Hardy Ornamental Flowering Trees and Shrubs
A. D. Webster
Part 1 out of 5
Produced by Juliet Sutherland, Beth Trapaga and the Online Distributed
FLOWERING TREES AND SHRUBS.
_Author of "Practical Forestry," "Hardy Coniferous Trees,"
"British Orchids," &c., &c._
PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION, 1893.
This book has been written and is published with the distinct object
in view of bringing home to the minds of planters of Hardy Trees and
Shrubs, the fact that the monotonous repetition, in at least nine-tenths
of our Parks and Gardens, of such Trees as the Elm, the Lime, and the
Oak, and such Shrubs as the Cherry Laurel and the Privet, is neither
necessary nor desirable. There is quite a host of choice and beautiful
flowering species, which, though at present not generally known are yet
perfectly hardy, of the simplest culture, and equally well adapted for
the ornamentation of our Public and Private Parks and Gardens.
Of late years, with the marked decline in the cultivation of Coniferous
Trees, many of which are ill adapted for the climate of this country,
the interest in our lovely flowering Trees and Shrubs has been greatly
revived. This fact has been well exemplified in the numerous enquiries
after these subjects, and the space devoted to their description and
modes of cultivation in the Horticultural Press.
In the hope, too, of helping to establish a much-desired standard of
nomenclature, I have followed the generic names adopted by the authors
of _The Genera Plantarum_, and the specific names and orthography, as
far as I have been able, of the _Index Kewensis_; and where possible
I have given the synonyms, the date of introduction, and the native
country. The alphabetical arrangement that has been adopted, both with
regard to the genera and species, it is hoped, will greatly facilitate
the work of reference to its pages. The descriptive notes and hints on
cultivation, the selected lists of Trees and Shrubs for various special
purposes, and the calendarial list which indicates the flowering season
of the different species, may be considered all the more valuable for
being concisely written, and made readily accessible by means of the
No work written on a similar plan and treating solely of Hardy
Ornamental Flowering Trees and Shrubs has hitherto been published;
and it is not supposed for a moment that the present one will entirely
supply the deficiency; but should it meet with any measure of public
approval, it may be the means of paving the way towards the publication
of a more elaborate work--and one altogether more worthy of the
interesting and beautiful Flowering Trees and Shrubs that have been
found suitable for planting in the climate of the British Isles.
Of the fully thirteen hundred species and varieties of Trees and Shrubs
enumerated, all may be depended upon as being hardy in some part of the
country. Several of them, and particularly those introduced from China
and Japan, have not before been included in a book of this character.
Trials for the special purpose of testing the hardiness of the more
tender kinds have been instituted and carried out in several favoured
parts of England and Ireland.
PREFACE TO SECOND AND CHEAP EDITION, 1897.
The First Edition of Hardy Ornamental Flowering Trees and Shrubs having
been sold out, it has been considered desirable to run off a second and
cheap edition on exactly similar lines to the first, and previous to the
more elaborate illustrated edition which is now in hand.
BOXMOOR, HERTS, 1897.
HARDY ORNAMENTAL FLOWERING TREES & SHRUBS.
ABELIA CHINENSIS (_syn A. rupestris_).--The Rock Abelia China, 1844.
This is a neat, twiggy shrub, growing from 2 ft. to 3 ft. high, with
slender shoots, and very pleasing, shining green serrated leaves. The
tubular, sweet-scented flowers are produced in clusters at the ends of
the shoots, even the smallest, and are of a very delicate shade of
pink--indeed, almost white. It makes an excellent wall plant, but by
no means refuses to grow and flower freely without either shelter or
protection, provided a fairly rich and well drained soil is provided.
From August to October is the flowering period of this handsome
deciduous shrub. This is the only really hardy species of the genus,
for though the rosy-purple flowered A. floribunda from Mexico has stood
for several years uninjured in the South of England, it is not to be
relied upon. Both species are readily propagated from cuttings.
A. TRIFLORA.--Himalayan regions, 1847. A half-hardy and beautiful
species with small lanceolate, entire leaves, and pretty star-shaped
flowers that are white and flushed with pink. The long, narrow, and
hairy calyx-lobes give a light and feathery appearance to the flowers,
which are produced continuously from May to November. It does best as a
wall plant, and several beautiful examples may be seen in and around
London, as also at Exeter, and in the South of Ireland.
ADENOCARPUS DECORTICANS (_syn A. Boissieri_).--Spain, 1883. This little
known hardy shrub, a native of the Sierra Nevada mountains, in Spain, is
one of great beauty, and well worthy of extended culture. The flowers
are produced abundantly, and are of a bright yellow colour, resembling
those of our common Broom, to which family it is nearly allied. Peaty
soil suits it well, and repeated trials have clearly proved that it is
hardy, at least in the South of England.
AESCULUS CALIFORNICA (_syn Pavia californica_).--California. This is
one of the handsomest species, of low, spreading habit, and blooming
freely about midsummer.
AE. GLABRA (_syn Ae. rubicunda_).--Red-flowered Horse Chestnut. North
America, 1820. If only for its neat and moderate growth, and attractive
spikes of brightly-coloured flowers, this species must be considered as
one of the handsomest and most valuable of small growing trees. Being
of moderate size, for we rarely meet with specimens of greater height
than 30 feet, and of very compact habit, it is rendered peculiarly
suitable for planting in confined spots, and where larger growing and
more straggling subjects would be out of place. It withstands soot and
smoke well, and is therefore much valued for suburban planting. The
long spikes of pretty red flowers are usually produced in great
abundance, and as they stand well above the foliage, and are of firm
lasting substance, they have a most pleasing and attractive appearance.
As there are numerous forms of the red-flowered Horse Chestnut,
differing much in the depth of flower colouring, it may be well to warn
planters, for some of these have but a faint tinge of pink overlying a
dirty yellowish-green groundwork, while the finest and most desirable
tree has the flowers of a decided pinky-red. There is a double-flowered
variety Ae. glabra flore-pleno (_syn Ae. rubicunda flore-pleno_) and
one of particular merit named Ae. rubicunda Briotii.
AE. HIPPOCASTANUM.--The Common Horse Chestnut. Asia, 1629. A fine
hardy free-flowering tree, supposed to have been introduced from Asia,
and of which there are several varieties, including a double-flowered,
a variegated, and several lobed and cut-leaved forms. The tree needs
no description, the spikes of pinky-white flowers, which are produced
in great abundance, and ample foliage rendering it one of, if not the
handsomest tree of our acquaintance. It gives a pleasing shade, and
forms an imposing and picturesque object in the landscape, especially
where the conditions of soil--a rich free loam--are provided. Ae.
Hippocastanum alba flore-pleno (the double white Horse Chestnut), has
a decidedly pyramidal habit of growth, and the flowers, which are
larger than those of the species, are perfectly double. It is a very
distinct and desirable large growing tree. Ae. Hippocastanum laciniata
and Ae. Hippocastanum digitalis are valuable for their divided leaves;
while Ae. Hippocastanum foliis variegatis has the foliage rather
AE. PARVIFLORA (_syn Pavia macrostachya_).--Buckeye. North America,
1820. This is very distinct, and possesses feature which are shared by
no other hardy tree or shrub in cultivation. Rarely exceeding 12 feet
in height, and with a spread of often as much as 20 feet, this shrub
forms a perfect hemisphere of foliage, and which, when tipped with the
pretty fragrant flowers, renders it one of the most effective and
handsome. The foliage is large, and resembles that of the common Horse
Chestnut, while the pure white flowers, with their long projecting
stamens and red-tipped anthers, are very pretty and imposing when at
their best in July. It succeeds well in rich, dampish loam, and as a
shrub for standing alone in any conspicuous position it has, indeed,
AE. PAVIA (_syn Pavia rubra_).--Red Buckeye. North America, 1711. A
small growing and slender-branched tree or shrub, which bears an
abundance of brownish-scarlet flowers. There are several good
varieties, two of the best being Ae. Pavia atrosanguinea, and Ae.
Pavia Whittleyana, with small, brilliant red flowers.
There are several other species, such as Ae. Pavia humilis (_syn Pavia
humilis_) of trailing habit; Ae. flava (_syn Pavia flava_) bearing
pretty yellow flowers; Ae. Pavia macrocarpa (_syn Pavia macrocarpa_)
an open-headed and graceful tree; Ae. flava discolor (_syn Pavia
discolor_); and Ae. chinensis; but they have not been found very
amenable to cultivation, except in very favoured parts of the South of
England and Ireland.
AILANTHUS GLANDULOSA.--Tree of Heaven. China, 1751. A handsome,
fast-growing tree, with large pinnate leaves that are often fully
three feet long, and terminal erect clusters of not very showy
greenish-white flowers that exhale a rather disagreeable odour. It is
one of the most distinct and imposing of pinnate-leaved trees, and
forms a neat specimen for the lawn or park. Light loam or a gravelly
subsoil suits it well.
AKEBIA QUINATA.--Chinese Akebia. China, 1845. This, with its
peculiarly-formed and curiously-coloured flowers, though usually
treated as a cool greenhouse plant, is yet sufficiently hardy to grow
and flower well in many of the southern and western English counties,
where it has stood uninjured for many years. It is a pretty twining
evergreen, with the leaves placed on long slender petioles, and
palmately divided into usually five leaflets. The sweet-scented
flowers, particularly so in the evening, are of a purplish-brown or
scarlet-purple, and produced in axillary racemes of from ten to a
dozen in each. For covering trellis-work, using as a wall plant, or to
clamber over some loose-growing specimen shrub, from which a slight
protection will also be afforded, the Akebia is peculiarly suitable,
and soon ascends to a height of 10 feet or 12 feet. Any ordinary
garden soil suits it, and propagation by cuttings is readily affected.
AMELANCHIER ALNIFOLIA.--Dwarf June Berry. N.W. America, 1888. This
is a shrub of great beauty, growing about 8 feet high, and a native of
the mountains from British America to California. This differs from A.
canadensis in having much larger and more brilliant-tinted fruit, and
in its shorter and more compact flower racemes. The shape of the
leaves cannot be depended on as a point of recognition, those before
me, collected in the native habitat of the plant, differing to a wide
extent in size and shape, some being coarsely serrated while others
are almost entire.
A. CANADENSIS.--June Berry. Canada, 1746. Unquestionably this is one
of the most beautiful and showy of early flowering trees. During the
month of April the profusion of snow-white flowers, with which even
young specimens are mantled, render the plant conspicuous for a long
way off, while in autumn the golden yellow of the dying-off foliage is
quite as remarkable. Being perfectly hardy, of free growth, and with
no particular desire for certain classes of soils, the June Berry
should be widely planted for ornamental effect. In this country it
attains to a height of 40 feet, and bears globose crimson fruit. There
are several varieties, including A. canadensis rotundifolia, A.
canadensis oblongifolia, and A. canadensis oligocarpa, the latter
being by some botanists ranked as a species.
