Hardy Ornamental Flowering Trees and Shrubs
A. D. Webster
Part 3 out of 5
PHLOMIS FRUTICOSA.--Jerusalem Sage. Mediterranean region, 1596. This is
a neat-growing shrubby plant, with ovate acute leaves, that are covered
with a yellowish down. From the axils of the upper leaves the whorls of
yellow flowers are freely produced during the summer months. It is
valued for its neat growth, and as growing on dry soils where few other
plants could eke out an existence.
PHOTINIA JAPONICA (_syn Eriobotrya japonica_).--Loquat, Japan Medlar, or
Japan Quince. Japan, 1787. This is chiefly remarkable for its handsome
foliage, the leaves being oblong of shape and downy on the under sides.
The white flowers are of no great beauty, but being produced at the
beginning of winter, and when flowers are scarce, are all the more
welcome. It requires protection in all but the warmer parts of these
P. ARBUTIFOLIA (_syns Crataegus arbutifolia_ and _Mespilus
arbutifolia_).--Arbutus-leaved Photinia, or Californian May-bush.
California, 1796. This is a very distinct shrub, with leaves resembling
those of the Strawberry Tree (Arbutus), the flowers in an elongated
panicle, and bright red bark on the young wood.
P. BENTHAMIANA is only worthy of culture for its neat habit and freedom
of growth when suitably placed.
P. SERRULATA (_syn Crataegus glabra_).--Chinese Hawthorn. Japan and
China, 1804. This has Laurel-like leaves, 4 inches or 5 inches long,
and, especially when young, of a beautiful rosy-chocolate colour, and
clustered at the branch-tips. Flowers small, white, and produced in flat
corymbs. An invaluable seaside shrub.
They all grow well either in light, rich loam, or in sandy, peaty earth,
and are usually propagated by grafting.
PHYLODOCE TAXIFOLIA (_syns P. caerulea_ and _Menziesia caerulea_).--An
almost extinct native species, having crowded linear leaves, and
lilac-blue flowers. It is only of value for rock gardening.
PIERIS FLORIBUNDA (_syns Andromeda floribunda_ and _Leucothoe
floribunda_).--United States, 1812. Few perfectly hardy shrubs are more
beautiful than this, with its pure white Lily-of-the-Valley like
flowers, borne in dense racemes and small, neat, dark green leaves. To
cultivate this handsome shrub in a satisfactory way, fairly rich loam
or peat, and a situation sheltered from cold and cutting winds, are
P. JAPONICA (_syn Andromeda japonica_).--Japan, 1882. A hardy,
well-known shrub, that was first brought specially under notice in "The
Garden," and of which a coloured plate and description were given. It is
thickly furnished with neat and small deep-green, leathery leaves, and
pretty, waxy white flowers, pendulous at the branch tips. Planted in
free, sandy peat, it thrives vigorously, and soon forms a neat specimen
of nearly a yard in height. It is a very desirable hardy species, and
one that can be confidently recommended for ornamental planting. There
is a variegated variety, P. japonica elegantissima, with leaves clearly
edged with creamy-white, and flushed with pink. Amongst variegated,
small-growing shrubs it is a gem.
P. MARIANA (_syn Andromeda Mariana ovalis_).--North America, 1736. A
neat shrub of about 3 feet in height, with oval leaves, and pretty white
flowers in pendent clusters.
P. OVALIFOLIA (_syn Andromeda ovalifolia_).--Nepaul, 1825. A fine,
tall-growing species, with oval-pointed, leathery leaves placed on long
footstalks. Flowers in lengthened, drooping, one-sided racemes, and
white or pale flesh-coloured. Being perfectly hardy, and attaining to as
much as 20 feet in height, it is a desirable species for the lawn or
PIPTANTHUS NEPALENSIS (_syn Baptisia nepalensis_).--Evergreen Laburnum.
Temperate Himalaya, 1821. A handsome, half-hardy shrub, of often fully
10 feet high, with trifoliolate, evergreen leaves, and terminal racemes
of large yellow flowers. In the south and west of England and Ireland it
does well, and only receives injury during very severe winters. Planted
either as a single specimen, or in clumps of three or five, the
evergreen Laburnum has a pleasing effect, whether with its bright,
glossy-green leaves, or abundance of showy flowers. It is of somewhat
erect growth, with stout branches and plenty of shoots. Propagated from
seed, which it ripens abundantly in this country.
PITTOSPORUM TOBIRA.--Japan, 1804. This forms a neat, evergreen shrub,
with deep green, leathery leaves, and clusters of white, fragrant
flowers, each about an inch in diameter. It is hardy in the more
favoured parts of the south and west of England, where it makes a
reliable seaside shrub.
P. UNDULATUM, from Australia (1789), is also hardy against a wall, but
cannot be depended upon generally. It is a neat shrub, with wavy leaves,
that are rendered conspicuous by the dark midribs. They grow well in any
good garden soil.
PLAGIANTHUS LYALLI, a native of New Zealand (1871), and a member of the
Mallow family, is a free-flowering and beautiful shrub, but one that
cannot be recommended for general planting in this country. At Kew it
does well and flowers freely on an east wall. The flowers are
snow-white, with golden-yellow anthers, and produced on the ends of the
last season's branchlets during June and July. The flower-stalks, being
fully 2 inches long, give to the flowers a very graceful appearance. In
this country the leaves are frequently retained till spring.
P. LAMPENI.--Van Dieman's Land, 1833. This is about equally hardy with
the former, and produces a great abundance of sweetly-scented flowers.
P. PULCHELLUS (_syn Sida pulchella_).--Australia and Tasmania. Another
half-hardy species, which bears, even in a young state, an abundance of
rather small, whitish flowers.
POLYGALA CHAMAEBUXUS.--Bastard Box. A neat little shrubby plant, with
small ovate, coriaceous leaves, and fragrant yellow and cream flowers.
P. chamaebuxus purpureus differs in bearing rich reddish-purple flowers,
and is one of the most showy and beautiful of rock plants. They are
natives of Europe (1658), and grow best in vegetable mould.
POTENTILLA FRUTICOSA.--Northern Hemisphere (Britain). An indigenous
shrub that grows about a yard high, with pinnate leaves and golden
flowers. It is a most persistent blooming plant, as often for four
months, beginning in June, the flowers are produced freely in
succession. It delights to grow in a strong soil, and, being of low,
sturdy growth, does well for the outer line of the shrubbery.
PRUNUS AMYGDALUS (_syn Amygdalus communis_).--Common Almond. Barbary,
1548. Whether by a suburban roadside, or even in the heart of the
crowded city, the Almond seems quite at home, and is at once one of the
loveliest and most welcome of early spring-flowering trees. The flowers
are rather small for the family, pale pink, and produced in great
quantity before the leaves. There are several distinct forms of the
Almond, differing mainly in the colour of the flowers, one being pink,
another red, while a third has double flowers. P. Amygdalus macrocarpa
(Large-fruited Almond) is by far the handsomest variety in cultivation,
the flowers being large, often 3 inches in diameter, and white tinged
with pink, particularly at the base of the petals. The flowers, too, are
produced earlier than those of any other Almond, while the tree is of
stout growth and readily suited with both soil and site.
P. AMYGDALUS DULCIS (_syn A. dulcis_), Sweet Almond, of which there are
three distinct varieties, P.A. dulcis purpurea, P.A. dulcis macrocarpa,
and P.A. dulcis pendula, should be included in every collection of these
handsome flowering plants.
P. AVIUM JULIANA (_syn Cerasus Juliana_).--St. Julian's Cherry. South
Europe. This bears large flowers of a most beautiful and delicate blush
tint. P. Avium multiplex is a double form of the Wild Cherry, or Gean,
with smaller leaves than the type.
P. BOISSIERII (_syn Amygdalus Boissierii_).--Asia Minor, 1879. This is a
bushy shrub, with almost erect, long, and slender branches, and
furnished with leaves an inch long, elliptic, and thick of texture.
Flowers pale flesh-coloured, and produced abundantly. It is a very
ornamental and distinct plant, and is sure, when better known, to
attract a considerable amount of attention.
P. CERASIFERA (_syn P. Myrobalana_).--Cherry, or Myrobalan Plum. Native
Country unknown. A medium-sized tree, with an abundance of small white
flowers, which are particularly attractive if they escape the early
spring frosts. It is of stout, branching habit, with a well-rounded
head, and has of late years attracted a good deal of notice as a hedge
plant. P. cerasifera Pissardii, the purple-leaved Cherry plum, is a
remarkable and handsome variety, in which the leaves are deep purple,
thus rendering the plant one of the most distinct and ornamental-foliaged
of the family. It produces its white, blush-tinted flowers in May. It
was received by M.A. Chatenay, of Sceau, from M. Pissard, director of
the garden of His Majesty the Shah of Persia. When it flowered it was
figured in the _Revue Horticole_, 1881, p. 190.
P. CERASUS (_syn Cerasus vulgaris_).--Common Cherry. A favourite
medium-sized tree, and one that lends itself readily to cultivation. As
an ornamental park tree this Cherry, though common, must not be
despised, for during summer, when laden with its pure white flowers, or
again in autumn when myriads of the black, shining fruits hang in
clusters from its branches, it will be readily admitted that few trees
have a more beautiful or conspicuous appearance, P. Cerasus flore-pleno
(double-flowered Cherry) is a distinct and desirable variety. P. Cerasus
multiplex is a very showy double form, more ornamental than P. Avium
muliplex, and also known under the names of _Cerasus ranunculiflora_ and
_C. Caproniana multiplex_. P. Cerasus semperflorens (_syn Cerasus
semperflorens_), the All Saints, Ever Flowering, or Weeping, Cherry, is
another valuable variety, of low growth, and with gracefully drooping
branches, particularly when the tree is old. It is a very desirable lawn
tree, and flowers at intervals during the summer.
P. CHAMAECERASUS (_syn Cerasus Chamaecerasus_).--Ground Cherry. Europe,
1597. This is a dwarf, slender-branched, and gracefully pendent shrub,
of free growth, undoubted hardihood, and well worthy of extended
cultivation. The variety C. Chamaecerasus variegata has the leaves
suffused with greenish lemon. There is also a creeping form named P.
P. DAVIDIANA.--AbbE David's Almond. China. This is the tree to which,
under the name of Amygdalus Davidiana alba, a First-class Certificate
was awarded in 1892 by the Royal Horticultural Society. The typical
species is a native of China, from whence it was introduced several
years ago, but it is still far from common. It is the earliest of the
Almonds to unfold its white flowers, for in mild winters some of them
expand before the end of January; but March, about the first week, it is
at its best. It is of more slender growth than the common Almond, and
the flowers, which are individually smaller, are borne in great
profusion along the shoots of the preceding year, so that a specimen,
when in full flower, is quite one mass of bloom. There is a rosy-tinted
form known as Amygdalus Davidiana rubra.
P. DIVARICATA, from the Caucasus (1822), is useful on account of the
pure white flowers being produced early in the year, and before the
leaves. It has a graceful, easy habit of growth, and inclined to spread,
and makes a neat lawn or park specimen.
P. DOMESTICA, Common Garden Plum, and P. domestica insititia, Bullace
Plum, are both very ornamental-flowering species, and some of the
varieties are even more desirable than the parent plants.
P. ILLICIFOLIA (_syn Cerasus ilicifolius_).--Holly-leaved Cherry.
California. A distinct evergreen species, with thick leathery leaves,
and erect racemes of small white flowers. A native of dry hilly ground
along the coast from San Francisco to San Diego. Hardy in most
situations, but requiring light warm soil and a dry situation.
P. LAUNESIANA (_syn Cerasus Launesiana_).--Japan, 1870. This is a
valuable addition to the already long list of ornamental-flowering
Cherries. It flowers in the early spring, when the tree is literally
enshrouded in rose-coloured flowers, and which produce a very striking
effect. The tree is quite hardy, flowers well even in a young state, and
will grow in any soil that suits our common wild species.
