Hunting the Grisly and Other Sketches
by
Theodore Roosevelt

Part 1 out of 3








PREPARER'S NOTE

This text was prepared from a 1902 edition, published by G. P.
Putnam's Sons, New York and London. It was originally published in
1893. It is part II of "The Wilderness Hunter."

Etext prepared by Dagny, dagnyj@hotmail.com
and John Bickers, jbickers@ihug.co.nz





HUNTING THE GRISLY AND OTHER SKETCHES

by THEODORE ROOSEVELT




An Account of the Big Game of the United
States and its Chase with Horse
Hound, and Rifle




CHAPTER I.

THE BISON OR AMERICAN BUFFALO.

When we became a nation in 1776, the buffaloes, the first animals to
vanish when the wilderness is settled, roved to the crests of the
mountains which mark the western boundaries of Pennsylvania, Virginia,
and the Carolinas. They were plentiful in what are now the States of
Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. But by the beginning of the present
century they had been driven beyond the Mississippi; and for the next
eighty years they formed one of the most distinctive and
characteristic features of existence on the great plains. Their
numbers were countless--incredible. In vast herds of hundreds of
thousands of individuals, they roamed from the Saskatchewan to the Rio
Grande and westward to the Rocky Mountains. They furnished all the
means of livelihood to the tribes of Horse Indians, and to the curious
population of French Metis, or Half-breeds, on the Red River, as well
as to those dauntless and archtypical wanderers, the white hunters and
trappers. Their numbers slowly diminished, but the decrease was very
gradual until after the Civil War. They were not destroyed by the
settlers, but by the railways and the skin hunters.

After the ending of the Civil War, the work of constructing trans-
continental railway lines was pushed forward with the utmost vigor.
These supplied cheap and indispensable, but hitherto wholly lacking,
means of transportation to the hunters; and at the same time the
demand for buffalo robes and hides became very great, while the
enormous numbers of the beasts, and the comparative ease with which
they were slaughtered, attracted throngs of adventurers. The result
was such a slaughter of big game as the world had never before seen;
never before were so many large animals of one species destroyed in so
short a time. Several million buffaloes were slain. In fifteen years
from the time the destruction fairly began the great herds were
exterminated. In all probability there are not now, all told, five
hundred head of wild buffaloes on the American continent; and no herd
of a hundred individuals has been in existence since 1884.

The first great break followed the building of the Union Pacific
Railway. All the buffaloes of the middle region were then destroyed,
and the others were split into two vast sets of herds, the northern
and the southern. The latter were destroyed first, about 1878; the
former not until 1883. My own chief experience with buffaloes was
obtained in the latter year, among small bands and scattered
individuals, near my ranch on the Little Missouri; I have related it
elsewhere. But two of my kinsmen were more fortunate, and took part in
the chase of these lordly beasts when the herds still darkened the
prairie as far as the eye could see.

During the first two months of 1877, my brother Elliott, then a lad
not seventeen years old, made a buffalo-hunt toward the edge of the
Staked Plains in Northern Texas. He was thus in at the death of the
southern herds; for all, save a few scattering bands, were destroyed
within two years of this time. He was with my cousin, John Roosevelt,
and they went out on the range with six other adventurers. It was a
party of just such young men as frequently drift to the frontier. All
were short of cash, and all were hardy, vigorous fellows, eager for
excitement and adventure. My brother was much the youngest of the
party, and the least experienced; but he was well-grown, strong and
healthy, and very fond of boxing, wrestling, running, riding, and
shooting; moreover, he had served an apprenticeship in hunting deer
and turkeys. Their mess-kit, ammunition, bedding, and provisions were
carried in two prairie-wagons, each drawn by four horse. In addition
to the teams they had six saddle-animals--all of them shaggy, unkempt
mustangs. Three or four dogs, setters and half-bred greyhounds,
trotted along behind the wagons. Each man took his turn for two days
as teamster and cook; and there were always two with the wagons, or
camp, as the case might be, while the other six were off hunting,
usually in couples. The expedition was undertaken partly for sport and
partly with the hope of profit; for, after purchasing the horses and
wagons, none of the party had any money left, and they were forced to
rely upon selling skins and hides, and, when near the forts, meat.

They started on January 2nd, and shaped their course for the head-
waters of the Salt Fork of the Brazos, the centre of abundance for the
great buffalo herds. During the first few days they were in the
outskirts of the settled country, and shot only small game--quail and
prairie fowl; then they began to kill turkey, deer, and antelope.
These they swapped for flour and feed at the ranches or squalid,
straggling frontier towns. On several occasions the hunters were lost,
spending the night out in the open, or sleeping at a ranch, if one was
found. Both towns and ranches were filled with rough customers; all of
my brother's companions were muscular, hot-headed fellows; and as a
consequence they were involved in several savage free fights, in
which, fortunately, nobody was seriously hurt. My brother kept a very
brief diary, the entries being fairly startling from their
conciseness. A number of times, the mention of their arrival, either
at a halting-place, a little village, or a rival buffalo-camp is
followed by the laconic remark, "big fight," or "big row"; but once
they evidently concluded discretion to be the better part of valor,
the entry for January 20th being, "On the road--passed through Belknap
--too lively, so kept on to the Brazos--very late." The buffalo-camps
in particular were very jealous of one another, each party regarding
itself as having exclusive right to the range it was the first to
find; and on several occasions this feeling came near involving my
brother and his companions in serious trouble.

While slowly driving the heavy wagons to the hunting grounds they
suffered the usual hardships of plains travel. The weather, as in most
Texas winters, alternated between the extremes of heat and cold. There
had been little rain; in consequence water was scarce. Twice they were
forced to cross wild, barren wastes, where the pools had dried up, and
they suffered terribly from thirst. On the first occasion the horses
were in good condition, and they travelled steadily, with only
occasional short halts, for over thirty-six hours, by which time they
were across the waterless country. The journal reads: "January 27th--
Big hunt--no water, and we left Quinn's blockhouse this morning 3 A.M.
--on the go all night--hot. January 28--No water--hot--at seven we
struck water, and by eight Stinking Creek--grand 'hurrah.' " On the
second occasion, the horses were weak and travelled slowly, so the
party went forty-eight hours without drinking. "February 19th--Pulled
on twenty-one miles--trail bad--freezing night, no water, and wolves
after our fresh meat. 20--Made nineteen miles over prairie; again only
mud, no water, freezing hard--frightful thirst. 21st--Thirty miles to
Clear Fork, fresh water." These entries were hurriedly jotted down at
the time, by a boy who deemed it unmanly to make any especial note of
hardship or suffering; but every plainsman will understand the real
agony implied in working hard for two nights, one day, and portions of
two others, without water, even in cool weather. During the last few
miles the staggering horses were only just able to drag the lightly
loaded wagon,--for they had but one with them at the time,--while the
men plodded along in sullen silence, their mouths so parched that they
could hardly utter a word. My own hunting and ranching were done in
the north where there is more water; so I have never had a similar
experience. Once I took a team in thirty-six hours across a country
where there was no water; but by good luck it rained heavily in the
night, so that the horses had plenty of wet grass, and I caught the
rain in my slicker, and so had enough water for myself. Personally, I
have but once been as long as twenty-six hours without water.

The party pitched their permanent camp in a canyon of the Brazos known
as Canyon Blanco. The last few days of their journey they travelled
beside the river through a veritable hunter's paradise. The drought
had forced all the animals to come to the larger water-courses, and
the country was literally swarming with game. Every day, and all day
long, the wagons travelled through the herds of antelopes that grazed
on every side, while, whenever they approached the canyon brink, bands
of deer started from the timber that fringed the river's course;
often, even the deer wandered out on the prairie with the antelope.
Nor was the game shy; for the hunters, both red and white, followed
only the buffaloes, until the huge, shaggy herds were destroyed, and
the smaller beasts were in consequence but little molested.

Once my brother shot five antelopes from a single stand, when the
party were short of fresh venison; he was out of sight and to leeward,
and the antelopes seemed confused rather than alarmed at the rifle-
reports and the fall of their companions. As was to be expected where
game was so plenty, wolves and coyotes also abounded. At night they
surrounded the camp, wailing and howling in a kind of shrieking chorus
throughout the hours of darkness; one night they came up so close that
the frightened horses had to be hobbled and guarded. On another
occasion a large wolf actually crept into camp, where he was seized by
the dogs, and the yelling, writhing knot of combatants rolled over one
of the sleepers; finally, the long-toothed prowler managed to shake
himself loose, and vanished in the gloom. One evening they were almost
as much startled by a visit of a different kind. They were just
finishing supper when an Indian stalked suddenly and silently out of
the surrounding darkness, squatted down in the circle of firelight,
remarked gravely, "Me Tonk," and began helping himself from the stew.
He belonged to the friendly tribe of Tonkaways, so his hosts speedily
recovered their equanimity; as for him, he had never lost his, and he
sat eating by the fire until there was literally nothing left to eat.
The panic caused by his appearance was natural; for at that time the
Comanches were a scourge to the Buffalo-hunters, ambushing them and
raiding their camps; and several bloody fights had taken place.