A. VULGARIS.--Common Amelanchier. South of Europe, 1596. This is the
only European species, and grows about 16 feet in height. It has been
in cultivation in this country for nearly 300 years. Generally this
species flowers earlier than the American ones, has rounder and less
deeply serrated leaves, but the flowers are much alike. A. vulgaris
cretica, from Crete and Dalmatia, is readily distinguished by the soft
white hairs with which the under sides of the leaves are thickly
covered. To successfully cultivate the Amelanchiers a good rich soil
is a necessity, while shelter from cutting winds must be afforded if
the sheets of flowers are to be seen in their best form.
AMORPHA CANESCENS.--Lead Plant. Missouri, 1812. This is of much
smaller growth than A. fruticosa, with neat pinnate foliage, whitened
with hoary down, and bearing panicles of bluish-purple flowers, with
conspicuous orange anthers. It is a charming shrub, and all the more
valuable as it flowers at the end of summer, when few hardy plants are
in bloom. To grow it satisfactorily a dry, sandy soil is a necessity.
A. FRUTICOSA.--False Indigo. Carolina, 1724. This is a fast growing
shrub of fully 6 feet high, of loose, upright habit, and with pretty
pinnate leaves. The flowers are borne in densely packed spikes, and
are of a purplish tint with bright yellow protruding anthers and
produced at the end of summer. It prefers a dry, warm soil of a sandy
or chalky nature, and may readily be increased from cuttings or
suckers, the latter being freely produced. Hard cutting back when full
size has been attained would seem to throw fresh vigour into the
Amorpha, and the flowering is greatly enhanced by such a mode of
treatment. A native of Carolina, and perfectly hardy in most parts of
the country. Of this species there are several varieties, amongst
others, A. fruticosa nana, a dwarf, twiggy plant; A. fruticosa
dealbata, with lighter green foliage than the type; and others
differing only in the size and width of the leaves.
ANDROMEDA POLIFOLIA.--An indigenous shrub of low growth, with
lanceolate shining leaves, and pretty globose pinky-white flowers. Of
it there are two varieties. A. polifolia major and A. polifolia
angustifolia, both well worthy of culture for their neat habit and
See CASSANDRA, CASSIOPE, LEUCOTHOE, OXYDENDRUM, PIERIS, and ZENOBIA.
ARALIA MANDSHURICA (_syn Dimorphanthus mandschuricus_).--Manchuria,
1866. There is not much beauty about this Chinese tree, for it is but
a big spiny stake, with no branches, and a tuft of palm-like foliage
at the top. The flowers, however, are both large and conspicuous, and
impart to the tree an interesting and novel appearance. They are
individually small, of a creamy-white colour, and produced in long,
umbellate racemes, and which when fully developed, from their weight
and terminal position, are tilted gracefully to one side. Usually the
stem is spiny, with Horse Chestnut-like bark, while the terminal bud,
from its large size, as if all the energy of the plant was
concentrated in the tip, imparts a curious and somewhat ungainly
appearance to the tree. From its curious tropical appearance this
species is well worthy of a place in the shrubbery. It is unmindful of
soil, if that is of at all fair quality, and may be said to be
perfectly hardy over the greater part of the country.
A. SPINOSA.--Angelica Tree. Virginia, 1688. Amongst autumn-flowering
shrubs this takes a high place, for in mild seasons it blooms well
into October. It grows about 12 feet high, with large tri-pinnate
leaves, composed of numerous serrulate leaflets. The individual
flowers are small and whitish, but being borne in large branched
panicles have a very imposing appearance. It is of free growth, and
produces suckers abundantly.
See also FATSIA.
ARBUTUS ANDRACHNE.--Levant, 1724. This Mediterranean species is of
stout growth, with narrow Laurel-like leaves, reddish deciduous bark,
and greenish-white flowers that are produced freely in May. A hybrid
form, said to have originated between this species and A. Unedo,
partakes in part of the nature of both shrubs, but the flowers are
larger than those of A. Unedo.
A. MENZIESII (_syn A. procera_).--Tall Strawberry Tree. North-west
America, 1827. This is hardy in many parts of these islands,
particularly maritime districts, and is worthy of culture if only for
the large racemose panicles of deliciously-scented white flowers, and
peculiar metallic-green leaves. The fruit is orange-red, and only
about half the size of those of our commonly cultivated species.
A. UNEDO.--Strawberry Tree. Ireland. This is a beautiful evergreen
shrub or small-growing tree, sometimes fully 20 feet high, with
ovate-lanceolate leaves, and clusters of pure white or yellowish-tinged
flowers appearing in September and October. The bright scarlet fruit,
about the size of and resembling a Strawberry, is highly ornamental,
and when borne in quantity imparts to the plant an unusual and very
attractive appearance. Generally speaking, the Arbutus is hardy,
although in inland situations it is sometimes killed to the ground in
severe winters, but, springing freely from the root, the plant soon
becomes re-established. In a young state it suffers too, but after
becoming established and a few feet high, the chances of injury are
greatly minimised. Three well-marked varieties are A. Unedo coccinea
and A. Unedo rubra, bearing scarlet and deep-red flowers, and A. Unedo
microphylla, with much smaller leaves than those of the parent plant.
A. UNEDO CROOMEI differs considerably from the former, in having
larger foliage, larger clusters of reddish-pink flowers, and the bark
of the young shoots of an enticing ruddy, or rather brownish-red
colour. It is a very desirable and highly ornamental plant, and one
that is well worthy of extended culture.
There are several others, to wit A. photiniaefolia, A. Rollissoni, A.
Millerii, with large leaves, and pretty pink flowers, and A.
serratifolia, having deeply serrated leaves. Deep, light loam, if on
chalk all the better, and a fairly warm and sheltered situation, would
seem to suit the Arbutus best.
ARCTOSTAPHYLOS UVA-URSI.--Bearberry. Britain. A neat shrub of trailing
habit, and with flowers resembling those of the Arbutus, but much
smaller. The leaves are entire, dark green in colour, and about an
inch long, and obovate or oblong in shape. Fruit globular, of a bright
red, smooth and shining. This is a native shrub, being found in
Scotland, northern England and Ireland.
A. ALPINA.--Black Bearberry. Scotland. This is confined to the
northern Highlands of Scotland, is of smaller growth, with toothed
deciduous leaves, and small drooping flowers of two or three together.
ARISTOLOCHIA SIPHO.--Dutchman's Pipe. North America, 1763. A
large-growing, deciduous climbing shrub, remarkable for its ample
foliage, and curiously formed yellow and purple streaked flowers. A
native of North America, it is perfectly hardy in this country, and
makes an excellent wall plant where plenty of space can be afforded
for the rambling branches. What a pity it is that so ornamental a
climber, whose big, dark-green leaves overlap each other as if
intended for keeping a house cool in warm weather, is not more
generally planted. It does well and grows fast in almost any soil.
ASIMINA TRILOBA.--Virginian Papaw. Pennsylvania, 1736. This is a
curious and uncommon shrub that one rarely sees outside the walls of a
botanic garden. The flowers are dark purple or chocolate brown, fully
2 inches across, and succeeded by a yellow, oblong, pulpy fruit, that
is relished by the natives, and from which the name of North American
Custard Apple has been derived. In this country it is quite at home,
growing around London to quite 12 feet in height, but it wants a warm,
dry soil, and sunny sheltered situation. As a wall plant it does well.
AZARA MICROPHYLLA.--Chili, 1873. This is the only recognised hardy
species, and probably the best from an ornamental point of view. In
mild seaside districts it may succeed as a standard in the open
ground, but generally it is cultivated as a wall plant, and for which
it is peculiarly suitable. The small dark green, glossy leaves are
thickly arranged on the nearly horizontal branches, while the flowers,
if they lack in point of showiness, are deliciously fragrant and
plentifully produced. For wall-covering, especially in an eastern
aspect, it is one of the neatest of shrubs.
Other species in cultivation are A. serrata, A. lanceolata, and A.
integrifolia, but for general planting, and unless under the most
favoured conditions, they are not to be recommended. The Azaras are by
no means particular about the quality of soil in which they are
planted, and succeed well even in stiffish loam, bordering on clay.
BACCHARIS HALIMIFOLIA.--Groundsel Tree or Sea Purslane. North America.
For seaside planting this is an invaluable shrub, as it succeeds well
down even to high water mark, and where it is almost lashed by the
salt spray. The flowers are not very ornamental, resembling somewhat
those of the Groundsel, but white with a tint of purple. Leaves
obovate in shape, notched, and thickly covered with a whitish powder,
which imparts to them a pleasing glaucous hue. Any light soil that is
tolerably dry suits well the wants of this shrub, but it is always
seen in best condition by the seaside. Under favourable conditions it
attains to a height of 12 feet, with a branch spread nearly as much in
diameter. A native of the North American coast from Maryland to
B. PATAGONICA.--Megallan. This is a very distinct and quite hardy
species, with small deep green leaves and white flowers. It succeeds
under the same conditions as the latter.
BERBERIDOPSIS CORALLINA.--Coral Barberry. Chili, 1862. This handsome
evergreen, half-climbing shrub is certainly not so well known as its
merits entitle it to be. Unfortunately it is not hardy in every part
of the country, though in the southern and western English counties,
but especially within the influence of the sea, it succeeds well as
a wall plant, and charms us with its globular, waxy, crimson or
coral-red flowers. The spiny-toothed leaves approach very near those
of some of the Barberries, and with which the plant is nearly allied.
It seems to do best in a partially shady situation, and in rich light
BERBERIS AQUIFOLIUM (_syn Mahonia Aquifolium_).--Holly-leaved
Barberry. North America, 1823. This justly ranks as one of the
handsomest, most useful, and easily-cultivated of all hardy shrubs.
It will grow almost any where, and in any class of soil, though
preferring a fairly rich loam. Growing under favourable conditions to
a height of 6 feet, this North American shrub forms a dense mass of
almost impenetrable foliage. The leaves are large, dark shining green,
thickly beset with spines, while the deliciously-scented yellow
flowers, which are produced at each branch tip, render the plant
particularly attractive in spring. It is still further valuable both
on account of the rich autumnal tint of the foliage, and pretty plum
colour of the plentifully produced fruit.
B. AQUIFOLIUM REPENS (_syn Mahonia repens_).--Creeping Barberry. This
is of altogether smaller growth than the preceding, but otherwise they
seem nearly allied. From its dense, dwarf growth, rising as it rarely
does more than a foot from the ground, and neat foliage, this Barberry
is particularly suitable for edging beds, or forming a low evergreen
covering for rocky ground or mounds.
B. ARISTATA, a native of Nepaul, is a vigorous-growing species,
resembling somewhat our native plant, with deeply serrated leaves,
brightly tinted bark, and yellow flowers. It is of erect habit,
branchy, and in winter is rendered very conspicuous by reason of the
bright reddish colour of the leafless branches.
B. BEALEI (_syn Mahonia Bealli_).--Japan. This species is one of the
first to appear in bloom, often by the end of January the plant being
thickly studded with flowers. It is a handsome shrub, of erect habit,
the leaves of a yellowish-green tint, and furnished with long, spiny
teeth. The clusters of racemes of deliciously fragrant yellow flowers
are of particular value, being produced so early in the season.
B. BUXIFOLIA (_syn B. dulcis_ and _B. microphylla_).--Straits of
Magellan, 1827. A neat and erect-growing shrub of somewhat stiff and
upright habit, and bearing tiny yellow flowers. This is a good
rockwork plant, and being of neat habit, with small purplish leaves,
is well worthy of cultivation.