P. LAUROCERASUS (_syn Cerasus Laurocerasus_).--Common, or Cherry Laurel.
Levant, 1629. Although a well-known garden and park shrub, of which a
description is unnecessary, the common or Cherry Laurel, when in full
flower, must be ranked amongst our more ornamental shrubs. There are
several varieties all worthy of culture for the sake of their evergreen
leaves and showy flower spikes. P. Laurocerasus rotundifolia has leaves
that are broader in proportion to their length than those of the common
species; P. Laurocerasus caucasica is of sturdy growth, with deep green
leaves, and a compact habit of growth; P. Laurocerasus colchica is the
freest-flowering Laurel in cultivation, with horizontally arranged
branches and pale green leaves; P. Laurocerasus latifolia, a rather
tender shrub, with bold handsome foliage; and P. Laurocerasus
parvifolia, of low growth, but never very satisfactory in appearance.
Three other less common forms might also be mentioned. P. Laurocerasus
angustifolia, with narrow leaves; P. Laurocerasus camelliaefolia, with
thick leathery foliage; and P. Laurocerasus intermedia, halfway between
P. Laurocerasus angustifolia and the common Laurel.
P. LUSITANICA (_syn Cerasus lusitanica_).--Portugal Laurel. Portugal,
1648. A well-known shrub or small growing tree, and one of the most
valuable of all our hardy evergreens. It is of neat and compact growth,
with a good supply of bright green shining foliage, and bears long
spikes of pleasing creamy white perfumed flowers. P. lusitanica
myrtifolia (Myrtle-leaved Portugal Laurel) differs from the species in
the smaller, longer, and narrower leaves, which are more thickly
arranged, and in its more decided upright habit. P. lusitanica variegata
is hardly sufficiently constant or distinct to warrant recommendation.
P. lusitanica azorica, from the Azores, is of more robust growth than
the common plant, with larger and richer green leaves, and the bark of
the younger branches is of a very decided reddish tinge.
P. MAHALEB (_syn Cerasus Mahaleb_).--The Mahaleb, or Perfumed Cherry.
South Europe, 1714. This and its variegated variety P. Mahaleb variegata
are very free-flowering shrubs, and of neat growth. The variegated
variety is well worthy of attention, having a clear silvery variegation,
chiefly confined to the leaf margin, but in a less degree to the whole
of the foliage, and imparting to it a bright, glaucous tint that is
highly ornamental. There is a partially weeping form named P. Mahaleb
P. MARITIMA.--Beach or Sand Plum. North America, 1800. A prostrate,
spreading shrub, that is of value for planting in poor sandy soil, and
along the sea coast. The flowers are small, but plentifully produced.
P. NANA (_syns Amygdalus nana_ and _A. Besseriana_).--Dwarf Almond. From
Tartary, 1683. This is of dwarf, twiggy growth, rarely more than 3 feet
high, and bearing an abundance of rose-coloured flowers in early
February. From its neat, small growth, and rich profusion of flowers,
this dwarf Almond may be reckoned as a most useful and desirable shrub.
Suckers are freely produced in any light free soil.
P. PADUS (_syn Cerasus Padus_).--Bird Cherry or Hagberry. An indigenous
species, with oblong, doubly-serrated leaves, and terminal or axillary
racemes of pure-white flowers. It is a handsome and distinct
small-growing tree, and bears exposure at high altitudes in a
P. PANICULATA FLORE-PLENO (_syns Cerasus serrulata flore-pleno_ and _C.
Sieboldii_).--China, 1822. This is one of the most desirable of the
small-growing and double-flowered Cherries. It is of neat growth, with
short, stout branches that are sparsely furnished with twigs, and
smooth, obovate, pointed leaves, bristly serrated on the margins.
Flowers double and white at first, but afterwards tinged with pink,
freely produced and of good, lasting substance. P. paniculata Watereri
is a handsome variety that most probably may be linked to the species.
P. PENNSYLVANIA.--American Wild Red Cherry. North America, 1773. This is
an old-fashioned garden tree, and one of the choicest, producing in May
a great abundance of its tiny white flowers.
P. PERSICA FLORE-PLENO (_syns Amygdalus Persica flore-pleno_ and
_Persica vulgaris_), double-flowering Peach, is likewise well worthy of
culture, there being white, rose, and crimson-flowering forms.
P. PUDDUM (_syns P. Pseudo-cerasus_ and _Cerasus
Pseudo-cerasus_).--Bastard Cherry. China, 1891. There are very few more
ornamental trees in cultivation in this country than the
double-flowering Cherry. It makes a charming small-growing tree, is of
free growth and perfectly hardy, and one of, if not the most,
floriferous of the tribe. The flowers are individually large, pinky or
purplish-white, and produced with the leaves in April.
P. SINENSIS.--China, 1869. A Chinese Plum of somewhat slender growth,
and with the branches wreathed in small, white flowers. It is often seen
as a pot plant, but it is one of the hardiest of its family. P. sinensis
flore-pleno is a double white form, and the most ornamental for pot
work. There is also a variety with rose-coloured flowers.
P. SPINOSA.--Sloe, or Blackthorn. An indigenous, spiny shrub, with tiny
white flowers; and P. spinosa flore-pleno has small, rosette-like
flowers that are both showy and effective.
P. TOMENTOSA.--Japan, 1872. This is one of the most desirable of hardy
shrubs, with large, white, flesh-tinted flowers produced in the first
weeks of March, and in such quantities as almost to hide the branches
from view. It forms a well-rounded, dense bush of 5 feet or 6 feet high.
P. TRILOBA (_syns P. virgata, Amygdalopsis Lindleyi_ and _Prunopsis
Lindleyi_).--China, 1857. This is a very handsome early-flowering shrub,
that is at once recognised by the generally three-lobed leaves. It is
one of the first to flower, the blossoms being produced in March and
April, and sometimes even earlier when the plant is grown against a
sunny, sheltered wall. The semi-double flowers are large and of good
substance, and of a rosy-white tint, but deep rose in the bud state.
There is a nursery form of this plant with white flowers, named P.
triloba alba. It is quite hardy, bears pruning well, and grows quickly,
soon covering a large space of a wall or warm, sunny bank. As an
ornamental flowering lawn shrub it has few equals, the blossoms
remaining good for fully a fortnight.
P. VIRGINIANA (_syn Cerasus virginiana_) and P. SEROTINA (North American
Bird Cherries) are worthy species, with long clusters of flowers
resembling those of our native Bird Cherry. They are large-growing
species, and, particularly the latter, are finding favour with
cultivators in this country on account of their bold and ornamental
PTELEA TRIFOLIATA.--Hop Tree, or Swamp Dogwood. North America, 1704. A
small-growing tree, with trifoliolate, yellowish-green leaves placed on
long footstalks, and inconspicuous greenish flowers. The leaves, when
bruised, emit an odour resembling Hops. P. trifoliata variegata is one
of the handsomest of golden-leaved trees, and is well worthy of
extensive planting. It is preferable in leaf colouring to the golden
Elder. Perfectly hardy.
PUNICA GRANATUM.--Pomegranate. For planting against a southern-facing
wall this pretty shrub is well suited, but it is not sufficiently hardy
for the colder parts of the country. Frequently in the more favoured
parts of the country it reaches a height of 14 feet, with a
branch-spread of nearly as much, and is then, when in full flower, an
object of general admiration and of the greatest beauty. The flowers are
of a rich, bright scarlet colour, and well set off by the glossy, dark
green leaves. P. Granatum rubra flore-pleno is a decidedly ornamental
shrub, in which the flowers are of a bright scarlet, and perfectly
double. They grow satisfactorily in light, but rich soil.
PYRUS ARIA.--White Beam Tree. Europe (Britain). A shrub or small-growing
tree, with lobed leaves, covered thickly on the under sides with a
close, flocculent down. The flowers are small and white, and produced in
loose corymbs. It is a handsome small tree, especially when the leaves
are ruffled by the wind and the under sides revealed to view. The red or
scarlet fruit is showy and beautiful.
P. AUCUPARIA.--Mountain Ash, or Rowan Tree. Too well-known to need
description, but one of our handsomest small-growing trees, and whether
for the sake of its dense corymbs of small white flowers or large
bunches of scarlet fruit it is always welcomed and admired. P. Aucuparia
pendula has the branches inclined to be pendulous; and P. Aucuparia
fructo-luteo differs from the normal plant in having yellowish instead
of scarlet fruit.
P. AMERICANA (_syn Sorbus americana_).--American Mountain Ash. This
species, a native of the mountains of Pennsylvania and Virginia (1782),
is much like our Rowan Tree in general appearance, but the bunches of
berries are larger, and of a brighter red colour.
P. ANGUSTIFOLIA.--North America, 1750. A double-flowered crab is offered
under this name, of vigorous growth, bearing delicate pink, rose-like
flowers that are deliciously fragrant, and borne contemporaneously with
the leaves. The merits claimed for the shrub are perfect hardihood,
great beauty of blossom and leaf, delicious fragrance, and adaptability
to various soils. The single-flowered form extends over large areas in
the Atlantic States of North America. They are very desirable,
small-growing trees, and are described by Professor Sargent as being not
surpassed in beauty by any of the small trees of North America.
P. BACCATA.--Siberian Crab. Siberia and Dahuria, 1784. This is one of
the most variable species in cultivation, and from which innumerable
forms have been developed, that differ either in habit, foliage,
flowers, or fruit. The deciduous calyx would seem to be the only
reliable distinguishing character. It is a widely-distributed species,
being found in North China and Japan, Siberia and the Himalayas, and has
from time immemorial been cultivated by the Chinese and Japanese, so
that it is not at all surprising that numbers of forms have been
P. CORONARIA.--Sweet Scented Crab. North America, 1724. This is a
handsome species, with ovate, irregularly-toothed leaves, and pink and
white fragrant flowers. The flowers are individually large and
corymbose, and are succeeded by small green fruit.
P. DOMESTICA (_syn Sorbus domestica_).--True Service. Britain. This
resembles the Mountain Ash somewhat, but the flowers are panicled, and
the berries fewer, larger, and pear-shaped. The flowers are conspicuous
enough to render the tree of value in ornamental planting.
P. FLORIBUNDA (_syns P. Malus floribunda_ and _Malus microcarpa
floribunda_).--China and Japan, 1818. The Japanese Crabs are wonderfully
floriferous, the branches being in most instances wreathed with flowers
that are individually not very large, and rarely exceeding an inch in
diameter when fully expanded. Generally in the bud state the flowers are
of a deep crimson, but this disappears as they become perfectly
developed, and when a less striking tint of pinky-white is assumed. From
the St. Petersburgh gardens many very ornamental Crabs have been sent
out, these differing considerably in colour of bark, habit, and tint of
flowers. They have all been referred to the above species. P. floribunda
is a worthy form, and one of the most brilliant of spring-flowering
trees. The long, slender shoots are thickly covered for almost their
entire length with flowers that are rich crimson in the bud state, but
paler when fully opened. There are numerous, very distinct varieties,
such as P. floribunda atrosanguinea, with deep red flowers; P.
floribunda Elise Rathe, of pendulous habit; P. floribunda John Downie,
very beautiful in fruit; P. floribunda pendula, a semi-weeping variety;
P. floribunda praecox, early-flowering; P. floribunda mitis, of small
size; P. floribunda Halleana or Parkmanii, probably the most beautiful
of all the forms; and P. floribunda Fairy Apple and P. floribunda
Transcendant Crab, of interest on account of their showy fruit. P.
floribunda Toringo (Toringo Crab) is a Japanese tree of small growth,
with sharply cut, usually three-lobed, pubescent leaves, and small
flowers. Fruit small, with deciduous calyx lobes.
