17, 18;
writes letters to Duane and Morris, 19;
speech in Federal Convention and departure, 35;
counseled by Washington, 39;
consulted by Washington as to etiquette, 54;
made secretary of treasury, 66;
his character, 67;
his report on the mint, 81;
on the public credit, 107;
upheld by Washington, 107, 108;
his arrangement with Jefferson, 108;
argument on the bank, 110;
his success largely due to Washington, 112;
his report on manufactures, 112, 114, 116;
advocates an excise, 122;
fails to realize its unpopularity, 123;
accompanies expedition to suppress Whiskey Rebellion, 128;
comprehends French Revolution, 139;
frames questions to cabinet on neutrality, 147;
urges decisive measures against Genet, 154;
argues against United States being bound by French treaty, 169;
selected for English mission, but withdraws, 177;
not likely to have done better than Jay, 183;
mobbed in defending Jay treaty, 187;
writes Camillus letters in favor of Jay treaty, 206;
intrigued against by Monroe, 212;
causes for his breach with Jefferson, 224;
his aristocratic tendencies, 225;
attacked by Jefferson and his friends, 228, 229;
disposes of the charges, 229;
retorts in newspapers with effect, 230;
ceases at Washington's request, 230, 234;
resigns from the cabinet, 234;
desires Washington's reelection, 235;
selected by Washing, ton as senior general, 286;
appeals to Washington against Adams's reversal of rank, 286;
fails to soothe Knox's anger, 288;
report on army organization, 290;
letter of Washington to, condemning Adams's French mission, 293;
fears anarchy from Democratic success, 295;
approves Alien and Sedition Acts, 296;
his scheme of a military academy approved by Washington, 299;
Washington's affection for, 317, 362;
his ability early recognized by Washington, 334, 335;
aids Washington in literary points, 340;
takes care of Lafayette's son, 366.
protests against violations of neutrality, ii. 151;
his arrival as British minister, 169;
his offensive tone, 173;
does not disavow Lord Dorchester's speech to Indians, 176;
gives Fauchet letters to Wolcott, 195;
intrigues with American public men, 200.
compared with Washington, ii. 312, 313.
disappointed at Washington's receiving command of army, i. 135;
his character, ii. 74;
refuses to call first on Washington as President, 75;
apologizes and calls, 75, 76.
twice surprised and defeated by Indians, ii. 93.
invades Indian country, ii. 92;
attacks the Miamis, 93;
sends out unsuccessful expeditions and retreats, 93;
court-martialed and resigns, 93.
letters of Washington to, i. 259, 261; ii. 10.
admired by Washington, i. 95.
Heard, Sir Isaac,
Garter King at Arms, makes out a pedigree for Washington, i. 30, 31.
checks Howe at Frog's Point, i. 173;
left in command at New York, 311.
his resolutions supported by Washington, i. 119;
accompanies him to Philadelphia, 128;
his tribute to Washington's influence, 130;
ready for war, 132;
letters of Conway cabal to against Washington, 222;
letter of Washington to, 225;
appealed to by Washington on behalf of Constitution, ii. 38;
an opponent of the Constitution, 71;
urged by Washington to oppose Virginia resolutions, 266-268, 293;
a genuine American, 309;
offered secretaryship of state, 324;
friendship of Washington for, 362.
Hertburn, Sir William de,
ancestor of Washington family, i. 31, 33.
in Revolution, i. 194.
hanged for plotting to murder Washington, i. 160.
Hobby,----, a sexton,
Washington's earliest teacher, i. 48.
letter of Washington to, ii. 3.
Houdon, J.A., sculptor,
on Washington's appearance, ii. 386.
arrives at New York with power to negotiate and pardon, i. 161;
refuses to give Washington his title, 161;
tries to negotiate with Congress, 167;
escapes D'Estaing at Delaware, 244;
attacks D'Estaing off Newport, 244.