B. CONGESTIFLORA, from Chili, is not yet well-known, but promises to
become a general favourite with lovers of hardy shrubs. It is of
unusual appearance for a Barberry, with long, decumbent branches,
which are thickly covered with masses of orange-yellow flowers. The
branch-tips, being almost leafless and smothered with flowers, impart
to the plant a striking, but distinctly ornamental appearance.
B. DARWINII.--Chili, 1849. This is, perhaps, the best known and most
ornamental of the family. It forms a dense bush, sometimes 10 feet
high, with dark glossy leaves, and dense racemes of orange-yellow
flowers, produced in April and May, and often again in the autumn.
B. EMPETRIFOLIA.--Straits of Magellan, 1827. This is a neat-habited
and dwarf evergreen species, that even under the best cultivation
rarely exceeds 2 feet in height. It is one of the hardiest species,
and bears, though rather sparsely, terminal golden-yellow flowers,
which are frequently produced both in spring and autumn. For its
compact growth and neat foliage it is alone worthy of culture.
B. FORTUNEI (_syn Mahonia Fortunei_).--China, 1846. This is rather a
rare species in cultivation, with finely toothed leaves, composed of
about seven leaflets, and bearing in abundance clustered racemes of
individually small yellow flowers. A native of China, and requiring a
warm, sunny spot to do it justice.
B. GRACILIS (_syn Mahonia gracilis_).--Mexico. A pretty, half-hardy
species, growing about 6 feet high, with slender branches, and
shining-green leaves with bright red stalks. Flowers small, in 3-inch
long racemes, deep yellow with bright red pedicels. Fruit globular,
B. ILICIFOLIA (_syn B. Neumanii_).--South America, 1791. This is
another handsome evergreen species from South America, and requires
protection in this country. The thick, glossy-green leaves, beset with
spines, and large orange-red flowers, combine to make this species one
of great interest and beauty.
B. JAPONICA (_syn Mahonia japonica_).--Japan. This is not a very
satisfactory shrub in these isles, although in warm seaside districts,
and when planted in rich loam, on a gravelly subsoil, it forms a
handsome plant with noble foliage, and deliciously fragrant yellow
B. NEPALENSIS (_syn Mahonia nepalensis_).--Nepaul Barberry. This is a
noble Himalayan species that one rarely sees in good condition in this
country, unless when protected by glass. The long, chalky-white stems,
often rising to 8 feet in height, are surmounted by dense clusters of
lemon-yellow flowers. Planted outdoors, this handsome and partly
evergreen Barberry must have the protection of a wall.
B. NERVOSA (_syn Mahonia glumacea_).--North America, 1804. This, with
its terminal clusters of reddish-yellow flowers produced in spring, is
a highly attractive North-west American species. It is of neat and
compact growth, perfectly hardy, but as yet it is rare in cultivation.
The autumnal leafage-tint is very attractive.
B. PINNATA (_syn Mahonia facicularis_).--A native of Mexico, this
species is of stout growth, with long leaves, that are thickly
furnished with sharp spines. The yellow flowers are produced
abundantly, and being in large bunches render the plant very
conspicuous. It is, unfortunately, not very hardy, and requires wall
protection to do it justice.
B. SINENSIS.--China, 1815. This is a really handsome and distinct
species, with twiggy, deciduous branches, from the undersides of the
arching shoots of which the flowers hang in great profusion. They are
greenish-yellow inside, but of a dark brownish-crimson without, while
the leaves are small and round, and die off crimson in autumn.
B. STENOPHYLLA, a hybrid between B. Darwinii and B. empetrifolia, is
one of the handsomest forms in cultivation, the wealth of
golden-yellow flowers being remarkable, as is also the dark purple
berries. It is very hardy, and of the freest growth.
B. TRIFOLIOLATA (_syn Mahonia trifoliolata_).--Mexico, 1839. This is a
very distinct and beautiful Mexican species that will only succeed
around London as a wall plant. It grows about a yard high, with leaves
fully 3 inches long, having three terminal sessile leaflets, and
slender leaf stalks often 2 inches long. The ternate leaflets are of a
glaucous blue colour, marbled with dull green, and very delicately
veined. Flowers small, bright yellow, and produced in few-flowered
axillary racemes on short peduncles. The berries are small, globular,
and light red.
B. TRIFURCA (_syn Mahonia trifurca_).--China, 1852. This is a shrub of
neat low growth, but it does not appear to be at all plentiful.
B. VULGARIS.--Common Barberry. This is a native species, with oblong
leaves, and terminal, drooping racemes of yellow flowers. It is
chiefly valued for the great wealth of orange-scarlet fruit. There are
two very distinct forms, one bearing silvery and the other black
fruit, and named respectively B. vulgaris fructo-albo and B. vulgaris
B. WALLICHIANA (_syn B. Hookeri_).--Nepaul, 1820. This is exceedingly
ornamental, whether as regards the foliage, flowers, or fruit. It is
of dense, bushy growth, with large, dark green spiny leaves, and an
abundance of clusters of clear yellow flowers. The berries are deep
violet-purple, and fully half-an-inch long. Being perfectly hardy and
of free growth it is well suited for extensive planting.
BERCHEMIA VOLUBILIS.--Climbing Berchemia. Carolina, 1714. A rarely
seen, deciduous climber, bearing rather inconspicuous greenish-yellow
flowers, succeeded by attractive, violet-tinted berries. The foliage
is neat and pretty, the individual leaves being ovate in shape and
slightly undulated or wavy. It is a twining shrub that in this
country, even under favourable circumstances, one rarely sees
ascending to a greater height than about 12 feet. Sandy peat and a
shady site suits it best, and so placed it will soon cover a
low-growing tree or bush much in the way that our common Honeysuckle
does. It is propagated from layers or cuttings.
BIGNONIA CAPREOLATA--Virginia and other parts of America, 1710. This
is not so hardy as to be depended upon throughout the country
generally, though in the milder parts of England and Ireland it
succeeds well as a wall plant. It is a handsome climbing shrub, with
long, heart-shaped leaves, usually terminating in branched tendrils,
and large orange flowers produced singly.
BILLARDIERA LONGIFLORA.--Blue Apple Berry. Van Diemen's Land, 1810. If
only for its rich, blue berries, as large as those of a cherry, this
otherwise elegant climbing shrub is well worthy of a far greater share
of attention than it has yet received, for it must be admitted that it
is far from common. The greenish bell-shaped blossoms produced in May
are, perhaps, not very attractive, but this is more than compensated
for by the highly ornamental fruit, which renders the plant an object
of great beauty about mid-September. Leaves small and narrow, on
slender, twining stems, that clothe well the lower half of a garden
wall in some sunny favoured spot. Cuttings root freely if inserted in
sharp sand and placed in slight heat, while seeds germinate quickly.
BRYANTHUS ERECTUS.--Siberia. This is a pretty little Ericaceous plant,
nearly allied to Menziesia, and with a plentiful supply of dark-green
leaves. The flowers, which are borne in crowded clusters at the points
of the shoots, are bell-shaped, and of a pleasing reddish-lilac colour.
It wants a cool, moist peaty soil, and is perfectly hardy. When in a
flowering stage the Bryanthus is one of the brightest occupants of the
peat bed, and is a very suitable companion for such dwarf plants as
the Heaths, Menziesias, and smaller growing Kalmias.
B. EMPETRIFORMIS (_syn Menziesia empetrifolia_).--North America, 1829.
This is a compact, neat species, and well suited for alpine gardening.
The flowers are rosy-purple, and produced abundantly.
BUDDLEIA GLOBOSA.--Orange Ball Tree. Chili, 1774. A shrubby species,
ranging in height from 12 feet to 20 feet, and the only one at all
common in gardens. Favoured spots in Southern England would seem to
suit the plant fairly well, but to see it at its best one must visit
some of the maritime gardens of North Wales, where it grows stout and
strong, and flowers with amazing luxuriance. Where it thrives it must
be ranked amongst the most beautiful of wall plants, for few, indeed,
are the standard specimens that are to be met with, the protection
afforded by a wall being almost a necessity in its cultivation. The
leaves are linear-lanceolate, and covered with a dense silvery
tomentum on the under side, somewhat rugose above, and partially
deciduous. Flowers in small globular heads, bright orange or yellow,
and being plentifully produced are very showy in early summer. It
succeeds well in rich moist loam on gravel.
B. LINDLEYANA.--China, 1844. This has purplish-red flowers and angular
twigs, but it cannot be relied upon unless in very sheltered and mild
parts of the country.
B. PANICULATA (_syn B. crispa_).--Nepaul, 1823. This may at once be
distinguished by its curly, woolly leaves, and fragrant lilac flowers.
It is a desirable species, but suffers from our climate.
BUPLEURUM FRUTICOSUM.--Hare's Ear. South Europe, 1596. A small-growing,
branching shrub, with obovate-lanceolate leaves, and compound umbels
of yellowish flowers. It is more curious than beautiful.
CAESALPINIA SEPIARIA (_syn C. japonica_).--India, 1857. This is as yet
a comparatively little known shrub, but one that from its beauty and
hardihood is sure to become a general favourite. Planted out in a
light, sandy, peaty soil, and where fully exposed, this shrub has done
well, and proved itself a suitable subject for the climate of England
at least. The hard prickles with which both stem and branches are
provided renders the shrub of rather formidable appearance, while the
leaves are of a peculiarly pleasing soft-green tint. For the flowers,
too, it is well worthy of attention, the pinky anthers contrasting so
markedly with the deep yellow of the other portions of the flower.
They are arranged in long racemes, and show well above the foliage.
CALLUNA VULGARIS (_syn Erica vulgaris_).--Common Ling on Heather. This
is the commonest native species, with purplish-pink flowers on small
pedicels. There are many very distinct and beautiful-flowering forms,
the following being some of the best: C. vulgaris alba, white-flowered;
C. vulgaris Hammondi, C. vulgaris minor, and C. vulgaris pilosa, all
white-flowered forms; C. vulgaris Alportii, and C. vulgaris Alportii
variegata, the former bearing rich crimson flowers, and the latter with
distinctly variegated foliage; C. vulgaris argentea, and C. vulgaris
aurea, with silvery-variegated and golden foliage; C. vulgaris
flore-pleno, a most beautiful and free-growing variety, with double
flowers; C. vulgaris Foxii, a dwarf plant that does not flower freely;
and C. vulgaris pumila, and C. vulgaris dumosa, which are of small
CALOPHACA WOLGARICA.--Siberia, 1786. This member of the Pea family is
of dwarf, branching growth, thickly clothed with glandular hairs, and
bears yellow flowers, succeeded by reddish-purple pods. It is of no
special importance as an ornamental shrub, and is most frequently seen
grafted on the Laburnum, though its natural easy habit of growth is far
preferable. Hailing from Siberia, it may be considered as fairly hardy
CALYCANTHUS FLORIDUS.--Carolina Allspice. Carolina, 1726. If only
for the purplish-red, pleasantly-scented flowers, this North American
shrub is worthy of extensive culture. The hardiness, accommodating
nature, and delicious perfume of its brightly-coloured flowers render
this shrub one of the choicest subjects for the shrubbery or edges
of the woodland path. It is of easy though compact growth, reaching
in favourable situations a height of 12 feet, and with ovate leaves
that are slightly pubescent. Growing best in good fairly moist loam,
where partial shade is afforded, the sides of woodland drives and
paths will suit this Allspice well; but it wants plenty of room for
branch-development. There are several nursery forms of this shrub,
such as C. floridus glaucus, C. floridus asplenifolia, and C. floridus
nanus, all probably distinct enough, but of no superior ornamental
value to the parent plant.