Their camp had been pitched near a deep pool or water-hole. On both
sides the bluffs rose like walls, and where they had crumbled and lost
their sheerness, the vast buffalo herds, passing and repassing for
countless generations, had worn furrowed trails so deep that the backs
of the beasts were but little above the surrounding soil. In the
bottom, and in places along the crests of the cliffs that hemmed in
the canyon-like valley, there were groves of tangled trees, tenanted
by great flocks of wild turkeys. Once my brother made two really
remarkable shots at a pair of these great birds. It was at dusk, and
they were flying directly overhead from one cliff to the other. He had
in his hand a thirty-eight calibre Ballard rifle, and, as the gobblers
winged their way heavily by, he brought both down with two successive
bullets. This was of course mainly a piece of mere luck; but it meant
good shooting, too. The Ballard was a very accurate, handy little
weapon; it belonged to me, and was the first rifle I ever owned or
used. With it I had once killed a deer, the only specimen of large
game I had then shot; and I presented the rifle to my brother when he
went to Texas. In our happy ignorance we deemed it quite good enough
for Buffalo or anything else; but out on the plains my brother soon
found himself forced to procure a heavier and more deadly weapon.

When camp was pitched the horses were turned loose to graze and
refresh themselves after their trying journey, during which they had
lost flesh woefully. They were watched and tended by the two men who
were always left in camp, and, save on rare occasions, were only used
to haul in the buffalo hides. The camp-guards for the time being acted
as cooks; and, though coffee and flour both ran short and finally gave
out, fresh meat of every kind was abundant. The camp was never without
buffalo-beef, deer and antelope venison, wild turkeys, prairie-
chickens, quails, ducks, and rabbits. The birds were simply "potted,"
as occasion required; when the quarry was deer or antelope, the
hunters took the dogs with them to run down the wounded animals. But
almost the entire attention of the hunters was given to the buffalo.
After an evening spent in lounging round the campfire and a sound
night's sleep, wrapped in robes and blankets, they would get up before
daybreak, snatch a hurried breakfast, and start off in couples through
the chilly dawn. The great beasts were very plentiful; in the first
day's hunt twenty were slain; but the herds were restless and ever on
the move. Sometimes they would be seen right by the camp, and again it
would need an all-day's tramp to find them. There was no difficulty in
spying them--the chief trouble with forest game; for on the prairie a
buffalo makes no effort to hide and its black, shaggy bulk looms up as
far as the eye can see. Sometimes they were found in small parties of
three or four individuals, sometimes in bands of about two hundred,
and again in great herds of many thousands; and solitary old bulls,
expelled from the herds, were common. If on broken land, among the
hills and ravines, there was not much difficulty in approaching from
the leeward; for, though the sense of smell in the buffalo is very
acute, they do not see well at a distance through their overhanging
frontlets of coarse and matted hair. If, as was generally the case,
they were out in the open, rolling prairie, the stalking was far more
difficult. Every hollow, every earth hummock and sagebush had to be
used as cover. The hunter wriggled through the grass flat on his face,
pushing himself along for perhaps a quarter of a mile by his toes and
fingers, heedless of the spiny cactus. When near enough to the huge,
unconscious quarry the hunter began firing, still keeping himself
carefully concealed. If the smoke was blown away by the wind, and if
the buffaloes caught no glimpse of the assailant, they would often
stand motionless and stupid until many of their number had been slain,
the hunter being careful not to fire too high, aiming just behind the
shoulder, about a third of the way up the body, that his bullet might
go through the lungs. Sometimes, even after they saw the man, they
would act as if confused and panic-struck, huddling together and
staring at the smoke puffs; but generally they were off at a lumbering
gallop as soon as they had an idea of the point of danger. When once
started, they ran for many miles before halting, and their pursuit on
foot was extremely laborious.

One morning my cousin and brother had been left in camp as guards.
They were sitting idly warming themselves in the first sunbeams, when
their attention was sharply drawn to four buffaloes that were coming
to the pool to drink. The beasts came down a game trail, a deep rut in
the bluff, fronting where they were sitting, and they did not dare to
stir for fear of being discovered. The buffaloes walked into the pool,
and after drinking their fill, stood for some time with the water
running out of their mouths, idly lashing their sides with their short
tails, enjoying the bright warmth of the early sunshine; then, with
much splashing and the gurgling of soft mud, they left the pool and
clambered up the bluff with unwieldy agility. As soon as they turned,
my brother and cousin ran for their rifles, but before they got back
the buffaloes had crossed the bluff crest. Climbing after them, the
two hunters found, when they reached the summit, that their game,
instead of halting, had struck straight off across the prairie at a
slow lope, doubtless intending to rejoin the herd they had left. After
a moment's consultation the men went in pursuit, excitement overcoming
their knowledge that they ought not, by rights, to leave camp. They
struck a steady trot, following the animals by sight until they passed
over a knoll, and then trailing them. Where the grass was long, as it
was for the first four or five miles, this was a work of no
difficulty, and they did not break their gait, only glancing now and
then at the trial. As the sun rose and the day became warm, their
breathing grew quicker; and the sweat rolled off their faces as they
ran across the rough prairie sward, up and down the long inclines, now
and then shifting their heavy rifles from one shoulder to the other.
But they were in good training, and they did not have to halt. At last
they reached stretches of bare ground, sun-baked and grassless, where
the trail grew dim; and here they had to go very slowly, carefully
examining the faint dents and marks made in the soil by the heavy
hoofs, and unravelling the trail from the mass of old footmarks. It
was tedious work, but it enabled them to completely recover their
breath by the time that they again struck the grassland; and but a few
hundred yards from the edge, in a slight hollow, they saw the four
buffaloes just entering a herd of fifty or sixty that were scattered
out grazing. The herd paid no attention to the new-comers, and these
immediately began to feed greedily. After a whispered consultation,
the two hunters crept back, and made a long circle that brought them
well to leeward of the herd, in line with a slight rise in the ground.
They then crawled up to this rise and, peering through the tufts of
tall, rank grass, saw the unconscious beasts a hundred and twenty-five
or fifty yards away. They fired together, each mortally wounding his
animal, and then, rushing in as the herd halted in confusion, and
following them as they ran, impeded by numbers, hurry, and panic, they
eventually got three more.

On another occasion the same two hunters nearly met with a frightful
death, being overtaken by a vast herd of stampeded buffaloes. All the
animals that go in herds are subject to these instantaneous attacks of
uncontrollable terror, under the influence of which they become
perfectly mad, and rush headlong in dense masses on any form of death.
Horses, and more especially cattle, often suffer from stampedes; it is
a danger against which the cowboys are compelled to be perpetually on
guard. A band of stampeded horses, sweeping in mad terror up a valley,
will dash against a rock or tree with such violence as to leave
several dead animals at its base, while the survivors race on without
halting; they will overturn and destroy tents and wagons, and a man on
foot caught in the rush has but a small chance for his life. A buffalo
stampede is much worse--or rather was much worse, in the old days--
because of the great weight and immense numbers of the beasts, which,
in a fury of heedless terror, plunged over cliffs and into rivers, and
bore down whatever was in their path. On the occasion in question, my
brother and cousin were on their way homeward. They were just mounting
one of the long, low swells, into which the prairie was broken, when
they heard a low, muttering, rumbling noise, like far-off thunder. It
grew steadily louder, and, not knowing what it meant, they hurried
forward to the top of the rise. As they reached it, they stopped short
in terror and amazement, for before them the whole prairie was black
with madly rushing buffaloes.

Afterward they learned that another couple of hunters, four or five
miles off, had fired into and stampeded a large herd. This herd, in
its rush, gathered others, all thundering along together in
uncontrollable and increasing panic.

The surprised hunters were far away from any broken ground or other
place of refuge, while the vast herd of huge, plunging, maddened
beasts was charging straight down on them not a quarter of a mile
distant. Down they came!--thousands upon thousands, their front
extending a mile in breadth, while the earth shook beneath their
thunderous gallop, and, as they came closer, their shaggy frontlets
loomed dimly through the columns of dust thrown up from the dry soil.
The two hunters knew that their only hope for life was to split the
herd, which, though it had so broad a front, was not very deep. If
they failed they would inevitably be trampled to death.

Waiting until the beasts were in close range, they opened a rapid fire
from their heavy breech-loading rifles, yelling at the top of their
voices. For a moment the result seemed doubtful. The line thundered
steadily down on them; then it swayed violently, as two or three of
the brutes immediately in front fell beneath the bullets, while their
neighbors made violent efforts to press off sideways. Then a narrow
wedge-shaped rift appeared in the line, and widened as it came closer,
and the buffaloes, shrinking from their foes in front, strove
desperately to edge away from the dangerous neighborhood; the shouts
and shots were redoubled; the hunters were almost choked by the cloud
of dust, through which they could see the stream of dark huge bodies
passing within rifle-length on either side; and in a moment the peril
was over, and the two men were left alone on the plain, unharmed,
though with their nerves terribly shaken. The herd careered on toward
the horizon, save five individuals which had been killed or disabled
by the shots.

On another occasion, when my brother was out with one of his friends,
they fired at a small herd containing an old bull; the bull charged
the smoke, and the whole herd followed him. Probably they were simply
stampeded, and had no hostile intention; at any rate, after the death
of their leader, they rushed by without doing any damage.

But buffaloes sometimes charged with the utmost determination, and
were then dangerous antagonists. My cousin, a very hardy and resolute
hunter, had a narrow escape from a wounded cow which he had followed
up a steep bluff or sand cliff. Just as he reached the summit, he was
charged, and was only saved by the sudden appearance of his dog, which
distracted the cow's attention. He thus escaped with only a tumble and
a few bruises.