Howe, Sir William,
has controversy with Washington over treatment of prisoners, i. 148;
checked at Frog's Point, 173;
attacks cautiously at Chatterton Hill, 173;
retreats and attacks forts on Hudson, 174;
takes Fort Washington, 175;
goes into winter quarters in New York, 177, 186;
suspected of purpose to meet Burgoyne, 194, 195;
baffled in advance across New Jersey by Washington, 194;
goes by sea, 195;
arrives at Head of Elk, 196;
defeats Washington at Brandywine, 197;
camps at Germantown, 199;
withdraws after Germantown into Philadelphia, 201;
folly of his failure to meet Burgoyne, 205, 206;
offers battle in vain to Washington, 218;
replaced by Clinton, 232;
tries to cut off Lafayette, 233.
captured by English, hanged by Tories, i. 327.
letters of Washington to, ii. 13, 339;
at opening of Congress, 78;
commissioner to treat with Creeks, 90;
anecdote of, 375.
asks Washington's aid in Christianizing Indians, ii. 4.
right of, maintained by England, ii. 181.
not wished, but foreseen, by Washington, i. 131, 156;
declared by Congress, possibly through Washington's influence, 160.
wars with in Virginia, i. 37, 38;
in French and Indian war, 67,68;
desert English, 76;
in Braddock's defeat, 85, 86, 88;
restless before Revolution, 122;
in War of Revolution, 266, 270;
punished by Sullivan, 269;
policy toward, early suggested by Washington, 344;
recommendations relative to in Washington's address to Congress,
the "Indian problem" under Washington's administration, 83-105;
erroneous popular ideas of, 84, 85;
real character and military ability, 85-87;
understood by Washington, 87, 88;
a real danger in 1788, 88;
situation in the Northwest, 89;
difficulties with Cherokees and Creeks, 89, 90;
influence of Spanish intrigue, 90;
successful treaty with Creeks, 90, 91;
wisdom of this policy, 92;
warfare in the Northwest, 92;
defeats of Harmar and Hardin, 93;
causes for the failure, 93, 94;
intrigues of England, 92, 94, 175, 178;
expedition and defeat of St. Clair, 95-97;
expedition of Wayne, 100, 102;
his victory, 103;
success of Washington's policy toward, 104, 105.
appointed to Supreme Court, ii. 73.
accompanies Washington to opening of Congress, ii. 78.
forwards Andrews letter to Arnold, i. 284;
receives orders from Washington, 285.
on opposition in Congress, to Washington, i. 222;
consulted by Washington as to etiquette, ii. 54;
appointed chief justice, 72;
publishes card against Genet, 159;
appointed on special mission to England, 177;
his character, 177;
instructions from Washington, 179;
his reception in England, 180;
difficulties in negotiating, 181;
concludes treaty, 182;
burnt in effigy while absent, 186;
execrated after news of treaty, 187;
hampered by Monroe in France, 213.
Jay treaty, ii. 180-184;
opposition to and debate over signing, 184-201;
reasons of Washington for signing, 205.