C. OCCIDENTALIS.--Californian or Western Allspice. California, 1831.
This is larger in all its parts than the former, and for decorative
purposes is even preferable to that species. The flowers are dark
crimson, and nearly twice as large as those of C. floridus, but rather
more sparsely produced. This is a very distinct and desirable species,
and one that can be recommended for lawn and park planting, but, like
the former, it delights to grow in a rather moist and shady situation.
CARAGANA ARBORESCENS.--Siberian Pea Tree. Siberia, 1752. On account
of its great hardihood, this is a very desirable garden shrub or
small-growing tree. The bright-yellow, pea-shaped flowers are very
attractive, while the deep-green, pinnate foliage imparts to the tree a
somewhat unusual but taking appearance. Soil would not seem to be of
much moment in the cultivation of this, as, indeed, the other species
of Caragana, for it thrives well either on dry, sunny banks, where the
soil is light and thin, or in good stiff, yellow loam.
C. FRUTESCENS.--Siberia, 1852. Flowers in May, and is of partially
upright habit; while C. Chamlagii, from China, has greenish-yellow
flowers, faintly tinted with pinky-purple.
C. MICROPHYLLA (_syn C. Altagana_), also from Siberia, is smaller of
growth than the foregoing, but the flowers are individually larger. It
is readily distinguished by the more numerous and hairy leaflets and
C. SPINOSA.--Siberia, 1775. This, as the name indicates, is of spiny
growth, and is a beautiful and distinct member of the family. They are
all hardy, and readily propagated from seed.
CARDIANDRA ALTERNIFOLIA.--Japan, 1866. With its neat habit, and pretty
purple-and-white, plentifully-produced flowers, this is worthy of the
small amount of care and coddling required to insure its growth in this
country. Hailing from Japan, it cannot be reckoned as very hardy, but
treated as a wall plant this pretty evergreen does well and flowers
freely. It can, however, be said that it is equally hardy with some
of the finer kinds of Hydrangea, to which genus it is nearly allied.
CARPENTERIA CALIFORNICA.--Sierra Nevada, California, 1880. This is
undoubtedly one of the most distinct and beautiful of hardy shrubs.
That it is perfectly hardy in England and Ireland recently-conducted
experiments conclusively prove, as plants have stood unprotected
through the past unusually severe winters with which this country has
been visited. When in full bloom the pure-white flowers, resembling
those of the Japanese Anemone, render it of great beauty, while the
light gray leaves are of themselves sufficient to make the shrub one of
particular attraction. The Carpenteria is nearly related to the Mock
Orange (Philadelphus), grows about 10 feet in height, with lithe and
slender branches, and light gray leaves. The flowers, which are pure
white with a bunch of yellow stamens, and sweet-scented, are produced
usually in fives at the branch-tips, and contrast markedly with the
long and light green foliage. It grows and flowers with freedom almost
anywhere, but is all the better for wall protection. From cuttings or
suckers it is readily increased.
CARYOPTERIS MASTACANTHUS.--China and Japan, 1844. This is a neat-growing
Chinese shrub, and of value for its pretty flowers that are produced
late in the autumn. It must be ranked as fairly hardy, having stood
through the winters of Southern England unprotected; but it is just as
well to give so choice a shrub the slight protection afforded by a
wall. The leaves are neat, thickly-arranged, and hoary, while the whole
plant is twiggy and of strict though by no means formal growth. Flowers
lavender-blue, borne at the tips of the shoots, and appearing in
succession for a considerable length of time. Light, sandy peat would
seem to suit it well, at least in such it grows and flowers freely.
CASSANDRA CALYCULATA (_syn Andromeda calyculata_).--North America,
1748. This is a handsome species from the Virginian swamps, but one
that is rarely seen in a very satisfactory condition in this country.
It grows about 18 inches high, with lanceolate dull-green leaves, and
pretty pinky-white flowers, individually large and produced abundantly.
For the banks of a pond or lake it is a capital shrub and very
effective, particularly if massed in groups of from a dozen to twenty
plants in each. There are several nursery forms, of which A. calyculata
minor is the best and most distinct.
CASSINIA FULVIDA (_syn Diplopappus chrysophyllus_).--New Zealand. This
is a neat-growing and beautiful shrub, the rich yellow stems and under
sides of the leaves imparting quite a tint of gold to the whole plant.
The flowers are individually small, but the whole head, which is
creamy-white, is very effective, and contrasts strangely with the
golden sheen of this beautiful shrub. It is inclined to be of rather
upright growth, is stout and bushy, and is readily increased from
cuttings planted in sandy soil in the open border. Probably in the
colder parts of the country this charming shrub might not prove
perfectly hardy, but all over England and Ireland it seems to be quite
at home. The flowers are produced for several months of the year, but
are at their best about mid-November, thus rendering the shrub of still
further value. It grows freely in sandy peaty soil of a light nature.
CASSIOPE FASTIGIATA (_syn Andromeda fastigiata_) and C. TETRAGONA (_syn
Andromeda tetragona_) are small-growing species, only suitable for rock
gardening--the former of neat upright habit, with large pinky-white
bells all along the stems; and the latter of bushy growth, with square
stems and small white flowers.
CASTANEA SATIVA (_syn C. vesca_ and _C. vulgaris_).--Sweet Spanish
Chestnut. Asia Minor. Few persons who have seen this tree as an
isolated specimen and when in full flower would feel inclined to
exclude it from our list. The long, cylindrical catkins, of a
yellowish-green colour, are usually borne in such abundance that the
tree is, during the month of June, one of particular interest and
beauty. So common a tree needs no description, but it may be well to
mention that there are several worthy varieties, and which flower
almost equally well with the parent tree.
CATALPA BIGNONIOIDES.--Indian Bean. North America, 1798. When in
full bloom this is a remarkable and highly ornamental tree, the
curiously-marked flowers and unusually large, bronzy-tinted foliage
being distinct from those of almost any other in cultivation. That it
is not, perhaps, perfectly hardy in every part of the country is to be
regretted, but the numerous fine old specimens that are to be met with
all over the country point out that there need be little to fear when
assigning this pretty and uncommon tree a position in our parks and
gardens. The flowers, produced in spikes at the branch-tips, are white,
tinged with violet and speckled with purple and yellow in the throat.
Individually the flowers are of large size and very ornamental, and,
being produced freely, give the tree a bright and pleasing appearance
when at their best. Usually the tree attains to a height of 30 feet in
this country, with rather crooked and ungainly branches, and large
heart-shaped leaves that are downy beneath. It flourishes well on any
free soil, and is an excellent smoke-resisting tree. C. bignonioides
aurea is a decided variety, that differs mainly in the leaves being of
a desirable golden tint.
C. BUNGEI and C. KAEMPFERI, natives of China and Japan, are hardly
to be relied upon, being of tender growth, and, unless in the most
favoured situations, suffer from our severe winters. They resemble our
commonly cultivated tree.
C. SPECIOSA.--United States, 1879. The Western Catalpa is more erect
and taller of growth than C. bignonioides. The flowers too are larger,
and of purer white, and with the throat markings of purple and yellow
more distinct and not inclined to run into each other. Leaves large,
heart-shaped, tapering to a point, of a light pleasing green and soft
to the touch. It flowers earlier, and is more hardy than the former.
CEANOTHUS AMERICANUS.--New Jersey Tea. North America, 1713. A shrub of
4 feet in height, with deep green serrated leaves, that are 2 inches
long and pubescent on the under sides. Flowers white, in axillary
panicles, and produced in great abundance. This is one of the hardiest
species, but succeeds best when afforded wall protection.
C. AZUREUS.--Mexico, 1818. This species, though not hardy enough for
every situation, is yet sufficiently so to stand unharmed as a wall
plant. It grows from 10 feet to 12 feet high, with deep-green leaves
that are hoary on the under sides. The flowers, which are borne in
large, axillary panicles, are bright blue, and produced in June and the
following months. In a light, dry soil and sunny position this shrub
does well as a wall plant, for which purpose it is one of the most
ornamental. There are several good nursery forms, of which the following
are amongst the best:--C. azureus Albert Pettitt, C. azureus albidus,
C. azureus Arnddii, one of the best, C. azureus Gloire de Versailles,
and C. azureus Marie Simon.
C. CUNEATUS (_syn C. verrucosus_).--California, 1848. This is another
half-hardy species that requires wall protection, which may also be
said of C. Veitchianus, one of the most beautiful of the family, with
dense clusters of rich blue flowers and a neat habit of growth.
C. DENTATUS.--California, 1848. With deeply-toothed, shining-green
leaves, and deep blue, abundantly-produced flowers, this is a
well-known wall plant that succeeds in many parts of the country,
particularly within the influence of the sea. It commences flowering in
May, and frequently continues until frosts set in. It is a very
desirable species, that in favoured situations will grow to fully 10
feet high, and with a spread laterally of nearly the same dimensions.
C. PAPILLOSUS.--California, 1848. This is a straggling bush, with
small, blunt leaves, and panicles of pale blue flowers on long
footstalks. A native of California and requiring wall protection.
C. RIGIDUS.--Another Californian species, is of upright, stiff growth,
a sub-evergreen, with deep purple flowers produced in April and May.
There are other less hardy kinds, including C. floribundus, C.
integerrimus, C. velutinus, and C. divaricatus.
CEDRELA SINENSIS (_syn Ailanthus flavescens_).--China, 1875. This is a
fast growing tree, closely resembling the Ailanthus, and evidently
quite as hardy. It has a great advantage over that tree, in that the
flowers have an agreeable odour, those of the Ailanthus being somewhat
sickly and unpleasant. The flowers are individually small, but arranged
in immense hanging bunches like those of Koelreuteria paniculata, and
being pleasantly scented are rendered still the more valuable. The
whole plant has a yellow hue, and the roots have a peculiar reddish
colour, and very unlike those of the Ailanthus, which are white.
CELASTRUS SCANDENS.--Climbing Waxwork, or Bitter Sweet. North America,
1736. When planted in rich, moist soil, this soon forms an attractive
mass of twisting and twining growths, with distinct glossy foliage
in summer and brilliant scarlet fruit in autumn. The flowers are
inconspicuous, the chief beauty of the shrub being the show of fruit,
which resembles somewhat those of the Spindle Tree (Euonymus), and to
which it is nearly allied. A native of North America, it grows from 12
feet to 15 feet high, and is useful in this country for covering arches
or tree stems, or for allowing to run about at will on a mound of earth
or on rockwork.
CELTIS AUSTRALIS.--South Europe, 1796. This species is much like C.
occidentalis, with black edible fruit. It is not of so tall growth as
the American species.