My brother also came in for a charge, while killing the biggest bull
that was slain by any of the party. He was out alone, and saw a small
herd of cows and calves at some distance, with a huge bull among them,
towering above them like a giant. There was no break in the ground,
nor any tree nor bush near them, but, by making a half-circle, my
brother managed to creep up against the wind behind a slight roll in
the prairie surface, until he was within seventy-five yards of the
grazing and unconscious beasts. There were some cows and calves
between him and the bull, and he had to wait some moments before they
shifted position, as the herd grazed onward and gave him a fair shot;
in the interval they had moved so far forward that he was in plain
view. His first bullet struck just behind the shoulders; the herd
started and looked around, but the bull merely lifted his head and
took a step forward, his tail curled up over his back. The next bullet
likewise struck fair, nearly in the same place, telling with a loud
"pack!" against the thick hide, and making the dust fly up from the
matted hair. Instantly the great bull wheeled and charged in headlong
anger, while the herd fled in the opposite direction. On the bare
prairie, with no spot of refuge, it was useless to try to escape, and
the hunter, with reloaded rifle, waited until the bull was not far
off, then drew up his weapon and fired. Either he was nervous, or the
bull at the moment bounded over some obstacle, for the bullet went a
little wild; nevertheless, by good luck, it broke a fore-leg, and the
great beast came crashing to the earth, and was slain before it could
struggle to its feet.

Two days after this even, a war party of Comanches swept down along
the river. They "jumped" a neighboring camp, killing one man and
wounding two more, and at the same time ran off all but three of the
horses belonging to our eight adventurers. With the remaining three
horses and one wagon they set out homeward. The march was hard and
tedious; they lost their way and were in jeopardy from quicksands and
cloudbursts; they suffered from thirst and cold, their shoes gave out,
and their feet were lamed by cactus spines. At last they reached Fort
Griffen in safety, and great was their ravenous rejoicing when they
procured some bread--for during the final fortnight of the hunt they
had been without flour or vegetables of any kind, or even coffee, and
had subsisted on fresh meat "straight." Nevertheless, it was a very
healthy, as well as a very pleasant and exciting experience; and I
doubt if any of those who took part in it will ever forget their great
buffalo-hunt on the Brazos.

My friend, Gen. W. H. Walker, of Virginia, had an experience in the
early '50's with buffaloes on the upper Arkansas River, which gives
some idea of their enormous numbers at that time. He was camped with a
scouting party on the banks of the river, and had gone out to try to
shoot some meat. There were many buffaloes in sight, scattered,
according to their custom, in large bands. When he was a mile or two
away from the river a dull roaring sound in the distance attracted his
attention, and he saw that a herd of buffalo far to the south, away
from the river, had been stampeded and was running his way. He knew
that if he was caught in the open by the stampeded herd his chance for
life would be small, and at once ran for the river. By desperate
efforts he reached the breaks in the sheer banks just as the buffaloes
reached them, and got into a position of safety on the pinnacle of a
little bluff. From this point of vantage he could see the entire
plain. To the very verge of the horizon the brown masses of the
buffalo bands showed through the dust clouds, coming on with a
thunderous roar like that of surf. Camp was a mile away, and the
stampede luckily passed to one side of it. Watching his chance he
finally dodged back to the tent, and all that afternoon watched the
immense masses of buffalo, as band after band tore to the brink of the
bluffs on one side, raced down them, rushed through the water, up the
bluffs on the other side, and again off over the plain, churning the
sandy, shallow stream into a ceaseless tumult. When darkness fell
there was no apparent decrease in the numbers that were passing, and
all through that night the continuous roar showed that the herds were
still threshing across the river. Towards dawn the sound at last
ceased, and General Walker arose somewhat irritated, as he had
reckoned on killing an ample supply of meat, and he supposed that
there would be now no bison left south of the river. To his
astonishment, when he strolled up on the bluffs and looked over the
plain, it was still covered far and wide with groups of buffalo,
grazing quietly. Apparently there were as many on that side as ever,
in spite of the many scores of thousands that must have crossed over
the river during the stampede of the afternoon and night. The barren-
ground caribou is the only American animal which is now ever seen in
such enormous herds.

In 1862 Mr. Clarence King, while riding along the overland trail
through western Kansas, passed through a great buffalo herd, and was
himself injured in an encounter with a bull. The great herd was then
passing north, and Mr. King reckoned that it must have covered an area
nearly seventy miles by thirty in extent; the figures representing his
rough guess, made after travelling through the herd crosswise, and
upon knowing how long it took to pass a given point going northward.
This great herd of course was not a solid mass of buffaloes; it
consisted of innumerable bands of every size, dotting the prairie
within the limits given. Mr. King was mounted on a somewhat
unmanageable horse. On one occasion in following a band he wounded a
large bull, and became so wedged in by the maddened animals that he
was unable to avoid the charge of the bull, which was at its last
gasp. Coming straight toward him it leaped into the air and struck the
afterpart of the saddle full with its massive forehead. The horse was
hurled to the ground with a broken back, and King's leg was likewise
broken, while the bull turned a complete somerset over them and never
rose again.

In the recesses of the Rocky Mountains, from Colorado northward
through Alberta, and in the depths of the subarctic forest beyond the
Saskatchewan, there have always been found small numbers of the bison,
locally called the mountain buffalo and wood buffalo; often indeed the
old hunters term these animals "bison," although they never speak of
the plains animals save as buffalo. They form a slight variety of what
was formerly the ordinary plains bison, intergrading with it; on the
whole they are darker in color, with longer, thicker hair, and in
consequence with the appearance of being heavier-bodied and shorter-
legged. They have been sometimes spoken of as forming a separate
species; but, judging from my own limited experience, and from a
comparison of the many hides I have seen, I think they are really the
same animal, many individuals of the two so-called varieties being
quite indistinguishable. In fact, the only moderate-sized herd of wild
bison in existence to-day, the protected herd in the Yellowstone Park,
is composed of animals intermediate in habits and coat between the
mountain and plains varieties--as were all the herds of the Bighorn,
Big Hole, Upper Madison, and Upper Yellowstone valleys.

However, the habitat of these wood and mountain bison yielded them
shelter from hunters in a way that the plains never could, and hence
they have always been harder to kill in the one place than in the
other; for precisely the same reasons that have held good with the
elk, which have been completely exterminated from the plains, while
still abundant in many of the forest fastnesses of the Rockies.
Moreover, the bison's dull eyesight is no special harm in the woods,
while it is peculiarly hurtful to the safety of any beast on the
plains, where eyesight avails more than any other sense, the true game
of the plains being the prong-buck, the most keen-sighted of American
animals. On the other hand the bison's hearing, of little avail on the
plains, is of much assistance in the woods; and its excellent nose
helps equally in both places.

Though it was always more difficult to kill the bison of the forests
and the mountains than the bison of the prairie, yet now that the
species is, in its wild state, hovering on the brink of extinction,
the difficulty is immeasurably increased. A merciless and terrible
process of natural selection, in which the agents were rifle-bearing
hunters, has left as the last survivors in a hopeless struggle for
existence only the wariest of the bison and those gifted with the
sharpest senses. That this was true of the last lingering individuals
that survived the great slaughter on the plains is well shown by Mr.
Hornaday in his graphic account of his campaign against the few
scattered buffalo which still lived in 1886 between the Missouri and
the Yellowstone, along the Big Dry. The bison of the plains and the
prairies have now vanished; and so few of their brethren of the
mountains and the northern forests are left, that they can just barely
be reckoned among American game; but whoever is so fortunate as to
find any of these animals must work his hardest, and show all his
skill as a hunter if he wishes to get one.

In the fall of 1889 I heard that a very few bison were still left
around the head of Wisdom river. Thither I went and hunted faithfully;
there was plenty of game of other kind, but of bison not a trace did
we see. Nevertheless a few days later that same year I came across
these great wild cattle at a time when I had no idea of seeing them.

It was, as nearly as we could tell, in Idaho, just south of the
Montana boundary line, and some twenty-five miles west of the line of
Wyoming. We were camped high among the mountains, with a small pack-
train. On the day in question we had gone out to find moose, but had
seen no sign of them, and had then begun to climb over the higher
peaks with an idea of getting sheep. The old hunter who was with me
was, very fortunately, suffering from rheumatism, and he therefore
carried a long staff instead of his rifle; I say fortunately, for if
he had carried his rifle it would have been impossible to stop his
firing at such game as bison, nor would he have spared the cows and
calves.

About the middle of the afternoon we crossed a low, rocky ridge, above
timber line, and saw at our feet a basin or round valley of singular
beauty. Its walls were formed by steep mountains. At its upper end lay
a small lake, bordered on one side by a meadow of emerald green. The
lake's other side marked the edge of the frowning pine forest which
filled the rest of the valley, and hung high on the sides of the gorge
which formed its outlet. Beyond the lake the ground rose in a pass
evidently much frequented by game in bygone days, their trails lying
along it in thick zigzags, each gradually fading out after a few
hundred yards, and then starting again in a little different place, as
game trails so often seem to do.

We bent our steps toward these trails, and no sooner had we reached
the first than the old hunter bent over it with a sharp exclamation of
wonder. There in the dust were the unmistakable hoof-marks of a small
band of bison, apparently but a few hours old. They were headed
towards the lake. There had been a half a dozen animals in the party;
one a big bull, and two calves.

We immediately turned and followed the trail. It led down to the
little lake, where the beasts had spread and grazed on the tender,
green blades, and had drunk their fill. The footprints then came
together again, showing where the animals had gathered and walked off
in single file to the forest. Evidently they had come to the pool in
the early morning, walking over the game pass from some neighboring
valley, and after drinking and feeding had moved into the pine forest
to find some spot for their noontide rest.

