History of the Philippine Islands Vols 1 and 2
Antonio de Morga

Part 1 out of 8

This eBook was produced by Jeroen Hellingman



Of this work five hundred copies are issued separately from "The
Philippine Islands, 1493-1898," in fifty-five volumes.


From their discovery by Magellan in 1521 to the beginning of the XVII
Century; with descriptions of Japan, China and adjacent countries, by


Alcalde of Criminal Causes, in the Royal Audiencia of Nueva España,
and Counsel for the Holy Office of the Inquisition

Completely translated into English, edited and annotated by

E. H. BLAIR and J. A. ROBERTSON With Facsimiles

[Separate publication from "The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898" in
which series this appears as volumes 15 and 16.]


Cleveland, Ohio The Arthur H. Clark Company 1907




CONTENTS OF VOLUME I [xv of series]


Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. Dr. Antonio de Morga; Mexico, 1609

Bibliographical Data

Appendix A: Expedition of Thomas Candish

Appendix B: Early years of the Dutch in the East Indies


View of city of Manila; photographic facsimile of engraving in
Mallet's Description de l'univers (Paris, 1683), ii, p. 127, from
copy in Library of Congress.

Title-page of Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, by Dr. Antonio de Morga
(Mexico, 1609); photographic facsimile from copy in Lenox Library.

Map showing first landing-place of Legazpi in the Philippines;
photographic facsimile of original MS. map in the pilots' log-book
of the voyage, in Archivo general de Indias, Sevilla.

View of Dutch vessels stationed in bay of Albay; from T. de Bry's
Peregrinationes, 1st ed. (Amsterdame, 1602), tome xvi, no. iv. "Voyage
faict entovr de l'univers par Sr. Olivier dv Nort"--p. 36; photographic
facsimile, from copy in Boston Public Library.

Battle with Oliver van Noordt, near Manila, December 14, 1600; ut
supra, p. 44.

Sinking of the Spanish flagship in battle with van Noordt; ut supra,
p. 45.

Capture of van Noordt's admiral's ship; ut supra, p. 46.


In this volume is presented the first installment of Dr. Antonio
de Morga's Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. Events here described
cover the years 1493-1603, and the history proper of the islands from
1565. Morga's work is important, as being written by a royal official
and a keen observer and participator in affairs. Consequently he
touches more on the practical everyday affairs of the islands, and in
his narrative shows forth the policies of the government, its ideals,
and its strengths and weaknesses. His book is written in the true
historic spirit, and the various threads of the history of the islands
are followed systematically. As being one of the first of published
books regarding the Philippines, it has especial value. Political,
social, and economic phases of life, both among the natives and their
conquerors, are treated. The futility of the Spanish policy in making
external expeditions, and its consequent neglect of internal affairs;
the great Chinese question; the growth of trade; communication with
Japan; missionary movements from the islands to surrounding countries;
the jealous and envious opposition of the Portuguese; the dangers of
sea-voyages: all these are portrayed vividly, yet soberly. Morga's
position in the state allowed him access to many documents, and he
seems to have been on general good terms with all classes, so that he
readily gained a knowledge of facts. The character of Morga's work
and his comprehensive treatment of the history, institutions, and
products of the Philippines, render possible and desirable the copious
annotations of this and the succeeding volume. These annotations are
contributed in part by those of Lord Stanley's translation of Morga,
and those of Rizal's reprint, while the Recopilación de leyes de
Indias furnishes a considerable number of laws.

The book is preceded by the usual licenses and authorizations, followed
by the author's dedication and introduction. In the latter he declares
his purpose in writing his book to be that "the deeds achieved by our
Spaniards in the discovery, conquest, and conversion of the Filipinas
Islands--as well as various fortunes that they have had from time to
time in the great kingdoms and among the pagan peoples surrounding the
islands" may be known. The first seven chapters of the book treat of
"discoveries, conquests, and other events ... until the death of Don
Pedro de Acuña." The eighth chapter treats of the natives, government,
conversion, and other details.

In rapid survey the author passes the line of demarcation of Alexander
VI, and the voyages of Magalhães and Elcano, Loaisa, Villalobos,
and others, down to the expedition of Legazpi. The salient points
of this expedition are briefly outlined, his peaceful reception
by Tupas and the natives, but their later hostility, because the
Spaniards "seized their provisions," their defeat, the Spaniards'
first settlement in Sebu, and the despatching of the advice-boat to
Nueva España to discover the return passage, and inform the viceroy of
the success of the expedition. From Sebu the conquest and settlement
is extended to other islands, and the Spanish capital is finally moved
to Manila. Events come rapidly. The conquest proceeds "by force of
arms or by the efforts of the religious who have sown the good seeds
of the gospel." Land is allotted to the conquerors, and towns are
gradually founded, and the amount of the natives' tribute is fixed.

At Legazpi's death Guido de Lavezaris assumes his responsibilities
by virtue of a royal despatch among Legazpi's papers, and continues
the latter's plans. The pirate Limahon is defeated after having slain
Martin de Goiti. Trade with China is established "and as a consequence
has been growing ever since." The two towns of Betis and Lubao
allotted by Lavezaris to himself are taken from him later by order
of his successor, Dr. Francisco de Sande, but are restored to him by
express order of the king, together with the office of master-of-camp.

Succeeding Lavezaris in 1575, Dr. Francisco de Sande continues "the
pacification of the islands .... especially that of the province
of Camarines." The town of Nueva Cáceres is founded, and Sande's
partially effective campaign to Borneo, and its offshoot--that of
Estevan Rodriguez de Figueroa to Mindanao--undertaken. The "San
Juanillo" is despatched to Nueva España, "but it was lost at sea
and never heard of again." Sande is relieved of his governorship
by Gonzalo Ronquillo de Pefialosa, and after his residencia returns
"to Nueva España as auditor of Mexico."

Chapter III details the events of Gonzalo Ronquillo de
Pefialosa's administration and the interim of government of Diego
Ronquillo. Events, with the greater stability constantly given the
islands, follow more quickly. Gonzalo de Peñalosa, by an agreement with
the king, is to take six hundred colonists--married and single--to
the islands, in return for which he is to be governor for life. He
establishes the town of Arevalo in Panay, builds the Chinese Parián,
endeavors, although unsuccessfully, to discover a return passage
to Nueva España, by the South Sea, and despatches "a ship to Peru
with merchandise to trade for certain goods which he said that the
Filipinas needed." He imposes the two per cent export duty on goods
to Nueva España, and the three per cent duty on Chinese merchandise,
and "although he was censured for having done this without his
Majesty's orders" they "remained in force, and continued to be imposed
thenceforward." The first expedition in aid of Tidore is sent for
the conquest of the island of Ternate, but proves a failure. Cagayan
is first pacified, and the town of Nueva Cáceres founded. Gabriel de
Rivera, after an expedition to Borneo, is sent to Spain to consult
the best interests of the islands. Domingo de Salazar receives his
appointment as bishop, and is accompanied to the islands by Antonio
Sedeño and Alonso Sanchez, the first Jesuits in the islands. In 1583
Gonzalo de Peñalosa dies, and is succeeded by his kinsman Diego
Ronquillo. Shortly after occurs Manila's first disastrous fire,
but the city is rebuilt, although with difficulty. In consequence of
Rivera's trip to Spain, the royal Audiencia of Manila is established
with Santiago de Vera as its president and governor of the islands.

In the fourth chapter are related the events of Santiago de Vera's
administration, and the suppression of the Audiencia. Vera reaches
the islands in 1584, whence shortly afterwards he despatches another
expedition to the Malucos which also fails. The pacification continues,
and the islands are freed from a rebellion and insurrection conspired
between Manila and Pampanga chiefs. Fortifications are built and an
artillery foundry established under the charge of natives. During
this term Candish makes his memorable voyage, passing through
some of the islands. Finally the Audiencia is suppressed, through
the representations made by Alonso Sanchez, who is sent to Spain
and Rome with authority to act for all classes of society. On his
return he brings from Rome "many relics, bulls, and letters for the
Filipinas." Through the influence of the Jesuit, Gomez Perez Dasmariñas
receives appointment as governor of the islands; and with his salary
increased to "ten thousand Castilian ducados" and with despatches for
the suppression of the Audiencia, and the establishment of regular
soldiers, he arrives at Manila in May, 1590.

Chapter V deals with the term of Gomez Perez Dasmariñas and the
interims of Pedro de Rojas and Luis Perez Dasmariñas. The term of the
new governor is characterized by his great energy and enthusiasm. The
Manila wall and other fortifications, the building of galleys, the
regulation of trade, various pacifications, the rebuilding of Manila,
and the opening of negotiations with Japan, are all a part of his
administration, and he is the inspirer of them all. The first note
to the future expeditions to, and troubles with, Camboja and Siam is
struck by an embassy from the first country in charge of Diego Belloso
with offers of trade and friendship and requests for aid against Siam,
the latter being at the time deferred. In accordance with his great
desire to conquer Ternate, the governor fits out a great fleet in
1593, sending the advance vessels to the Pintados in care of his
son. Shortly after, leaving the city in charge of Diego Ronquillo,
although with too few troops for defense, Gomez Perez sets out to
join his son, but is assassinated by his Chinese rowers, who mutiny
and make off with the galley. After his death, the contests for his
office begin, for the dead governor had assured various people that
they would be appointed in case of his death. Especially had he done
this with Estevan Rodriguez de Figueroa, a wealthy man of the Pintados,
to whom he "had shown an appointment drawn in his favor." In Manila,
Pedro de Rojas, lieutenant-assessor, is chosen governor ad interim,
but after forty days Luis Perez Dasmariñas takes the office by
virtue of an appointment regularly drawn in his favor. The return
of the troops to Manila proves an efficacious relief from fears of
a Chinese invasion. The vessels sent to Nueva España in 1593 fail
to make the voyage because of stormy weather, but the governor's
death is learned in Spain by way of India. The troubles between the
bishop and governor culminate somewhat before the latter's death,
in the departure of the former for Spain, as a result of which an
archbishopric with suffragan bishops is established in the islands,
and the Audiencia is reëstablished. The office of lieutenant-assessor
is given more weight and Morga is sent out to fill it in 1595 under
its changed title of lieutenant-governor. In the administration of
Luis Perez Dasmariñas affairs begin actively with Camboja through
the expedition despatched under Juan Xuarez Gallinato, and Blas Ruiz
de Hernan Gonzalez and Diego Belloso. The governor, completely under
the influence of the Dominicans, although against the advice of the
"majority of people in the city" sends a fleet to Camboja. Gallinato
fails to reach that country until after Blas Ruiz and Belloso have
quarreled with the Chinese there, killed the usurping Cambodian king,
Anacaparan, and thrown the country into confusion. Much to their
displeasure Gallinato refuses to continue the conquest, chides the
others harshly, and departs for Manila by way of Cochinchina. At
Cochinchina Blas Ruiz and Belloso go to the kingdom of Lao to find
the legitimate king of Camboja, Prauncar. On their arrival they find
that he has died, but partly through their efforts and those of
two Malays, the king's younger son, who still survives, is placed
on the throne. Gallinato experiences difficulty in Cochinchina,
where he endeavors to regain the standard and various other articles
from the galley of Gomez Perez that had been stolen by the Chinese,
but finally returns safely to Manila. Meanwhile Estevan Rodriguez de
Figueroa agrees to subdue Mindanao at his own expense, in return for
which he is to have its governorship for two generations. In pursuance
of this he fits out a large expedition, but shortly after reaching
the island is killed in a fight and ambush, whereupon his first
commanding officer Juan de la Xara schemes to continue the expedition,
and establishes his men in a settlement near Tampacan, called Murcia.