C. OCCIDENTALIS.--Nettle tree. North America, 1656. In general
appearance this tree resembles the Elm, to which family it belongs. It
has reticulated, cordate-ovate, serrated leaves, with small greenish
flowers on slender stalks, and succeeded by blackish-purple fruit about
the size of a pea. A not very ornamental tree, at least so far as
flowers are concerned, but valuable for lawn planting. It varies very
much in the size and shape of the leaves.
CERCIS CANADENSIS.--North America, 1730. This species resembles C.
Siliquastrum, but is of much smaller growth, and bears paler flowers;
while C. CHINENSIS, which is not hardy, has large, rosy-pink flowers.
C. SILIQUASTRUM.--Judas Tree. South Europe, 1596. A small-growing tree
of some 15 feet in height, and with usually a rather ungainly and
crooked mode of growth. It is, however, one of our choicest subjects
for ornamental planting, the handsome reniform leaves and rosy-purple
flowers produced along the branches and before the leaves appear
rendering it a great favourite with planters. There are three distinct
forms of this shrub--the first, C. Siliquastrum alba, having pure white
flowers; C. Siliquastrum carnea, with beautiful deep pink flowers; and
C. Siliquastrum variegata, with neatly variegated foliage, though
rather inconstant of character. Natives of South Europe, and amongst
the oldest trees of our gardens.
They all succeed best when planted in rather damp loam, and do not
object to partial shade, the common species growing well even beneath
the drip of large standard trees.
CHIMONANTHUS FRAGRANS.--Winter Flower. Japan, 1766. This Japanese shrub
is certainly one of the most remarkable that could be brought under
notice, the deliciously fragrant flowers being produced in abundance
during the winter months, and while the plant is yet leafless. Being of
slender growth, it is best suited for planting against a wall, the
protection thus afforded being just what is wanted for the perfect
development of the pretty flowers. C. fragrans grandiflora has larger
and less fragrant flowers than the species, and is more common in
CHIONANTHUS RETUSA.--China, 1852. This is not a very hardy species,
and, being less ornamental than the American form, is not to be
recommended for general planting.
C. VIRGINICA.--Fringe Tree. North America, 1736. A very ornamental,
small-growing tree, with large deciduous leaves and pendent clusters of
pure white flowers with long fringe-like petals, and from which the
popular name has arisen. It is a charming tree, or rather shrub, in
this country, for one rarely sees it more than 10 feet high, and one
that, to do it justice, must have a cool and rather damp soil and a
somewhat shady situation.
CHOISYA TERNATA.--Mexican Orange Flower. Mexico, 1825. A beautiful and
distinct shrub that succeeds well in the south and west of England. The
evergreen leaves are always fresh and beautiful, and of a dark shining
green, while the sweetly-fragrant flowers are produced freely on the
apices of last year's wood. They have a singular resemblance to those
of the orange, and on the Continent are commonly grown as a substitute
for that popular flower. The plant succeeds well in any light, rich
soil, and soon grows into a goodly-sized shrub of 4 feet or 5 feet in
height. As a wall plant it succeeds well, but in warm, maritime
situations it may be planted as a standard without fear of harm.
Cuttings root freely if placed in slight heat.
CISTUS CRISPUS.--Portugal, 1656. This is a distinct species, with
curled leaves, and large reddish-purple flowers. It is a valuable
ornamental shrub, but, like the others, suffers from the effects of
C. LADANIFERUS.--Gum Cistus. Spain, 1629. A pretty but rather tender
shrub, growing in favourable situations to about 4 feet in height. It
has lanceolate leaves that are glutinous above, and thickly covered
with a whitish tomentum on the under sides, and large and showy vhite
flowers with a conspicuous purple blotch at the base of each petal.
Unless in southern and western England, but particularly on the
sea-coast, this handsome Portuguese shrub is not to be depended on, in
so far as hardihood is concerned.
C. LAURIFOLIUS.--Laurel-leaved Cistus. Spain, 1731. This is the
hardiest species in cultivation, but, like the latter, is favourable to
the milder parts of these islands, and especially maritime districts.
Frequently it rises to 7 feet in height, and is then an object of great
beauty, the large yellowish-white flowers showing well above the deep
green Laurel-like leaves.
C. MONSPELIENSIS (South of Europe, 1656), and its variety C.
monspeliensis florentinus, the former with white, and the latter with
white and yellow flowers, are fairly hardy in the milder parts of
Britain, but cannot be recommended for general planting.
C. PURPUREUS.--Purple-flowered Cistas. In this species, which may rank
next to the latter in point of hardihood, the flowers are of a deep
reddish-purple, and with a darker blotch at the base of each petal.
C. SALVIFOLIUS is of loose and rather untidy growth, with rugose leaves
and white flowers. It is very variable in character, and the form
generally cultivated grows about 4 feet high, and has ovate-lanceolate,
almost glabrous leaves.
Other species that are occasionally to be found in collections are C.
creticus, with yellow and purple flowers; C. hirsutus, white with
yellow blotches at the base of the petals; and C. Clusii, with very
large pure-white flowers. All the species of Gum Cistus, or Rock Rose
as they are very appropriately named, will be found to succeed best
when planted in exalted positions, and among light, though rich, strong
soil. They are easy of propagation.
CITRUS TRIFOLIATA.--Japan, 1869. This is a singular low-growing shrub,
with ternate leaves, spiny branches, and fragrant white flowers. It is
hardy in many English situations, but does not fruit freely, although
the orange-blossom-like flowers are produced very abundantly. A pretty
little glossy-leaved shrub that is well worthy of attention,
particularly where a cosy corner can be put aside for its cultivation.
CLADRASTIS AMURENSIS.--Amoor Yellow Wood. Amur, 1880. This is a shrub
that is sure to be extensively cultivated when better known, and more
readily procured. It has stood uninjured for several years in various
parts of England, so that its hardihood may be taken for granted. The
pretty olive-green of the bark, and the greyish-green of the leathery
leaves, render the shrub one of interest even in a flowerless state. In
July and August the dense spikes of white, or rather yellowish-white
flowers are produced freely, and that, too, even before the shrub has
attained to a height of 2 feet. It is well worthy of extended culture.
C. TINCTORIA (_syn C. lutea_ and _Virgilia lutea_).--Yellow Wood. North
America, 1812. This is a handsome deciduous tree that does well in many
parts of the country, and is valued for the rich profusion of white
flowers produced, and which are well set-off by the finely-cut pinnate
leaves. It is a valuable tree for park and lawn planting, requiring a
warm, dry soil, and sunny situation--conditions under which the wood
becomes well-ripened, and the flowers more freely produced.
CLEMATIS ALPINA (_syn Atragene alpina, A. austriaca_ and _A.
siberica_).--Europe and North America. This is a climbing species with
bi-ternately divided leaves, and large flowers with four blue sepals
and ten to twelve small flattened organs, which are usually termed
C. CIRRHOSA.--Evergreen Virgin's Bower. Spain, 1596. An interesting,
early-flowering species. The flowers, which are greenish-white, are
produced in bunches and very effective. It is an evergreen species, of
comparative hardihood, and flowers well in sheltered situations.
C. FLAMMULA.--Virgin's Bower. France, 1596. This old and well-known
plant is quite hardy in this country. The leaves are pinnate, and the
flowers white and fragrant. C. Flammula rubro-marginata is a worthy and
C. FLORIDA.--Japan, 1776. This is a beautiful species, and an old
inhabitant of English gardens. Leaves composed of usually three
oval-shaped leaflets, and unusually bright of tint. The flowers are
very large, and pure white. It should be planted in a warm sheltered
corner against a wall.
C. GRAVEOLENS.--This is a dwarf shrub, with neatly tripinnate leaves,
and solitary, strongly-scented yellow flowers of medium size. A native
of Chinese Tartary, and quite hardy.
C. LANUGINOSA.--China, 1851. A handsome species, with large purple
leaves that are hairy on the under sides. Flowers pale blue or lilac,
very large, and composed of six or eight spreading sepals. C.
lanuginosa pallida has immense flowers, often fully half a foot in
diameter. Flowers in June.
C. MONTANA.--Nepaul, 1831. This is valuable on account of its flowering
in May. It is a free-growing species, with trifoliolate leaves on long
footstalks, and large white flowers. C. montana grandiflora is a
beautiful variety, having large white flowers so abundantly produced as
to hide the foliage. It is quite hardy and of rampant growth.
C. PATENS (_syns C. caerulea_ and _C. azurea grandiflora_).--Japan,
1836. This has large, pale-violet flowers, and is the parent of many
single and double flowered forms. The typical form is, however, very
deserving of cultivation, on account of the freedom with which it
blooms during June and July from the wood of the previous year. It is
perfectly hardy even in the far north.
C. VIORNA.--Leather Flower. United States. This is a showy,
small-flowered species, the flowers being campanulate, greenish-white
within and purplish without. C. Viorna coccinea is not yet well known,
but is one of the prettiest of the small-flowered section. The flowers,
which are leathery as in the species, are of a beautiful vermilion on
the outside and yellow within.
C. VITALBA.--Lady's Bower, or Old Man's Beard. A handsome native climbing
shrub, common in limestone or chalky districts, and unusually abundant
in the southern English counties. Clambering over some neglected fence,
often to nearly 20 feet in height, this vigorous-growing plant is seen
to best advantage, the three or five-lobed leaves and festoons of
greenish-white, fragrant flowers, succeeded by the curious and attractive
feathery carpels, render the plant one of the most distinct and desirable
of our native wildlings flowering in August.
C. VITICELLA.--Spain, 1569. This is a well-known species of not too
rampant growth, and a native of Spain and Italy. The flowers vary a
good deal in colour, but in the typical plant they are reddish-purple
and produced throughout the summer. Crossed with C. lanuginosa, this
species has produced many ornamental and beautiful hybrids, one of the
finest and most popular being C. Jackmanii.
C. WILLIAMSI (_syn C. Fortunei_).--Japan, 1863. The fragrant, white
flowers of this species are semi-double, and consist of about 100
oblong-lanceolate sepals narrowed to the base. The leathery leaves are
trifoliolate with heart-shaped leaflets. It proves quite hardy, and has
GARDEN VARIETIES.--As well as the above there are many beautiful garden
hybrids, some of which in point of floral colouring far outvie the
parent forms. Included in the following list are a few of the most
Beauty of Worcester.
Belle of Woking.
Duchess of Edinburgh.
John Gould Veitch.
Madame Baron Veillard.
Mrs. A. Jackman.
Prince of Wales.
Star of India.
CLERODENDRON TRICHOTOMUM.--Japan, 1800. This is at once one of the most
beautiful and distinct of hardy shrubs. It is of stout, nearly erect
growth, 8 feet high, and nearly as much through, with large,
dark-green, ovate leaves, and deliciously fragrant white flowers, with
a purplish calyx, and which are at their best in September. Thriving
well in any light soil, being of vigorous constitution, and extremely
handsome of flower, are qualities which combine to render this shrub
one of particular importance in our gardens.
C. FOETIDUM, a native of China, is only hardy in southern and seaside
situations, where it forms a bush 5 feet high, with heart-shaped leaves,
and large clusters of rosy-pink flowers.