It was a very still day, and there were nearly three hours of daylight
left. Without a word my silent companion, who had been scanning the
whole country with hawk-eyed eagerness, besides scrutinizing the sign
on his hands and knees, took the trail, motioning me to follow. In a
moment we entered the woods, breathing a sigh of relief as we did so;
for while in the meadow we could never tell that the buffalo might not
see us, if they happened to be lying in some place with a commanding
lookout.

The old hunter was thoroughly roused, and he showed himself a very
skilful tracker. We were much favored by the character of the forest,
which was rather open, and in most places free from undergrowth and
down timber. As in most Rocky Mountain forests the timber was small,
not only as compared to the giant trees of the groves of the Pacific
coast, but as compared to the forests of the northeast. The ground was
covered with pine needles and soft moss, so that it was not difficult
to walk noiselessly. Once or twice when I trod on a small dry twig, or
let the nails in my shoes clink slightly against a stone, the hunter
turned to me with a frown of angry impatience; but as he walked
slowly, continually halting to look ahead, as well as stooping over to
examine the trail, I did not find it very difficult to move silently.
I kept a little behind him, and to one side, save when he crouched to
take advantage of some piece of cover, and I crept in his footsteps. I
did not look at the trail at all, but kept watching ahead, hoping at
any moment to see the game.

It was not very long before we struck their day beds, which were made
on a knoll, where the forest was open and where there was much down
timber. After leaving the day beds the animals had at first fed
separately around the grassy base and sides of the knoll, and had then
made off in their usual single file, going straight to a small pool in
the forest. After drinking they had left this pool, and travelled down
towards the gorge at the mouth of the basin, the trail leading along
the sides of the steep hill, which were dotted by open glades; while
the roar of the cataracts by which the stream was broken, ascended
from below. Here we moved with redoubled caution, for the sign had
grown very fresh and the animals had once more scattered and begun
feeding. When the trail led across the glades we usually skirted them
so as to keep in the timber.

At last, on nearing the edge of one of these glades we saw a movement
among the young trees on the other side, not fifty yards away. Peering
through the safe shelter yielded by some thick evergreen bushes, we
speedily made out three bison, a cow, a calf, and a yearling, grazing
greedily on the other side of the glade, under the fringing timber;
all with their heads up hill. Soon another cow and calf stepped out
after them. I did not wish to shoot, waiting for the appearance of the
big bull which I knew was accompanying them.

So for several minutes I watched the great, clumsy, shaggy beasts, as
all unconscious they grazed in the open glade. Behind them rose the
dark pines. At the left of the glade the ground fell away to form the
side of a chasm; down in its depths the cataracts foamed and
thundered; beyond, the huge mountains towered, their crests crimsoned
by the sinking sun. Mixed with the eager excitement of the hunter was
a certain half melancholy feeling as I gazed on these bison,
themselves part of the last remnant of a doomed and nearly vanished
race. Few, indeed, are the men who now have, or evermore shall have,
the chance of seeing the mightiest of American beasts, in all his wild
vigor, surrounded by the tremendous desolation of his far-off mountain
home.

At last, when I had begun to grow very anxious lest the others should
take alarm, the bull likewise appeared on the edge of the glade, and
stood with outstretched head, scratching his throat against a young
tree, which shook violently. I aimed low, behind his shoulder, and
pulled trigger. At the crack of the rifle all the bison, without the
momentary halt of terror-struck surprise so common among game, turned
and raced off at headlong speed. The fringe of young pines beyond and
below the glade cracked and swayed as if a whirlwind were passing, and
in another moment they reached the top of a very steep incline,
thickly strewn with boulders and dead timber. Down this they plunged
with reckless speed; their surefootedness was a marvel in such
seemingly unwieldy beasts. A column of dust obscured their passage,
and under its cover they disappeared in the forest; but the trail of
the bull was marked by splashes of frothy blood, and we followed it at
a trot. Fifty yards beyond the border of the forest we found the stark
black body stretched motionless. He was a splendid old bull, still in
his full vigor, with large, sharp horns, and heavy mane and glossy
coat; and I felt the most exulting pride as I handled and examined
him; for I had procured a trophy such as can fall henceforth to few
hunters indeed.

It was too late to dress the beast that evening; so, after taking out
the tongue and cutting off enough meat for supper and breakfast, we
scrambled down to near the torrent, and after some search found a good
spot for camping. Hot and dusty from the day's hard tramp, I undressed
and took a plunge in the stream, the icy water making me gasp. Then,
having built a slight lean-to of brush, and dragged together enough
dead timber to burn all night, we cut long alder twigs, sat down
before some embers raked apart, and grilled and ate our buffalo meat
with the utmost relish. Night had fallen; a cold wind blew up the
valley; the torrent roared as it leaped past us, and drowned our words
as we strove to talk over our adventures and success; while the flame
of the fire flickered and danced, lighting up with continual vivid
flashes the gloom of the forest round about.



CHAPTER II.

THE BLACK BEAR.

Next to the whitetail deer the black bear is the commonest and most
widely distributed of American big game. It is still found quite
plentifully in northern New England, in the Adirondacks, Catskills,
and along the entire length of the Alleghanies, as well as in the
swamps and canebrakes of the southern States. It is also common in the
great forests of northern Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, and
throughout the Rocky Mountains and the timbered ranges of the Pacific
coast. In the East it has always ranked second only to the deer among
the beasts of chase. The bear and the buck were the staple objects of
pursuit of all the old hunters. They were more plentiful than the
bison and elk even in the long vanished days when these two great
monarchs of the forest still ranged eastward to Virginia and
Pennsylvania. The wolf and the cougar were always too scarce and too
shy to yield much profit to the hunters. The black bear is a timid,
cowardly animal, and usually a vegetarian, though it sometimes preys
on the sheep, hogs, and even cattle of the settler, and is very fond
of raiding his corn and melons. Its meat is good and its fur often
valuable; and in its chase there is much excitement, and occasionally
a slight spice of danger, just enough to render it attractive; so it
has always been eagerly followed. Yet it still holds its own, though
in greatly diminished numbers, in the more thinly settled portions of
the country. One of the standing riddles of American zoology is the
fact that the black bear, which is easier killed and less prolific
than the wolf, should hold its own in the land better than the latter,
this being directly the reverse of what occurs in Europe, where the
brown bear is generally exterminated before the wolf.

In a few wild spots in the East, in northern Maine for instance, here
and there in the neighborhood of the upper Great Lakes, in the east
Tennessee and Kentucky mountains and the swamps of Florida and
Mississippi, there still lingers an occasional representative of the
old wilderness hunters. These men live in log-cabins in the
wilderness. They do their hunting on foot, occasionally with the help
of a single trailing dog. In Maine they are as apt to kill moose and
caribou as bear and deer; but elsewhere the two last, with an
occasional cougar or wolf, are the beasts of chase which they follow.
Nowadays as these old hunters die there is no one to take their
places, though there are still plenty of backwoods settlers in all of
the regions named who do a great deal of hunting and trapping. Such an
old hunter rarely makes his appearance at the settlements except to
dispose of his peltry and hides in exchange for cartridges and
provisions, and he leads a life of such lonely isolation as to insure
his individual characteristics developing into peculiarities. Most of
the wilder districts in the eastern States still preserve memories of
some such old hunter who lived his long life alone, waging ceaseless
warfare on the vanishing game, whose oddities, as well as his courage,
hardihood, and woodcraft, are laughingly remembered by the older
settlers, and who is usually best known as having killed the last wolf
or bear or cougar ever seen in the locality.

Generally the weapon mainly relied on by these old hunters is the
rifle; and occasionally some old hunter will be found even to this day
who uses a muzzle loader, such as Kit Carson carried in the middle of
the century. There are exceptions to this rule of the rifle however.
In the years after the Civil War one of the many noted hunters of
southwest Virginia and east Tennessee was Wilber Waters, sometimes
called The Hunter of White Top. He often killed black bear with a
knife and dogs. He spent all his life in hunting and was very
successful, killing the last gang of wolves to be found in his
neighborhood; and he slew innumerable bears, with no worse results to
himself than an occasional bite or scratch.

In the southern States the planters living in the wilder regions have
always been in the habit of following the black bear with horse and
hound, many of them keeping regular packs of bear hounds. Such a pack
includes not only pure-bred hounds, but also cross-bred animals, and
some sharp, agile, hard-biting fierce dogs and terriers. They follow
the bear and bring him to bay but do not try to kill him, although
there are dogs of the big fighting breeds which can readily master a
black bear if loosed at him three or four at a time; but the dogs of
these southern bear-hound packs are not fitted for such work, and if
they try to close with the bear he is certain to play havoc with them,
disemboweling them with blows of his paws or seizing them in his arms
and biting through their spines or legs. The riders follow the hounds
through the canebrakes, and also try to make cutoffs and station
themselves at open points where they think the bear will pass, so that
they may get a shot at him. The weapons used are rifles, shotguns, and
occasionally revolvers.

Sometimes, however, the hunter uses the knife. General Wade Hampton,
who has probably killed more black bears than any other man living in
the United States, frequently used the knife, slaying thirty or forty
with this weapon. His plan was, when he found that the dogs had the
bear at bay, to walk up close and cheer them on. They would instantly
seize the bear in a body, and he would then rush in and stab it behind
the shoulder, reaching over so as to inflict the wound on the opposite
side from that where he stood. He escaped scathless from all these
encounters save one, in which he was rather severely torn in the
forearm. Many other hunters have used the knife, but perhaps none so
frequently as he; for he was always fond of steel, as witness his
feats with the "white arm" during the Civil War.