The administration of Governor Francisco Tello forms the subject-matter
of chapter VI. At his arrival in 1596, news is received in the island
of the appointment of Fray Ignacio de Santibañez as archbishop,
and of two appointments for bishops. News of the death of Estevan
Rodriguez is brought to Manila, and the machinations of Juan de la
Xara to carry on the expedition independently of Manila learned. His
death shortly after arrest, while on his way to Oton to push his suit
with Rodriguez's widow, frustrates his plans. Juan Ronquillo is sent
to Mindanao and takes over the command there, but being discouraged
by the outlook advises an evacuation of the river of Mindanao and the
fortifying of La Caldera, on the Mindanao coast. However he gains a
complete victory over the combined forces of Mindanaos and Ternatans,
which causes him to send another despatch to Tello. But the latter's
reply to the first despatch having been received, in accordance with
its orders he burns his fort, and after establishing a garrison at
La Caldera, returns to Manila with the rest of his command. There
he is arrested for not awaiting Tello's second despatch, but is
liberated on producing a letter ordering him in any event to return
to Manila. Gallinato, on his return from Cochinchina is accused by
his own men of not following up the victory at Camboja, for had
he done so, "all that had been hoped in that kingdom would have
been attained." An incipient rebellion in Cagayan is checked by the
murder of its leader by his own countrymen "who had offered to do it
for a reward." In the year 1596, the remnants of Alvaro de Mendaña
de Neira's expedition that had set out from Peru to rediscover the
Solomon Islands reaches the Philippines after great sufferings from
famine and disease, and after the death of many men, among them the
commander himself. The voyage is related in detail in a letter from
the chief pilot, Pedro Fernandez de Quiros to Morga; it is full of
stirring adventure, and of keen and appreciative observation. One of
the vessels, the "San Geronymo" despatched to Nueva España in 1596,
is forced to put in at a Japanese port because of storms. There they
receive ill-treatment, and the efforts of the Franciscan missionaries
in Japan in their behalf lead to the edict sentencing them to death,
in accordance with which six Franciscans, three Jesuits, and seventeen
native helpers are crucified in 1597. Taicosama's wrath, intensified by
the accusation that the Spaniards conquered kingdoms "by first sending
their religious to the kingdom" and by entering afterward "with their
arms," is satisfied by the crucifixion of the religious and their
assistants, and the men of the "San Geronymo" are allowed to return to
Manila. The religious write a letter of farewell to Dr. Morga, in which
they inform him that Japan intends to attack the Philippines. Luis
Navarrete Fajardo is sent to Japan to demand satisfaction, but
accomplishes little. Faranda Quiemon, one of Taicosama's vassals,
a man of obscure birth, obtaining permission to make an expedition of
conquest, sets about his preparations, but owing to lack of resources
and initiative fails to complete them. Meanwhile great caution is
exercised in Manila, and the Japanese residing there are sent back
to Japan, while those coming on trading vessels are well treated but
gotten rid of as soon as possible. Cambodian affairs are again set on
foot, although against the advice of some, through the instrumentality
of Father Alonso Ximenez, a Dominican who had accompanied Gallinato
on the former expedition, but who had been left behind at Cochinchina
through his own disobedience of orders. Affairs in Mindanao and Jolo
assume a threatening aspect. One Juan Pacho, commander of La Caldera,
is killed in an incursion into Jolo with twenty of his men, and a new
commander of La Caldera is appointed until a punitive expedition can be
undertaken. In 1598 the archbishop arrives, and the Manila Audiencia
is reëstablished by royal order, and the seal received with great
pomp and ceremony. A letter received that same year by Morga from
Blas Ruiz details events in Camboja since he and Belloso went there
with Gallinato's expedition. Blas Ruiz seeks to excuse their actions
in Camboja and holds out the hope of Spanish conquest and influence
on the mainland, and asks help from the islands. As a consequence
of this letter, Luis Perez Dasmariñas secures permission to attempt
an expedition to the mainland at his own expense to aid the king of
Camboja and then to seize the kingdom of Champan, whose king was a
constant menace to all navigators throughout that region. Negotiations
with China and the granting of an open port to Spaniards called El
Pinal, are opened and secured through the efforts of Juan de Zamudio
who is sent to China for saltpeter and metals, although with great and
vindictive opposition from the Portuguese, who fear the loss of their
own trade at Macao. At El Pinal the survivors of two of Luis Perez's
three ships meet with Juan de Zamudio, after suffering great storms,
hardships, and wrecks. The same favor is extended him by the Chinese
as to Zamudio, but the Portuguese show their hostility to him also,
imprisoning the men sent by him to Macao to ask for help, and even
attempting force against him. Both Zamudio and a messenger from Luis
Perez carry news of the latter's disaster to Manila, whereupon a ship
and supplies are sent him with orders to return to Manila. Hernando
de los Rios Coronel, sent to Canton by Luis Perez to negotiate with
the Chinese, writes from that city to Dr. Morga concerning China and
the possibility, desirability, and advantages of the Chinese trade in
China instead of Manila, and the opposition of the Portuguese. China
he describes as a country "full of rivers and towns, and without
a palmo of ground left lying idle." Meanwhile the third vessel of
Luis Perez's fleet, commanded by Luis Ortiz, reaches Camboja, where
he and his companions join the Spanish, Portuguese, and Japanese
already there. This small force, which is eyed askance by the Malay
leaders and others envious of, and hostile to them on account of their
prowess and their influence with the weak king, is further increased
by Captain Juan de Mendoza Gamboa and Fray Juan Maldonado, a learned
Dominican, and their men. The former, having obtained permission to
go on a trading expedition to Siam, for which he is given letters of
embassy, is also entrusted to convey certain supplies to Don Luis
at Camboja, where he fails to find him. Maldonado is sent by his
order as a companion to Don Luis. This addition to their forces is
welcomed by the Spaniards in Camboja, and they refuse to let them
depart until hearing definite news of Luis Perez. The arrival of
a contingent of Japanese, mestizos, and one Spaniard, who had left
Japan on a piratical expedition, still further increases the force
in Camboja. The leaders Blas Ruiz, Belloso, and Maldonado treat
with the king on their own account, but not so satisfactorily as
they wish. Conflicts and quarrels arising between their forces and
the Malays, the latter finally overpower and kill the Spaniards,
Portuguese, and Japanese, except several who remain in the country
and Mendoza, Maldonado and a few men who escape in the former's
vessel. In Camboja confusion and anarchy again reign and the king is
bullied and finally killed by the Malays. The Joloans and Mindanaos
are emboldened by the final abandonment and dismantling of the fort
at La Caldera--which is decided upon by the governor against the
opinion of the Audiencia--and, joined in self-defense by the peaceful
natives of Mindanao, make an incursion against Spaniards and natives
in the Pintados in 1599, in which they take immense booty and many
captives. The next year they return with a larger force, but are
defeated by the alcalde-mayor of Arevalo, whereupon they resolve to
be revenged. In Japan the death of Taicosama encourages Geronimo de
Jesus, a Franciscan who has escaped crucifixion, to open negotiations
with his successor Daifusama. The latter, desiring trade for his
own northern province of Quanto, requests the governor of Manila,
through the religious, for commerce, and men to build ships for the
Nueva España trade which he wishes to open. He does not negotiate
concerning religion, for "the profit and benefit to be derived from
friendship and commerce with the Spaniards was more to the taste of
Daifusama than what he had heard concerning their religion." However,
the religious writes that freedom is given to evangelize throughout
Japan, although the only concession given is that the religious could
establish a house at their trading station. In October of 1600 news
reaches Manila of the coming and depredations of Oliver van Noordt's
two vessels. The description of the preparations, made by Morga,
the instructions given him by the governor, his instructions to
Juan de Alcega, and the fight and its consequences follow. In the
same year of 1600 the vessels "Santa Margarita" and "San Geronymo"
are both unable to reach Nueva España, and are wrecked--the latter
near Catanduanes, and the former in the Ladrones, where it is
rifled by the natives and the men surviving distributed through
the different villages. In 1600 the "Santo Tomas" on its way to the
islands puts in at the Ladrones, but the commander, fearing storms,
refuses to wait for the Spanish prisoners of the "Santa Margarita,"
although petitioned to do so by the religious and others. Accordingly
a Franciscan, Juan Pobre, full of pity for the unfortunate men, casts
in his lot with them and voluntarily remains behind. The "San Felipe"
is wrecked eighty leguas from Manila, and its cargo taken overland to
that city. Mindanao and Jolo affairs are meanwhile given into command
of Gallinato, and although he is partially successful, the rains,
hunger, and disease work for the natives, and finally in May of 1602,
Gallinato sends to Manila for instructions. Juan de Mendoza and Fray
Juan Maldonado, after leaving Camboja proceed on their journey to
Siam, but are received there coldly by the king, and their trading
is unsatisfactory. Fearing violence they depart one night without
notifying the Siamese, taking with them certain Portuguese held in
Siam as partial prisoners, but are pursued by the Siamese who molest
them until in the open sea. From wounds received during the week's
continual conflict both Mendoza and Maldonado die, the latter first
writing to his Order and advising them "on their consciences not to
again become instruments of a return to Camboja." Troubles in Maluco
between the Dutch and natives on the one side and the Portuguese and
Spanish on the other, render it necessary to send aid several times
from Manila. In March of 1601, a letter is written by the king of
Tidore to Morga requesting aid against Ternate and the Dutch, in
response to which supplies and reënforcements are sent in 1602.

The seventh chapter deals with events during the period of Pedro de
Acuña's administration. With his arrival in May of 1602, new life and
energy are infused in public affairs. The new governor first concerns
himself with home affairs. He constructs galleys but has to postpone
an intended visit to Pintados, in order to attend to Japan and Jolo,
and despatch the vessels to Nueva España. It is determined to open
commerce with Quanto, but to defer the matter of sending workmen to
Japan to show the Japanese how to construct ships, as that will be
detrimental. Religious of the various orders go to Japan, but are
received less warmly than Geronymo de Jesus's letter leads them to
expect. The latter pressed by Daifusama for the performance of his
promises finally asks permission to go to Manila to advocate them
in person, whence he brings back assurance of trade with Quanto. The
vessel despatched there is forced to put in at another port, but is
allowed to trade there and to return. Two vessels despatched to Nueva
España in 1602 are forced to return, putting in on the way--the first
at the Ladrones and the other at Japan. The first brings back most of
the men wrecked at the Ladrones. The second after rough treatment in
Japan finally escapes. As a result of an embassy sent to Daifusama from
this vessel chapas or writs of safety are provided to the Spaniards so
that any vessel putting into Japanese ports will be well treated in
the future. The reënforcements sent to Gallinato at Jolo serve only
to enable him to break camp and return to Manila. While Acuña is on
his way to Pintados to inspect those islands, a raiding expedition of
Moros goes as far as Luzon and Mindoro, committing many depredations,
thus compelling the governor to return, who narrowly escapes capture. A
punitive expedition of Spaniards and Indians sent in pursuit of the
Moros inflicts but slight damage. Shortly before this a fleet prepared
at Goa for the chastisement of the Malucos sets out under Andrea
Furtado de Mendoza, but is separated by storms. Some of the vessels
with the commander reach Amboina, but in so crippled and destitute
a condition that they are forced to ask help from Manila. Acuña,
although arranging independently for an expedition to Maluco, sends
a force there under Gallinato in 1603 to aid the Portuguese. Early
in that year the prelude to the Chinese troubles of that same year
is given by the coming of the Chinese mandarins to see the island of
gold, which causes many, among them the archbishop and some religious,
to counsel watchfulness. In 1603 occurs the second disastrous fire
in Manila, with a loss of over one million pesos.

The victorious Malays in Camboja are finally driven out by a
combination of patriotic mandarins, and make the brother of their old
king sovereign, whereupon relations between Camboja and the Philippines
are again established by sending there a number of religious. In May
of 1603 two ships with reënforcements arrive at Manila, bringing
certain ecclesiastical news. The aid rendered Furtado de Mendoza
by Gallinato does not prove sufficient to subdue the Ternatans, and
Gallinato returns to Manila. The present installment of Morga ends
with the courteous letter written to Acuña by Furtado de Mendoza,
in which he renders praise to Gallinato and his men. The remainder
of the book will appear in the succeeding volume.

The present volume ends with two appendices: the first an abstract
of Thomas Candish's circumnavigation; the second an abstract of Dutch
expeditions to the East Indies.


May, 1904.


By Dr. Antonio de Morga. Mexico: at the shop of Geronymo Baili,
in the year 1609; printed by Cornelio Adriano Cesar.

SOURCE: The translation is made from the Harvard copy of the original
printed work.