P. GERMANICA (_syn Mespilus germanica_).--Common Medlar. Europe
(Britain), Asia Minor, Persia. Early records show that the Medlar was
cultivated for its fruit as early as 1596. Some varieties are still
grown for that purpose, and in that state the tree is not devoid of
ornament. The large, white flowers are produced singly, but have a fine
effect in their setting of long, lanceolate, finely-serrate leaves
P. JAPONICA (_syn Cydonia japonica_).--Japanese Quince. Japan, 1815.
This is one of the commonest of our garden shrubs, and one that is
peculiarly well suited for our climate, whether planted as a standard or
as a wall plant. The flowers are brilliant crimson, and plentifully
produced towards the end of winter and before the leaves. Besides the
species there are several very fine varieties, including P. japonica
albo cincta, P. japonica atropurpurea, P. japonica coccinea, P. japonica
flore-pleno, P. japonica nivalis, a charming species, with snowy-white
flowers; P. japonica rosea, of a delicate rose-pink; and P. japonica
princeps. P. japonica cardinalis is one of the best of the numerous
forms of this beautiful shrub. The flowers are of large size, of full
rounded form, and of a deep cardinal-rose colour. They are produced in
great quantity along the branches. A well-grown specimen is in April a
brilliant picture of vivid colour, and the shrub is sooner or later
destined to a chief place amongst our ornamental flowering shrubs. P.
japonica Maulei (_syn Cydonia Maulei_), from Japan (1874), is a rare
shrub as yet, small of growth, and with every twig festooned with the
brightest of orange-scarlet flowers. It is quite hardy, and succeeds
well under treatment that will suit the common species.
P. PRUNIFOLIA.--Siberia, 1758. Whether in flower or fruit this beautiful
species is sure to attract attention. It is a tree of 25 feet in height,
with nearly rotundate, glabrous leaves on long footstalks, and pretty
pinky-white flowers. The fruit is very ornamental, being, when fully
ripe, of a deep and glowing scarlet, but there are forms with yellow,
and green, as also striped fruit.
P. RIVULARIS.--River-side Wild Service Tree. North-west America, 1836. A
native of North America, with terminal clusters of white flowers,
succeeded by sub-globose red or yellow fruit, is an attractive and
handsome species. The fruit is eaten by the Indians of the North-west,
and the wood, which is very hard and susceptible of a fine polish, is
largely used in the making of wedges. It is a rare species in this
P. SINICA (_syn P. sinensis of Lindley_).--Chinese Pear Tree. China and
Cochin China, 1820. Another very ornamental Crab, bearing a great
abundance of rosy-pink or nearly white flowers. It is a shrub-like tree,
reaching a height of 20 feet, and with an upright habit of growth. Bark
of a rich, reddish-brown colour. It is one of the most profuse and
persistent bloomers of the whole family.
P. SINENSIS (_syn Cydonia chinensis_).--Chinese Quince. China, 1818.
This is rarely seen in cultivation, it having, comparatively speaking,
few special merits of recommendation.
P. SMITHII (_syns Mespilis Smithii_ and _M. grandiflora_).--Smith's
Medlar. Caucasus, 1800. The habit of this tree closely resembles that of
a Hawthorn, and although the flowers are only half the size of those of
the Common Medlar, they are produced in greater profusion, so that the
round-headed tree becomes a sheet of white blossom during May and June.
The reddish-brown fruits are small for a Medlar, and ripen in October.
P. TORMINALIS.--Wild Service Tree. A native species of small growth,
with ovate-cordate leaves, and small white flowers. P. torminalis
pinnatifida, with acutely-lobed leaves, and oval-oblong fruit may just
P. VESTITA.--Nepaul White Beam. Nepaul, 1820. In this species the leaves
are very large, ovate-acute or elliptic, and when young thickly coated
with a white woolly-like substance, but which with warm weather
gradually gives way until they are of a smooth and shining green. The
flowers are borne in woolly racemose corymbs, and are white succeeded by
greenish-brown berries as large as marbles.
Other species of less interest are P. varidosa, P. salicifolia, P.
salvaefolia, P. Bollwylleriana, and P. Amygdaliformis. They are all of
free growth, and the readiest culture, and being perfectly hardy are
well worthy of a much larger share of attention than they have
RHAMNUS ALATERNUS.--Mediterranean region, 1629. This is an evergreen
shrub, with lanceolate shining leaves of a dark glossy-green colour, and
pretty flowers produced from March till June. There are several
well-marked varieties, one with golden and another with silvery leaves,
and named respectively, R. Alaternus foliis aureis, and R. Alaternus
R. ALPINUS.--Europe, 1752. This is a neat-growing species, with greenish
flowers and black fruit.
R. CATHARTICUS, Common Buckthorn, is a native, thorny species, with
ovate and stalked leaves, and small, thickly clustered greenish flowers,
succeeded by black berries about the size of peas.
R. FRANGULA.--The Berry-bearing Alder. Europe and Britain. A more erect
shrub than the former, and destitute of spines. The leaves too are
larger, and the fruit of a dark purple colour when ripe. More common in
Britain than the former.
RHAPHIOLEPIS JAPONICA INTEGERRIMA (_syn R. ovata_).--A Japanese shrub
(1865), with deep green, ovate, leathery leaves that are not over
abundant, and produced generally at the branch-tips. The pure white,
fragrant flowers are plentifully produced when the plant is grown in a
cosy corner, or on a sunny wall. Though seldom killed outright, the
Raphiolepis becomes badly crippled in severe winters. It is, however, a
bold and handsome shrub, and one that may be seen doing well in many
gardens around London.
RHAPHITHAMNUS CYANOCARPUS (_syn Citharexylum cyanocarpum_). Chili. This
bears a great resemblance to some of the thorny Berberis, and is at once
a distinct and beautiful shrub. The flowers are large and conspicuous,
and of a taking bluish-lilac colour. Having stood unharmed in Ireland
through the unusually severe winters of 1879-80, when many more common
shrubs were killed outright, it may be relied upon as at least fairly
hardy. The soil in which this rare and pretty shrub does best is a
brown, fibrous peat, intermingled with sharp sand.
RHODODENDRON ARBORESCENS (_syn Azalea arborescens_), from the Carolina
Mountains (1818), is a very showy, late-blooming species. The white,
fragrant flowers, and noble port, together with its undoubted hardihood,
should make this shrub a general favourite with cultivators.
R. CALENDULACEUM (_syn Azalea calendulacea_), from North America (1806),
is another of the deciduous species, having oblong, hairy leaves, and
large orange-coloured flowers. It is of robust growth, and in favoured
situations reaches a height of 6 feet. When in full flower the slopes of
the Southern Alleghany Mountains are rendered highly attractive by
reason of the great flame-coloured masses of this splendid plant, and
are one of the great sights of the American Continent during the month
R. CALIFORNICUM.--California. A good hardy species with broadly
campanulate rosy-purple flowers, spotted with yellow.
R. CAMPANULATUM (_syn R. aeruginosum_).--Sikkim, 1825. A small-growing
species, rarely over 6 feet high, with elliptic leaves that are
fawn-coloured on the under sides. The campanulate flowers are large and
showy, rose or white and purple spotted, at the base of the three upper
lobes. In this country it is fairly hardy, but suffers in very severe
weather, unless planted in a sheltered site.
R. CAMPYLOCARPUM.--Sikkim, 1851. This has stood the winter uninjured in
so many districts that it may at least be recommended for planting in
favoured situations and by the seaside. It is a Sikkim species that was
introduced about forty years ago, and is still rather rare. The leaves
are about 4 inches long, 2 inches wide, and distinctly undulated on the
margins. Flowers bell-shaped, about 2 inches in diameter, and arranged
in rather straggling terminal heads. They are sulphur-yellow, without
markings, a tint distinct from any other known Indian species.
R. CATAWBIENSE.--Mountains from Virginia to Georgia, 1809. A bushy, free
growing species, with broadly oval leaves, and large campanulate
flowers, produced in compact, rounded clusters. They vary a good deal in
colour, but lilac-purple is the typical shade. This is a very valuable
species, and one that has given rise to a large number of beautiful
R. CHRYSANTHUM is a Siberian species (1796) of very dwarf, compact
growth, with linear-lanceolate leaves that are ferruginous on the under
side, and beautiful golden-yellow flowers an inch in diameter. It is a
desirable but scarce species.
R. COLLETTIANUM is an Afghanistan species, and one that may be reckoned
upon as being perfectly hardy. It is of very dwarf habit, and bears an
abundance of small white and faintly fragrant flowers. For planting on
rockwork it is a valuable species.
R. DAHURICUM.--Dahuria, 1780. A small-growing, scraggy-looking species
of about a yard high, with oval-oblong leaves that are rusty-tomentose
on the under sides. The flowers, which are produced in February, are
purple or violet, in twos or threes, and usually appear before the
leaves. It is a sparsely-leaved species, and of greatest value on
account of the flowers being produced so early in the season. One of the
hardiest species in cultivation. R. dahuricum atro-virens is a beautiful
and worthy variety because nearly evergreen.
R. FERRUGINEUM.--Alpine Rose. Europe, 1752. This dwarf species, rarely
exceeding a yard in height, occurs in abundance on the Swiss Alps, and
generally where few other plants are to be found. It is a neat little
compact shrub, with oblong-lanceolate leaves that are rusty-scaly on the
under sides, and has terminal clusters of rosy-red flowers.
R. FLAVUM (_syn Azalea pontica_).--Pontic Azalea. A native of Asia Minor
(1793), is probably the commonest of the recognised species, and may
frequently, in this country, be seen forming good round bushes of 6 feet
in height, with hairy lanceolate leaves, and large yellow flowers,
though in this latter it varies considerably, orange, and orange tinged
with red, being colours often present. It is of free growth in any good
light peaty or sandy soil.
R. HIRSUTUM.--Alpine Rose. South Europe, 1656. Very near R. ferrugincum,
but having ciliated leaves, with glands on both sides. R. hallense and
R. hirsutiforme are intermediate forms of a natural cross between R.
hirsutum and R. ferrugincum. They are handsome, small-growing, brightly
flowered plants, and worthy of culture.
R. INDICUM.--Indian Azalea. A native of China (1808), and perfectly
hardy in the more favoured portions of southern England, where it looks
healthy and happy out of doors, and blooms freely from year to year.
This is the evergreen so-called Azalea that is so commonly cultivated in
greenhouses, with long hirsute leaves, and large showy flowers. R.
indicum amoenum (_syn Azalea amoena_), as a greenhouse plant is common
enough, but except in the South of England and Ireland it is not
sufficiently hardy to withstand severe frost. The flowers are, moreover,
not very showy, at least when compared with some of the newer forms,
being dull magenta, and rather lax of habit.
R. LEDIFOLIUM (_syns Azalea ledifolia_ and _A. liliiflora_).--Ledum-leaved
Azalea. China, 1819. A perfectly hardy species. The flowers are large
and white, but somewhat flaunting. It is, however, a desirable species
for massing in quantity, beside clumps of the pink and yellow flowered
kinds. Though introduced nearly three-quarters of a century ago, this
is by no means a common plant in our gardens.
R. MAXIMUM.--American Great Laurel. North America, 1756. This is a very
hardy American species, growing in favoured localities from 10 feet to
15 feet high. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, slightly ferruginous beneath.
Flowers rose and white, in dense clusters. There are several handsome
varieties that vary to a wide extent in the size and colour of flowers.
R. maximum album bears white flowers.
R. MOLLE (_syn Azalea mollis_), from Japan (1867), is a dwarf, deciduous
species of neat growth, with flame-coloured flowers. It is very hardy,
and a desirable acquisition to any collection of small-growing shrubs.