General Hampton always hunted with large packs of hounds, managed
sometimes by himself and sometimes by his negro hunters. He
occasionally took out forty dogs at a time. He found that all his dogs
together could not kill a big fat bear, but they occasionally killed
three-year-olds, or lean and poor bears. During the course of his life
he has himself killed, or been in at the death of, five hundred bears,
at least two thirds of them falling by his own hand. In the year just
before the war he had on one occasion, in Mississippi, killed sixty-
eight bears in five months. Once he killed four bears in a day; at
another time three, and frequently two. The two largest bears he
himself killed weighed, respectively, 408 and 410 pounds. They were
both shot in Mississippi. But he saw at least one bear killed which
was much larger than either of these. These figures were taken down at
the time, when the animals were actually weighed on the scales. Most
of his hunting for bear was done in northern Mississippi, where one of
his plantations was situated, near Greenville. During the half century
that he hunted, on and off, in this neighborhood, he knew of two
instances where hunters were fatally wounded in the chase of the black
bear. Both of the men were inexperienced, one being a raftsman who
came down the river, and the other a man from Vicksburg. He was not
able to learn the particulars in the last case, but the raftsman came
too close to a bear that was at bay, and it broke through the dogs,
rushed at and overthrew him, then lying on him, it bit him deeply in
the thigh, through the femoral artery, so that he speedily bled to
death.

But a black bear is not usually a formidable opponent, and though he
will sometimes charge home he is much more apt to bluster and bully
than actually to come to close quarters. I myself have but once seen a
man who had been hurt by one of these bears. This was an Indian. He
had come on the beast close up in a thick wood, and had mortally
wounded it with his gun; it had then closed with him, knocking the gun
out of his hand, so that he was forced to use his knife. It charged
him on all fours, but in the grapple, when it had failed to throw him
down, it raised itself on its hind legs, clasping him across the
shoulders with its fore-paws. Apparently it had no intention of
hugging, but merely sought to draw him within reach of his jaws. He
fought desperately against this, using the knife freely, and striving
to keep its head back; and the flow of blood weakened the animal, so
that it finally fell exhausted, before being able dangerously to
injure him. But it had bitten his left arm very severely, and its
claws had made long gashes on his shoulders.

Black bears, like grislies, vary greatly in their modes of attack.
Sometimes they rush in and bite; and again they strike with their
fore-paws. Two of my cowboys were originally from Maine, where I knew
them well. There they were fond of trapping bears and caught a good
many. The huge steel gins, attached by chains to heavy clogs,
prevented the trapped beasts from going far; and when found they were
always tied tight round some tree or bush, and usually nearly
exhausted. The men killed them either with a little 32-calibre pistol
or a hatchet. But once did they meet with any difficulty. On this
occasion one of them incautiously approached a captured bear to knock
it on the head with his hatchet, but the animal managed to partially
untwist itself, and with its free fore-arm made a rapid sweep at him;
he jumped back just in time, the bear's claws tearing his clothes--
after which he shot it. Bears are shy and have very keen noses; they
are therefore hard to kill by fair hunting, living, as they generally
do, in dense forests or thick brush. They are easy enough to trap,
however. Thus, these two men, though they trapped so many, never but
once killed them in any other way. On this occasion one of them, in
the winter, found in a great hollow log a den where a she and two
well-grown cubs had taken up their abode, and shot all three with his
rifle as they burst out.

Where they are much hunted, bear become purely nocturnal; but in the
wilder forests I have seen them abroad at all hours, though they do
not much relish the intense heat of noon. They are rather comical
animals to watch feeding and going about the ordinary business of
their lives. Once I spent half an hour lying at the edge of a wood and
looking at a black bear some three hundred yards off across an open
glade. It was in good stalking country, but the wind was unfavorable
and I waited for it to shift--waited too long as it proved, for
something frightened the beast and he made off before I could get a
shot at him. When I first saw him he was shuffling along and rooting
in the ground, so that he looked like a great pig. Then he began to
turn over the stones and logs to hunt for insects, small reptiles, and
the like. A moderate-sized stone he would turn over with a single clap
of his paw, and then plunge his nose down into the hollow to gobble up
the small creatures beneath while still dazed by the light. The big
logs and rocks he would tug and worry at with both paws; once, over-
exerting his clumsy strength, he lost his grip and rolled clean on his
back. Under some of the logs he evidently found mice and chipmunks;
then, as soon as the log was overturned, he would be seen jumping
about with grotesque agility, and making quick dabs here and there, as
the little, scurrying rodent turned and twisted, until at last he put
his paw on it and scooped it up into his mouth. Sometimes, probably
when he smelt the mice underneath, he would cautiously turn the log
over with one paw, holding the other lifted and ready to strike. Now
and then he would halt and sniff the air in every direction, and it
was after one of these halts that he suddenly shuffled off into the
woods.

Black bears generally feed on berries, nuts, insects, carrion, and the
like; but at times they take to killing very large animals. In fact,
they are curiously irregular in their food. They will kill deer if
they can get at them; but generally the deer are too quick. Sheep and
hogs are their favorite prey, especially the latter, for bears seem to
have a special relish for pork. Twice I have known a black bear kill
cattle. Once the victim was a bull which had got mired, and which the
bear deliberately proceeded to eat alive, heedless of the bellows of
the unfortunate beast. On the other occasion, a cow was surprised and
slain among some bushes at the edge of a remote pasture. In the
spring, soon after the long winter sleep, they are very hungry, and
are especially apt to attack large beasts at this time; although
during the very first days of their appearance, when they are just
breaking their fast, they eat rather sparingly, and by preference the
tender shoots of green grass and other herbs, or frogs and crayfish;
it is not for a week or two that they seem to be overcome by lean,
ravenous hunger. They will even attack and master that formidable
fighter the moose, springing at it from an ambush as it passes--for a
bull moose would surely be an overmatch for one of them if fronted
fairly in the open. An old hunter, whom I could trust, told me that he
had seen in the snow in early spring the place where a bear had sprung
at two moose, which were trotting together; he missed his spring, and
the moose got off, their strides after they settled down into their
pace being tremendous, and showing how thoroughly they were
frightened. Another time he saw a bear chase a moose into a lake,
where it waded out a little distance, and then turned to bay, bidding
defiance to his pursuer, the latter not daring to approach in the
water. I have been told--but cannot vouch for it--that instances have
been known where the bear, maddened by hunger, has gone in on a moose
thus standing at bay, only to be beaten down under the water by the
terrible fore-hoofs of the quarry, and to yield its life in the
contest. A lumberman told me that he once saw a moose, evidently much
startled, trot through a swamp, and immediately afterwards a bear came
up following the tracks. He almost ran into the man, and was evidently
not in a good temper, for he growled and blustered, and two or three
times made feints of charging, before he finally concluded to go off.

Bears will occasionally visit hunters' or lumberman's camps, in the
absence of the owners, and play sad havoc with all that therein is,
devouring everything eatable, especially if sweet, and trampling into
a dirty mess whatever they do not eat. The black bear does not average
much more than a third the size of the grisly; but, like all its kind,
it varies greatly in weight. The largest I myself ever saw weighed was
in Maine, and tipped the scale at 346 pounds; but I have a perfectly
authentic record of one in Maine that weighed 397, and my friend, Dr.
Hart Merriam, tells me that he has seen several in the Adirondacks
that when killed weighed about 350.

I have myself shot but one or two black bears, and these were obtained
under circumstances of no special interest, as I merely stumbled on
them while after other game, and killed them before they had a chance
either to run or show fight.



CHAPTER III.

OLD EPHRAIM, THE GRISLY BEAR.

The king of the game beasts of temperate North America, because the
most dangerous to the hunter, is the grisly bear; known to the few
remaining old-time trappers of the Rockies and the Great Plains,
sometimes as "Old Ephraim" and sometimes as "Moccasin Joe"--the last
in allusion to his queer, half-human footprints, which look as if made
by some mishapen giant, walking in moccasins.

Bear vary greatly in size and color, no less than in temper and
habits. Old hunters speak much of them in their endless talks over the
camp fires and in the snow-bound winter huts. They insist on many
species; not merely the black and the grisly but the brown, the
cinnamon, the gray, the silver-tip, and others with names known only
in certain localities, such as the range bear, the roach-back, and the
smut-face. But, in spite of popular opinion to the contrary, most old
hunters are very untrustworthy in dealing with points of natural
history. They usually know only so much about any given animal as will
enable them to kill it. They study its habits solely with this end in
view; and once slain they only examine it to see about its condition
and fur. With rare exceptions they are quite incapable of passing
judgment upon questions of specific identity or difference. When
questioned, they not only advance perfectly impossible theories and
facts in support of their views, but they rarely even agree as to the
views themselves. One hunter will assert that the true grisly is only
found in California, heedless of the fact that the name was first used
by Lewis and Clarke as one of the titles they applied to the large
bears of the plains country round the Upper Missouri, a quarter of a
century before the California grisly was known to fame. Another hunter
will call any big brindled bear a grisly no matter where it is found;
and he and his companions will dispute by the hour as to whether a
bear of large, but not extreme, size is a grisly or a silver-tip. In
Oregon the cinnamon bear is a phase of the small black bear; in
Montana it is the plains variety of the large mountain silver-tip. I
have myself seen the skins of two bears killed on the upper waters of
Tongue River; one was that of a male, one of a female, and they had
evidently just mated; yet one was distinctly a "silver-tip" and the
other a "cinnamon." The skin of one very big bear which I killed in
the Bighorn has proved a standing puzzle to almost all the old hunters
to whom I have showed it; rarely do any two of them agree as to
whether it is a grisly, a silver-tip, a cinnamon, or a "smut-face."
Any bear with unusually long hair on the spine and shoulders,
especially if killed in the spring, when the fur is shaggy, is
forthwith dubbed a "roach-back." The average sporting writer moreover
joins with the more imaginative members of the "old hunter" variety in
ascribing wildly various traits to these different bears. One comments
on the superior prowess of the roach-back; the explanation being that
a bear in early spring is apt to be ravenous from hunger. The next
insists that the California grisly is the only really dangerous bear;
while another stoutly maintains that it does not compare in ferocity
with what he calls the "smaller" silver-tip or cinnamon. And so on,
and so on, without end. All of which is mere nonsense.