TRANSLATION: This is made by Alfonso de Salvio, Norman F. Hall,
and James Alexander Robertson.




Sandoual y Rojas, Duque de Cea.


Alcaldo del Crimen, de la real Audiencia de la Nueua España, Consultor
del santo Oficio de la Inquisicion.


En casa de Geronymo Balli. Año 1609.

Por Cornelio Adriano Cesar




Sandoval y Rojas, Duke of Cea.


Alcalde of Criminal Causes, in the Royal Audiencia of Nuevà España,
and Counsel for the holy Office of the Inquisition.


At the shop of Geronymo Balli, in the year 1609.

By Cornelio Adriano Cesar.


By order of the most excellent Don Luis de Velasco, viceroy of this
Nueva España, and of the most illustrious and reverend Don Fray Garcia
Guerra, archbishop of Mexico, and member of his Majesty's council,
I have examined this book of the Events in the Philipinas Islands,
written by Doctor Antonio de Morga, alcalde of the court in the royal
Audiencia of Mexico. In my judgment it is entertaining, profitable,
and worthy of publication. The author has strictly obeyed the laws of
history therein, in the excellent arrangement of his work, in which
he shows his soundness of intellect and a concise style to which
few attain, together with a true exposition of the subject matter,
as it was written by one who was so fully conversant with it, during
the years that he governed those islands. I have accordingly affixed
my signature to this instrument here at the professed house of the
Society of Jesus in Mexico, on the first of April, 1609.


Don Luys de Velasco, knight of the Order of Sanctiago,
viceroy-lieutenant of the king our sovereign, governor and
captain-general of Nueva España, and president of the royal Audiencia
and Chancillería established therein, etc. Whereas Doctor Antonio de
Morga, alcalde of criminal causes in this royal Audiencia, informed me
that he had written a book and treatise on the Events in the Filipinas
Islands, from their earliest discoveries and conquest until the end
of the past year six hundred and seven, and requested me to grant him
permission and privilege to have it printed, to the exclusion of all
others doing the same for a certain period; and whereas I entrusted
Father Juan Sanchez, of the Society of Jesus, with the inspection
of the said book, as my proxy: therefore, I hereby grant permission
to the said Doctor Antonio de Morga, so that, for the period of the
next ten years, he, or his appointee, may freely have the said book
printed by whatever printer he pleases; and I forbid any other person
to do the same within the said time and without the said permission,
under penalty of losing--and he shall lose--the type and accessories
with which the said impression shall be made, and the same shall be
applied in equal shares to his Majesty's exchequer and to the said
Doctor Antonio de Morga. Given in Mexico, on the seventh of the month
of April, one thousand six hundred and nine.


By order of the viceroy:


Don Fray Garcia Guerra, by the divine grace and that of the holy
apostolic see, archbishop of Mexico, member of his Majesty's Council,
etc. Having seen the opinion expressed by Father Juan Sanchez, of the
Society of Jesus, after he had examined the book presented to us by
Doctor Antonio de Morga, alcalde in this court and Chancillería,
entitled Events in the Filipinas Islands, their Conquest and
Conversion, for which we granted him authority; and since it is
evident, by the above-mentioned opinion, that it contains nothing
against our holy Catholic faith, or good morals, but that, on the
contrary, it is useful and profitable to all persons who may read it:
therefore we do hereby grant permission to the said Doctor Antonio de
Morga, to have the said book of the said conquest and conversion of
the Filipinas Islands printed in any of the printing establishments
of the city. Given in Mexico, on the seventh of April, one thousand
six hundred and nine.

FRAY GARCIA, archbishop of Mexico.

By order of his most illustrious Lordship, the archbishop of Mexico:


¶To Don Cristoval Gomez de Sandoval y Rojas, duke of Cea [1]

I offer your Excellency this small work, worthy of a kind reception as
much for its faithful relation as for its freedom from artifice and
adornment. Knowing my poor resources, I began it with fear; but what
encouraged me to proceed was the fact that, if what is given were
to bear an equal proportion to the receiver, there would be no one
worthy of placing his works in your Excellency's hands; and oblivion
would await the deeds achieved in these times by our Spaniards in
the discovery, conquest, and conversion of the Filipinas Islands--as
well as various fortunes which they have had from time to time in the
great kingdoms and among the pagan peoples surrounding the islands:
for, on account of the remoteness of those regions, no account has
been given to the public which purports to treat of them from their
beginnings down to the present condition. I entreat your Excellency to
accept my good will, which is laid prostrate at your feet; and should
this short treatise not afford that pleasure, which self-love--that
infirmity of the human mind--leads me to expect, will your Excellency
deal with me, as you are wont to deal with all, and read this book
and conceal its imperfections with the exercise of your toleration
and gentleness. For you are so richly endowed with these and other
virtues--which, through the divine power, cause lofty things not to
keep aloof from humble ones; and which, in addition to your own natural
greatness, have placed your Excellency in your present office for the
good of these realms, where you reward and favor the good, and correct
and check the opposite. In such rule consists the welfare of the state;
and this made the ancient philosopher, Democritus, say that reward and
punishment were true gods. In order to enjoy this happiness, we need
not crave any bygone time, but, contenting ourselves with the present,
pray that God may preserve your Excellency to us for many years.


To the reader [3]

The greatness of the monarchy of the Spanish kings is due to the zeal
and care with which they have defended, within their own hereditary
kingdoms, the holy Catholic faith taught by the Roman church, against
all enemies who oppose it, or seek by various errors to obscure its
truth which the kings have disseminated throughout the world. Thus,
by the mercy of God, they preserve their kingdoms and subjects in
the purity of the Christian religion, meriting thereby their glorious
title and renown of "Defenders of the Faith." Moreover, by the valor
of their indomitable hearts, and at the expense of their revenues and
possessions, they have ploughed the seas with Spanish fleets and men,
and discovered and conquered vast kingdoms in the most remote and
unknown parts of the world. They have led the inhabitants of these
regions to a knowledge of the true God, and into the fold of the
Christian church, in which those peoples now live, governed in civil
and political matters with peace and justice, under the shelter and
protection of the royal arm and power, which were wanting to them
when weighed down by blind tyrannies and barbarous cruelties, on
which the enemy of the human race had so long reared them for himself.

For this reason the crown and scepter of España have extended
themselves wherever the sun sheds its light, from its rising to its
setting, with the glory and splendor of their power and majesty, and
the Spanish monarchs have excelled the other princes of the earth by
having gained innumerable souls for heaven, which has been España's
principal intention and its wealth. These, together with the great
riches and treasures which España enjoys, and the famous deeds and
victories which it has won, cause the whole world to magnify and
extol its lofty name and the energy and valor of its subjects, who
in accomplishing these deeds have lavished their blood.

Having won America, the fourth part of the earth, of which the
ancients knew naught, they sailed in the course of the sun until
they discovered an archipelago of many islands in the eastern
ocean, adjacent to farther Asia, inhabited by various peoples,
and abounding in rich metals, precious stones, and pearls, and all
manner of fruit. There raising the standard of the Faith, they freed
those peoples from the yoke and power of the demon, and placed them
under the command and government of the Faith. Consequently they may
justly raise in those islands the pillars and trophies of Non plus
ultra which the famous Hercules left on the shore of the Cadiz Sea,
which were afterward cast down by the strong arm of Cárlos V, [4]
our sovereign, who surpassed Hercules in great deeds and enterprises.

After the islands had been conquered by the sovereign light of the
holy gospel which entered therein, the heathen were baptized, the
darkness of their paganism was banished, and they changed their own for
Christian names. The islands also, losing their former name, took--with
the change of religion and the baptism of their inhabitants--that
of Filipinas Islands, in recognition of the great favors received
at the hands of his Majesty Filipo the Second, our sovereign, in
whose fortunate time and reign they were conquered, protected, and
encouraged, as a work and achievement of his royal hands.

Their discovery, conquest, and conversion were not accomplished without
great expenditure, labor, and Spanish blood, with varying success,
and amid dangers: these things render the work more illustrious,
and furnish a spacious field of which historians may treat, for such
is their office. Certainly the subject matter is not scanty, and
contains both serious and pleasant elements sufficient to be worthy
of attention, so that it will not depreciate historians to treat of
Indian occurrences and wars, which those who have not experienced
undervalue. For the people of those regions are valiant and warlike
nations of Asia, who have been reared in continual warfare, both by
sea and by land, and who use artillery and other warlike implements,
which the necessity of defending themselves against great and powerful
neighboring kingdoms, taught them to use skilfully; and--although
somewhat imperfectly--they have gained dexterity and have completed
their education in the school of España, which recently brought war to
their gates--thus sharing the experience of other provinces of Europe,
who also had formerly been ignorant and careless of the use of arms.

Some painstaking persons, to whom--for lack of time and means--I have
given and delivered many papers and relations which I possessed, have
planned to write this history; and I hope that they will publish it
in better shape than the fragmentary histories which we have hitherto
received from some contemporary historians. [5]

I spent eight years in the Filipinas Islands, the best years of
my life, serving continuously as lieutenant of the governor and
captain-general, and, as soon as the royal Audiencia of Manila was
established, in the office of auditor, which I was the first to
fill. [6] And desirous that the affairs of those islands should be
known, especially those which occurred during my connection with
them, I have related these matters in a book of eight chapters,
tracing them from their origin so far as was necessary. The first
seven chapters contain an account of the discoveries, conquests, and
other events in the islands and neighboring kingdoms and provinces,
which occurred during the time of the proprietary governors [7]
until the death of Don Pedro de Acuña. The eighth and last chapter
contains a brief summary and account of the nature of these regions,
their inhabitants, the manner of governing and converting them, and
other details; moreover, it treats of the acquaintance, dealings,
and intercourse which they maintain with their neighboring islands and
pagan communities. As fearful am I for the imperfections which will be
found in this work, as I am persuaded that they deserve forgiveness,
since my design and chief intent has been to give each one his due and
to present the truth without hatred or flattery, which has been injured
in some current narratives. [8] The latter is a fault to be severely
reproved in those who relate the deeds of others, inasmuch as it was
prohibited by a penal law which Cato and Marcius, tribunes of the
Roman people, established for those who, in relating their own deeds,
overstepped the truth--although this seemed less worthy of punishment,
on account of the self-love which intervenes in such a case.

There will not be wanting some person who will point out my oversights,
but I shall have already answered him by confessing them; and should
this not suffice to silence him, I shall stop up my ears like another
Ulysses, and--considering the haste with which I have written--endure
this inconvenience and difficulty, desiring only to please and serve
whomsoever may read it; and this will be sufficient to protect me
from greater dangers.

Notice is given that

In reading this history, one may find certain words--names of
provinces, towns, magistrates, arms, and vessels--which it has seemed
more suitable to write by their usual names in those regions. In
the last chapter, which contains an account of the islands and their
peculiarities, these words will be explained and defined.

¶ Of the first discoveries of the eastern islands; the voyage thither
by Adelantado Miguel Lopez de Legazpi; the conquest and pacification of
the Filipinas during his governorship, and that of Guido de Labazarris,
who afterward held the office.


According to ancient and modern cosmographers, that part of the world
called Asia has adjacent to it a multitude of greater and lesser
islands, inhabited by various nations and peoples, and as rich in
precious stones, gold, silver, and other minerals, as they abound in
fruit and grain, flocks, and animals. Some of the islands yield all
kinds of spices which are carried away and distributed throughout
the world. These islands are commonly designated in their books,
descriptions, and sea-charts, as the great archipelago of San Lazaro,
and are located in the eastern ocean. Among the most famous of them
are the islands of Maluco, Céleves, Tendaya, Luzon, Mindanao, and
Borneo, which are now called the Filipinas.

When Pope Alexander the Sixth divided the conquests of the new world
between the kings of Castilla and of Portugal, the kings agreed to
make the division by means of a line drawn across the world by the
cosmographers, so that they might continue their discoveries and
conquests, one toward the west and the other toward the east, and
pacify whatever regions each might gain within his own demarcation.