his flight from Cornwallis, i. 307;
discusses with Washington needs of government, ii. 9;
adopts French democratic phraseology, 27;
contrast with Washington, 27, 28, 69;
criticises Washington's manners, 56;
made secretary of state, 68;
his previous relations with Washington, 68;
his character, 69;
supposed to be a friend of the Constitution, 72;
his objections to President's opening Congress, 79;
on weights and measures, 81;
letter of Washington to on assumption of state debts, 107;
makes bargain with Hamilton, 108;
opposes a bank, 110;
asked to prepare neutrality instructions, 146;
upholds Genet, 153;
argues against him publicly, supports him privately, 154;
notified of French privateer Little Sarah, 155;
allows it to sail, 155;
retires to country and is censured by Washington, 156;
assures Washington that vessel will wait his decision, 156;
his un-American attitude, 157;
wishes to make terms of note demanding Genet's recall mild, 158;
argues that United States is bound by French treaty, 170, 171;
begs Madison to answer Hamilton's "Camillus" letters, 206;
his attitude upon first entering cabinet, 223;
causes for his breach with Hamilton, 224;
jealousy, incompatibility of temper, 224;
his democratic opinions, 225;
skill in creating party catch-words, 225;
prints "Rights of Man" with note against Adams, 226;
attacks him further in letter to Washington, 226;
brings Freneau to Philadelphia and gives him an office, 227;
denies any connection with Freneau's newspaper, 227;
his real responsibility, 228;
his purpose to undermine Hamilton, 228;
causes his friends to attack him, 229;
writes a letter to Washington attacking Hamilton's treasury measures,
fails to produce any effect, 230;
winces under Hamilton's counter attacks, 230;
reiterates charges and asserts devotion to Constitution, 231;
continues attacks and resigns, 234;
wishes reelection of Washington, 235;
his charge of British sympathies resented by Washington, 252;
plain letter of Washington to, 259;
Washington's opinion of, 259;
suggests Logan's mission to France, 262, 265;
takes oath as vice-president, 276;
regarded as a Jacobin by Federalists, 294;
jealous of Washington, 306;
accuses him of senility, 307;
a genuine American, 309.
Tory leader in New York, i. 143.
peace commissioner, i. 233.
Jumonville, De, French leader,
declared to have been assassinated by Washington, i. 74,79;
really a scout and spy, 75.
condemned by Washington, ii. 266-268.
his opinion that Washington was not American, ii. 308.
publishes card exposing Genet, ii. 159.
fight at, i. 170.
fight at, i. 168.
Kirkland, Rev. Samuel,
negotiates with Six Nations, ii. 101.
brings artillery to Boston from Ticonderoga, i. 152;
accompanies Washington to meet De Rochambeau, 283;
at West Point, 285;
sent by Washington to confer with governors of States, 295;
urged by Washington to establish Western posts, ii. 7;
letters of Washington to, 30, 39;
made secretary of war, 65;
his character, 65;
a Federalist, 71;
deals with Creeks, 91;
urges decisive measure against Genet, 154, 155;
letters of Washington to, 260;
selected by Washington as third major-general, 286;
given first place by Adams, 286;
angry at Hamilton's higher rank, 288;
refuses the office, 289;
his offer to serve on Washington's staff refused, 289;
Washington's affection for, 317, 362.
LAFAYETTE, Madame de,
aided by Washington, ii. 366;
letter of Washington to, 377.
Lafayette, Marquis de,
Washington's regard for, i. 192;
his opinion of Continental troops, 196;
sent on fruitless journey to the lakes by cabal, 222, 253;
encouraged by Washington, 225;
narrowly escapes being cut off by Clinton, 233;
appointed to attack British rear, 235;
superseded by Lee, 235;
urges Washington to come, 235;
letter of Washington to, regarding quarrel between D'Estaing and
regard of Washington for, 249;
desires to conquer Canada, 254;
his plan not supported in France, 256;
works to get a French army sent, 264;
brings news of French army and fleet, 274;
tries to get De Rochambeau to attack New York, 280;
accompanies Washington to meet De Rochambeau, 283;
told by Washington of Arnold's treachery, 285;
on court to try Andre, 287;
opinion of Continental soldiers, 293;
harasses Cornwallis, 307;
defeated at Green Springs, 307;
watches Cornwallis at Yorktown, 308;
reinforced by De Grasse, 312;
persuades him to remain, 315;
sends Washington French wolf-hounds, ii. 2;
letters of Washington to, 23, 26, 118, 144, 165, 222, 261;
his son not received by Washington, 253;
later taken care of, 277, 281, 366;
his worth, early seen by Washington, 334;
Washington's affection for, 365;
sends key of Bastile to Mt. Vernon, 365;
helped by Washington, 365,366.
letter of Conway cabal to, making attack on Washington, i. 222;
letters of Washington to, 254, 288;
sent to Paris to get loans, 299.