Nevertheless it is no easy task to determine how many species or
varieties of bear actually do exist in the United States, and I cannot
even say without doubt that a very large set of skins and skulls would
not show a nearly complete intergradation between the most widely
separated individuals. However, there are certainly two very distinct
types, which differ almost as widely from each other as a wapiti does
from a mule deer, and which exist in the same localities in most
heavily timbered portions of the Rockies. One is the small black bear,
a bear which will average about two hundred pounds weight, with fine,
glossy, black fur, and the fore-claws but little longer than the
hinder ones; in fact the hairs of the fore-paw often reach to their
tips. This bear is a tree climber. It is the only kind found east of
the great plains, and it is also plentiful in the forest-clad portions
of the Rockies, being common in most heavily timbered tracts
throughout the United States. The other is the grisly, which weighs
three or four times as much as the black, and has a pelt of coarse
hair, which is in color gray, grizzled, or brown of various shades. It
is not a tree climber, and the fore-claws are very long, much longer
than the hinder ones. It is found from the great plains west of the
Mississippi to the Pacific coast. This bear inhabits indifferently
lowland and mountain; the deep woods, and the barren plains where the
only cover is the stunted growth fringing the streams. These two types
are very distinct in every way, and their differences are not at all
dependent upon mere geographical considerations; for they are often
found in the same district. Thus I found them both in the Bighorn
Mountains, each type being in extreme form, while the specimens I shot
showed no trace of intergradation. The huge grizzled, long-clawed
beast, and its little glossy-coated, short-clawed, tree-climbing
brother roamed over exactly the same country in those mountains; but
they were as distinct in habits, and mixed as little together as moose
and caribou.

On the other hand, when a sufficient number of bears, from widely
separated regions are examined, the various distinguishing marks are
found to be inconstant and to show a tendency--exactly how strong I
cannot say--to fade into one another. The differentiation of the two
species seems to be as yet scarcely completed; there are more or less
imperfect connecting links, and as regards the grisly it almost seems
as if the specific character were still unstable. In the far
northwest, in the basin of the Columbia the "black" bear is as often
brown as any other color; and I have seen the skins of two cubs, one
black and one brown, which were shot when following the same dam. When
these brown bears have coarser hair than usual their skins are with
difficulty to be distinguished from those of certain varieties of the
grisly. Moreover, all bears vary greatly in size; and I have seen the
bodies of very large black or brown bears with short fore-claws which
were fully as heavy as, or perhaps heavier than, some small but full-
grown grislies with long fore-claws. These very large bears with short
claws are very reluctant to climb a tree; and are almost as clumsy
about it as is a young grisly. Among the grislies the fur varies much
in color and texture even among bears of the same locality; it is of
course richest in the deep forest, while the bears of the dry plains
and mountains are of a lighter, more washed-out hue.

A full grown grisly will usually weigh from five to seven hundred
pounds; but exceptional individuals undoubtedly reach more than twelve
hundredweight. The California bears are said to be much the largest.
This I think is so, but I cannot say it with certainty--at any rate I
have examined several skins of full-grown California bears which were
no larger than many I have seen from the northern Rockies. The Alaskan
bears, particularly those of the peninsula, are even bigger beasts;
the skin of one which I saw in the possession of Mr. Webster, the
taxidermist, was a good deal larger than the average polar bear skin;
and the animal when alive, if in good condition, could hardly have
weighed less than 1,400 pounds.[*] Bears vary wonderfully in weight,
even to the extent of becoming half as heavy again, according as they
are fat or lean; in this respect they are more like hogs than like any
other animals.

[*] Both this huge Alaskan bear and the entirely distinct bear of the
barren grounds differ widely from the true grisly, at least in
their extreme forms.

The grisly is now chiefly a beast of the high hills and heavy timber;
but this is merely because he has learned that he must rely on cover
to guard him from man, and has forsaken the open ground accordingly.
In old days, and in one or two very out-of-the-way places almost to
the present time, he wandered at will over the plains. It is only the
wariness born of fear which nowadays causes him to cling to the thick
brush of the large river-bottoms throughout the plains country. When
there were no rifle-bearing hunters in the land, to harass him and
make him afraid, he roved thither and thither at will, in burly self-
confidence. Then he cared little for cover, unless as a weather-break,
or because it happened to contain food he liked. If the humor seized
him he would roam for days over the rolling or broken prairie,
searching for roots, digging up gophers, or perhaps following the
great buffalo herds either to prey on some unwary straggler which he
was able to catch at a disadvantage in a washout, or else to feast on
the carcasses of those which died by accident. Old hunters, survivors
of the long-vanished ages when the vast herds thronged the high plains
and were followed by the wild red tribes, and by bands of whites who
were scarcely less savage, have told me that they often met bears
under such circumstances; and these bears were accustomed to sleep in
a patch of rank sage bush, in the niche of a washout, or under the lee
of a boulder, seeking their food abroad even in full daylight. The
bears of the Upper Missouri basin--which were so light in color that
the early explorers often alluded to them as gray or even as "white"--
were particularly given to this life in the open. To this day that
close kinsman of the grisly known as the bear of the barren grounds
continues to lead this same kind of life, in the far north. My friend
Mr. Rockhill, of Maryland, who was the first white man to explore
eastern Tibet, describes the large, grisly-like bear of those desolate
uplands as having similar habits.

However, the grisly is a shrewd beast and shows the usual bear-like
capacity for adapting himself to changed conditions. He has in most
places become a cover-haunting animal, sly in his ways, wary to a
degree and clinging to the shelter of the deepest forests in the
mountains and of the most tangled thickets in the plains. Hence he has
held his own far better than such game as the bison and elk. He is
much less common than formerly, but he is still to be found throughout
most of his former range; save of course in the immediate neighborhood
of the large towns.

In most places the grisly hibernates, or as old hunters say "holes
up," during the cold season, precisely as does the black bear; but as
with the latter species, those animals which live farthest south spend
the whole year abroad in mild seasons. The grisly rarely chooses that
favorite den of his little black brother, a hollow tree or log, for
his winter sleep, seeking or making some cavernous hole in the ground
instead. The hole is sometimes in a slight hillock in a river bottom
but more often on a hill-side, and may be either shallow or deep. In
the mountains it is generally a natural cave in the rock, but among
the foothills and on the plains the bear usually has to take some
hollow or opening, and then fashion it into a burrow to his liking
with his big digging claws.

Before the cold weather sets in the bear begins to grow restless, and
to roam about seeking for a good place in which to hole up. One will
often try and abandon several caves or partially dug-out burrows in
succession before finding a place to its taste. It always endeavors to
choose a spot where there is little chance of discovery or
molestation, taking great care to avoid leaving too evident trace of
its work. Hence it is not often that the dens are found.

Once in its den the bear passes the cold months in lethargic sleep;
yet, in all but the coldest weather, and sometimes even then, its
slumber is but light, and if disturbed it will promptly leave its den,
prepared for fight or flight as the occasion may require. Many times
when a hunter has stumbled on the winter resting-place of a bear and
has left it, as he thought, without his presence being discovered, he
has returned only to find that the crafty old fellow was aware of the
danger all the time, and sneaked off as soon as the coast was clear.
But in very cold weather hibernating bears can hardly be wakened from
their torpid lethargy.

The length of time a bear stays in its den depends of course upon the
severity of the season and the latitude and altitude of the country.
In the northernmost and coldest regions all the bears hole up, and
spend half the year in a state of lethargy; whereas in the south only
the she's with young and the fat he-bears retire for the sleep, and
these but for a few weeks, and only if the season is severe.

When the bear first leaves its den the fur is in very fine order, but
it speedily becomes thin and poor, and does not recover its condition
until the fall. Sometimes the bear does not betray any great hunger
for a few days after its appearance; but in a short while it becomes
ravenous. During the early spring, when the woods are still entirely
barren and lifeless, while the snow yet lies in deep drifts, the bear,
hungry brute, both maddened and weakened by long fasting, is more of a
flesh eater than at any other time. It is at this period that it is
most apt to turn true beast of prey, and show its prowess either at
the expense of the wild game, or of the flocks of the settler and the
herds of the ranchman. Bears are very capricious in this respect,
however. Some are confirmed game, and cattle-killers; others are not;
while yet others either are or are not accordingly as the freak seizes
them, and their ravages vary almost unaccountably, both with the
season and the locality.