After the crown of Portugal had conquered the city of Malaca, on
the mainland of Asia, in the kingdom of Jor [Johore]--called by
the ancients Aurea Chersonesus--a Portuguese fleet, in the year one
thousand five hundred and eleven, on hearing of neighboring islands
and especially of those of Maluco and Banda, where cloves and nutmegs
are gathered, went to discover them. After touching at Banda, they
went to Terrenate, one of the islands of Maluco, at the invitation
of its king, to defend him against his neighbor, the king of Tidore,
with whom he was at war. This was the beginning of the Portuguese
settlement in Maluco.

Francisco Serrano, who after this discovery returned to Malaca, and
thence went to India with the purpose of going to Portugal to give
an account of the discovery, died before he had accomplished this
voyage, but not, however, without having communicated in letters to
his friend, Fernando de Magallanes, what he had seen; [9] for they
had been together at the taking of Malaca, although the latter was
then in Portugal. From this relation, Magallanes learned whatever
was necessary for the discovery and navigation of these islands. [10]

At this time, Magallanes, who for certain reasons had entered the
service of the king of Castilla, told the emperor Cárlos V, our
sovereign, that the islands of Maluco fell within the demarcation of
the latter's crown of Castilla, and that their conquest belonged to
him, according to the concessions made by Pope Alexander; moreover,
he offered to make the expedition and navigation to the islands in
the emperor's name, by sailing through that part of the demarcation
belonging to Castilla, and by availing himself of a famous astrologer
and cosmographer, named Ruyfarelo [sic], whom he had with him.

The emperor, moved by the importance of the undertaking, entrusted
Fernando de Magallanes with this expedition and discovery, supplying
him with the necessary ships and provisions therefor. Thus equipped, he
set sail and discovered the strait to which he gave his name. Through
this he entered the southern sea, and sailed to the islands of Tendaya
and Sebu, where he was killed by the natives of Matan, which is one of
these islands. His ships proceeded to Maluco, where the sailors fell
into disputes and contentions with the Portuguese then stationed in the
island of Terrenate. Finally, not being able to maintain themselves
there, the Castilians left Maluco in a ship, called the "Victoria,"
the only remaining vessel of their fleet. As leader and captain,
they chose Juan Sebastian del Caño, who made the voyage to Castilla
by way of India, where he arrived with but few men, and informed his
Majesty of the discovery of the great archipelago, and of his voyage.

The same enterprise was attempted at other times, and was carried
out by Juan Sebastian del Caño, Comendador Loaisa, the Saoneses,
and the bishop of Plasencia. [11] But these did not bear the fruits
expected, on account of the hardships and perils of so long a voyage,
and the opposition received by those who reached Maluco, from the
Portuguese there.

After all these events, as it was thought that this discovery might
be made quicker and better by way of Nueva España, in the year one
thousand five hundred and forty-five, [12] a fleet, under command of
Rui Lopez de Villalobos, was sent by that route. They reached Maluco
by way of Sebu, where they quarreled with the Portuguese, and suffered
misfortunes and hardships, so that they were unable to effect the
desired end; nor could the fleet return to Nueva España whence it
had sailed, but was destroyed. Some of the surviving Castilians left
Maluco by way of Portuguese India and returned to Castilla. There they
related the occurrences of their voyage, and the quality and nature
of the islands of Maluco and of the other islands that they had seen.

Afterward as King Don Felipe II, our sovereign, considered it
inadvisable for him to desist from that same enterprise, and being
informed by Don Luys de Velasco, viceroy of Nueva España, and by Fray
Andres de Urdaneta of the Augustinian order--who had been in Maluco
with the fleet of Comendador Loaisa, while a layman--that this voyage
might be made better and quicker by way of Nueva Españia, he entrusted
the expedition to the viceroy. Fray Andres de Urdaneta left the court
for Nueva Españia, [13] for, as he was so experienced and excellent
a cosmographer, he offered to go with the fleet and to discover the
return voyage. The viceroy equipped a fleet and its crew with the
most necessary things in Puerto de la Navidad, in the southern sea,
under charge of a worthy and reliable man, Miguel Lopez de Legazpi,
a citizen of Mexico and a native of the province of Guipuzcoa. On
account of the viceroy's death, the Audiencia which was governing in
his place completed arrangements for the despatching of Legazpi, and
gave him instructions as to his destination, with orders not to open
them until three hundred leguas at sea; for there were differences
among members of the fleet, some saying that they would better go
to Nueva Guinea, others to the Luzones, and others to Maluco. Miguel
Lopez de Legazpi left Puerto de la Navidad in the year one thousand
five hundred and sixty-four, with five ships and five hundred men,
accompanied by Fray Andres de Urdaneta and four other religious of
the Order of St. Augustine. After sailing westward for several days,
he opened his instructions, and found that he was ordered to go to
the islands of Luzones and there endeavor to pacify them and reduce
them to the obedience of his Majesty, and to make them accept the
holy Catholic faith. [14] He continued his voyage until reaching the
island of Sebu, where he anchored, induced by the convenience of a
good port and by the nature of the land. At first he was received
peacefully by the natives and by their chief Tupas; but later they
tried to kill him and his companions, for the Spaniards having seized
their provisions, the natives took up arms against the latter; but the
opposite to their expectations occurred, for the Spaniards conquered
and subdued them. Seeing what had happened in Sebu, the natives of
other neighboring islands came peacefully before the adelantado,
rendered him homage, and supplied his camp with a few provisions. The
first of the Spanish settlements was made in that port, and was called
the city of Sanctisimo Nombre de Jesus [Most holy name of Jesus],
[15] because a carved image of Jesus had been found in one of the
houses of the natives when the Spaniards conquered the latter, which
was believed to have been left there by the fleet of Magallanes. The
natives held the image in great reverence, and it wrought miracles
for them in times of need. The Spaniards placed it in the monastery
of St. Augustine, in that city.

That same year the adelantado despatched the flagship of his fleet
to Nueva España, with the relation and news of what had happened
during the voyage, and of the settlement in Sebu. He requested men
and supplies in order to continue the pacification of the other
islands. Fray Andres de Urdaneta and his associate, Fray Andres de
Aguirre, sailed in the vessel.

One of the ships which left Puerto de la Navidad in company with the
fleet and under command of Don Alonso de Arellano, carried as pilot
one Lope Martin, a mulatto and a good sailor, although a turbulent
fellow. When the ship neared the islands, it left the fleet and
went among them ahead of the other vessels. There they bartered
for provisions, and, without awaiting the adelantado, returned to
Nueva España by a northerly course--either because of their slight
gratification at having made the voyage to the islands, or to gain
the reward for having discovered the return passage. They soon
arrived and declared that they had seen the islands and discovered
the return voyage. They alleged various reasons for their coming,
but brought no message from the adelantado, or news of what had
happened to him. Don Alonso de Arellano was well received by the
Audiencia which was governing, where the rewarding of him and
his pilot was considered. This would have been done, had not the
adelantado's flagship arrived during this time, after having made
the same voyage. It brought an authentic account of events, of the
actual state of affairs, and of the settlement of Sebu. Moreover, they
related that Don Alonso de Arellano, without receiving any orders,
and without any necessity for it, had preceded the fleet with his
ship at the entrance of the islands, and was seen no more. They said
also that, besides those islands which had peacefully submitted to
his Majesty, there were many others, large and rich, well-inhabited,
and abounding in food and gold. They hoped to pacify and reduce
those islands with the reënforcements requested. They said that the
adelantado had named all the islands Filipinas, [16] in honor of his
Majesty. Reënforcements were immediately sent to the adelantado,
and have been sent every year, as necessity has demanded, so that
the land has been conquered and maintained.

The adelantado heard that there were other islands near Sebu,
abounding in provisions, and accordingly sent some Spaniards thither
to reduce the natives to peace, and bring back rice for the camp. Thus
he relieved his necessity and maintained himself as well as possible
until, having gone to the island of Panay, he sent Martin de Goiti, his
master-of-camp, and other captains thence to the island of Luzon with
what men he deemed sufficient, and under the guidance of a native chief
of the latter island, called Maomat, to try to pacify it and reduce it
to the obedience of his Majesty. When they reached the bay of Manila,
they found its settlement on the seashore, near a large river, and
under the rule and protection of a chief called Rajamora. Opposite,
on the other side of the river, was another large settlement named
Tondo, which was likewise held by another chief named Rajamatanda. [17]
These settlements were fortified with palm-trees and stout arigues [18]
filled in with earth, and very many bronze culverins and other pieces
of larger bore. Martin de Goiti, having begun to treat with the chiefs
and their people concerning the peace and submission which he demanded,
found it necessary to come to blows with them. The Spaniards entered
the land by force of arms, and took it, together with the forts and
artillery, on the day of St. Potenciana, May nineteen, one thousand
five hundred and seventy-one. [19] Upon this the natives and their
chiefs made peace and rendered homage; and many others of the same
island of Luzon did the same. [20]

When the news of the taking of Manila and of the Spanish settlement
there reached Panay, Adelantado Legazpi set in order the affairs of
Sebu and other islands which he had subdued, entrusted their natives
to the most reliable soldiers, and having taken the most necessary
precautions for the government of those provinces, which are commonly
called Bicayas de los Pintados, [21] because the natives of them have
all their bodies marked with fire, went to Manila with the remainder
of his men. He was well received there, and established afresh with
the natives and their chiefs the peace, alliance, and homage, which
had been given. On the very site of Manila, of which Rajamora made a
donation to the Spaniards for their settlement, the adelantado founded
his town and colony, on account of its strength and its situation
in a well-provisioned district, and in the midst of all the other
islands. He left it its name of Manila which it had received from
the natives. [22] Taking sufficient land for the city, the governor
established therein his seat and residence, and fortified it with
special care. He paid more attention to the above, in order to make
this new settlement the seat of government, than to the temperature,
and width of the site, which is hot and narrow from having the river
on one side of the city and the bay on the other, while at the back are
to be found large swamps and marshes, which make the place very strong.

From this post he continued to prosecute the pacification of the
other provinces of this great island of Luzon and of surrounding
districts. Some submitted voluntarily; others were conquered by force
of arms or by the efforts of the religious, who have sown the good
seed of the holy gospel therein. Various of them have labored valiantly
in this, not only in the time and administration of Adelantado Miguel
Lopez de Legazpi, but also in that of the governors that have succeeded
him. The land was apportioned among its conquerors and colonizers. The
capitals of provinces, the ports, and the settlements of cities and
towns which had been founded, and other special encomiendas, were
assigned to the royal crown, for the necessities that arise and the
expenses of the royal exchequer. The affairs of government and the
conversion of the natives were treated as was necessary. Ships were
provided for the annual voyage to Nueva España, which return with the
usual supplies. Thus the condition of the Filipinas Islands has reached
its present known height in both spiritual and temporal matters.

Adelantado Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, as above-said, discovered the
islands, colonized them, and made a good beginning in the work of
pacification and subjugation. He founded the city of Sanctisimo Nombre
de Jesus in the provinces of Pintados, and then the city of Manila
in the island of Luzon. In this island he conquered the province
of Ylocos, in whose settlement and port called Vigan, he founded a
Spanish colony, to which he gave the name of Villa Fernandina. [23]
He also pacified the province of Pangasinan and the island of Mindoro,
fixed the amount of tribute that the natives were to pay throughout the
islands, [24] and made many ordinances concerning their government and
conversion, until his death in the year one thousand five hundred and
seventy-four, at Manila, where his body was buried in the monastery
of St. Augustine. [25]

At his death, there was found among his papers a sealed despatch from
the Audiencia of Mexico, which was governing when the fleet left
Nueva Españia, appointing a successor to the government, in case
of the death of the adelantado. By virtue of this despatch, Guido
de Labazarris, formerly a royal official, took the office and was
obeyed. He continued the conversion and pacification of the islands
with great wisdom, valor, and system, and governed them.

During his term the pirate Limahon came from China, and attacked Manila
with a fleet of seventy large war-ships and many soldiers. He entered
the city, and, after killing the master-of-camp, Martin de Goiti,
with other Spaniards who were at his house, marched against the fort,
in which the Spaniards, who were but few, had taken refuge, with
the intention of seizing and subjecting the country. The Spaniards,
reinforced from Vigan by Captain Joan de Salzedo and his soldiers--for
Salzedo saw this pirate pass his coasts, and brought the reinforcement
to Manila--defended themselves so bravely that, after having killed
many of Limahon's men, they forced him to reembark, to leave the bay
in flight, and to take refuge in Pangasinan River. The Spaniards went
thither in search of him and burned his fleet. [26] For many days they
besieged this pirate on land, but he, taking flight in small boats
that he made there secretly, put to sea and abandoned the islands.