Lauzun, Duc de,
repulses Tarleton at Yorktown, i. 317.
Washington's secretary, ii. 263;
his account of Washington's last illness, 299-303, 385;
letters to, 361, 382.
example of Virginia gentleman educated abroad, i. 23.
visits Mt. Vernon, his character, i. 132;
accompanies Washington to Boston, 136;
aids Washington in organizing army, 140;
disobeys orders and is captured, 175;
objects to attacking Clinton, 234;
first refuses, then claims command of van, 235;
disobeys orders and retreats, 236;
rebuked by Washington, 236, 237;
court martial of and dismissal from army, 237;
his witty remark on taking oath of allegiance, ii. 375.
Lee, Henry, marries Lucy Grymes,
Washington's "Lowland Beauty," i. 96.
son of Lucy Grymes, Washington's "Lowland Beauty," i. 96; ii. 362;
captures Paulus Hook, i. 269;
letters of Washington to, ii. 23, 26, 149, 235, 239, 242, 252;
considered for command against Indians, 100;
commands troops to suppress Whiskey Rebellion, 127;
Washington's affection for, 362.
Lee, Richard Henry,
unfriendly to Washington, i. 214;
letter of Washington to, ii. 160.
at opening of Congress, ii. 78;
takes social duties at Mt. Vernon, 280.
Liancourt, Duc de,
refused reception by Washington, ii. 253.
compared with Washington, i. 349; ii. 308-313.
sent by Washington against Burgoyne, i. 210;
fails to understand Washington's policy and tries to hold Charleston,
commissioner to treat with Creeks, ii. 90.
orders hanging of Huddy, i. 327;
acquitted by English court martial, 328.
the affair of, 155-157.
administers oath at Washington's inauguration, ii. 46.
moves call for papers relating to Jay treaty, ii. 207.
Logan, Dr. George,
goes on volunteer mission to France, ii. 262;
ridiculed by Federalists, publishes defense, 263;
calls upon Washington, 263;
mercilessly snubbed, 263-265.
battle of, i. 164,165.
disappoints Washington by his inefficiency, i. 91.
follows the Adamses in opposing Washington, i. 214;
wishes to supplant him by Gates, 215;
writes hostile letters, 222.
letter of Washington to, i. 130.
begins to desire a stronger government, ii. 19, 29;
letters of Washington to, 30, 39, 53;
chosen for French mission, but does not go, 211.
betrayed at Fort Washington, i. 175.
Washington's pet colt, beaten in a race, i. 99, 113; ii. 381.
Chief Justice, on special commission to France, ii. 284;
tells anecdote of Washington's anger at cowardice, 392.
Maryland, the Washington family in, i.36.
discusses political outlook with Washington, i. 119;
letter of Washington to, 263;
an opponent of the Constitution, ii. 71;
friendship of Washington for, 362;
debates with Washington the site of Pohick Church, 381.
communicates Jay treaty to Bache, ii. 185.
Massey, Rev. Lee,
rector of Pohick Church, i. 44.
letter of Washington to, i. 294.
makes raids in Virginia, i. 269.
defeated at Princeton, i. 182.
chief of the Creeks, ii. 90;
his journey to New York and interview with Washington, 91.
at West Point, i. 284;
letters to, 325, ii. 22, 278, 287, 384;
becomes secretary of war, 246;
advised by Washington not to appoint Democrats, 260, 261.
McKean, Thomas, given letters to Dr. Logan, ii. 265.
McMaster, John B.,
calls Washington "an unknown man," i. 7, ii. 304;
calls him cold, 332, 352;
and avaricious in small ways, 352.