R. OCCIDENTALE (_syn Azalea occidentalis_), Western Azalea, is valuable
in that the flowers are produced later than those of almost any other
species. These are white, blotched with yellow at the base of the upper
petals; and being produced when the leaves are almost fully developed,
have a very pleasing effect, particularly as they are borne in great
quantity, and show well above the foliage. This is a Californian species
that has been found further west of the Rocky Mountains than any other
member of Ihe family.
R. PARVIFOLIUM.--Baiacul, 1877. This is a pleasing and interesting
species, with small deep-green ovate leaves, and clusters of white
flowers, margined with rose. It is of dwarf and neat growth, and well
suited for planting on the rock garden.
R. PONTICUM.--Pontic Rhododendron, or Rose Bay. Asia Minor, 1763. This
is the commonest species in cultivation, and although originally a
native of the district by the Black or Pontic Sea, is now naturalised
in many parts of Europe. It is the hardiest and least exacting of the
large flowered species, and is generally employed as a stock on which
to graft the less hardy kinds. Flowers, in the typical species, pale
purplish-violet and spotted. There is a great number of varieties,
including white, pink, scarlet, and double-flowering.
R. PONTICUM AZALEOIDES (_syn R. ponticum deciduum_), a hybrid between R.
ponticum and a hardy Azalea, is a sub-evergreen form, with a compact
habit of growth, and bearing loose heads of fragrant lavender-and-white
flowers. It is quite hardy at Kew.
R. RACEMOSUM.--Central China, 1880. A neat little species, of dwarf,
compact growth, from the Yunnan district of China. The flowers are pale
pink edged with a deeper tint, about an inch across, and borne in
terminal and axillary clusters. It has stood unharmed for several years
in southern England, so may be regarded as at least fairly hardy. Its
neat dwarf growth, and flowering as it does when hardly a foot high,
renders it a choice subject for the Alpine garden.
R. RHODORA (_syn Rhodora canadensis_).--North America, 1767. In general
aspect this shrub resembles an Azalea, but it comes into flower long
even before R. molle. Being deciduous, and producing its pretty purplish
sweet-scented flowers in early spring, gives to the plant a particular
value for gardening purposes, clumps of the shrub being most effective
at the very time when flowers are at their scarcest. It thrives well in
any peaty soil, and is quite hardy.
R. VISCOSUM (_syn Azalea viscosa_).--Clammy Azalea, or Swamp
Honeysuckle. North America, 1734. This is one of the hardiest, most
floriferous, and easily managed of the family. The white or rose and
deliciously fragrant flowers are produced in great abundance, and impart
when at their best quite a charm to the shrub. It delights in rather
moist, peaty soil, and grows all the stronger and flowers all the more
freely when surrounded by rising ground or tall trees at considerable
distance away. The variety R. viscosum glaucum has leaves paler than
those of the species; and R. viscosum nitidum, of dwarf, compact growth,
has leaves deep green on both sides.
R. WILSONI, a cross between R. ciliatum and R. glaucum, is of remarkably
neat growth, and worthy of cultivation where small-sized kinds are a
The following Himalayan species have been found to thrive well in the
warmer parts of England, and in close proximity to the sea;--R.
argenteum, R. arboreum, R. Aucklandii, R. barbatum, R. ciliatum, R.
campanulatum, R. cinnabarinum, R. Campbelli, R. compylocarpum, R.
eximium, R. Fortunei, R. Falconeri, R. glaucum, R. Hodgsoni, R. lanatum,
R. niveum, R. Roylei, R. Thompsoni, and R. Wallichii.
R. Ungernii and R. Smirnowii, from the Armenian frontier, are also
worthy of culture, but they are at present rare in cultivation in this
Few hardy shrubs, it must be admitted, are more beautiful than these
Rhododendrons, none flowering more freely or lasting longer in bloom.
Their requirements are by no means hard to meet, light, peaty soil, or
even good sandy loam, with a small admixture of decayed vegetable
matter, suiting them well. Lime in any form must, however, be kept away
both from Azaleas and Rhododendrons. They like a quiet, still place,
where a fair amount of moisture is present in the air and soil.
HARDY HYBRID RHODODENDRONS.
GHENT AZALEAS, as generally known, from having been raised in Belgium,
are a race of hybrids that have been produced by crossing the Asiatic R.
pontica with the various American species noted above, but particularly
R. calendulaceum, R. nudiflorum, and R. viscosum, and these latter with
one another. These have produced hybrids of almost indescribable beauty,
the flowers of which range in colour from crimson and pink, through
orange and yellow, to almost white.
Within the last few years quite an interesting race of Rhododendrons has
been brought out, with double or hose-in-hose flowers, and very
appropriately termed the Narcissiflora group. They include fully a dozen
highly ornamental kinds, with flowers of varying shades of colour.
The following list includes some of the best and most beautiful of these
Baron G. Pyke.
Bijou des Amateurs.
Comte de Flanders.
Due de Provence.
Emperor Napoleon III.
Glorie de Belgique.
Honneur de Flandre.
Ne Plus Ultra.
Reine des Belges.
Roi des Belges.
Roi des Feux.
Bijou de Gendbrugge.
Graf Von Meran.
Louis AimEe Van Houtte.
Mina Van Houtte.
RHODOTHAMNUS CHAMAECISTUS (_syn Rhododendron Chamaecistus_).--Ground
Cistus. Alps of Austria and Bavaria, 1786. A very handsome shrub, of
small growth, and widely distributed in Bavaria, Switzerland, and
elsewhere. Planted in peaty soil and in a rather damp, shady situation
it thrives best, the oval-serrate leaves, covered with white, villous
hairs, and pretty rosy flowers, giving it an almost unique appearance.
It is a charming rock shrub and perfectly hardy.
RHODOTYPOS KERRIOIDES.--White Kerria. Japan, 1866. A handsome deciduous
shrub, and one that is readily propagated, and comparatively cheap. It
is distinct and pretty when in flower, and one of the hardiest and most
accommodating of shrubs. The leaves are handsome, being deeply serrated
and silky on the under sides, while the pure white flowers are often
about 2 inches across. It grows about 4 feet in height, and is a very
distinct and desirable shrub.
RHUS COTINUS.--Smoke Plant, Wig Tree, or Venetian Sumach. Spain to
Caucasus, 1656. On account of its singular appearance this shrub always
attracts the attention of even the most unobservant in such matters. It
is a spreading shrub, about 6 feet high, with rotundate, glaucous
leaves, on long petioles. The flowers are small and inconspicuous, but
the feathery nature of the flower clusters, occasioned by the
transformation of the pedicels and hairs into fluffy awns, renders this
Sumach one of the most curious and attractive of hardy shrubs. Spreading
about freely, this south European shrub should be allowed plenty of room
so that it may become perfectly developed.
R. GLABRA (_syns R. caroliniana, R. coccinea, R. elegans_, and _R.
sanguinea_).--Smooth or Scarlet Sumach. North America, 1726. A smaller
tree than the last, with leaves that are deep glossy-green above and
whitish beneath. The male tree bears greenish-yellow flowers, and the
female those of a reddish-scarlet, but otherwise no difference between
the trees can be detected. R. glabra laciniata (Fern Sumach) is a
distinct and handsome variety, with finely cut elegant leaves, and a
dwarf and compact habit of growth. The leaves are very beautiful, and
resemble those of the Grevillea robusta. It is a worthy variety.
R. SUCCEDANEA.--Red Lac Sumach. Japan, 1768. This is not often seen
planted out, though in not a few places it succeeds perfectly well. It
has elegant foliage, each leaf being 15 inches long, and divided into
several pairs of leaflets.
R. TOXICODENDRON.--Poison Oak or Poison Ivy. North America, 1640. This
species is of half-scandent habit, with large, trifoliolate leaves,
which turn of various tints of red and crimson in the autumn. It is
quite hardy, and seen to best advantage when allowed to run over large
rockwork and tree stumps in partial shade. The variety R. toxicodendron
radicans has ample foliage, and is suited for similar places to the
last. The leaves turn bright yellow in the autumn.
R. TYPHINA.--Stag's Horn Sumach, or Vinegar Tree. A native of North
America (1629), and a very common shrub in our gardens, probably on
account of its spreading rapidly by suckers. It is, when well grown, a
handsome and distinct shrub or small tree, with large, pinnate, hairy
leaves, and shoots that are rendered very peculiar by reason of the
dense hairs with which they are covered for some distance back. The
dense clusters of greenish-yellow flowers are sure to attract attention,
although they are by no means pretty. R. typhina viridiflora is the
male-flowered form of this species, with green flowers.
R. VENENATA (_syn R. vernix_).--Poison Elder, Sumach, or Dogwood. North
America, 1713. This is remarkable for its handsome foliage, and is the
most poisonous species of the genus.
All the Sumachs grow and flower freely in any good garden soil, indeed,
in that respect they are not at all particular. They throw up shoots
freely, so that increasing the stock is by no means difficult.
RIBES ALPINUM PUMILUM AUREUM.--Golden Mountain Currant. The ordinary
green form is a native of Britain, of which the plant named above is a
dwarf golden-leaved variety.
R. AUREUM.--Buffalo Currant. North-west America, 1812. In this species
the leaves are lobed and irregularly toothed, while the flowers are
yellow, or slightly reddish-tinted. It is of rather slender and
straggling growth. R. aureum praecox is an early-flowering variety; and
R. aureum serotinum is valued on account of the flowers being produced
much later than are those of the parent plant.
R. CEREUM (_syn R. inebrians_).--North America, 1827. One of the
dwarfer-growing species of Flowering Currant, forming a low, dense bush
of Gooseberry-like appearance, but destitute of spines. By May it is in
full flower, and the blooms, borne in large clusters, have a pretty
pinkish tinge. The foliage is small, neat, and of a tender green that
helps to set off the pretty flowers to perfection. It is a native of
North-west America, and perfectly hardy in every part of the country.
Though not equal in point of floral beauty with our common flowering
Currant, still the miniature habit, pretty and freely-produced
pink-tinted flowers, and fresh green foliage will all help to make it an
acquisition wherever planted. Like the other species of Ribes the
present plant grows and flowers very freely in any soil, and almost
R. FLORIDUM (_syns R. missouriense_ and _R. pennsylvanicum_).--American
Wild Black Currant. North America, 1729. This should be included in all
collections for its pretty autumnal foliage, which is of a bright
R. GORDONIANUM (_syns R. Beatonii_ and _R. Loudonii_) is a hybrid
between R. aureum and R. sanguineum, and has reddish, yellow tinged
flowers, and partakes generally of the characters of both species.
R. MULTIFLORUM, Eastern Europe (1822), is another desirable species,
with long drooping racemes of greenish-yellow flowers, and small red
R. SANGUINEUM.--Flowering Currant. North-west America, 1826. An old
inhabitant of our gardens, and well deserving of all that can be said in
its favour as a beautiful spring-flowering shrub. It is of North
American origin, with deep red and abundantly-produced flowers. There
are several distinct varieties as follows:--R. sanguineum flore-pleno
(Burning Bush), with perfectly double flowers, which are produced later
and last longer than those of the species; R. sanguineum album, with
pale pink, or almost white flowers; R. sanguineum atro-rubens, with
deeply-coloured flowers; R. sanguineum glutinosum and R. sanguineum
grandiflorum, bearing compact clusters of flowers that are rosy-flesh
coloured on the outside and white or pinky-white within.
R. SPECIOSUM.--Fuchsia-flowered Gooseberry. California, 1829. A
Californian species, remarkable for being more or less spiny, and with
flowers resembling some of the Fuchsias. They are crimson, and with
long, protruding stamens. As a wall plant, where it often rises to 6
feet in height, this pretty and taking species is most often seen.