Throughout 1889, for instance, no cattle, so far as I heard, were
killed by bears anywhere near my range on the Little Missouri in
western Dakota; yet I happened to know that during that same season
the ravages of the bears among the herds of the cowmen in the Big Hole
Basin, in western Montana, were very destructive.

In the spring and early summer of 1888, the bears killed no cattle
near my ranch; but in the late summer and early fall of that year a
big bear, which we well knew by its tracks, suddenly took to cattle-
killing. This was a brute which had its headquarters on some very
large brush bottoms a dozen miles below my ranch house, and which
ranged to and fro across the broken country flanking the river on each
side. It began just before berry time, but continued its career of
destruction long after the wild plums and even buffalo berries had
ripened. I think that what started it was a feast on a cow which had
mired and died in the bed of the creek; at least it was not until
after we found that it had been feeding at the carcass and had eaten
every scrap, that we discovered traces of its ravages among the
livestock. It seemed to attack the animals wholly regardless of their
size and strength; its victims including a large bull and a beef
steer, as well as cows, yearlings, and gaunt, weak trail "doughgies,"
which had been brought in very late by a Texas cow-outfit--for that
year several herds were driven up from the overstocked, eaten-out, and
drought-stricken ranges of the far south. Judging from the signs, the
crafty old grisly, as cunning as he was ferocious, usually lay in wait
for the cattle when they came down to water, choosing some thicket of
dense underbrush and twisted cottonwoods, through which they had to
pass before reaching the sand banks on the river's brink. Sometimes he
pounced on them as they fed through the thick, low cover of the
bottoms, where an assailant could either lie in ambush by one of the
numerous cattle trails, or else creep unobserved towards some browsing
beast. When within a few feet a quick rush carried him fairly on the
terrified quarry; and though but a clumsy animal compared to the great
cats, the grisly is far quicker than one would imagine from viewing
his ordinary lumbering gait. In one or two instances the bear had
apparently grappled with his victim by seizing it near the loins and
striking a disabling blow over the small of the back; in at least one
instance he had jumped on the animal's head, grasping it with his
fore-paws, while with his fangs he tore open the throat or crunched
the neck bone. Some of his victims were slain far from the river, in
winding, brushy coulies of the Bad Lands, where the broken nature of
the ground rendered stalking easy. Several of the ranchmen, angered at
their losses, hunted their foe eagerly, but always with ill success;
until one of them put poison in a carcass, and thus at last, in
ignoble fashion, slew the cattle-killer.

Mr. Clarence King informs me that he was once eye-witness to a bear's
killing a steer, in California. The steer was in a small pasture, and
the bear climbed over, partly breaking down, the rails which barred
the gateway. The steer started to run, but the grisly overtook it in
four or five bounds, and struck it a tremendous blow on the flank with
one paw, knocking several ribs clear away from the spine, and killing
the animal outright by the shock.

Horses no less than horned cattle at times fall victims to this great
bear, which usually spring on them from the edge of a clearing as they
graze in some mountain pasture, or among the foot-hills; and there is
no other animal of which horses seem so much afraid. Generally the
bear, whether successful or unsuccessful in its raids on cattle and
horses, comes off unscathed from the struggle; but this is not always
the case, and it has much respect for the hoofs or horns of its
should-be prey. Some horses do not seem to know how to fight at all;
but others are both quick and vicious, and prove themselves very
formidable foes, lashing out behind, and striking with their fore-
hoofs. I have elsewhere given an instance of a stallion which beat off
a bear, breaking its jaw.

Quite near my ranch, once, a cowboy in my employ found unmistakable
evidence of the discomfiture of a bear by a long-horned range cow. It
was in the early spring, and the cow with her new-born calf was in a
brush-bordered valley. The footprints in the damp soil were very
plain, and showed all that had happened. The bear had evidently come
out of the bushes with a rush, probably bent merely on seizing the
calf; and had slowed up when the cow instead of flying faced him. He
had then begun to walk round his expected dinner in a circle, the cow
fronting him and moving nervously back and forth, so that her sharp
hoofs cut and trampled the ground. Finally she had charged savagely;
whereupon the bear had bolted; and, whether frightened at the charge,
or at the approach of some one, he had not returned.

The grisly is even fonder of sheep and pigs than is its smaller black
brother. Lurking round the settler's house until after nightfall, it
will vault into the fold or sty, grasp a helpless, bleating fleece-
bearer, or a shrieking, struggling member of the bristly brotherhood,
and bundle it out over the fence to its death. In carrying its prey a
bear sometimes holds the body in its teeth, walking along on all-fours
and dragging it as a wolf does. Sometimes, however, it seizes an
animal in its forearms or in one of them, and walks awkwardly on three
legs or two, adopting this method in lifting and pushing the body over
rocks and down timber.

When a grisly can get at domestic animals it rarely seeks to molest
game, the former being far less wary and more helpless. Its heaviness
and clumsiness do not fit it well for a life of rapine against shy
woodland creatures. Its vast strength and determined temper, however,
more than make amends for lack of agility in the actual struggle with
the stricken prey; its difficulty lies in seizing, not in killing, the
game. Hence, when a grisly does take to game-killing, it is likely to
attack bison, moose, and elk; it is rarely able to catch deer, still
less sheep or antelope. In fact these smaller game animals often show
but little dread of its neighborhood, and, though careful not to let
it come too near, go on grazing when a bear is in full sight.
Whitetail deer are frequently found at home in the same thicket in
which a bear has its den, while they immediately desert the temporary
abiding place of a wolf or cougar. Nevertheless, they sometimes
presume too much on this confidence. A couple of years before the
occurrence of the feats of cattle-killing mentioned above as happening
near my ranch, either the same bear that figured in them, or another
of similar tastes, took to game-hunting. The beast lived in the same
succession of huge thickets which cover for two or three miles the
river bottoms and the mouths of the inflowing creeks; and he suddenly
made a raid on the whitetail deer which were plentiful in the dense
cover. The shaggy, clumsy monster was cunning enough to kill several
of these knowing creatures. The exact course of procedure I never
could find out; but apparently the bear laid in wait beside the game
trails, along which the deer wandered.

In the old days when the innumerable bison grazed free on the prairie,
the grisly sometimes harassed their bands as it now does the herds of
the ranchman. The bison was the most easily approached of all game,
and the great bear could often get near some outlying straggler, in
its quest after stray cows, yearlings, or calves. In default of a
favorable chance to make a prey of one of these weaker members of the
herds, it did not hesitate to attack the mighty bulls themselves; and
perhaps the grandest sights which it was ever the good fortune of the
early hunters to witness was one of these rare battles between a
hungry grisly and a powerful buffalo bull. Nowadays, however, the few
last survivors of the bison are vanishing even from the inaccessible
mountain fastnesses in which they sought a final refuge from their
destroyers.

At present the wapiti is of all wild game that which is most likely to
fall a victim to the grisly, when the big bear is in the mood to turn
hunter. Wapiti are found in the same places as the grisly, and in some
spots they are yet very plentiful; they are less shy and active than
deer, while not powerful enough to beat off so ponderous a foe; and
they live in cover where there is always a good chance either to stalk
or to stumble on them. At almost any season bear will come and feast
on an elk carcass; and if the food supply runs short, in early spring,
or in a fall when the berry crop fails, they sometimes have to do
their own killing. Twice I have come across the remains of elk, which
had seemingly been slain and devoured by bears. I have never heard of
elk making a fight against a bear; yet, at close quarters and at bay,
a bull elk in the rutting season is an ugly foe.

A bull moose is even more formidable, being able to strike the most
lightning-like blows with his terrible forefeet, his true weapons of
defense. I doubt if any beast of prey would rush in on one of these
woodland giants, when his horns were grown, and if he was on his guard
and bent on fight. Nevertheless, the moose sometimes fall victims to
the uncouth prowess of the grisly, in the thick wet forests of the
high northern Rockies, where both beasts dwell. An old hunter who a
dozen years ago wintered at Jackson Lake, in northwestern Wyoming,
told me that when the snows got deep on the mountains the moose came
down and took up their abode near the lake, on its western side.
Nothing molested them during the winter. Early in the spring a grisly
came out of its den, and he found its tracks in many places, as it
roamed restlessly about, evidently very hungry. Finding little to eat
in the bleak, snow-drifted woods, it soon began to depredate on the
moose, and killed two or three, generally by lying in wait and dashing
out on them as they passed near its lurking-place. Even the bulls were
at that season weak, and of course hornless, with small desire to
fight; and in each case the rush of the great bear--doubtless made
with the ferocity and speed which so often belie the seeming
awkwardness of the animal--bore down the startled victim, taken
utterly unawares before it had a chance to defend itself. In one case
the bear had missed its spring; the moose going off, for a few rods,
with huge jumps, and then settling down into its characteristic trot.
The old hunter who followed the tracks said he would never have deemed
it possible for any animal to make such strides while in a trot.

Nevertheless, the grisly is only occasionally, not normally, a
formidable predatory beast, a killer of cattle and of large game.
Although capable of far swifter movement than is promised by his frame
of seemingly clumsy strength, and in spite of his power of charging
with astonishing suddenness and speed, he yet lacks altogether the
supple agility of such finished destroyers as the cougar and the wolf;
and for the absence of this agility no amount of mere huge muscle can
atone. He is more apt to feast on animals which have met their death
by accident, or which have been killed by other beasts or by man, than
to do his own killing. He is a very foul feeder, with a strong relish
for carrion, and possesses a grewsome and cannibal fondness for the
flesh of his own kind; a bear carcass will toll a brother bear to the
ambushed hunter better than almost any other bait, unless it is the
carcass of a horse.