Meade, Colonel Richard,
Washington's opinion of, ii. 335.
killed at Princeton, i. 182.
president of Directory, interview with Dr. Logan, ii. 265.
wishes to supplant Washington by Gates, i. 216;
member of board of war, 221;
put under Washington's orders, 226;
replies to Washington's surrender of commission, 349;
meets Washington on journey to inauguration, ii. 44;
notified of the Little Sarah, French privateer, 154;
orders its seizure, 155.
abandon Continental army, i. 167;
cowardice of, 168;
despised by Washington, 169;
leave army again, 175;
assist in defeat of Burgoyne, 211.
Mischianza, i. 232.
battle of, i. 235-239.
appointed minister to France, ii. 211;
his character, 212;
intrigues against Hamilton, 212;
effusively received in Paris, 212;
acts foolishly, 213;
tries to interfere with Jay, 213;
upheld, then condemned and recalled by Washington, 213, 214;
writes a vindication, 215;
Washington's opinion of him, 215, 216;
his selection one of Washington's few mistakes, 334.
Montgomery, General Richard,
sent by Washington to invade Canada, i. 143.
sent against Burgoyne by Washington, i. 208;
at Saratoga, 210;
wins battle of Cowpens, joins Greene, 301.
letters of Washington to, i. 248, 263;
efforts towards financial reform, 264;
quotes speech of Washington at Federal convention in his eulogy,
discussion as to his value as an authority, 32, note;
goes to England on unofficial mission, 137;
balked by English insolence, 137;
comprehends French Revolution, 139;
letters of Washington to, on the Revolution, 140,142,145;
recall demanded by France, 211;
letter of Washington to, 217,240, 254;
Washington's friendship for, 363.
letter of Washington to, i. 187;
helps Washington to pay troops, 259;
efforts towards financial reform, 264;
difficulty in helping Washington in 1781, 309, 312;
considered for secretary of treasury, ii. 66;
his bank policy approved by Washington, 110;
Washington's friendship for, 363.
demands private access to Washington, ii. 59;
refused, 59, 60.
Murray, Vans, minister in Holland,
interview with Dr. Logan, ii. 264;
nominated for French mission by Adams, 292;
written to by Washington, 292.
trains Washington in tactics and art of war, i. 65.
orders public mourning for Washington's death, i. 1.
letter of Washington to, i. 257.
addresses, ii. 335.
character of people, i. 138;
attitude toward Washington, 138, 139;
troops disliked by Washington, 152;
later praised by him, 152, 317, 344;
threatened by Burgoyne's invasion, 204;
its delegates in Congress demand appointment of Gates, 208;
and oppose Washington, 214;
welcomes Washington on tour as President, ii. 74;
more democratic than other colonies before Revolution, 315;
disliked by Washington for this reason, 316.
Newenham, Sir Edward,
letter of Washington to on American foreign policy, ii. 133.
Washington's first visit to, i. 99, 100;
defense of, in Revolution, 159-169;
abandoned by Washington, 169;
Howe establishes himself in, 177;
reoccupied by Clinton, 264;
Washington's journey to, ii. 44;
inauguration in, 46;
rioting in, against Jay treaty, 187.
letter of Washington to, ii. 259.
urges Washington to establish a despotism, i. 337.
Noailles, Vicomte de, French emigre,
referred to State Department, ii. 151, 253.
Washington's friendship with, ii. 318.
Organization of the national government,
absence of materials to work with, ii. 51;
debate over title of President, 52;
over his communications with Senate, 53;
over presidential etiquette, 53-56;
appointment of officials to cabinet offices established by Congress,
appointment of supreme court judges, 72.
letter of Washington to, i. 84.
his "Rights of Man" reprinted by Jefferson, ii. 226.
says Washington was harsh to slaves, i. 105;
contradicts statement elsewhere, 106;
tells stories of Washington's pecuniary exactness, ii. 353, 354, 382;
his character, 355;
his high opinion of Washington, 356.
considers Washington as good but commonplace, ii. 330, 374.
letter of Washington to, i. 92.