The flowering Currants are of unusually free growth, and are not at all
particular about soil, often thriving well in that of a very poor
description. They are increased readily from cuttings and by layers.
ROBINIA DUBIA (_syns R. echiuata_ and _R. ambigua_).--A very pretty
garden hybrid form, said to have for its parentage R. Pseud-Acacia and
R. viscosa. It is of quite tree-like growth and habit, with unusually
short spines, and Pea-green foliage. The flowers are produced pretty
freely, and are of a pale rose colour, and well set off by the
light-green leaves, over which they hang in neat and compact spikes.
R. HISPIDA.--Rose Acacia. North America, 1743. Amongst large-growing
shrubs this is certainly one of the most distinct and handsome, and at
the same time one of the hardiest and readiest of culture. Under
favourable conditions it grows about 16 feet high, with large oval or
oblong leaflets, and having the young branches densely clothed with
bristles. The flowers, which are individually larger than those of the
False Acacia, are of a beautiful rosy-pink, and produced in June and
July. It is a very ornamental, small growing species, and one that is
peculiarly suitable for planting where space is limited. R. hispida
macrophylla (Large-leaved Rose Acacia) is rendered distinct by its
generally more robust growth, and by its larger foliage and flowers. The
species, however, varies a good deal in respect of the size of leaves
R. PSEUD-ACACIA.--Common Locust, Bastard Acacia, or False Acacia. North
America, 1640. A noble-growing and handsome tree, with smooth shoots,
and stipules that become transformed into sharp, stiff spines. The
flowers are in long racemes, pure-white or slightly tinged with pink,
and with a faint pleasing odour. This species has been sub-divided into
a great number of varieties, some of which are very distinct, but the
majority are not sufficiently so to warrant special attention. The
following include the best and most popular kinds:--R. Pseud-Acacia
Decaisneana, a distinct form bearing light pinky flowers; R.
Pseud-Acacia Bessoniana, with thornless branches and a dense head of
refreshing Pea-green foliage; R. Pseud-Acacia angustifolia, with narrow
leaves; R. Pseud-Acacia aurea, a conspicuous but not very constant
golden leaved form; R. Pseud-Acacia inermis, of which there are weeping,
upright, and broad-leaved forms, has narrow leaves that are glaucous
beneath, and the characteristic spines of the species are wanting or
rarely well developed. R. Pseud-Acacia monophylla is very distinct, the
leaves being entire instead of pinnate; while R. Pseud-Acacia crispa has
curiously-curled foliage. Then there is the peculiar R. Pseud-Acacia
tortuosa, of ungainly habit; R. Pseud-Acacia umbraculifera, with a
spreading head; R. Pseud-Acacia sophoraefolia, the leaves of which
resemble those of Sophora japonica; and R. Pseud-Acacia amorphaefolia,
with very large foliage when compared with the parent tree. The above
may be taken as the most distinct and desirable forms of the False
Acacia, but there are many others, such as R. Pseud-Acacia colutoides,
R. Pseud-Acacia semperflorens, and R. Pseud-Acacia Rhederi, all more or
less distinct from the typical tree.
R. VISCOSA (_syn R. glutinosa_).--Clammy Locust. North America, 1797.
This is a small-growing tree, and readily distinguished by the clammy
bark of the younger shoots. Flowers in short racemes, and of a beautiful
rose-pink, but varying a good deal in depth of tint. It is a valuable
species for ornamental planting, and flowers well even in a young state.
Few soils would seem to come amiss to the Acacias, but observations
made in many parts of the country conclusively prove that the finest
specimens are growing on light, rich loam overlying a bed of gravel.
They are propagated from seed, by layers, or by grafting.
ROSA ALBA.--This is a supposed garden hybrid between R. canina and R.
gallica (1597). It has very glaucous foliage, and large flowers, which
vary according to the variety from pure white to rose.
R. REPENS (_syn R. arvensis_).--Field Rose. Europe (Britain). This
species bears white flowers that are produced in threes or fours, rarely
solitary. The whole plant is usually of weak and straggling growth, with
R. BRACTEATA (Macartney Rose), R. PALUSTRIS (Marsh Rose), and R.
MICROPHYLLA (small-leaved Rose), belong to that section supplied with
floral leaves or bracts, and shaggy fruit. They are of compact growth,
with neat, shining leaves, the flowers of the first-mentioned being rose
or carmine, and those of the other two pure white.
R. CANINA.--Dog Rose. Our native Roses have now been reduced to five
species, of which the present is one of the number. It is a straggling
shrub, 6 feet or 8 feet high, and armed with curved spines. Flowers
sweet-scented, pink or white, and solitary, or in twos or threes at the
R. CENTIFOLIA.--Hundred-leaved, or Cabbage Rose. Orient, 1596. A
beautiful, sweetly-scented species, growing to 6 feet in height, and
having leaves that are composed of from three to five broadly ovate,
toothed leaflets. The flowers are solitary, or two or three together,
drooping, and of a rosy hue, but differing in tint to a considerable
extent. This species has varied very much, principally through the
influences of culture and crossing, the three principal and marked
variations being size, colour, and clothing of the calyx tube. There are
the common Provence Roses, the miniature Provence or Pompon Roses, and
the Moss Rose--all of which are merely races of R. centifolia.
R. DAMASCENA.--Damask Rose. Orient, 1573. A bushy shrub varying from 2
feet to 8 feet in height according to cultural treatment and age. The
flowers are white or red, large, borne in corymbose clusters, and
produced in great profusion during June and July. The varieties that
have arisen under cultivation by seminal variation, hybridisation, or
otherwise are exceedingly numerous. Those now grown are mostly double,
and a large proportion of them are light in colour. They include the
quatre saisons and the true York and Lancaster. The flowers are highly
fragrant, and, like those of R. centifolia and other species, are used
indiscriminately for the purpose of making rose water. The species is
distinguished from R. centifolia by its larger prickles, elongated
fruit, and long, reflexed sepals.
R. FEROX.--North Asia. This species bears flowers in clusters of two and
three together, terminating the branches. The petals are white with a
yellow base. The branches are erect, and thickly crowded with prickles
of unequal size.
R. GALLICA.--The French, or Gallic Rose. Europe and Western Asia. This
Rose forms a bushy shrub 2 feet to 3 feet high, and has been so long
grown in British gardens that the date of its introduction has been lost
in obscurity. It is doubtless the red Rose of ancient writers, but at
present the flowers may be red, crimson, or white, and there are
varieties of all intermediate shades. Several variegated or striped
Roses belong here, including Gloria Mundi, a popular favourite often but
erroneously grown under the name of York and Lancaster. They all flower
in June and July, and, together with other kinds that flower about the
same time, are generally known as summer or old-fashioned garden Roses.
R. HEMISPHAERICA (_syn R. sulphurea_).--Orient, 1629. A bushy plant
growing from 4 feet to 6 feet high, and bearing large double yellow
R. INDICA.--Common China, or Monthly Rose. Introduced from China, near
Canton, in 1789, but the native country is not known with certainty. The
flowers of the plant when first introduced were red and generally
semi-double, but the varieties now vary through all shades of blush,
rose, and crimson, and the plant varies exceedingly in height, in its
different forms 1 foot to 20 feet in height. The Monthly Roses form
bushes generally about 2 feet high or a little over. The Noisette and
Tea Roses, with several other more or less distinct types, belong here,
but as most of them are well known and otherwise well cared for, it is
unnecessary to dwell upon them in detail beyond the two varieties here
given, and which should not be overlooked.
R. INDICA MINIMA (_syn R. semperflorens minima, R. Lawrenceana_, and _R.
minima_).--Fairy, or Miniature Rose. China, 1810. A beautiful little
Rose that rarely exceeds a height of 4 inches or 5 inches. The flowers
are about the size of a half-crown, and somewhat after the York and
Lancaster as regards colouring, though not, perhaps, so distinctly
marked, and are produced in abundance. For the rock garden it is one of
the most desirable, and being perfectly hardy still further adds to its
R. INDICA SEMPERFLORENS (_syns R. bengalensis_ and _R.
diversifolia_).--The Ever-flowering China Rose. China, 1789. A somewhat
spreading bush, with slender branches, armed with curved prickles.
Leaves composed of three or five leaflets, and tinted with purple.
Flowers almost scentless, solitary, semi-double, and of a bright and
R. LUTEA (_syn R. Eglanteria_).--The Austrian Brier, or Yellow
Eglantine. South Europe, 1596. This belongs to the Sweet Brier section,
and is a bush of from 3 feet to 6 feet high, with shining dark-green
leaves, and large, cup-shaped flowers that are yellow or sometimes
tinged with reddish-brown within. The Scarlet Austrian Brier (R. lutea
punicea) is a handsome variety, with the upper surface of the petals
scarlet and the under surface yellow.
R. RUBIGINOSA (_syn R. Eglanteria_).--Eglantine, or Sweet Brier. This
species has pink flowers and clammy leaves, which are glandular on the
under surface, and give out a fragrant smell by which it may be
R. RUGOSA (_syn R. ferox of Bot. Reg._), a Japanese species, and its
variety R. rugosa alba, are beautiful shrubs that have proved themselves
perfectly hardy and well suited for extensive culture in this country.
They are of stiff, shrubby habit, about 4 feet high, and with branches
thickly clothed with spines becoming brown with age. Leaflets oval in
shape, deep green, with the upper surface rough to the touch, the under
sides densely tomentose. Flowers single, fully 3 inches in diameter, the
petals of good substance, and white or rose-coloured. The fruit is
large, larger than that of perhaps any other rose, and of a bright red
when fully ripe. In so far as beauty of fruit is concerned, this Rose
has certainly no rival, and whether for the rockwork or open border it
must be classed amongst the most useful and beautiful of hardy shrubs.
R. rugosa is a capital hedge plant, and being a true species it is
readily propagated from seed. R. rugosa Kamtschatika is a deep-red
flowered form with deciduous spines.
R. SEMPERVIRENS.--Evergreen Rose. South Europe and India, 1529. A
climbing species, with long, slender branches, armed with hooked
prickles. Leaves evergreen, shining, and composed of from five to seven
leaflets. The clustered flowers are white and sweet-scented.
R. SPINOSISSIMA (_syn R. pimpinellifolia_).--Burnet, or Scotch Rose. A
small bush about 2 feet high, of neat growth, with small leaves, and
pink or white flowers that are solitary at the branch ends.
R. VILLOSA.--Downy Rose. Europe (Britain). This species is of erect
bushy growth, with the leaflets softly downy on both sides. Flowers
white or pale pink, succeeded by globular fruits, that are more or less
covered with fine hair or prickles.
ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS.--Common Rosemary. Mediterranean region, 1848. A
familiar garden shrub, of dense growth, with dusky-gray green linear
leaves, and pale blue or white flowers. There is a golden and a silver
leaved variety, named respectively R. officinalis foliis-aureis, and R.
officinalis foliis-argenteis; as also one distinguished by having
broader foliage than the species, and named R. officinalis latifolius.
RUBUS ARCTICUS.--Arctic Regions of both hemispheres. An interesting
species about 6 inches high, with trifoliolate leaves, and deep-red
flowers. For Alpine gardening it is a valuable species of dwarf growth.
R. AUSTRALIS, from New Zealand, is a very prickly species, with the
leaves reduced to their stalks and the midribs of three leaflets. Not
being very hardy it is usually seen as a wall plant.
R. BIFLORUS.--Himalayas, 1818. A tall-growing species with whitish,
spiny stems, and simple three-lobed leaves that are tomentose on the
under sides. The flowers are thickly produced, pure white, and render
the plant highly attractive, and of great beauty.
R. DELICIOSUS.--This Rocky Mountain Bramble (1870) is a very worthy
species, with three or five-lobed (not pinnate) leaves, and large, pure
white flowers that are each about 2 inches in diameter, and produced in
profusion from the leaf-axils. For ornamental planting this may be
placed in the first rank of the family to which it belongs.