CLETHRA ACUMINATA.--Pointed-leaved Pepper Tree. Carolina, 1806. This is
not so hardy as C. alnifolia, hailing from the Southern States of North
America, but with a little protection is able to do battle with our
average English winter. It resembles C. alnifolia, except in the
leaves, which are sharp pointed, and like that species delights to grow
in damp positions. The flowers are white and drooping, and the growth
more robust than is that of C. alnifolia generally. For planting by the
pond or lake-side, the Pepper Trees are almost invaluable.
C. ALNIFOLIA.--Alder-leaved Pepper Tree. North America, 1831. A rather
stiff-growing shrub of about 5 feet in height, with leaves resembling
those of our common Alder, and bearing towards the end of July spikes
of almost oppressively fragrant dull-white flowers at the tips of the
branches. It is a valuable shrub, not only in an ornamental way, but on
account of it thriving in damp, swampy ground, where few others could
exist, while at the same time it will succeed and flower freely in
almost any good garden soil.
COCCULUS CAROLINUS.--This is a half hardy, twining shrub, of free
growth when planted by a tree stem in a sheltered wood, but with by no
means showy flowers; indeed, it may be described in few words as a
shrub of no great beauty nor value.
C. LAURIFOLIUS, from the Himalayas and Japan, is even less hardy than
the above, although, used as a wall plant, it has survived for many
years in the south and west of England. The foliage of this species is
neat and ornamental, but liable to injury from cold easterly winds.
COLLETIA CRUCIATA (_syn C. bictonensis_).--Chili, 1824. With flattened
woody branches, and sharp-pointed spines which take the place of
leaves, this is at once one of the most singular of hardy flowering
shrubs. It forms a stout dense bush about 4 feet high, and bears
quantities of small white flowers, which render the plant one of great
beauty during the summer months.
C. SPINOSA.--Peru, 1823. This species grows fairly well in some parts
of England and Ireland, and is a curious shrub with awl-shaped leaves,
and, like the other members of the family, an abundant producer of
flowers. It thrives best as a wall plant, and when favourably situated
a height of 12 feet is sometimes attained.
COLUTEA ARBORESCENS.--Bladder Senna. France, 1548. This is a common
plant in English gardens, bearing yellow Pea-shaped flowers, that are
succeeded by curious reddish bladder-like seed pods. It grows to 10
feet or 12 feet in height, and is usually of lax and slender growth,
but perfectly hardy.
C. CRUENTA (_syn C. orientalis_ and _C. sanguine_).--Oriental Bladder
Senna. Levant, 1710. This is a free-growing, round-headed, deciduous
bush, of from 6 feet to 8 feet high when fully grown. The leaves are
pinnate and glaucous, smooth, and bright green above, and downy
beneath. Flowers individually large, of a reddish-copper colour, with a
yellow spot at the base of the upper petal. The fruit is an inflated
boat-shaped reddish pod. The Bladder Sennas are of very free growth,
even in poor, sandy soil, and being highly ornamental, whether in
flower or fruit, are to be recommended for extensive cultivation.
CORIARIA MYRTIFOLIA.--South Europe, 1629. A deciduous shrub growing to
about 4 feet in height, with Myrtle-like leaves, and upright terminal
racemes of not very showy flowers, produced about mid-summer--generally
from May to August. For its pretty foliage and the frond-like
arrangement of its branches it is principally worthy of culture. From
southern Europe and the north of Africa, where it is an occupant of
waste ground and hedges, but still rare in our gardens.
CORNUS ALBA.--White-fruited Dogwood. Siberia, 1741. This is a native of
northern Asia and Siberia, not of America as Loudon stated. For the
slender, red-barked branches and white or creamy flowers, this species
is well worthy of notice, while the white fruit renders it very
distinct and effective. It grows to about 10 feet in height. C. alba
Spathi is one of the most ornamental of shrubs bearing coloured leaves,
these in spring being of a beautiful bronzy tint, and changing towards
summer to a mixture of gold and green, or rather an irregular margin of
deep gold surrounds each leaf. It was first sent out by the famous
Berlin nurseryman whose name it bears. C. alba Gouchaulti is another
variegated leaved variety, but has no particular merit, and originated
in one of the French nurseries.
C. ALTERNIFOLIA.--North America, 1760. This species is a lover of damp
ground, and grows from 20 feet to nearly 30 feet high, with clusters of
pale yellow flowers, succeeded by bluish-black berries that render the
plant highly ornamental. It is still rare in British gardens.
C. AMOMUM (_syn C. sericea_).--From the eastern United States. It is a
low-growing, damp-loving shrub, with yellowish-white flowers, borne
abundantly in small clusters. It grows about 8 feet in height, and has
a graceful habit, owing to the long and lithe branches spreading
regularly over the ground. The fruit is pale blue, and the bark a
C. ASPERIFOLIA is another showy American species, with reddish-brown
bark, hairy leaves, of small size, and rather small flowers that are
succeeded by pearly-white berries borne on conspicuous reddish stalks.
C. BAILEYI resembles somewhat the better-known C. stolonifera, but it
is of more erect habit, is not stoloniferous, has rather woolly leaves,
at least on the under side, and bears yellowish-white fruit. It grows
in sandy soil, and is a native of Canada.
C. CALIFORNICA (_syn C. pubescens_) grows fully 10 feet high, with
smooth branches, hairy branchlets, and cymes of pretty white flowers,
succeeded by white fruit. It occurs from southern California to British
C. CANADENSIS.--Dwarf Cornel or Birchberry. Canada, 1774. This is of
herbaceous growth, and remarkable for the large cream-coloured flower
bracts, and showy red fruit.
C. CANDIDISSIMA (_syn C. paniculata_) is a beautiful American species,
with panicled clusters of almost pure white flowers, that are succeeded
by pale blue fruit. It is a small growing tree, with narrow, pointed
leaves, and greyish coloured, smooth bark. Like many of its fellows,
this species likes rather moist ground.
C. CIRCINATA, from the eastern United States, is readily distinguished
by its large, round leaves, these sometimes measuring 6 inches long by
3-1/2 inches wide. The yellowish-white flowers are individually small,
and succeeded by bright blue fruits, each as large as a pea.
C. CAPITATA (_syn Benthamia fragifera_).--Nepaul, 1825. An evergreen
shrub, with oblong, light green leaves and terminal inconspicuous
greenish flowers, surrounded by an involucre of four large,
pinky-yellow bracts. It is this latter that renders the shrub so very
conspicuous when in full flower. Unfortunately, the Benthamia is not
hardy throughout the country, the south and west of England, especially
Cornwall, and the southern parts of Ireland being the favoured spots
where this handsome shrub or small growing tree--for in Cornwall it has
attained to fully 45 feet in height, and in Cork nearly 30 feet--may be
found in a really thriving condition. Around London it does well enough
for a time, but with severe frost it gets cut back to the ground, and
though it quickly recovers and grows rapidly afterwards, before it is
large enough to flower freely it usually suffers again. The fruits are
as large and resemble Strawberries, and of a rich scarlet or reddish
hue, and though ripe in October they frequently remain on the trees
throughout the winter. Both for its flowers and fruit, this Nepaul
shrub-tree is well worthy of a great amount of trouble to get it
established in a cosy corner of the garden. Rich, well-drained loam is
all it wants, while propagation by seed is readily effected.
C. FLORIDA, the Florida Dogwood, is not always very satisfactory when
grown in this country, our climate in some way or other being
unsuitable for its perfect development. It is a handsome shrub or
small-growing tree, with small flowers surrounded by a large and
conspicuous white involucre. The leaves are ovate-oblong, and pubescent
on the undersides. It is a valuable as well as ornamental little tree,
and is worthy of a great amount of coddling and coaxing to get it
C. KOUSA (_syn Benthamia japonica_).--Japan. This is a very distinct
and beautiful flowering shrub. Flowers very small individually, but
borne in large clusters, and yellow, the showy part being the four
large, pure white bracts which subtend each cluster of blossoms, much
like those in Cornus florida, only the bracts are more pointed than
those of the latter species. Being quite hardy, and a plant of great
interest and beauty, this little known Cornus is sure to be widely
planted when better known.
C. MACROPHYLLA (_syn C. brachypoda_).--Himalayas, China and Japan,
1827. This is an exceedingly handsome species, of tabulated appearance,
occasioned by the branches being arranged almost horizontally. The
leaves are of large size, elliptic-ovate, and are remarkable for their
autumnal tints. The elder-like flowers appear in June. They are pure
white and arranged in large cymes. C. macrophylla variegata is a
distinct and very ornamental form of the above, in which the leaf
margins are bordered with white.
C. MAS.--Cornelian Cherry. Austria, 1596. One of our earliest flowering
trees, the clusters of yellow blooms being produced in mild seasons by
the middle of February. It is not at all fastidious about soil,
thriving well in that of very opposite description. It deserves to be
extensively cultivated, if only for the profusion of brightly-tinted
flowers, which completely cover the shoots before the leaves have
appeared. C. Mas aurea-elegantissima, the tricolor-leaved Dogwood, is a
strikingly ornamental shrub, with green leaves encircled with a golden
band, the whole being suffused with a faint pinky tinge. It is of more
slender growth than the species, and a very desirable acquisition to
any collection of hardy ornamental shrubs. C. Mas argenteo-variegata is
another pretty shrub, the leaves being margined with clear white.
C. NUTTALLII grows to fully 50 feet in height, and is one of the most
beautiful of the Oregon and Californian forest trees. The flower bracts
are of large size, often 6 inches across, the individual bracts being
broad and white, and fully 2-1/2 inches long.
C. OFFICINALIS is a Japanese species, that is, however, quite hardy in
this country, and nearly resembles the better known C. Mas, but from
which it may at once be known by the tufts of brownish hairs that are
present in the axils of the principal leaf veins.
C. STOLONIFERA.--Red Osier Dogwood. North America, 1741. This has
rather inconspicuous flowers, that are succeeded by whitish fruit, and
is of greatest value for the ruddy tint of the young shoots. It grows
fully 6 feet high, and increases rapidly by underground suckers. The
species is quite hardy.
C. TARTARICA (_syn C. siberica_).--Siberia, 1824. This has much
brighter coloured bark, and is of neater and dwarfer habit, than the
typical C. alba. It is a very beautiful and valuable shrub, of which
there is a variegated leaved form.
COROKIA COTONEASTER.--New Zealand, 1876. A curious, dwarf-growing
shrub, with small, bright yellow, starry flowers produced in June. The
hardiness of the shrub is rather doubtful.
CORONILLA EMERUS.--Scorpion Senna. France, 1596. This shrub, a native
of the middle and southern parts of Europe, forms an elegant loose bush
about 5 feet high, with smooth, pinnate, sub-evergreen leaves, and
Pea-shaped flowers, that are reddish in the bud state, but bright
yellow when fully expanded. It is an elegant plant, and on account of
its bearing hard cutting back, is well suited for ornamental hedge
formation; but however used the effect is good, the distinct foliage
and showy flowers making it a general favourite with planters. It will
thrive in very poor soil, but prefers a light rich loam.
CORYLOPSIS HIMALAYANA.--E. Himalayas, 1879. This is a stronger growing
species than C. pauciflora and C. spicata, with large leaves averaging
4 inches long, that are light green above and silky on the under sides.