Virginia delegate to Continental Congress, i. 128.
refuses to fight the French, i. 72,83;
fails to help Washington, 225;
remonstrates against his going into winter quarters, 229;
condemned by Washington, 229;
compromises with mutineers, 292.
brief love-affair of Washington with, i. 99, 100.
commands British troops in Virginia, i. 303;
death of, 303.
Pickering, Colonel, quiets Six Nations, ii. 94.
letter of Washington to, on French Revolution, ii. 140;
on failure of Spanish negotiations, 166;
recalls Washington to Philadelphia to receive Fauchet letter, 195;
succeeds Randolph, 246;
letters of Washington to, on party government, 247;
appeals to Washington against Adams's reversal of Hamilton's rank,
letters of Washington to, 292, 324;
criticises Washington as a commonplace person, 307.
Pinckney, Charles C.,
letter of Washington to, ii. 90;
appointed to succeed Monroe as minister to France, 214;
refused reception, 284;
sent on special commission, 284;
named by Washington as general, 286;
accepts without complaint of Hamilton's higher rank, 290;
Washington's friendship with, 363.
sent on special mission to Spain, ii. 166;
unsuccessful at first, 166;
succeeds in making a good treaty, 167;
credit of his exploit, 168;
letter of Washington to, 325.
his conduct of French war, i. 93, 94.
battle of, i. 181-3.
sent out by Washington, i. 150.
favored in the first Congress, ii. 113-115;
arguments of Hamilton for, 114, 115;
of Washington, 116-122.
of Americans, i. 193;
with regard to foreign officers, 193, 234, 250-252;
with regard to foreign politics, ii. 131, 132, 163, 237, 255.
escapes with difficulty from New York, i. 169;
fails to help Washington at Trenton, 180;
warned to defend the Hudson, 195;
tells Washington of Burgoyne's surrender, 211;
rebuked by Washington, 217;
amuses Washington, ii. 374.
defeated and killed at Trenton, i. 181.
letter of Washington to, ii. 30, 39;
relations with Washington, 64;
appointed attorney-general, 64;
his character, 64, 65;
a friend of the Constitution, 71;
opposes a bank, 110;
letter of Washington to, on protective bounties, 118;
drafts neutrality proclamation, 147;
vacillates with regard to Genet, 154;
argues that United States is bound by French alliance, 170;
succeeds Jefferson as secretary of state, 184;
directed to prepare a remonstrance against English "provision order,"
opposed to Jay treaty, 188;
letter of Washington to, on conditional ratification, 189, 191, 192,
guilty, apparently, from Fauchet letter, of corrupt practices, 196;
his position not a cause for Washington's signing treaty, 196-200;
receives Fauchet letter, resigns, 201;
his personal honesty, 201;
his discreditable carelessness, 202;
fairly treated by Washington, 203, 204;
his complaints against Washington, 203;
letter of Washington to, concerning Monroe, 213;
at first a Federalist, 246.
on early disappearance of Virginia colonial society, i. 15.
commands British forces in South, too distant to help Cornwallis,
letters of Washington to, i. 151, 260.
Revolution, War of,
foreseen by Washington, i. 120, 122;
Lexington and Concord, 133;
Bunker Hill, 136;
siege of Boston, 137-154;
organization of army, 139-142;
operations in New York, 143;
invasion of Canada, 143, 144;
question as to treatment of prisoners, 145-148;
causes of British defeat, 154, 155;
campaign near New York, 161-177;
causes for attempted defense of Brooklyn, 163, 164;
battle of Long Island, 164-165;
escape of Americans, 166;
affair at Kip's Bay, 168;
at King's Bridge, 170;
at Frog's Point, 173;
battle of White Plains, 173;
at Chatterton Hill, 174;
capture of Forts Washington and Lee, 174, 175;
pursuit of Washington into New Jersey, 175-177;
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