R. FRUTICOSUS.--Common Bramble, or Blackberry. Of this well-known native
species there are several worthy varieties, of which the double-flowered
are especially worth notice, blooming as they do in the latter part of
summer. R. fruticosus flore albo-pleno (Double white-flowered Bramble),
and R. fruticosus flore roseo-pleno (Double red-flowered Bramble) are
very pretty and showy varieties, and well worth including in any
collection. There is a pretty variegated-leaved form of the common
Bramble, known as R. fruticosus variegatus.
R. LACINIATUS, Cut-leaved Bramble, might also be included on account of
its profusion of white flowers, and neatly divided foliage.
R. NUTKANUS.--North America, 1826. This has white flowers, but otherwise
it resembles R. odoratus.
R. ODORATUS.--Purple flowering Raspberry. North America, 1700. The
sweet-scented Virginian Raspberry forms a rather dense, upright growing
bush, fully 4 feet high, with large broadly five-lobed and toothed
leaves, that are more or less viscid, sweet-scented, and deciduous. The
leaves are placed on long, hairy, viscid foot-stalks. Flowers in
terminal corymbs, large and nearly circular, purplish-red in colour, and
composed of five broad, round petals. The fruit, which is rarely
produced in this country, is velvety and amber-coloured. It is a very
ornamental species, the ample Maple-like leaves and large flowers
rendering it particularly attractive in summer. The leaves, and not the
flowers as is generally supposed, are sweetly scented.
R. ROSAEFOLIUS.--Rose-leaved Raspberry. Himalayas, 1811. Another
half-hardy species, and only suited for planting against sunny walls.
Leaves pinnate, finer than those of the Raspberry. R. r. coronarius,
with semi-double white flowers, is better than the type.
R. SPECTABILIS.--The Salmon Berry. North America, 1827. Grows about 6
feet high, with ternate or tri-lobate leaves that are very thickly
produced. Flowers usually bright red or purplish-coloured, and placed on
long pendulous footstalks. It is of very dense growth, occasioned by the
number of suckers sent up from the roots.
There are also some of the so-called American Brambles well worthy of
attention, two of the best being Kittatiny and Lawton's:
The brambles are particularly valuable shrubs, as owing to their dense
growth they may be used for a variety of purposes, but especially for
covering unsightly objects or banks. They are all wonderfully
floriferous, and succeed admirably even in very poor and stony soils.
Increase is readily obtained either from root suckers or by layering.
RUSCUS ACULEATUS.--Butcher's Broom, Pettigree and Pettigrue. Europe
(Britain), and North Africa. This is a native evergreen shrub, with
rigid cladodes which take the place of leaves, and not very showy
greenish flowers appearing about May. For the bright red berries, which
are as large as small marbles, it is alone worth cultivating, while it
is one of the few shrubs that grow at all satisfactorily beneath the
shade of our larger trees.
R. HYPOPHYLLUM.--Double Tongue. Mediterranean region, 1640. This species
has the flowers on the undersides of the leaf-like branches; and its
variety R.H. Hypoglossum has them on the upper side. Both are of value
for planting in the shade.
SAMBUCUS CALIFORNICA.--Californian Elder. A rare species as yet, but one
that from its elegant growth and duration of flowers is sure, when
better known, to become widely distributed.
S. GLAUCA has its herbaceous parts covered with a thick pubescence;
leaves pubescent on both sides, and with yellow flowers produced in
S. NIGRA.--Common Elder. Bourtry, or Bour tree. Although one of our
commonest native trees, the Elder must rank amongst the most ornamental
if only for its large compound cymes of white or yellowish-white
flowers, and ample bunches of shining black berries. There are, however,
several varieties that should be largely cultivated, such as S. nigra
foliis aureis (Golden Elder), S. nigra fructu albo (White Fruited), S.
nigra laciniata (Cut-leaved Elder), S. nigra argentea (Silver-leaved
Elder), S. nigra rotundifolia (Round-leaved Elder), the names of which
will be sufficient for the purposes of recognition.
S. RACEMOSA.--Scarlet-berried Elder. South Europe and Siberia, 1596.
This is almost a counterpart of our native species, but instead of black
the berries are brilliant scarlet. It is a highly ornamental species,
but it is rather exacting, requiring for its perfect growth a cool and
moist situation. Of this there is a cut-leaved, form, named S. racemosa
S. ROSAEFLORA is said to be a seedling from S. glauca, but differs in
many important points from the parent. It has smooth shoots and
branches, ovate-acuminate leaves that are downy beneath, and flowers
rose-coloured without and white within. They are produced in short,
spike-like clusters, and are almost destitute of smell. The reddish
rings at the insertion of the leaves is another distinguishing feature.
For freedom of growth in almost every class of soil, and readiness with
which they may be increased, the more showy kinds of Elder are well
worthy of attention.
SCHIZANDRA CHINENSIS.--Northern China, 1860. This is a climbing shrub,
with oval, bright green leaves, and showy carmine flowers. For clothing
arbors and walls it may prove of use, but it is as yet rare in
S. COCCINEA, from North America (1806), is another uncommon species in
which the leaves are oblong and petiolate, and the flowers red or
scarlet. For purposes similar to the last this species may be employed.
SCHIZOPHRAGMA HYDRANGEOIDES.--Climbing Hydrangea. Japan, 1879. As yet
this is an uncommon shrub, and allied to the Hydrangea. It is of slender
growth, the stems rooting into the support, and with pinky-white
flowers. As an ornamental climber it is of no great value, and requires
a favoured spot to grow it at all satisfactorily.
SHEPHERDIA ARGENTEA.--Beef Suet Tree, or Rabbit Berry. North America,
1820. This shrub is rendered of particular interest on account of the
intense silvery hue of the foliage. The leaves are narrow and
lanceolate, silvery on both sides, and dotted over with rusty-brown
scales beneath. The flowers, which are produced in April, are small and
yellow, unisexual, or each sex on a distinct plant. Berries scarlet,
about the size of red Currants, and ripe about September.
S. CANADENSIS.--North America, 1759. This is a small-growing, straggling
species, fully 4 feet high, and clothed with rusty scales. The leaves
are ovate or elliptic, and green above, and the flowers of an
inconspicuous yellow, succeeded by orange-red berries.
SKIMMIA FORTUNEI.--Japan, 1845. This is a neat-growing shrub, with
glossy, laurel-like leaves, white or greenish-white flowers, and an
abundance of scarlet berries in autumn. It succeeds best in a somewhat
shady situation, and when planted in not too heavy peaty soil, but where
abundance of not stagnant moisture is present.
S. JAPONICA (of Thunberg) (_syn S. oblata_).--Japan, 1864. A
neat-growing, evergreen shrub, with rather larger and more showy leaves
than the former, and spikes of pretty whitish, sweetly scented flowers.
The female form of this is usually known as S. fragrans. What is usually
known as S. oblata ovata, and S. oblata Veitchii, are only forms of the
true S. japonica; while S. fragrantissima is the male of the same
species. The beautiful, berried plant that has been exhibited under the
name of S. Foremanii, and which is of very vigorous growth, and produces
pyramidal spikes of sweetly scented flowers, is probably S. japonica, or
a seminal variety. Another variety sent out under the name of S.
macrophylla has unusually large leaves; and another named S. Rogersi
produces fruit very abundantly.
S. LAUREOLA (_syn Limonia Laureola_), from the Himalayas, is an uncommon
species, with very fragrant and pale yellow flowers.
S. RUBELLA (China, 1874) is another member of the family that has
greenish-white, sweet-scented flowers, and which when better known will
be largely planted.
SMILAX ASPERA.--The Prickly Ivy. South Europe, 1648. A trailing-habited
shrub, with prickly stems, ovate, spiny-toothed, evergreen leaves, and
rather unattractive flowers. There are other hardy species from North
America, including S. Bona-nox (better known as S. tamnoides), S.
rotundifolia, and S. herbacea, the first being the most desirable. S.
aspera mauritanica is a hardy variety, but one that is rare in
cultivation, with long, wiry shoots, and well adapted for wall or
trellis covering. They all require favoured situations, else the growth
is short, and the plants stunted and meagre in appearance.
SOLANUM CRISPUM.--Potato-tree. A native of Chili, 1824, and not very
hardy, except in the coast regions of England and Ireland. It grows
stout and bushy, often in favoured places rising to the height of 12
feet, and has large clusters of purple-blue flowers that are succeeded
by small, white berries. This is a decidedly ornamental shrub, that
should be cultivated wherever a suitable place can be spared. It bears
hard pruning back with impunity, and succeeds in any light, rich, loamy
S. DULCAMARA.--Bitter Sweet, and Woody Nightshade. This is a native
plant, and one of great beauty when seen clambering over a fence, or
bank. It has long, flexuous stems, and large clusters of purple flowers,
which are made all the more conspicuous by the showy yellow anthers. The
scarlet fruit is very effective.
SOPHORA JAPONICA (_syn Styphnolobium japonicum_).--Chinese or Japanese
Pagoda-tree. China and Japan, 1763. A large deciduous tree, with elegant
pinnate foliage, and clusters of greenish-white flowers produced in
September. Leaves dark-green, and composed of about eleven leaflets. S.
japonica pendula is one of the most constant of weeping trees, and
valuable for planting in certain well-chosen spots on the lawn or in the
S. TETRAPTERA.--New Zealand, 1772. This requires protection in this
country. It is a valuable species, having numerous leaflets, and bearing
racemes of very showy yellow flowers. S. tetraptera microphylla is a
smaller-leaved variety, with ten to forty pairs of leaflets, and is
known in gardens under the names of Edwardsia Macnabiana, and E.
SPARTIUM JUNCEUM (_syn S. acutifolium_).--Spanish, or Rush Broom.
Mediterranean region and Canary Isles, 1548. This resembles our common
Broom, but the slender Rush-like branches are not angular, and usually
destitute of leaves. The fragrant yellow flowers are produced abundantly
in racemes, and when at their best impart to the shrub a very striking
and beautiful appearance. For planting in poor, sandy or gravelly soils,
or amongst stones and shingle, and where only a very limited number of
shrubs could be got to grow, the Spanish Broom will be found an
excellent and valuable plant. It is a native of Southern Europe, and is
quite hardy all over the country. Propagated from seed.
SPIRAEA BELLA.--Pretty-flowered Spiraea. Himalayas, 1820. The reddish
stems of this rather tall-growing species are of interest, and render
the plant distinct. Leaves ovate, acute, and serrated, and tomentose
beneath. Flowers in spreading corymbs of a very beautiful rose colour,
and at their best from the middle of May till the middle of June. S.
bella alba has white flowers.
S. BLUMEI.--Blume's Spiraea. Japan. This is a Japanese species, growing
4 feet or 5 feet high, with small, ovate, bluntly-pointed leaves, and
white flowers arranged in compact terminal cymes. It is a good and
worthy species for ornamental planting.
S. BULLATA (_syn S. crispifolia_.)--Japan. This will ever be accounted
valuable for the rock garden, owing to its very dwarf habit and extreme
floriferousness. It bears tiny bunches of bright rose-coloured flowers,
and these look all the more charming owing to the miniature size of the
shrub, its average height being about 12 inches. A very interesting and
valuable rock shrub, and one that no doubt about its perfect hardihood
need be entertained.
S. CANA.--Hoary-leaved Spiraea. Croatia, 1825. This is a small spreading
shrub that rarely rises to more than 18 inches in height, with small,
ovate, hoary leaves, and pretty white flowers arranged in corymbs. For
rockwork planting it is one of the most valuable species, growing freely
and producing its showy flowers in abundance. Quite hardy.