During the government of this same Guido de Labazarris, trade and
commerce were established between Great China and Manila. Merchant
ships came every year and the governor received them kindly, and as
a consequence commerce has been growing ever since.

This same governor apportioned all the pacified land in the island of
Luzon and surrounding islands, to the conquerors and settlers there. He
assigned to himself the towns of Betis and Lubao in the province of
Pampanga, besides others of some importance. The succeeding government
dispossessed him of these towns; but afterward his Majesty, on account
of his good services, granted them all to him, and he enjoyed them,
together with the office of master-of-camp of the islands, as long
as he lived.

¶The administration of Doctor Francisco de Sande, and the events of
the Filipinas Islands during his term.


When the news of the entrance and conquest of the Filipinas Islands
by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, and of his death, reached Españia, his
Majesty appointed as governor and captain-general of the islands,
Doctor Francisco de Sande, a native of Caceres, and alcalde of the
Audiencia of Mexico. The latter journeyed thither, and took over his
government in the year one thousand five hundred and seventy-five.

During this administration, the pacification of the islands was
continued, especially that of the province of Camarines, by Captain
Pedro Chaves, who often came to blows with the natives, until he
conquered them and received their submission. A Spanish colony
was founded there which was called the city of Caceres. Among other
enterprises, the governor made in person the expedition to the island
of Borneo with a fleet of galleys and frigates. [27] With these he
attacked and captured the enemy's fleet, which had come out to meet
him. He captured also the principal settlement, where the king of the
island had his house and residence, but after a few days he abandoned
it and returned to Manila, on account of sickness among the crews,
and his inability to support and care for the Spaniards in that
island. On the way back, and by his orders, Captain Estevan Rodriguez
de Figueroa entered the island of Jólo; he came to blows with the
natives and their chief, whom he conquered, and the latter rendered
him acknowledgment and submission in the name of his Majesty. Thence
he went to the island of Mindanao which he explored, reconnoitering
its river and chief settlements. On his way he reduced other towns and
natives of the same island, who had been pacified, to friendship and
alliance with the Spaniards. The governor despatched the ship "San
Juanillo" to Nueva España, under command of Captain Juan de Ribera,
but it was lost at sea and never heard of again.

Doctor Sande remained until Don Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa came from
Españia as the new governor and captain-general. After his residencia
the doctor returned to Nueva España to fill the office of auditor
of Mexico.

¶ Of the administration of Don Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa, and of
Diego Ronquillo, who filled the office because of the former's death.


Because of the many accounts that had reached the court of his
Majesty concerning the affairs of the Filipinas, and because of their
need of being supplied with settlers and soldiers to pacify them,
an arrangement was made with Don Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa, a
native of Arevalo, and chief alguacil of the Audiencia of Mexico,
who was residing at court, so that it might be done better and at
less cost to the royal exchequer. By this arrangement he was to be
governor of the Filipinas for life and was to take six hundred married
and single men from the kingdoms of Castilla to the Filipinas. His
Majesty granted him certain assistance and facilities for this purpose,
together with other favors as a reward for this service.

Don Gonzalo prepared for the voyage, raised his people, and embarked
them in the port of San Lucas Barremeda, but, as the fleet left the
bar, one of his ships was wrecked. He returned in order to repair his
losses, and, although he took less than at first, he made his journey
to the mainland, and at Panama, embarked his people in the South Sea,
and set sail for the Filipinas, where he arrived and took over the
government, in the year one thousand five hundred and eighty.

Don Gonzalo Ronquillo founded a Spanish town in the island of Panay,
in Oton, which he named Arevalo. During his term, the trade with
the Chinese increased, and he built a market-place and Parián for
them within the city, where the Chinese could bring and sell their
merchandise. He tried to discover a return passage from the islands
to Nueva España, by way of the south, for which purpose he sent his
cousin, Captain Don Juan Ronquillo del Castillo. The latter could not
effect this, for after sailing for some time, until finding himself
near Nueva Guinea, he could go no farther, on account of many severe
storms, and returned to the Filipinas. In like manner, Don Gonzalo sent
another ship, under command of Don Gonzalo Ronquillo de Vallesteros,
to Peru, with some merchandise, in order to obtain certain goods from
those provinces which he said that the Filipinas needed. This vessel
returned from Peru after the death of the governor. The latter imposed
the two per cent duty on the merchandise exported to Nueva España,
and the three per cent duty on the goods imported by the Chinese to
the Filipinas. Although he was censured for having done this without
his Majesty's orders, these duties remained in force, and continued
to be imposed thenceforward.

During this same term, as his Majesty had succeeded to the kingdoms
of Portugal, and had ordered the governor of Manila to maintain
good relations with the chief captain of the fortress of the island
of Tidore, in Maluco, and to assist him when necessary, he sent a
fleet and soldiers thither from Manila, under command of Captain Don
Juan Ronquillo del Castillo. This he did at the request of Diego de
Azambuja, chief captain of Tidore, for the expedition and conquest
of the island of Terrenate. But after reaching Maluco, the expedition
did not succeed in its object. [28] Thenceforward supplies of men and
provisions continued to be sent from the Filipinas to the fortress
of Tidore.

During this same administration, the province of Cagayan in the island
of Luzon, opposite China, was first pacified [29] by Captain Joan
Pablos de Carrion, who founded there a Spanish colony, which he named
Nueva Segovia. He also drove a Japanese pirate [30] from that place,
who had seized the port with some ships, and fortified himself there.

A few days after Don Gonzalo Ronquillo had entered into the
government, he sent Captain Gabriel de Ribera with a small fleet,
consisting of one galley and several frigates, to explore the coast
and settlements of the island of Borneo, with orders to proceed
thence to the kingdom of Patan on the mainland, where pepper is
produced. The captain having coasted along and reconnoitered Borneo,
returned with his fleet to Manila, on account of the advanced season
and lack of provisions. Thence the governor sent him to España,
with authority from himself and from the islands, to confer with
his Majesty upon several matters that he desired to see carried out,
and upon others which would prove advantageous to the islands. [31]
The captain found his Majesty in Portugal, gave him a few pieces of
gold and other curiosities which he had brought for that purpose,
and stated the matters of which he had come to treat. The result was
that his Majesty, among other favors, appointed him marshal of Bonbon,
for his hardships during this voyage, and the proper resolution was
made in the matters of which he had come to treat.

It was during the administration of Don Gonzalo Ronquillo, that the
first bishop of the Filipinas was appointed, in the person of Don Fray
Domingo de Salazar, of the Dominican order, a man of great learning and
piety. As soon as he arrived in the islands, he took upon himself the
management and jurisdiction of ecclesiastical affairs, which were at
first in charge of the Augustinian friars who had come at the time of
the conquest, and afterwards of the discalced Franciscan religious,
who had arrived at the time of the conversion. The bishop erected his
cathedral in the city of Manila, by apostolic bulls, with prebends paid
by the royal exchequer, until there should be tithes and ecclesiastical
revenues to maintain themselves. Moreover, he provided whatever else
was necessary for the service and decoration of the church, and for
the divine worship which is celebrated there with great solemnity
and display. Don Fray Domingo de Salazar took Antonio Sedeño and
Alonso Sanchez, both priests and grave members of the Society of
Jesus, with him. They were the first to establish that order in the
Filipinas, which, since that time, has been steadily growing, to the
great profit and fruit of the teaching and conversion of the natives,
consolation of the Spaniards, and the education and teaching of their
children in the studies which they pursue.

Don Gonzalo Ronquillo was in such poor health from the day on which
he entered upon his administration, that he died in the year one
thousand five hundred and eighty-three, and his body was buried in
the monastery of St. Augustine in Manila.

His kinsman, Diego Ronquillo, by virtue of his appointment through
a decree of his Majesty, succeeded him in the governorship; this man
continued what Don Gonzalo had commenced, especially in the assistance
for Maluco and pacification for other islands.

During the same term of Diego Ronquillo, a fire broke out in the city
of Manila, which started at midday in the church of the convent of
St. Augustine, while the doors of the church were closed. The fire
increased so rapidly that all the city was burned in a few hours,
as it was built of wood. There was great loss of goods and property,
and some persons were in danger. The city was rebuilt with great
difficulty and labor, leaving the Spaniards very poor and needy. [32]

The main result of the matters treated at court by Mariscal Gabriel
de Ribera was (although at that time the death of Governor Don
Gonzalo Ronquillo was unknown) to order the establishment of a
royal Audiencia in the city of Manila, whose president was to be
governor and captain-general of all the Filipinas. In view of this,
the necessary instructions were issued, and the presidency given to
Doctor Sanctiago de Vera, alcalde of the Audiencia of Mexico, and a
native of the town of Alcala de Henares. He went to the islands with
the usual reënforcements from Nueva España, taking with him the royal
seal of the Audiencia, the auditors whom his Majesty was sending, the
fiscal, and other officials and assistants of the said Audiencia. The
auditors and fiscal were Licentiates Melchior de Avalos, Pedro de
Rojas, and Gaspar de Ayala--[the latter] as fiscal. At the end of
two years, Don Antonio de Ribera went as third auditor.

¶ Of the administration of Doctor Sanctiago de Vera, and of the
establishment of the Manila Audiencia, and until its suppression;
and of events during his term.


The president and auditors arrived at the Filipinas in the month of
May, in the year 1584, while Diego Ronquillo was governing. Doctor
Sanctiago de Vera entered upon his office, and immediately established
the Audiencia. The royal seal was received and deposited with all
possible solemnity and festivity. Then they began to attend to the
affairs both of justice and of war and government, to the great profit
of the country. At this time new reënforcements were sent to Maluco
for the conquests that the chief captain of Tidore intended to make
of the island of Terrenate. Captain Pedro Sarmiento [33] went from
Manila for this purpose, and on another occasion the captain and
sargento-mayor, Juan de Moron; [34] but neither of these expeditions
met with the desired result.

President Sanctiago de Vera also continued the pacification of
several provinces of the islands, and did many things, which
proved advantageous in every respect. He discovered a rebellion
and insurrection which the native chiefs of Manila and Pampanga had
planned against the Spaniards, and justice was done the guilty. [35]
He built with stone the fortress of Nuestra Señora de Guia [Our Lady
of Guidance], within the city of Manila on the land side, and for
its defense he caused some artillery to be founded by an old Indian,
called Pandapira, a native of the province of Panpanga. The latter
and his sons rendered this service for many years afterward, until
their deaths.

During the administration of President Sanctiago de Vera, the
Englishman Thomas Escander, [36] entered the South Sea through
the Strait of Magallanes; on the coast of Nueva España, close to
California, he had captured the ship "Santa Ana," which was coming
from the Filipinas laden with a quantity of gold and merchandise of
great value. Thence he proceeded to the Filipinas; entering through
the province of Pintados, he came in sight of the town of Arevalo and
of the shipyard where a galleon was being built for the navigation
of the Nueva España line. Wishing to burn this vessel, he made the
attempt, but he was resisted by Manuel Lorenzo de Lemos, who was
supervising its construction. The Englishman passed on, and went
to India, whence he took his course to Inglaterra, having followed
the same route which the Englishman Francisco Draque [Francis Drake]
[37] had taken several years before. The latter had, in like manner,
passed through the Strait of Magallanes to the Peruvian coast, where
he made many prizes.