The parallel veins of the leaves are very pronounced, while the
leaf-stalks, as indeed the young twigs too, are covered with a hairy
C. PAUCIFLORA is readily distinguished from the former by its more
slender growth, smaller leaves, and fewer flowered spikes. Flowers
C. SPICATA.--Japan, 1864. This Japanese shrub is of very distinct
appearance, having leaves like those of our common Hazel, and drooping
spikes of showy-yellowish, fragrant flowers that are produced before
the leaves. There is a variegated form in cultivation.
The various species of Corylopsis are very ornamental garden plants,
and to be recommended, on account of their early flowering, for
prominent positions in the shrubbery or by the woodland walk. Light,
rich loam seems to suit them well.
CORYLUS AVELLANA PURPUREA.--Purple Hazel. This has large leaves of a
rich purple colour, resembling those of the purple Beech, and is a very
distinct plant for the shrubbery border. Should be cut down annually if
large leaves are desired.
C. COLURNA.--Constantinople Hazel. Turkey, 1665. This is the largest
and most ornamental of the family, and is mentioned here on account of
the showy catkins with which the tree is usually well supplied. When
thickly produced, as they usually are on established specimens, these
long catkins have a most effective and pleasing appearance, and tend to
render the tree one of the most distinct in cultivation. Under
favourable circumstances, such as when growing in a sweet and rather
rich brown loam, it attains to fully 60 feet in height, and of a neat
shape, from the branches being arranged horizontally, or nearly so.
Even in a young state the Constantinople Hazel is readily distinguished
from the common English species, by the softer and more angular leaves,
and by the whitish bark which comes off in long strips. The stipules,
too, form an unerring guide to its identity, they being long, linear,
COTONEASTER BACILLARIS.--Nepaul, 1841. A large-growing species, and one
of the few members of the family that is more ornamental in flower than
in fruit. It is of bold, portly, upright growth, and sends up shoots
from the base of the plant. The pretty white flowers are borne in
clusters for some distance along the slender shoots, and have a very
effective and pleasing appearance; indeed, the upper portion of the
plant has the appearance of a mass of white blossoms.
C. FRIGIDA.--Nepaul, 1824. The species forms a large shrub or low tree
with oblong, elliptical, sub-evergreen leaves. The flowers are white
and borne in large corymbs, which are followed by scarlet berries in
C. MICROPHYLLA.--Small-leaved Cotoneaster. Nepaul, 1825. This is, from
a flowering point of view, probably the most useful of any member of
this rather large genus. Its numerous pretty white flowers, dark,
almost Yew-green leaves, and abundance of the showiest red berries in
winter, will ever make this dwarf, clambering plant a favourite with
those who are at all interested in beautiful shrubs. All, or nearly
all, the species of Cotoneaster are remarkable and highly valued for
their showy berries, but, except the above, and perhaps C. buxifolia
(Box-leaved Cotoneaster), few others are worthy of consideration from a
purely flowering point of view.
C. SIMONSII.--Khasia, 1868. The stems of this species usually grow from
4 feet to 6 feet high, with sub-erect habit. The leaves are
roundly-elliptic and slightly silky beneath. The small flowers are
succeeded by a profusion of scarlet berries that ripen in autumn. This
is generally considered the best for garden purposes.
CRATAEGUS AZAROLUS.--South Europe, 1640. This is a very
vigorous-growing species, with a wide, spreading head of rather
upright-growing branches. The flowers are showy and the fruit large and
of a pleasing red colour.
C. AZAROLUS ARONIA (_syn C. Aronia_).--Aronia Thorn. South Europe,
1810. This tree attains to a height of 20 feet, has deeply lobed leaves
that are wedge-shaped at the base, and slightly pubescent on the under
sides. The flowers, which usually are at their best in June, are white
and showy, and succeeded by large yellow fruit. Generally the Aronia
Thorn forms a rather upright and branchy specimen of neat proportions,
and when studded with its milk-white flowers may be included amongst
the most distinct and ornamental of the family.
C. COCCINEA.--Scarlet-fruited Thorn. North America, 1683. If only for
its lovely white flowers, with bright, pinky anthers, it is well worthy
of a place even in a selection of ornamental flowering trees and
shrubs. It is, however, rendered doubly valuable in that the
cordate-ovate leaves turn of a warm brick colour in the autumn, while
the fruit, and which is usually produced abundantly, is of the
C. COCCINEA MACRANTHA.--North America, 1819. This bears some resemblance
to the Cockspur Thorn, but has very long, curved spines--longer, perhaps,
than those of any other species.
C. CORDATA is one of the latest flowering species, in which respect it
is even more hardy than the well-known C. tanace-tifolia. It forms a
small compact tree, of neat and regular outline, with dark green
shining leaves, and berries about the same size as those of the common
species, and deep red.
C. CRUS-GALLI.--Cockspur Thorn. North America, 1691. This has large
and showy white flowers that are succeeded by deep red berries. It is
readily distinguished by the long, curved spines with which the whole
tree is beset. Of this species there are numerous worthy forms,
including C. Crus-galli Carrierii, which opens at first white, and
then turns a showy flesh colour; C. Crus-galli Layi, C. Crus-galli
splendens, C. Crus-galli prunifolia, C. Crus-galli pyracanthifolia, and
C. Crus-galli salicifolia, all forms of great beauty--whether for their
foliage, or beautiful and usually plentifully-produced flowers.
C. DOUGLASII.--North America, 1830. This is peculiar in having dark
purple or almost black fruit. It is of stout growth, often reaching to
20 feet in height, and belongs to the early-flowering section.
C. NIGRA (_syn C. Celsiana_).--A tree 20 feet high, with stout branches,
and downy, spineless shoots. Leaves large, ovate-acute, deeply incised,
glossy green above and downy beneath. Flowers large and fragrant, pure
white, and produced in close heads in June. Fruit large, oval, downy,
and yellow when fully ripe. A native of Sicily, and known under the
names of C. incisa and C. Leeana. This species must not be confused
with a variety of our common Thorn bearing a similar name.
C. OXYACANTHA.--Common Hawthorn. This is, perhaps, the most ornamental
species in cultivation, and certainly the commonest. The common wild
species needs no description, the fragrant flowers varying in colour
from pure white to pink, being produced in the richest profusion. Under
cultivation, however, it has produced some very distinct and desirable
forms, far superior to the parent, including amongst others those with
double-white, pink, and scarlet flowers.
C. OXYACANTHA PUNICEA flore-pleno (Paul's double-scarlet Thorn), is one
of, if not the handsomest variety, with large double flowers that are
of the richest crimson. Other good flowering kinds include C.
Oxyacantha praecox (Glastonbury Thorn); C. Oxyacantha Oliveriana; C.
Oxyacantha punicea, with deep scarlet flowers; C. Oxyacantha rosea,
rose-coloured and abundantly-produced flowers; C. Oxyacantha foliis
aureis, with yellow fruit; C. Oxyacantha laciniata, cut leaves; C.
Oxyacantha multiplex, double-white flowers; C. Oxyacantha foliis
argenteis, having silvery-variegated leaves: C. Oxyacantha pendula, of
semi-weeping habit; C. Oxyacantha stricta, with an upright and stiff
habit of growth; C. Oxyacantha Leeana, a good form; and C. Oxyacantha
C. PARVIFOLIA.--North America, 1704. This is a miniature Thorn, of slow
growth, with leaves about an inch long, and solitary pure-white flowers
of large size. The flowers open late in the season, and are succeeded
by yellowish-green fruit.
C. PYRACANTHA.--Fiery Thorn. South Europe, 1629. This is a very
distinct species, with lanceolate serrated leaves, and pinkish or
nearly white flowers. The berries of this species are, however, the
principal attraction, being orange-scarlet, and produced in dense
clusters. C. Pyracantha crenulata and C. Pyracantha Lelandi are worthy
varieties of the above, the latter especially being one of the most
ornamental-berried shrubs in cultivation.
C. TANACETIFOLIA.--Tansy-leaved Thorn. Greece, 1789. This is a very
late-flowering species, and remarkable for its Tansy-like foliage. It
is of unusually free growth, and in almost any class of soil, and is
undoubtedly, in so far at least as neatly divided leaves and wealth of
fruit are concerned, one of the most distinct and desirable species of
Other good species and varieties that may just be mentioned as being
worthy of cultivation are C. apiifolia, C. Crus-galli horrida, C.
orientalis, and C. tomentosum (_syn C. punctata_). To a lesser or
greater extent, the various species and varieties of Thorn are of great
value for the wealth and beauty of flowers they produce, but the above
are, perhaps, the most desirable in that particular respect. They are
all of free growth, and, except in waterlogged soils, thrive well and
CYTISUS ALBUS.--White Spanish Broom. Portugal, 1752. This is a
large-growing shrub of often 10 feet in height, with wiry, somewhat
straggling branches, and remarkable for the wealth of pure-white
flowers it produces. In May and June, if favourably situated, every
branch is wreathed with small white flowers, and often to such an
extent that at a short distance away the plant looks like a sheet of
white. Being perfectly hardy and of very free growth in any light soil,
and abundantly floriferous, this handsome shrub is one of particular
value in ornamental planting. By placing three or five plants in
clump-fashion, the beauty of this Broom is greatly enhanced.
C. ALDUS INCARNATUS (_syn C. incarnatus_) resembles C. purpureus in its
leaves and general appearance, but it is of larger growth. The flowers,
which are at their best in May, are of a vinous-rose colour, and
C. BIFLORUS (_syn C. elongatus_).--Hungary, 1804. This is a dwarf,
spreading, twiggy bush, of fully a yard high. Leaves trifoliolate,
clothed beneath with closely adpressed hairs, and bright yellow,
somewhat tubular flowers, usually produced in fours.
C. DECUMBENS.--A charming alpine species, of low, spreading growth,
bright-green three-parted leaves, and bearing axillary bunches of large
yellow, brownish-purple tinted flowers. A native of the French and
Italian Alps, and quite hardy.
C. NIGRICANS.--Austria, 1730. Another beautiful species, with long,
erect racemes of golden-yellow flowers, and one whose general hardihood
is undoubted. On its own roots, and allowed to roam at will, this
pretty, small-growing Broom is of far greater interest than when it is
grafted mop-high on a Laburnum stem, and pruned into artificial shapes,
as is, unfortunately, too often the case.
C. PURPUREUS.--Purple Broom. Austria, 1792. Alow, spreading shrub, with
long wiry shoots, clothed with neat trifoliolate leaves, and bearing an
abundance of its purple, Pea-shaped flowers. There is a white-flowered
form, C. purpureus albus, and another named C. purpureus ratis-bonensis,
with pretty yellow flowers, produced on long and slender shoots.
C. SCOPARIUS.--Yellow Broom. This is a well-known native shrub, with
silky, angular branches, and bright yellow flowers in summer. There are
several varieties, but the most remarkable and handsome is C. scoparius
Andreanus, in which the wings of the flowers are of a rich golden
brown. It is one of the showiest shrubs in cultivation.
For ornamental planting the above are about the best forms of Broom,
but others might include C. austriacus, C. Ardoini, and C. capitatus,
the latter being unusually hardy, and bearing dense heads of flowers.