S. CANTONIENSIS (_syn S. Reevesiana_).--Reeve's Spiraea. Japan, 1843. An
evergreen or sub-evergreen species, growing 3 feet high, with lanceolate
leaves on long footstalks, and large, pure white flowers arranged in
terminal corymbs, and placed on long peduncles.
S. CHAMAEDRIFOLIA (_syn S. ceanothifolia_).--Germander-leaved Spiraea.
South-eastern Europe to Japan, 1789. Grows about a yard high, with
ovate, pubescent leaves, and white flowers. It varies widely in the
shape and size of leaves. S. chamaedrifolia ulmifolia (Elm-leaved
Spiraea) a twiggy shrub, 3 feet high, with broad leaves and white
flowers, is from Siberia. S. chamaedrifolia crataegifolia
(Hawthorn-leaved Spiraea) is of stout, half-erect growth, with rather
stiff glaucous leaves that are oval in shape, and bright red or pink
flowers in fastigiate panicles. From Siberia 1790, and flowering at
S. DECUMBENS (_syn S. nana_).--Decumbent Spiraea. Tyrol. This is the
smallest-growing of the shrubby Spiraeas, rarely attaining to a greater
height than 12 inches. It is a neat growing plant, with small oval
leaves, and white pedunculate flowers. For planting on the rockwork or
in the front line of the shrubbery, this is an invaluable shrub, and
soon forms a neat and pretty specimen. It is perfectly hardy.
S. DISCOLOR ARIAEFOLIA (_syn S. ariaefolia_).--White Beam-leaved
Spiraea. North-west America, 1827. This forms a dense, erect shrub about
6 feet high, with elliptic-oblong leaves, and clothed beneath with a
whitish tomentum. The flowers are in large, terminal, slender-stalked
panicles, and white or yellowish-white. It is one of the handsomest
species in cultivation, the neat and yet not stiff habit, and pretty,
plume-like tufts of flowers making it a general favourite with the
cultivators of hardy shrubs. Flowers about mid-summer. In rich soils,
and where partially shaded from cold winds, it thrives best.
S. DOUGLASII.--Douglas's Spiraea. North-west America. This has long,
obovate-lanceolate leaves, that are white with down on the under
surface, and bears dense, oblong, terminal panicles of rosy flowers. S.
Douglasii Nobleana (Noble's Spiraea) is a variety of great beauty,
growing about a yard high, with large leaves often 4 inches long, and
looser panicles of purple-red flowers. Flowering in July. The variety
was introduced from California in 1859.
S. FISSA.--Split-leaved Spiraea. Mexico, 1839. A stout, erect-growing
shrub, about 8 feet high, with rather small leaves, angular, downy
branches, and long, loose, terminal panicles of small and greenish-white
flowers. The leaves are wedge-shaped at the base, and when young have
the lateral incisions split into a pair of unequal and very sharp teeth.
Flowering in May and June. In the south and west of England it thrives
S. HYPERICIFOLIA (_syn S. flagellata_).--Asia Minor, 1640. A wiry twiggy
shrub, fully 4 feet high, with entire leaves, and small, white flowers
produced in umbels at the tips of the last year's shoots. It is a pretty
and desirable species.
S. JAPONICA (_syns S. callosa_ and _S. Fortunei_).--Japanese Spiraea.
China and Japan, 1859. This is a robust species about a yard high, with
large lanceolate leaves, and small, rosy-red flowers arranged in
corymbose heads. Flowering at mid-summer. There are several fine
varieties of this species, including S. japonica alba, a compact bush
about a foot high with white flowers; S. japonica rubra differs from the
type in having dark red flowers; S. japonica splendens, is a
free-flowering dwarf plant, with peach-coloured flowers and suitable for
forcing; and S. japonica superba, has dark rose-red flowers. S. Bumalda
is a closely allied form, if not a mere variety of S. japonica. It is of
dwarf habit, with dark reddish-purple flowers.
S. LAEVIGATA (_syns S. altaicensis_ and _S. altaica_).--Smooth Spiraea.
Siberia, 1774. A stout, spreading shrub about a yard high, with large,
oblong-lanceolate, smooth, and stalkless leaves. The white flowers are
arranged in racemose panicles, and produced in May.
S. LINDLEYANA.--Lindley's Spiraea. Himalayas. A handsome, tall-growing
species, growing from 6 feet to 8 feet high, with very large pinnate
leaves, and pretty white flowers in large terminal panicles. It is the
largest-leaved Spiraea in cultivation, and forms a stately, handsome
specimen, and produces its showy flowers in great quantities. Flowering
at the end of summer.
S. MEDIA (_syns S. confusa_ and _S. oblongifolia_).--Northern Asia, etc.
The pure white flowers of this species are very freely produced in
corymbs along the shoots of the previous season during the months of
June and July. The lanceolate-elliptic leaves are serrate, or the
smaller ones toothed near the apex only. Within the past few years the
species has been brought into prominence for forcing purposes, for which
it is admirably suited. It forms an upright, branching bush usually
about 3 ft. high, and is best known under the name of S. confusa.
S. PRUNIFOLIA.--China and Japan, 1845. A twiggy-branched shrub growing 4
feet or 5 feet high, with oval, Plum-like leaves, and white flowers.
There is a double-flowering variety named S. prunifolia flore-pleno,
which is both distinct and beautiful.
S. ROTUNDIFOLIA.--Round-leaved Spiraea. Cashmere, 1839. A
slender-branched shrub, having downy shoots, and round, blunt leaves,
flowering in July.
S. SALICIFOLIA.--Willow-leaved Spiraea. Europe, and naturalised in
Britain. An erect-growing, densely-branched shrub, with smooth shoots,
which spring usually directly from the ground. Leaves large, lanceolate,
smooth, doubly serrated, and produced plentifully. Flowers red or
rose-coloured, and arranged in short, thyrsoid panicles. It flowers in
July and August. S. salicifolia carnea has flesh-coloured flowers; S.
salicifolia paniculata has white flowers; and S. salicifolia grandiflora
has pink flowers as large again as the type. S. salicifolia alpestris
(Mountain Spiraea) grows fully 2 feet high, with lanceolate,
finely-toothed leaves, and loose, terminal panicles of pink or red
flowers. From Siberia, and flowering in autumn. S. salicifolia latifolia
(_syn S. carpinifolia_), the Hornbeam-leaved Spiraea, is a
white-flowered variety, with leaves resembling those of the Hornbeam.
From North America.
S. SORBIFOLIA.--Sorbus-leaved Spiraea. Siberia, 1759. A handsome, stout
species, 4 feet high, with large, pinnate, bright green leaves, and
small, white, sweetly-scented flowers produced in thyrsoid panicles.
S. THUNBERGII.--Thunberg's Spiraea. Japan. The white flowers of this
species smell somewhat like those of the Hawthorn, and are freely
produced on the leafless, twiggy stems, in March or early in April,
according to the state of the weather. They are borne in axillary
clusters from buds developed in the previous autumn, and are very
welcome in spring, long before the others come into bloom. The bush
varies from one to three feet high, and is clothed with
linear-lanceolate, sharply serrated leaves.
S. TOMENTOSA.--Tomentose Spiraea. North America, 1736. This species
grows 2 feet or 3 feet high, has rusty tomentose shoots and leaves, and
large, dense, compound spikes of showy red flowers. Flowering in summer.
S. TRILOBATA (_syn S. triloba_).--Three-lobed Spiraea. Altaian Alps,
1801. This is a distinct species with horizontally arranged branches,
small, roundish, three-lobed leaves, and white flowers arranged in
umbel-like corymbs. It flowers in May, and is quite hardy.
S. UMBROSA (Shady Spiraea) and S. EXPANSA (Expanded-flowered Spiraea),
the former from Northern India and the latter from Nepaul, are well
suited for planting in somewhat shady situations, and are very
ornamental species. The first mentioned grows about a foot high, with
rather large leaves, and cymes of white flowers on long slender
footstalks; while S. expansa has pink flowers, and lanceolate and
coarsely serrated leaves.
There are other valuable-flowering kinds, such as S. capitata, with
ovate leaves and white flowers; S. pikowiensis, a rare species with
white flowers; S. cuneifolia, with wedge-shaped leaves and panicles of
pretty white flowers; and S. vacciniaefolia, a dwarf-growing species,
with small ovate, serrulated leaves, and showy, pure white flowers. S.
betulifolia and S. chamaedrifolia flexuosa are worthy forms of free
growth and bearing white flowers.
STAPHYLEA COLCHICA.--Colchican Bladder Nut. Caucasus. This is a very
distinct shrub, about 6 feet high, with large clusters of showy white
flowers. Being quite hardy, and very ornamental, this species is worthy
the attention of planters.
S. PINNATA.--Job's Tears, or St. Anthony's Nut. South Europe. This is a
straggling shrub, from 6 feet to 8 feet high, with white, racemose
flowers, succeeded by bladder-like capsules.
S. TRIFOLIA.--North America, 1640. This is distinguished by its larger
white flowers and trifoliolate leaves. It is the American Bladder Nut,
but, like the latter, can hardly be included amongst ornamental plants.
All the Bladder Nuts grow freely in good light dampish loam.
STAUNTONIA HEXAPHYLLA.--China and Japan, 1876. This evergreen twining
shrub is not to be generally recommended, it requiring wall protection
even in southern England. The leaves are deep green and pinnate, while
the greenish-white flowers are fragrant, and produced in the beginning
STUARTIA PENTAGYNA (_syn Malachodendron ovatum_).--North America, 1785.
This differs only from the S. virginica in having five distinct styles,
hence the name. Under very favourable circumstances this is the taller
growing species, and the leaves and flowers are larger.
S. PSEUDO-CAMELLIA (_syn S. grandiflora_).--Japan, 1879. This is of
recent introduction, and differs from the others in the flowers being
rather larger, and of a purer white, and supplied with yellow instead of
red stamens. It is quite hardy in Southern England and Ireland at least.
S. VIRGINICA (_syn S. marylandica_).--North America, 1743. This is a
handsome free-growing shrub, of often 10 feet in height, with large,
creamy-white flowers, that are rendered all the more conspicuous by the
crimson-red stamens. The flowers--like those of a single Rose, and fully
2-1/2 inches across--are produced in May. Quite hardy, as many fine
specimens in some of our old English gardens will point out.
Though, perhaps, rather exacting in their requirements, the Stuartias
may be very successfully grown if planted in light, moist, peaty earth,
and where they will be screened from cold, cutting winds.
STYRAX AMERICANA and S. PULVERULENTA are not commonly cultivated, being
far less showy than the Japanese species. They bear white flowers.
S. OFFICINALIS.--Storax. Levant, 1597. This is a small deciduous shrub,
with ovate leaves, and short racemes of pretty pure white flowers. A not
very hardy species, and only second-rate as an ornamental flowering
S. SERRULATA VIRGATA (_syn S. japonica_).--Japanese Storax. Japan. A
neat-habited and dense-growing shrub, with pretty white flowers that are
neatly set off by the showy yellow stamens. It is an extremely pretty
shrub, with long, slender, much-branched shoots, furnished with ovate
leaves, and deliciously-scented, snow-white bell-shaped flowers,
produced for nearly the full length of the shoots. So far, this shrub of
recent introduction has proved quite hardy. S. serrulata variegata is a
well-marked and constant form.
SYMPHORICARPUS OCCIDENTALIS.--Wolf Berry. North America. This species
has larger and more freely-produced flowers, and smaller fruit than the
S. RACEMOSUS (_syn Symphoria racemosus_).--Snowberry. North America,
1817. One of the commonest shrubs in English gardens, with small, oval,
entire leaves, and neat little racemes of pretty pink flowers, succeeded
by the familiar snow-white berries, and for which the shrub is so
S. VULGARIS.--Coral Berry, Common St. Peter's Wort. North America, 1730.
This is readily distinguished by its showy and freely-produced coral
berries. There is a very neat and much sought after variety, having
conspicuous green and yellow leaves, and named S. vulgaris foliis
The Snowberries are of no great value as ornamental shrubs, but owing to
their succeeding well in the very poorest and stoniest of soils, and
beneath the shade and drip of trees, it is to be recommended that they
are not lost sight of. They grow and spread freely, and are therefore
useful where unchecked and rampant shrub growth is desirable.