At this time, the Audiencia and the bishop thought it advisable
that some person of sufficient and satisfactory qualities should be
sent to España, to the court of his Majesty, to give a thorough and
detailed account of the state of affairs in the Filipinas Islands,
and to request that some necessary measures might be taken concerning
them. The court was especially to be informed that, for the time being,
the Audiencia could be dispensed with, for it was a heavy burden to
all estates, because of the newness of the country. The person of
Father Alonso Sanches, of the Society of Jesus, a learned man, and one
well informed concerning the country, and very active in business, was
chosen for this purpose. Instructions were given him, and authority to
act for all estates, religious orders, and communities, as to what he
was to treat and request in España, and at the court of his Holiness
in Roma, where he was also to go. [38] This father reached Madrid,
and after having conferred with his Majesty several times respecting
those things of which he thought fit to treat and to make requests,
went to Roma, where he introduced himself as the ambassador of all
the estates of the Filipinas, and on their behalf he kissed the foot,
and visited the pontiffs who ruled during that time, after the death
of Sixtus the Fifth. Having received from them favors and indulgences
with many relics, bulls, and letters for the Filipinas, he returned to
España, where again he solicited a decision on the business which he
had left under discussion when he went to Roma. His Majesty listened
to the messages that he brought from the pontiffs, and lent him
a favorable ear concerning the affairs of the islands. In private
audiences the father made the king understand his requests, and decide
them to his own satisfaction. But as soon as the despatches reached
the Filipinas, much of their contents appeared outside the intention
and expectation of both bishop and Audiencia, and the city, citizens,
and encomenderos. They appeared even detrimental to the inhabitants
of the islands, and therefore they expressed their displeasure toward
Father Alonso Sanches, who was still in España. The father negotiated
for the suppression of the Audiencia of Manila, and the appointment
of a new governor; and in begging such an one, the same father,
because of his friendly relations with him, proposed one Gomez Perez
Dasmariñas, who had been corregidor of Leon and later of Murcia, and
who was at that time in the court, and corregidor-elect of Logroño
and Calahorra. His Majesty appointed him governor and captain-general
of the Filipinas, and increased the annual salary of his office to ten
thousand Castilian ducados. Moreover, he made him a knight of the Order
of Sanctiago, and gave him a large sum of money with which to meet the
expenses of the voyage. He was provided with the necessary despatches,
both for the exercise of his office, and for the suppression of the
Audiencia of Manila, and the establishment of a camp of four hundred
paid soldiers with their officers, at his Majesty's expense, for the
garrison and defense of the land. His Majesty ordered him to sail
immediately for Nueva España in the ships on which Viceroy Don Luis de
Velasco sailed in the year one thousand five hundred and eighty-nine,
who was going to govern that country.

Gomez Perez Dasmariñas left Mexico as soon as possible, and with what
ships, soldiers, and captains he needed, sailed for the Filipinas,
where he arrived in the month of May, in the year one thousand five
hundred and ninety.

¶ Of the administration of Gomez Perez Dasmariñas, and of Licentiate
Pedro de Rojas, who was elected by the city of Manila to act as
governor, on account of the former's death, until Don Luis Dasmariñas
was received as the successor of Gomez Perez, his father.


As soon as Gomez Perez Dasmariñas reached the Filipinas, he was
received as governor with universal acclaim. He suppressed the
Audiencia, and the residencias of its president, auditors, fiscal,
and other officials were taken by Licentiate Herver del Coral, whom
Viceroy Don Luys de Velasco had sent for that purpose, by virtue of a
royal decree received to that effect. The new governor inaugurated his
rule by establishing the paid garrison, and by executing, with great
enthusiasm and zeal, many and various things, for which he possessed
royal orders and instructions, not shrinking from any kind of labor,
or taking any care of himself. His first labor was the walling of the
city, to which he attended so assiduously, that it was almost completed
before his death. [39] He also built a cavalier on the promontory of
Manila where the old wooden fort, which he called Sanctiago, formerly
stood, and fortified it with some artillery. He razed to the ground
the fort of Nuestra Señora de Guia, which his predecessor had built; he
built of stone the cathedral of Manila, and encouraged the inhabitants
of the city who had shortly before begun to build, to persevere in
building their houses of stone, a work which the bishop was the first
to begin in the building of his house. During his term he increased
trade with China, and regulated better the navigation of Nueva España,
and the despatch of vessels in that line. He built some galleys for
the defense of the coast, pacified the Zambales, who had revolted,
and ordered his son Don Luys Dasmariñas, of the habit of Alcantara,
to make an incursion with troops from Manila into the interior of the
island of Luzon, [40] by crossing the river Ytui and other provinces
not yet explored or seen by Spaniards, until he arrived at Cagayan. He
built also an artillery foundry in Manila, where, for want of expert
founders, but few large pieces were turned out.

In the first year of his administration, he sent the president and
auditors of the suppressed Audiencia to España. Licentiate Pedro de
Rojas, the senior auditor, remained with the governor by order of
his Majesty, as lieutenant-assessor in matters of justice, until some
years later appointed alcalde in Mexico.

During Gomez Perez's administration, the relations and peace existing
between the Japanese and the Spaniards of the Filipinas began to
become strained; for hitherto Japanese vessels had gone from the port
of Nangasaqui to Manila for some years, laden with their flour and
other goods, where they had been kindly received, and despatched. But
Taicosama, [41] lord of all Xapon, was incited through the efforts of
Farandaquiemon--a Japanese of low extraction, one of those who came to
Manila--to write in a barbarous and arrogant manner to the governor,
demanding submission and tribute, and threatening to come with a fleet
and troops to lay waste the country. But, between demands and replies,
several years were spent, until at last Taico died. [42]

While Xapon was causing the governor some anxiety, the king of Camboja
sent him an embassy by the Portuguese Diego Belloso, who brought
a present of two elephants and offers of friendship and trade with
his kingdom, and implored aid against Sian--which was threatening
Camboja. The governor answered the king, and sent him a horse, with
a few emeralds and other objects, but postponed until later what
related to aid, and thanked him for his friendship. This was the
origin of the events and the expeditions made later from Manila to
the kingdoms of Sian and Camboja, on the mainland of Asia.

From the moment that Gomez Perez received his charge in España, he had
cherished the desire to lead an expedition from Manila to conquer the
fort of Terrenate in Maluco, on account of the great importance of this
enterprise, and its outcome, in which no success had been attained on
other occasions. He was constantly making necessary arrangements for
undertaking this expedition, but so secretly that he declared it to no
one, until, in the year ninety-three, seeing that the preparations for
his intention appeared sufficient, he declared his purpose, and made
ready to set out in person, with more than nine hundred Spaniards and
two hundred sail, counting galleys, galliots, frigates, vireys, and
other craft. He left the war affairs of Manila and of the islands, with
a few troops--although insufficient for the city's defense--in charge
of Diego Ronquillo, his master-of-camp; and those of administration
and justice to Licentiate Pedro de Rojas. He also sent his son, Don
Luys Dasmariñas, forward with the rest of the fleet, as his lieutenant
in the office of captain-general, to the provinces of Pintados, whence
they were to sail; while he himself remained in Manila making his final
preparations and arming a galley of twenty-eight benches, in which he
was to sail. This galley he manned with good Chinese rowers, with pay,
[43] whom, in order to win their good will, he would not allow to be
chained, and even winked at their carrying certain weapons. About
forty Spaniards embarked on the galley, and the galley itself was
accompanied by a few frigates and smaller vessels, in which private
individuals embarked. The governor sailed from the port of Cabit,
in the month of October, one thousand five hundred and ninety-three,
for the provinces of Pintados, where they were to join the fleet which
was awaiting them there, and to proceed to Maluco. In the afternoon of
the second day of the voyage, they reached the island of Caça, [44]
twenty-four leguas from Manila, and close to the coast of the same
island of Luzon, at a place called Punta del Açufre [Sulphur Point],
where there is a strong head wind. The galley tried to round this
point by rowing, but being unable to make any headway until the wind
should drop, they anchored and spread an awning, and stayed there that
night. Some of the vessels sailing with the galley went in closer to
the shore in sight of the galley, and awaited it there.

The governor and those who accompanied him passed the night playing
on the poop, until the end of the first watch. After the governor had
gone into his cabin to rest, the other Spaniards went also to their
quarters [45] for the same purpose, leaving the usual guards in the
midship gangway, and at the bow and stern. The Chinese rowers, who
had three days before that conspired to seize the galley whenever a
favorable opportunity presented itself--in order to avoid the labor
of rowing on this expedition, and their covetousness of the money,
jewels, and other articles of value aboard the vessel--thought that
they should not lose their opportunity. Having provided candles, and
white shirts with which to clothe themselves, and appointed chiefs
for its execution, they carried out their plan that same night, in
the last watch before dawn, when they perceived that the Spaniards
were asleep. At a signal which one of them gave they all at the same
time put on their shirts, lit their candles, and catan [46] in hand,
attacked the guards and the men who slept in the quarters [ballesteras]
and in the wales, and wounding and killing them, they seized the
galley. A few of the Spaniards escaped, some by swimming ashore,
others by means of the galley's tender, which was at the stern. When
the governor heard the noise from his cabin, thinking that the galley
was dragging and that the crew were lowering the awning and taking to
the oars, he hurried carelessly out bareheaded through the hatchway of
the cabin. Several Chinese were awaiting him there and split his head
with a catan. Thus wounded he fell down the stairs into his cabin, and
the two servants whom he kept there, carried him to his bed, where he
immediately died. The servants met the same fate from the stabs given
them through the hatch. The only surviving Spaniards in the galley
were Juan de Cuellar, the governor's secretary, and Father Montilla of
the Franciscan order, who were sleeping in the cabin amidships, and
who remained there without coming out; nor did the Chinese, thinking
that there were more Spaniards, dare to go in until next day, when
they took the two men out and later put them ashore on the coast of
Ylocos, in the same island of Luzon, in order that the natives might
allow them to take water on shore, which they badly needed.

Although the Spaniards who were in the other vessels, close to the
land, perceived the lights and heard the noise made in the galley
from their ships, they thought that some work was being done; and when
shortly afterward, they learned what was happening from those who had
escaped by swimming, they could render no assistance and kept still,
as everything was lost, and they were few and not in sufficient force
therefor. They waited for the morning, and when it began to dawn,
they saw that the galley had already set its bastard, and was sailing,
wind astern toward China, and they were unable to pursue it.

The galley sailed with a favorable wind all along the coast of
the island until leaving it. It took some water at Ylocos, where
the secretary and the religious were abandoned. The Chinese tried
to make for China, but not being able to fetch it, they ported in
the kingdom of Cochinchina, where the king of Tunquin seized their
cargo and two large pieces of artillery which were intended for the
expedition of Maluco, the royal standard, and all the jewels, money,
and articles of value; the galley he left to drift ashore, and the
Chinese dispersed and fled to different provinces. Governor Gomez Perez
met this unfortunate death, whereupon the expedition and enterprise
to Maluco, which the governor had undertaken, ceased also. Thus ended
his administration, after he had ruled somewhat more than three years.

Among other despatches which Gomez Perez Dasmariñas brought from España
there was an order from his Majesty which authorized him to appoint
the person whom he thought best to succeed him in case of death,
until such time as his Majesty should appoint his successor. He
showed this order to several of the most important persons of the
island, giving each one to understand that he would be appointed,
especially to Captain Estevan Rodriguez de Figueroa, an inhabitant
of Pintados, a rich man of merit, and one of the first conquerors
of the land. To him the governor showed an appointment drawn in his
favor. He made use of the captain on all occasions and had him go with
himself to Maluco. The news of the seizure of the galley was soon
known in Manila. The citizens and soldiers that had remained there,
assembled at the house of Licentiate Pedro de Rojas, to discuss
advisable measures. First of all they elected the latter governor
and captain-general. Then they sent Captain Don Juan Ronquillo del
Castillo and other captains with two frigates (for there were no other
vessels) in pursuit of the galley, a fruitless attempt, for the galley
was nowhere to be seen. The new governor also sent a message to Don
Luis Dasmariñas and to the army and fleet who were awaiting Gomez
Perez in Pintados, informing him of the latter's death and of what
had happened, as well as of his own recent election to affairs of
government. He also ordered them to return with all speed to Manila,
for the city was left almost deserted, and without the necessary
precautions for any emergency.

The news caused great grief in the fleet. Don Luys Dasmariñas and
Captain Estevan Rodriguez de Figueroa, each in his own heart, was
certain that he was to become governor, taking it for granted that
the governor had nominated him for the office. With this hope, both
of them with the best ships and crews of the fleet, set sail together
for Manila with the utmost speed.