In so far as soil is concerned, the Brooms are readily accommodated,
while either from seeds or cuttings they are easily propagated.
DABOECIA POLIFOLIA (_syn Menziesia polifolia_).--St. Dabeoc's Heath.
South Western Europe, Ireland and the Azores. A dwarf, and rather
straggling, viscid shrub, with linear-ovate leaves that are silvery
beneath. The flowers are pink, and abundantly produced. D. polifolia
alba has white flowers; and D. polifolia atro-purpurea, purplish
DANAE LAURUS (_syn D. racemosa_ and _Ruscus racemosus_).--Alexandrian
Laurel. A native of Portugal (1739), with glossy-green leaf substitutes,
and racemes of small, not very showy, greenish-yellow flowers.
DAPHNE ALPINA.--Italy, 1759. A deciduous species, which has white or
rosy-white, sweet-scented flowers. It is a pretty, but rare shrub, that
grows well in light sandy leaf soil.
D. ALTAICA.--Siberia, 1796. Though rare in gardens, this is a pretty
and neat-foliaged species, and bears white flowers in abundance. It
wants a warm corner and dry soil.
D. BLAGAYANA.--Styria, 1872. This is still rare in cultivation, but it
is a very desirable species, bearing ivory-white highly-fragrant
flowers. For the alpine garden it is particularly suitable, and though
growing rather slowly thrives well in good light soil.
(_syn D. Fortunei_), from China, is a rare and pretty species, bearing
lilac flowers in winter, and whilst the shrub is leafless. It does best
in a warm situation, such as planted against a wall facing south.
D. CNEORUM.--Garland Flower. South Europe, 1752. This is a charming
rock shrub, of dwarf, trailing habit, with small glossy-green leaves,
and dense clusters of deep pink, deliciously-fragrant flowers.
D. FIONIANA is of neat growth, with small, glossy, dark leaves, and
pale rose-coloured flowers. Its sturdy, dwarf habit, constant verdure,
and pretty sweet-scented flowers, should make this species a favourite
with cultivators. Known also as D. hyemalis.
D. GENKWA.--Japanese Lilac. Japan, 1866. This is a rare and beautiful
species, of recent introduction, with large lilac-tinted,
D. LAUREOLA.--Spurge Laurel. This is not, in so far at least as flowers
are concerned, a showy species, but the ample foliage and sturdy habit
of the plant will always render this native species of value for the
shrubbery. It is of value, too, as growing and flowering freely in the
shade. The flowers are sweetly-scented and of a greenish-yellow colour,
and appear about February.
D. MEZEREUM.--The Mezereon. Europe (England). One of the commonest and
most popular of hardy garden shrubs. It is of stout, strict growth, and
produces clusters of pinky, rose, or purplish flowers before winter is
past, and while the branches are yet leafless. Few perfectly hardy
flowering shrubs are so popular as the Mezereon, and rightly so, for a
more beautiful plant could not be mentioned, wreathed as every branch
is, and almost back to the main stem, with the showiest of flowers. It
likes good, rich, dampish soil, and delights to grow in a quiet, shady
nook, or even beneath the spread of our larger forest trees. There are
several very distinct varieties, of which the white-flowered D.
Mezereum flore albo is one of the most valuable. The fruit of this
variety is bright golden-yellow. D. Mezereum autumnale and D. Mezereum
atro-rubrum are likewise interesting and beautiful forms.
D. PETRAEA (_syn D. rupestris_).--Rock Daphne. Tyrol. This is quite
hardy in the more sheltered corners of the rock garden, with neat,
shining foliage and pretty rosy flowers, produced so thickly all over
the plant as almost to hide the foliage from view. At Kew it thrives
well in peaty loam and limestone, and although it does not increase
very quickly is yet happy and contented. It is a charming rock shrub.
D. PONTICA.--Pontic Daphne. Asia Minor, 1759. This is much like D.
lauriola, but has shorter and more oval leaves, and the flowers,
instead of being borne in fives like that species, are produced in
pairs. They are also of a richer yellow, and more sweetly scented.
D. SERICEA (_syn D. collina_).--Italy and Asia Minor, 1820. This forms
a bush fully 2 feet high, with evergreen, oblong, shining leaves, and
clusters of rose-coloured flowers that are pleasantly scented. It is
quite hardy, and an interesting species that is well worthy of more
extended culture. There is a variety of this with broader foliage than
the species, and named D. sericea latifolia (_syn D. collina
DAPHNIPHYLLUM GLAUCESCENS.--East Indies, Java and Corea. A handsome
Japanese shrub that will be valued for its neat Rhododendron-like
foliage, compact habit of growth, and for the conspicuous bark which is
of a warm reddish hue. The leaves are large and elliptic, six inches
long, and are rendered strangely conspicuous from the foot-stalks and
midrib being dull crimson, this affording a striking contrast to the
delicate green of the leaves. It grows freely in light sandy peat.
There are two well-marked forms, one named D. glaucescens viridis, in
which the red markings of the leaves are absent; and D. glaucescens
jezoensis, a pretty and uncommon variety.
DESFONTAINEA SPINOSA.--Andes from Chili to New Grenada, 1853. This is a
desirable shrub, and one that is perfectly hardy in most parts of the
country. It is a charming shrub of bold, bushy habit, with prickly
holly-like foliage, and scarlet and yellow, trumpet-shaped pendent
flowers, borne in quantity. The shelter of a wall favours the growth
and flowering of this handsome shrub, but it also succeeds well in the
open if planted in rich, light soil, and in positions that are not
exposed to cold and cutting winds.
DEUTZIA CRENATA (_syn D. scabra_ and _D. Fortunei_).--Japan 1863. This
is of stout, bushy growth, often reaching a height of 8 feet, and
lateral spread of nearly as much. The ovate-lanceolate leaves are rough
to the touch, and its slender, but wiry stems, are wreathed for a
considerable distance along with racemes of pure white flowers. It is a
very distinct shrub, of noble port, and when in full flower is
certainly one of the most ornamental of hardy shrubs. The
double-flowered form, D. crenata flore-pleno, is one of the prettiest
flowering shrubs in cultivation, the wealth of double flowers, not
white as in the species, but tinged with reddish-purple being highly
attractive. D. crenata, Pride of Rochester, is another form with
double-white flowers, and a most distinct and beautiful shrub. Two
other very beautiful varieties are those known as D. crenata Watererii
and D. crenata Wellsii.
D. GRACILIS is a somewhat tender shrub of fully 18 inches high, with
smooth leaves and pure-white flowers produced in the greatest freedom.
It does well in warm, sheltered sites, but is most frequently seen as a
greenhouse plant. A native of Japan.
DIERVILLA FLORIBUNDA (_syn D. multiflora_ and _Weigelia floribunda_),
from Japan, 1864, has narrow, tubular, purplish-coloured corollas, that
are only slightly opened out at the mouth. The Diervillas are valuable
decorative shrubs, of free growth in good rich loam, and bearing a
great abundance of the showiest of flowers. For shrubbery planting they
must ever rank high, the beautiful flowers and rich green ample leafage
rendering them distinct and attractive.
D. GRANDIFLORA (_syn D. amabilis_ and _Weigelia amabilis_).--Japan.
This is of larger growth than D. rosea, with strongly reticulated
leaves, that are prominently veined on the under sides, and much
larger, almost white flowers. It is a distinct and worthy species.
There are some beautiful varieties of this species, named Isolinae, Van
Houttei, and Striata.
D. ROSEA (_syn Weigelia rosea_).--China, 1844. This is a handsome hardy
shrub of small stature, with ovate-lanceolate leaves, and clusters of
showy pink, or sometimes white flowers, that are produced in April and
May. There are many good varieties of this shrub, of which the
following are the most popular:--D. rosea arborescens grandiflora; D.
rosea Lavallii, with an abundance of crimson-red flowers; D. rosea
Stelzneri, with an abundance of deep red flowers; D. rosea hortensis
nivea, large foliage, and large, pure-white flowers; D. rosea candida,
much like the latter, but bearing pure-white flowers; and D. rosea
Looymansii aurea has beautiful golden leaves.
DISCARIA LONGISPINA.--This is at once a curious and beautiful shrub, of
low, creeping growth, and poorly furnished with leaves, which, however,
are amply made up for by the deep green of the shoots and stems, and
which give to the plant almost the appearance of an evergreen. The
flowers, which are bell-shaped and white, are almost lavishly produced,
and as they last for a very long time, with only the pure white
assuming a pinky tinge when subjected to excessive sunshine, the value
of the shrub is still further enhanced. For planting against a mound of
rock this scrambling shrub is of value, but the position should not be
exposed to cold winds, for the plant is somewhat tender. From South
America, and allied to the better known Colletias.
D. SERRATIFOLIA (_syn Colletia serratifolia_), is even a handsomer
plant than the former, with minute serrated foliage, and sheets of
small white flowers in June.
DIOSPYROS KAKI COSTATA.--The Date Plum. China, 1789. Fruit as big as a
small apple; leaves leathery, entire, and broadly ovate; flowers and
fruits in this country when afforded the protection of a wall. The
fruit is superior to that of D. virginiana (Persimmon).
D. LOTUS, the common Date Plum, is a European species, with purplish
flowers, and oblong leaves that are reddish on the under sides. Both
species want a light, warm soil, and sheltered situation.
D. VIRGINIANA.--The Persimmon, or Virginian Date Plum. North America,
1629. A small-growing tree, with coriaceous leaves, and greenish-yellow
flowers. In southern situations and by the seaside it is perfectly
hardy, and succeeds well, but in other districts it is rather tender.
The fruit is edible, yellow in colour, and about an inch in diameter.
DIRCA PALUSTRIS.--Leather Wood. North America, 1750. A much-branched
bush, of quite a tree-like character, but rarely more than 3 feet high.
To the Daphnes it is nearly allied, and is close in resemblance; but
there is a curious yellowish hue pervading the whole plant. The flowers
are produced on the naked shoots in April, and are rendered conspicuous
by reason of the pendent yellow stamens. They are borne in terminal
clusters of three or four together. It delights to grow in a cool,
moist soil, indeed it is only when so situated that the Leather Wood
can be seen in a really thriving condition.
DRIMYS AROMATICA (_syn Tasmannia aromatica_).--Tasmanian Pepper Plant.
Tasmania, 1843. This is, if we might say so, a more refined plant than
D. Winteri, with smaller and narrower leaves, and smaller flowers. The
plant, too, has altogether a faint reddish tinge, and is of upright
growth. A native of Tasmania, and called by the natives the Pepper
Plant, the fruit being used as a substitute for that condiment. Like
the other species the present plant is only hardy in warm, maritime
places, and when afforded the protection of a wall.
D. WINTERI (_syn Winter a aromatica_).--Winter's Bark. South America,
1827. The fine evergreen character is the chief attraction of this
American shrub, so far at least as garden ornamentation is concerned.
With some persons even the greenish-white flowers are held in esteem,
and it cannot be denied that a well flowered plant has its own
attractions. The long, narrow leaves are pale green above and glaucous
beneath, and make the shrub of interest, both on account of their
evergreen nature and brightness of tint. Unfortunately it is not very
hardy, requiring even in southern England a sunny wall to do it
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