SYMPLOCOS JAPONICA (_syn S. lucida_).--A small growing and not very
desirable species from Japan (1850).
S. TINCTORIA.--Sweet-leaf, or Horse Sugar. South United States, 1780.
This is a small-growing shrub, with clusters of fragrant yellow flowers,
but it is not very hardy unless planted against a sheltered and sunny
SYRINGA CHINENSIS (_syns. S. dubia_ and _S. rothomagensis_).--Rouen, or
Chinese Lilac. A plant of small growth, with narrow leaves, and
reddish-violet flowers. It is said to have been raised by M. Varin, of
the Botanic Garden, Rouen, as a hybrid between S. vulgaris and S.
S. EMODI.--Himalayas, 1840. This is a desirable species, that forms a
stout bush or small tree, with oblong, reticulately-veined leaves, and
erect, dense panicles of white flowers, that are sometimes lilac tinged.
The flowers are strongly scented, and borne in great profusion late in
the season. There is a variegated form, S. Emodi variegata, and another
named S. Emodi villosa, both good varieties.
S. JAPONICA (_syns S. amurensis_ and _Ligustrina amurensis_).--Japan.
This is of recent introduction, and is a decided acquisition, producing
in summer large and dense clusters of creamy-white flowers. It is a very
desirable species, and though coming from Japan seems to be perfectly
S. JOSIKAEA, Josika's Lilac, is of Hungarian origin (1835), and is so
totally different from the others as to be well worthy of special
attention. It rarely exceeds 6 feet in height, with dark-green, wrinkled
leaves, and erect spikes of pale mauve flowers.
S. PERSICA (Persian Lilac).--Persia, 1640. This is a distinct
small-growing species, with slender, straight branches, and lilac or
white flowers produced in small clusters. The form bearing white flowers
is named S. persica alba; and there is one with neatly divided foliage
called S. persica laciniata.
S. VULGARIS.--Common Lilac, or Pipe Tree. Persia and Hungary, 1597. This
is one of the commonest and most highly praised of English garden
shrubs, and one that has given rise, either by natural variation or by
crossing with other species, to a great number of superior forms. The
following include the best and most ornamental of the numerous
varieties:--alba, pure white flowers; alba-grandiflora, very large
clusters of white flowers; alba-magna, and alba virginalis, both good
white-flowering forms; Dr. Lindley, large clusters of reddish-lilac
flowers; Charles X., purplish-lilac flowers, but white when forced;
Souvenir De Ludwig Spath, with massive clusters of richly coloured
flowers; Glorie de Moulins, Marie Legrange, Noisetteana, Duchesse de
Nemours, and Vallettiana, all beautiful flowering forms that are well
worthy of cultivation, and that are of the simplest growth.
The double-flowered varieties, for which we are much indebted to M.
Victor Lemoine, of Nancy, are fast gaining favour with cultivators in
this country, and rightly, too, for they include several very handsome,
full flowered forms. The following are best known:--
S. vulgaris Alphonse Lavallee, with full double red flowers, changing
" Emile Lemoine, mauve-pink, suffused with white; very
" La Tour d'Auvergne, mauve shaded with rose. A beautiful
and very dark coloured form.
" Lemoinei, nearly resembling our common species, but with
full double flowers.
" Leon Simon, light pink, mauve shaded.
" Madame Lemoine, the finest form, bearing very large pure
white double flowers.
" Michael Buchner, rosy lilac.
" VirginitE, whitish pink, nearly white when fully expanded.
President Grevy is one of the same beautiful group. The blooms are
large, double, and produced in very massive clusters, and of a light
bluish-lilac tint, when forced almost white. The first of this group, S.
vulgaris Lemoinei, was sent out about 1884, and was then awarded a
certificate by the R.H.S. The range in colouring of these Lilacs is
rather confined, so that the various forms resemble one another in no
small degree, particularly when the flowers are opened under glass. From
the large size of the flower bunches, and the individual flowers being
double, they are all of great beauty, and being quite hardy still
further enhances their value for outdoor gardening purposes.
The Lilacs grow freely in any soil of fair quality, but a free, rich,
and not too dry loam, would seem to suit the majority of these plants
TAMARIX GALLICA.--Common Tamarisk. India to Europe. This shrub often in
favoured maritime places reaches to a height of fully 10 feet, with long
and slender branches, and spikes of pretty, rosy-pink flowers produced
at the end of summer. For sea-side planting, it is an invaluable shrub,
and on account of its feathery appearance and wealth of showy flowers is
well worthy of being included in our list of ornamental and useful
T. PARVIFLORA (_syns T. africana_ and _T. tetrandra_), South-eastern
Europe and Levant, is a nearly allied species, with white, pinky-tinged
TECOMA GRANDIFLORA (_syn Bignonia grandiflora_), from China and Japan
(1800), is not so hardy as T. radicans, although in certain maritime
districts it succeeds fairly well. The flowers are very attractive,
being of a rich orange-scarlet, and produced in drooping clusters. Both
foliage and flowers are larger than those of T. radicans. It wants a
warm, sunny wall, and light, rich, and well-drained soil, and if only
for its lovely flowers, it is well worthy of coddling and good
T. RADICANS (_syn Bignonia radicans_).--Trumpet Flower. North America,
1640. An old occupant of our gardens and one of the most beautiful wall
plants in cultivation. It is a tall climber, of sometimes fully 20 feet
in height, with graceful pinnate leaves, and handsome trumpet-shaped
scarlet-red flowers, that are at their best about mid-summer, though the
period of flowering extends over a considerable length of time. The
stems are long, twisted, and wiry, and like those of the Ivy send out
roots at the joints and so fasten the plant in position. Few climbing
plants are more attractive than the Trumpet Flower, and being hardy in
most parts of the country, and free of growth, is to be recommended for
covering walls, and arches, or similar structures. T. radicans major is
of more robust growth than the species, with larger foliage and paler
flowers. The orange-scarlet flowers are produced in terminal corymbs.
TILIA VULGARIS (_syns T. europea_ and _T. intermedia_).--Lime, or Linden
Tree. Europe, Caucasus, and naturalised in Britain. Probably none of the
Limes would be included in a list of ornamental-flowering trees and
shrubs, still that they are of great interest and beauty even in that
state cannot be denied. The common species as well as its numerous
varieties have sweetly scented, yellowish-white flowers in terminal
cymes, and are, though individually small, highly ornamental when fully
developed. Other species of great interest when in flower are T. alba
(_syn T. argentea_), Silver Lime; T. petiolaris, a curious and beautiful
species; and T. euchlora.
The various species and varieties of Lime succeed well in almost any
class of soil, but rich loam on sand is considered the most suitable for
their perfect development.
ULEX EUROPAEUS.--Furze, Gorse, or Whin. This pretty native shrub needs
no description, suffice it to say that it is one of the
handsomest-flowering shrubs in cultivation. U. europaeus flore-pleno
(Double-flowered Gorse) is even more beautiful than the species, the
wealth of golden flowers almost hiding the plant from view. U. europaeus
strictus (Irish Furze) is of more erect and slender growth, and less
rigid than the common species.
U. NANUS.---Dwarf Gorse, Cat Whin, and Tam Furze. This differs
considerably from the common plant, not only in stature, but in the time
of flowering. In this species the bracts at the calyx base are small
compared with those of U. europaeus, while the smaller flowers are
produced during summer, and when not a bloom is to be found on its
supposed parent. It is of dense growth, the tallest stems rarely rising
from the ground to a greater height than about 15 inches.
All the Furze family succeed admirably in the poorest of soil; indeed, a
dry gravelly bank would seem to be their favourite haunt.
VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM.--Canada to Carolina and Georgia, 1765. This is one
of the most beautiful and showy species, with dense clusters of small,
V. MYRTILLUS.--Whortleberry, Bilberry, Blackberry, and Blueberry. A
native plant, with angular stems, ovate-toothed leaves, and pinky-white
flowers, succeeded by bright, bluish-black berries.
V. PENNSYLVANICUM.--New England to Virginia, 1772. This has rather
inconspicuous flowers, and is of greatest value for the autumnal foliage
V. VITIS-IDEA (Cowberry, Flowering Box, or Brawlins) a native species,
has racemose flowers, and red berries.
Other species that might be included are V. canadense, V. stamineum, V.
frondosum, and V. ligustrifolium.
The various species of Vaccinium are of dwarf or procumbent growth, and
only suitable for planting in beds, or on rockwork, where they will not
be lost sight of. They thrive best in soil of a peaty nature.
VERONICA PINQUIFOLIA.--New Zealand, 1870. This is one of the hardiest
species, but it is of low growth, and only suitable for alpine
gardening. It is a dwarf spreading shrub, with intensely glaucous leaves
and white flowers.
V. TRAVERSII.--New Zealand, 1873. This may be considered as one of the
few species of hardy Veronicas. It grows about 4 feet high, with deep
green leaves arranged in rows, and white flowers, produced late in
summer. It is a very free-growing shrub, of perfect hardihood, and one
of, if not the best for general planting.
The above two species are, so far as is at present known, the hardiest
in cultivation, although there are many kinds that will succeed well
under very favourable conditions, and particularly when planted by the
sea-side. Other half-hardy species might include V. salicifolia
(Willow-leaved Veronica), with long, narrow leaves, and white or
purplish flowers; V. ligustrifolia (Privet-leaved Veronica), with spikes
of feathery-white flowers; V. speciosa, with erect spikes of
purplish-blue flowers; and V. Andersoni, a hybrid form, with spikes of
The dwarf or alpine species might include V. cupressoides, with
Cypress-like foliage, V. Lyallii, V. carnosula, and others, but such
hardly come within our scope.
VIBURNUM ACERIFOLIUM.--Dockmackie. New England to Carolina, 1736. This
is one of the handsomest members of the family, being of slender growth
and compact and neat in habit. It grows to fully 4 feet in height, and
is well supplied with neatly three-lobed leaves, these in the autumn
turning to a deep crimson. The flowers, too, are highly ornamental,
being borne in fair sized clusters, and white or yellowish-white. It is
a very desirable and beautiful plant, quite hardy, and of free growth in
any fairly rich soil.
V. AWAFUKII.--Japan, 1842. This is another rare and beautiful plant, of
neat habit, and producing an abundance of showy white flowers, that are,
however, seldom produced in this country.
V. DAHURICUM.--Dahuria, 1785. This is a charming hardy species, which in
May and June is covered with numerous umbels of showy white flowers. It
forms a rather spreading bush of 6 feet or 8 feet high, with gray downy
branches, and neat foliage. The berries are oval-oblong, red at first,
but becoming black and faintly scented when fully ripe.
V. DENTATUM.--Arrowwood. A native of the United States, 1763. This can
be recommended as a distinct and beautiful shrub, with cymes of white
flowers that are produced in plenty. The leaves are dark green, smooth,
and shining, and strongly veined, while the bark is ash-coloured, and
the berries bright blue.
V. LANTANA.--Wayfaring Tree. Europe (Britain). This is a native species
of large bush, or almost tree growth, with rugose, oblong, serrulated
leaves, and large, flat cymes of white flowers appearing in May and
June. The whole tree is usually covered with a scaly tomentum, while the
fruit is a black flattened drupe.
V. LENTAGO.--Sheepberry and Sweet Viburnum. North America, 1761. This
resembles our native V. Lantana, with dense clusters of white blossoms
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