Licentiate Pedro de Rojas, anxious about this provision, which the
governor would leave among his papers and drawers deposited in the
monastery of St. Augustine in Manila, in the possession of Fray Diego
Muñoz, prior and commissary of the Holy Office, made the effort to
gain possession of them. Although he seized some of them, he did not
find the said provision, for the prior had anticipated him and set
aside one of the drawers, in which the provision was supposed to be
found, to await Don Luys Dasmariñas's arrival in the city. Juan de
Cuellar, who had escaped from the galley, arrived from the province
of Ylocos, and testified that an appointment for the succession to the
governorship had been made by Gomez Perez, but he did not state whom;
or among what papers the nomination could be found. Thereupon the
licentiate Pedro de Rojas and those devoted to him became more anxious.

Forty days passed in this manner, at the end of which Don Luis
appeared in the bay near the city, accompanied by Estevan Rodriguez
and many men; and there he anchored, not choosing to enter the city,
or to disembark. He caused a search to be made for the papers kept
in St. Augustine, and among them was found the royal order and the
nomination of Don Luys Dasmariñas to succeed to the governorship. One
of his partisans announced the fact to the city magistrates, who,
changing their ideas, and notwithstanding some opposition from the
partisans of Licentiate Rojas, summoned Don Luys Dasmariñas to the
municipal house and placed him in possession of the government. The
same was done by the soldiers whom Don Luys had with him, and by the
fleet. Each day brought a new disappointment to Licentiate Rojas,
who returned to his office of lieutenant-assessor, after a rule of
forty days.

If the death of Governor Gomez Perez Dasmariñas was an unfortunate
event, both for the loss of his person and for the loss of a so good
opportunity for the conquest of Terrenate, when all were certain of
success, the return of the fleet and the arrival of the troops in
the city was none the less a fortunate event, for, not many days
after--having anticipated their usual time for the voyage--there
arrived in Manila many Chinese ships which carried many men and
little merchandise, and seven mandarins bearing the insignia of
their office. This gave sufficient motive for suspecting that they
had heard of the departure of the fleet for Maluco and of the city's
lack of defense, and that they had therefore come on this occasion
to try to seize the country. But they desisted from the attempt
when they found the city with more troops than ever. They returned
to China without showing any other particular motive for coming,
and without either side showing that their motives were understood;
except that Governor Don Luys was watchful and on his guard. He
took the proper measures, especially those concerning the Chinese,
and their settlement and Parián.

No ships went to Nueva España from the Filipinas that year, because
Governor Gomez Perez, before starting on the expedition to Maluco, had
sent there the vessels "San Felipe" and "San Francisco," both of which,
on account of heavy storms, had to put back, the "San Felipe" to the
port of Sebu and the "San Francisco" to Manila, and they were unable
to resail until the following year. It was suspected in Nueva España
that there were troubles in the islands because of the non-arrival
of the ships, and persons were not wanting to affirm more than had
really happened; nor was it possible at the same time--in the town
of Mexico--to ascertain whence the news had emanated. This was very
shortly known in España, by way of India, letters having been sent
to Venecia [Venice], through Persia; and immediately they set about
appointing a new governor.

In the first year of the government of Gomez Perez Dasmariñas, the need
of an Audiencia began to be felt by many, upon their seeing all the
power vested in one man, and that there was no one to whom they could
apply for remedy for certain cases. [47] He who felt this most keenly
was Bishop Fray Domingo de Salazar, who had had certain differences
and disputes with the governor, which obliged him to start for España,
notwithstanding his advanced age. The governor readily gave him leave
for that year, and a vessel for the voyage, in order to rid himself of
him; but at the same time and with full power from himself, he sent
Fray Francisco de Ortega of the Augustinian order to court, to meet
whatever the bishop might allege and to defend his side. Both reached
España, and each spoke as his interests demanded. The chief thing
insisted upon by the bishop was a request for the reëstablishment
of the Audiencia, and the foundation of other bishoprics in the
Filipinas, besides that of Manila, as well as other things which he
thought beneficial to the spiritual and temporal welfare. In all this
he was opposed by Ortega. But the authority and piety of the bishop
were of such weight, that, although at first the cause that made him,
at his advanced age, leave his church, and travel five thousand leguas
to España, seemed trivial, afterward he was favorably received by his
Majesty and the Council and all his petitions and propositions were
considered and discussed at length, and many consultations were held
with his Majesty, in order to have a decision passed upon them.

In the same year of ninety-three in which Gomez Perez died in the
Filipinas, the Council after consulting with his Majesty, resolved
that the office of lieutenant-assessor in judicial matters, which had
been filled by Licentiate Pedro de Roxas since the suppression of the
Audiencia, should be made more important than formerly in order to
facilitate matters; that the title of the office should thereafter be
that of lieutenant-general; and that in judicial matters the holder
of it should have authority to hear cases of appeal not exceeding
the value of one thousand Castilian ducados. Thereupon Licentiate
Pedro de Rojas was promoted to the office of alcalde of Mexico,
and Doctor Antonio de Morga was appointed by his Majesty to take the
latter's residencia, and to the office of lieutenant-general of the
Filipinas. In the course of his journey the latter arrived at Nueva
España in the beginning of the year ninety-four, and found that the
ships which, as abovesaid, had failed to come from the Filipinas,
had not arrived. Moreover the death of Gomez Perez, and the other
events that had occurred, were unknown until the arrival of Don Juan
de Velasco, in the month of November of the same year, in the galleon
"Sanctiago," which had been sent to the islands the year before by
Viceroy Don Luys de Velasco, with the necessary supplies. He brought
news of the governor's death and of the succession to the office by
the latter's son, Don Luys Dasmariñas. Men and fresh supplies for the
islands were prepared immediately and together with many passengers and
religious from España, Doctor Antonio de Morga embarked in the port of
Acapulco, in the galleons "San Felipe" and "Santiago," with everything
under his charge. He set sail March twenty-two of ninety-five, and
arrived under fair weather in the port of Cabit, June eleven of the
same year. He entered upon his office of lieutenant-general, and began
to occupy himself with his duties and the other matters in his charge.

While Don Luys Dasmariñas was governing, the suspicions and fear
of Xapon continued, which, together with the Chinese trouble, kept
the people in continual anxiety. The governor sent his cousin, Don
Fernando de Castro, with letters and despatches to the viceroy of
Canton and to that of Chincheo, where many of the Chinese who had
seized the galley and killed Governor Gomez Perez, were thought to
be found. Supposing that they had gone there with the galley, the
governor requested the Chinese authorities to deliver the culprits
for punishment, and to restore the royal standard, artillery, and
other things which had been seized. This was not obtained, for as
the galley had gone to Cochinchina, and the Chinese had dispersed in
so many directions, it could not be effected. However, after several
days, some of the guilty Chinese were brought from Malaca to Manila,
having been captured there by the chief captain, Francisco de Silva
de Meneses. From these men more accurate information was derived
concerning what had happened in the seizure of the galley and of the
governor's death, and justice was dealt them.

In the year ninety-four, when Don Luys was governor, a large junk came
to the Filipinas with some Cambodians and Siamese, several Chinese and
three Spaniards--one a Castilian, named Blaz Ruyz de Hernan Gonzalez,
and the other two Portuguese called Pantaleon Carnero and Antonio
Machado. While they were in the city of Chordemuco, [48] in Camboja,
with Prauncar [49] Langara, king of Camboja, the king of Sian attacked
the former king with many soldiers and elephants, conquered the land,
and seized the house and the treasures of the king, who, with his wife,
mother, sister, and his one daughter, and two sons, fled inland to
the kingdom of Lao. The king of Sian leaving some of his captains
to guard Camboja returned to his home with the rest of the army,
sending what booty he could not carry away by land, to Sian by sea
in several junks. He captured the Portuguese and Castilians whom he
found there [i.e., in Camboja], and embarked the above mentioned three
with other Cambodian slaves on board this junk, besides many goods,
and with a Siamese guard and a Chinese crew. While they were at sea,
the three Spaniards, aided by the Chinese, took possession of the
junk, and killed and imprisoned the Siamese guards. After that the
Spaniards and the Chinese came to blows as to who should have the
prize and where it was to be taken. The three Spaniards overcame the
Chinese, and killing most of them, took the junk to Manila with all
its cargo, and the vessel was adjudged to them. Liberty was granted
to the Cambodians as well as to the Chinese who had survived the fray.

The king of Sian reached his court in the city of Odia [50] and
waited for the arrival of the junk; but seeing that it delayed longer
than was necessary, he suspected that it had been seized or lost,
and desired to send someone to bring him news of it and the reason
for the delay. Among the prisoners he had made in Camboja was the
Portuguese, Diego Belloso, who had been sent to Manila in the time
of Gomez Perez Dasmariñas by King Prauncar Langara, to request his
friendship and assistance against Sian which was then threatening him,
as abovesaid. On his return to Camboja with the governor's answer and
present, Belloso found that the Siamese had seized the country and
had occupied it. Accordingly they captured him, and the Siamese king
seized the present which he carried off with the other captures to his
country. This Diego Belloso, getting wind of the king's intention, had
word sent to the latter that, if he were to send him on this business,
he would go as far as Manila, since he knew that archipelago so well,
and find out what had happened to the junk. At the same time he said
that he would establish friendship and commerce in the king's name
with the Spaniards, and would procure many European curiosities for
him, which were to be found in Manila, especially a colored stone
large enough to serve as a hilt for the two-handed sword which the
king used--a thing which the king greatly desired on account of
a smaller one that he had found among the presents, and which he
carried before him when on his elephant. The king agreed to this and
had a junk prepared; he sent in it a Siamese who was in his service,
and all the other men necessary for the voyage, together with Diego
Belloso. He sent two elephants to the governor of Manila, and a
quantity of benzoin, ivory, and other merchandise for sale, with
the proceeds of which they were to buy the curiosities mentioned by
Belloso. Having set sail they encountered a storm, and the junk put in
at Malaca, where they learned that the other junk of the Siamese king,
for which they were looking, had been seized, and that the Spaniards
who had embarked as prisoners at Camboja, had taken it with all its
cargo to Manila, after killing the Siamese guards.

At this news the Siamese king's servant began to look less favorably
upon the journey to Manila, and accordingly, although against Belloso's
desire, began to discharge and sell the goods in Malaca with the
intention of returning immediately to Sian. One morning this servant
of the Siamese king, Aconsi [51] by name, was found dead in the junk,
although he had retired safe and sound the night before. Thereupon
Diego Belloso became master of the situation, and after again embarking
the goods and elephants on the junk, left Malaca, and journeyed to
Manila. There he found Don Luys Dasmariñas acting as governor, because
of his father Gomez Perez's death. To him he gave the present of the
elephants, which he brought from the king, and told him what else had
been sent. The other goods and merchandise were offered for sale by
another Siamese who represented his king's service in the same junk.

Belloso met Blas Ruys de Hernan Gonçales and his two companions in
Manila. Among them all they agreed to persuade Governor Don Luys to
send a fleet to Camboja to aid King Langara who was living in exile and
stripped of his kingdom. They alleged that it would be easy to restore
the king to power, and that at the same time the Spaniards might
gain a foothold on the mainland, where they could settle and fortify
themselves, whence would follow other important and more considerable
results. They called on the religious of the Order of St. Dominic to
support them before the governor in this plan. These easily put the
matter on such good footing--for the governor followed their advice
in everything that it was decided to prepare a fleet with as many
men as possible, under command of the captain and sargento-mayor,
Juan Xuarez Gallinato, himself in a ship of moderate size. He was
to be accompanied by two junks: one under command of Diego Belloso,
and the other under that of Blas Ruyz de Hernan Gonçalez, with one
hundred and twenty Spaniards, some Japanese and native Indians,
and all else that was necessary.

This resolution seemed inexpedient to the majority of people in the
city, both because it took so many men away, and also, because the
success of the expedition seemed very doubtful. Admitting reports
that the country of Camboja was in the hands of the king of Sian,
who held it with sufficient forces--and nothing else was known--the
result of the expedition would be to make the king of Sian--from whom
the governor had just received presents and a friendly embassy in the
person of Belloso--their declared enemy. And without sending the king
an answer they were about to take up arms against him in favor of one
who was unknown to them, and from whom the Spaniards had received
neither pledges nor obligations. Lieutenant-general Don Antonio
de Morga and Master-of-camp Diego Ronquillo, together with other
captains and influential persons, spoke of this matter to Don Luys,
and even requested him in writing to desist from this expedition. But
although he had no reasons on his side to satisfy them, he was so
taken by the expedition, that, inasmuch as the said religious of
St. Dominic upheld him, he would not change his plans. Accordingly
he despatched the fleet to the kingdom of Camboja at the beginning
of the year ninety-six, which is generally one week's voyage. On the
other hand, he dismissed the Siamese who had accompanied Belloso,
without any definite answer to the embassy of the king of Siam,
to whom he sent in return for his presents, some products of the
country, which he thought appropriate. The Siamese, seeing that they
were being sent back to their country, were satisfied, and expected
no other result of their coming.

A storm overtook the fleet, and the flagship which carried Juan
Xuarez Gallinato and the majority of the Spaniards, took refuge
in the strait of Sincapura near Malaca, where it remained for many
days. The other two junks which carried Diego Belloso and Blas Ruyz
with some Spaniards, Japanese, and natives of Manila, reached Camboja
with great difficulty, and Blas Ruyz, preceding Belloso, went up the
river Mecon as far as the city of Chordemuco. There they learned
that the mandarins of Camboja had united against the Siamese whom
they had conquered and driven from the kingdom; and that one of these
mandarins, Anacaparan by name, had taken possession of the country,
and was governing under the title of king, although against the will of
the others. Diego Belloso, Blas Ruyz, and those with them thought that
they had arrived in good season for the furtherance of their designs,
since confusion reigned among the Cambodians, and the Siamese were
out of the country. Expecting Gallinato and the flagship to arrive
directly, they spent several days in Chordemuco with the permission
of Anacaparan, who resided nine leguas away in Sistor. Although the
latter knew of the entry of these ships and their men, and that many
more were coming, whose intentions he knew; and although he thought
that it would not be favorable to him: yet he dissembled with them,
waiting to see what time would bring. At the same time six Chinese
ships with their merchandise arrived in Chordemuco and, while they
were discharging it, the Chinese being many and hating the Spaniards,
behaved towards them with great arrogance and insolence. This obliged
the Spaniards, for the sake of their reputation, and in order to
avenge themselves for injuries received, to take up arms against
the Chinese. This they did, killing many Chinese and seizing their
ships and all their cargo. Anacaparan took offense at this, and was
desirous for the Chinese to avenge themselves by his aid. To remedy
this evil Fray Alonso Ximenez, [52] of the Dominican order, who
accompanied the Spaniards, thought that he, together with Blas Ruys
and Diego Belloso, and about fifty Spaniards, a few Japanese, and men
from Luzon, should leave the rest to guard the ships in Chordemuco,
and should go up in small boats to Sistor, in order to obtain an
interview with Anacaparan and offer him excuses and satisfaction
for the trouble that they had had with the Chinese. And in order to
negotiate with him more easily, they made a letter of embassy in the
name of the governor of Manila, because Gallinato carried with him
the one given them by the governor. This device was of little service
to them, because Anacaparan not only did not grant them audience,
but after having seized their boats, kept them so hard pressed in a
lodging outside the city, and so threatened that he would kill them,
if they did not return the ships and what they had taken from them
to the Chinese, that the Spaniards were quite anxious to return to
Chordemuco and board their vessels for greater security. They decided
to do so as best they could.

Their necessity, and beholding themselves in this danger, encouraged
them, one night, although at great risk, to leave their lodgings, and
find a passage where they could cross the river to the city side. They
crossed the river, arms in hand, late at night, and as silently as
possible. Finding themselves near the city, and their courage and
determination increasing, they entered the city and went as far
as the king's house. They set fire to it, to the magazines, and to
other buildings on their way, and threw the Cambodians into so great
confusion, that that night and the following morning they killed many
people, among them King Anacaparan himself. After this they thought it
unwise to advance or maintain their ground, and accordingly marched
back to their ships as orderly as possible. Meanwhile a great number
of Cambodians, with arms and several elephants, started to pursue the
Spaniards and overtook them before the latter reached their ships. The
Spaniards defended themselves valiantly, and continued their march
until embarking without the loss of a single man, while the Cambodians
returned to the city with some of their men killed and wounded.

Diego Belloso and Bias Ruiz had hardly boarded their ships, when
Captain Gallinato entered Chordemuco with the flagship, by way of the
river. They told him all that happened with the Chinese and Cambodians
and of the favorable condition of affairs for continuing them, alleging
that, since the usurper Anacaparan was dead, many Cambodians would
immediately join the Spaniards in defense of the name and fame of
Langara their legitimate king. But, although some of the Cambodians
themselves came to visit the fleet, and assured Gallinato of the same,
of the death of Anacaparan, and of the deeds of the Spaniards in
Sistor, he appeared to give no credit to any of them, and could not
be induced to believe them, or to continue the enterprise, or even
to consider it. On the contrary he rebuked the Spaniards for what had
taken place in his absence, and after depriving them of all that they
had seized from the Chinese and Cambodians, put to sea in order to
return to Manila. Belloso and Blas Ruiz persuaded him to go at least
to Cochinchina, where the galley seized when Governor Gomez Perez was
killed was said to have been taken, and where were the royal standard
and the artillery carried aboard the galley, and for which he should
ask. They promised, while Gallinato was making these negotiations,
to go overland to the kingdom of Lao, where Langara, king of Camboja,
was living, in order to restore him to his kingdom. Captain Gallinato
consented to this, and sailed along the coast, until he entered the
bay of Cochinchina, where, although he was apparently well received
by the natives of the country, he would not disembark from his ships,
but sent Gregorio de Vargas from them to visit the king of Tunquin,
the chief king of that kingdom, and to treat with him concerning the
galley, the standard, and the artillery. While he was thus engaged,
Gallinato allowed Blas Ruyz and Diego Belloso to go ashore to endeavor
to make the journey to Lao, for he agreed easily to their request
because he thus got rid of them and left them busied in this matter,
so that they could not do him any ill turn in Manila in regard to
leaving Camboja.

Diego Belloso and Blas Ruyz went to the king of Sinua, son of the king
of Tunquin, and begged him to help them in their journey. From him they
received all that was necessary, and were well treated and served until
they reached the city of Alanchan, [53] capital of the kingdom of Lao,
where they were kindly received by the king of the country. They found
that Prauncar Langara, king of Camboja, and his elder son and daughter
had died, and that only his son Prauncar survived, and the latter's
stepmother, grandmother, and aunts. They related the condition of
affairs in Camboja, the arrival of the Spaniards, and the death of
the usurper Anacaparan. The same news was brought by a Cambodian
from Chordemuco, who also added that since the death of Anacaparan,
his younger son Chupinanu was reigning, that the country was entirely
divided into factions, and that many upon seeing their natural and
lawful king would leave Chupinanu and would join him and obey him.

The few difficulties for the departure having been overcome by the
arrival at this time of the mandarin Ocuña de Chu at Lanchan, in Lao
[54] from Camboja, who had been sent by order of other mandarins and
grandees of Camboja with ten praus well equipped with artillery and
weapons to fetch their lawful king, it was decided to go down to
Camboja. Prauncar, his grandmother, aunt, and stepmother--he wife
of Langara--together with Diego Belloso and Blas Ruyz, embarked
and journeyed in the said boats and praus down the rivers flowing
from Lao to Camboja. [55] There they found fresh disturbances in the
provinces. But as soon as Prauncar arrived many went over to his side,
especially two Moro Malays, Acuña La Casamana [56] and Cancona, who
were in the country with a Malay army and a quantity of artillery and
elephants. Prauncar was victorious on various occasions, and Chupinanu
with his brothers and other rebels having died in battle, became master
of almost all the provinces of his kingdom. He made Diego Belloso and
Blas Ruyz chiefs in war affairs, and they managed war matters until
they completely established Prauncar on the throne. When the war was
almost entirely ended, the king made Belloso and Blas Ruyz great chofas
[57] of his kingdom, gave them two provinces, and granted them other
favors, although not so many as they expected, or as he had promised
while still in Lao. The chief reason for this was the stepmother,
grandmother, and aunt of the king, who managed him, on account of
his youth, and of his being addicted to wine, in excess even of his
father Langara. The Moro Malay, Acuña Lacasamana, had great influence
with these women. Being envious of the valor of the Spaniards, he was
continually opposing them, and seeking their destruction, with whom,
on this account, they were always at odds. It must be understood
that this Moro held unlawful relations with the wife of Langara,
the stepmother of King Prauncar.

Captain Gallinato's fleet remained in Cochinchina negotiating with
the king of Tunquin for the royal standard and the artillery of the
galley, as above stated, for the galley was lost upon that coast,
and this king had the rest in his possession. The latter not only did
not restore them, but entertaining Gallinato with flattering speech,
was, on the contrary, planning to take from him his ships and their
contents. Gallinato was secretly warned of this by one of the chief
women of Cochinchina, who came to the fleet to see him, after which
he kept a much more careful watch than before, and allowed no one to
go ashore. But this order was of no avail with Fray Alonso Ximenez,
one of the Dominican religious whom he had with him, and the chief
promoter of the expedition. When the latter went ashore, they seized
and kept him there. The Cochinchinese, imagining that the fleet was
off its guard, sent some fire ships against it, followed by some
galleys and warboats, in order to burn it, while many men armed with
arquebuses annoyed the Spaniards from the neighboring shore. The fleet
succeeded in getting away from the fire and put off from shore, and
resisted the enemy's ships with artillery, musketry, and arquebuses,
thus sinking some of them. After this the Spaniards waited no longer,
but leaving Fray Alonso Ximenez on shore, and two lay companions,
whom he took with him, put to sea and left the bay of Cochinchina,
and ran toward the Filipinas.

While these things were happening in Camboja and Cochinchina, orders
had arrived from España from his Majesty to conclude an agreement
that Captain Estevan Rodriguez de Figueroa had made with Gomez Perez
Dasmariñas, under which the former was to pacify and settle the island
of Mindanao at his own expense, and receive the governorship of the
island for two lives [58] and other rewards. The said agreement was
effected, after certain difficulties that arose were settled. Don
Estevan Rodriguez prepared men and ships, and what else was necessary
for the enterprise, and with some galleys, galleots, frigates, vireys,
barangays, and lapis, [59] set out with two hundred and fourteen
Spaniards for the island of Mindanao, in February of the same year,
of ninety-six. He took Captain Juan de la Xara as his master-of-camp,
and some religious of the Society of Jesus to give instruction,
as well as many natives for the service of the camp and fleet.

He reached Mindanao River, after a good voyage, where the first
settlements, named Tancapan and Lumaguan, both hostile to the people
of Buhahayen, received him peacefully and in a friendly manner, and
joined his fleet. They were altogether about six thousand men. Without
delay they advanced about eight leguas farther up the river against
Buhahayen, the principal settlement of the island, where its greatest
chief had fortified himself on many sides. Arrived at the settlement,
the fleet cast anchor, and immediately landed a large proportion of
the troops with their arms. But before reaching the houses and fort,
and while going through some thickets [çacatal] [60] near the shore,
they encountered some of the men of Buhahayen, who were coming to
meet them with their campilans, carazas [61] and other weapons, and
who attacked them on various sides. The latter [i.e., the Spaniards
and their allies], on account of the swampiness of the place and
the denseness of the thickets [çacatal], could not act unitedly as
the occasion demanded, although the master-of-camp and the captains
that led them exerted themselves to keep the troops together and
to encourage them to face the natives. Meanwhile Governor Estevan
Rodriguez de Figueroa was watching events from his flagship, but not
being able to endure the confusion of his men, seized his weapons
and hastened ashore with three or four companions, and a servant who
carried his helmet, in order that he might be less impeded in his
movements. But as he was crossing a part of the thickets [çacatal]
where the fight was waging, a hostile Indian stepped out unseen from
one side, and dealt the governor a blow on the head with his campilan,
that stretched him on the ground badly wounded. [62] The governor's
followers cut the Mindanao to pieces and carried the governor back to
the camp. Shortly after, the master-of-camp, Juan de la Xara, withdrew


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