Nor do these big bears always content themselves merely with the
carcasses of their brethren. A black bear would have a poor chance if
in the clutches of a large, hungry grisly; and an old male will kill
and eat a cub, especially if he finds it at a disadvantage. A rather
remarkable instance of this occurred in the Yellowstone National Park,
in the spring of 1891. The incident is related in the following letter
written to Mr. William Hallett Phillips, of Washington, by another
friend, Mr. Elwood Hofer. Hofer is an old mountain-man; I have hunted
with him myself, and know his statements to be trustworthy. He was, at
the time, at work in the Park getting animals for the National Museum
at Washington, and was staying at Yancey's "hotel" near Tower Falls,
His letter which was dated June 21st, 1891, runs in part as follows:

"I had a splendid Grizzly or Roachback cub and was going to send
him into the Springs next morning the team was here. I heard a
racket outside, went out, and found him dead. An old bear that
made a 9 1/2 inch track had killed and partly eaten him. Last
night another one came, one that made a 8 1/2 inch track, and
broke Yancy up in the milk business. You know how the cabins stand
here. There is a hitching post between the saloon and old house,
the little bear was killed there. In a creek close by was a milk
house, last night another bear came there and smashed the whole
thing up, leaving nothing but a few flattened buckets and pans and
boards. I was sleeping in the old cabin, I heard the tin ware
rattle but thought it was all right, supposed it was cows or
horses about. I don't care about the milk but the damn cuss dug up
the remains of the cub I had buried in the old ditch, he visited
the old meat house but found nothing. Bear are very thick in this
part of the Park, and are getting very fresh. I sent in the game
to Capt. Anderson, hear its doing well."

Grislies are fond of fish; and on the Pacific slope, where the salmon
run, they, like so many other beasts, travel many scores of miles and
crowd down to the rivers to gorge themselves upon the fish which are
thrown up on the banks. Wading into the water a bear will knock out
the salmon right and left when they are running thick.

Flesh and fish do not constitute the grisly's ordinary diet. At most
times the big bear is a grubber in the ground, an eater of insects,
roots, nuts, and berries. Its dangerous fore-claws are normally used
to overturn stones and knock rotten logs to pieces, that it may lap up
the small tribes of darkness which swarm under the one and in the
other. It digs up the camas roots, wild onions, and an occasional
luckless woodchuck or gopher. If food is very plenty bears are lazy,
but commonly they are obliged to be very industrious, it being no
light task to gather enough ants, beetles, crickets, tumble-bugs,
roots, and nuts to satisfy the cravings of so huge a bulk. The sign of
a bear's work is, of course, evident to the most unpracticed eye; and
in no way can one get a better idea of the brute's power than by
watching it busily working for its breakfast, shattering big logs and
upsetting boulders by sheer strength. There is always a touch of the
comic, as well as a touch of the strong and terrible, in a bear's look
and actions. It will tug and pull, now with one paw, now with two, now
on all fours, now on its hind legs, in the effort to turn over a large
log or stone; and when it succeeds it jumps round to thrust its muzzle
into the damp hollow and lap up the affrighted mice or beetles while
they are still paralyzed by the sudden exposure.

The true time of plenty for bears is the berry season. Then they feast
ravenously on huckleberries, blueberries, kinnikinnic berries, buffalo
berries, wild plums, elderberries, and scores of other fruits. They
often smash all the bushes in a berry patch, gathering the fruit with
half-luxurious, half-laborious greed, sitting on their haunches, and
sweeping the berries into their mouths with dexterous paws. So
absorbed do they become in their feasts on the luscious fruit that
they grow reckless of their safety, and feed in broad daylight, almost
at midday; while in some of the thickets, especially those of the
mountain haws, they make so much noise in smashing the branches that
it is a comparatively easy matter to approach them unheard. That
still-hunter is in luck who in the fall finds an accessible berry-
covered hillside which is haunted by bears; but, as a rule, the berry
bushes do not grow close enough together to give the hunter much
chance.

Like most other wild animals, bears which have known the neighborhood
of man are beasts of the darkness, or at least of the dusk and the
gloaming. But they are by no means such true night-lovers as the big
cats and the wolves. In regions where they know little of hunters they
roam about freely in the daylight, and in cool weather are even apt to
take their noontide slumbers basking in the sun. Where they are much
hunted they finally almost reverse their natural habits and sleep
throughout the hours of light, only venturing abroad after nightfall
and before sunrise; but even yet this is not the habit of those bears
which exist in the wilder localities where they are still plentiful.
In these places they sleep, or at least rest, during the hours of
greatest heat, and again in the middle part of the night, unless there
is a full moon. They start on their rambles for food about mid-
afternoon, and end their morning roaming soon after the sun is above
the horizon. If the moon is full, however, they may feed all night
long, and then wander but little in the daytime.

Aside from man, the full-grown grisly has hardly any foe to fear.
Nevertheless, in the early spring, when weakened by the hunger that
succeeds the winter sleep, it behooves even the grisly, if he dwells
in the mountain fastnesses of the far northwest, to beware of a
famished troop of great timber wolves. These northern Rocky Mountain
wolves are most formidable beasts, and when many of them band together
in times of famine they do not hesitate to pounce on the black bear
and cougar; and even a full-grown grisly is not safe from their
attacks, unless he can back up against some rock which will prevent
them from assailing him from behind. A small ranchman whom I knew
well, who lived near Flathead Lake, once in April found where a troop
of these wolves had killed a good-sized yearling grisly. Either cougar
or wolf will make a prey of a grisly which is but a few months old;
while any fox, lynx, wolverine, or fisher will seize the very young
cubs. The old story about wolves fearing to feast on game killed by a
grisly is all nonsense. Wolves are canny beasts, and they will not
approach a carcass if they think a bear is hidden near by and likely
to rush out at them; but under ordinary circumstances they will feast
not only on the carcasses of the grisly's victims, but on the carcass
of the grisly himself after he has been slain and left by the hunter.
Of course wolves would only attack a grisly if in the most desperate
straits for food, as even a victory over such an antagonist must be
purchased with heavy loss of life; and a hungry grisly would devour
either a wolf or a cougar, or any one of the smaller carnivora off-
hand if it happened to corner it where it could not get away.

The grisly occasionally makes its den in a cave and spends therein the
midday hours. But this is rare. Usually it lies in the dense shelter
of the most tangled piece of woods in the neighborhood, choosing by
preference some bit where the young growth is thick and the ground
strewn with boulders and fallen logs. Often, especially if in a
restless mood and roaming much over the country, it merely makes a
temporary bed, in which it lies but once or twice; and again it may
make a more permanent lair or series of lairs, spending many
consecutive nights in each. Usually the lair or bed is made some
distance from the feeding ground; but bold bears, in very wild
localities, may lie close by a carcass, or in the middle of a berry
ground. The deer-killing bear above mentioned had evidently dragged
two or three of his victims to his den, which was under an
impenetrable mat of bull-berries and dwarf box-alders, hemmed by a cut
bank on one side and a wall of gnarled cottonwoods on the other. Round
this den, and rendering it noisome, were scattered the bones of
several deer and a young steer or heifer. When we found it we thought
we could easily kill the bear, but the fierce, cunning beast must have
seen or smelt us, for though we laid in wait for it long and
patiently, it did not come back to its place; nor, on our subsequent
visits, did we ever find traces of its having done so.

Bear are fond of wallowing in the water, whether in the sand, on the
edge of a rapid plains river, on the muddy margin of a pond, or in the
oozy moss of a clear, cold mountain spring. One hot August afternoon,
as I was clambering down a steep mountain-side near Pend'Oreille lake,
I heard a crash some distance below, which showed that a large beast
was afoot. On making my way towards the spot, I found I had disturbed
a big bear as it was lolling at ease in its bath; the discolored water
showed where it had scrambled hastily out and galloped off as I
approached. The spring welled out at the base of a high granite rock,
forming a small pool of shimmering broken crystal. The soaked moss lay
in a deep wet cushion round about, and jutted over the edges of the
pool like a floating shelf. Graceful, water-loving ferns swayed to and
fro. Above, the great conifers spread their murmuring branches,
dimming the light, and keeping out the heat; their brown boles sprang
from the ground like buttressed columns. On the barren mountain-side
beyond the heat was oppressive. It was small wonder that Bruin should
have sought the spot to cool his gross carcass in the fresh spring
water.

The bear is a solitary beast, and although many may assemble together,
in what looks like a drove, on some favorite feeding-ground--usually
where the berries are thick, or by the banks of a salmon-thronged
river--the association is never more than momentary, each going its
own way as soon as its hunger is satisfied. The males always live
alone by choice, save in the rutting season, when they seek the
females. Then two or three may come together in the course of their
pursuit and rough courtship of the female; and if the rivals are well
matched, savage battles follow, so that many of the old males have
their heads seamed with scars made by their fellows' teeth. At such
times they are evil tempered and prone to attack man or beast on
slight provocation.

The she brings forth her cubs, one, two, or three in number, in her
winter den. They are very small and helpless things, and it is some
time after she leaves her winter home before they can follow her for
any distance. They stay with her throughout the summer and the fall,
leaving her when the cold weather sets in. By this time they are well
grown; and hence, especially if an old male has joined the she, the
family may number three or four individuals, so as to make what seems
like quite a little troop of bears. A small ranchman who lived a dozen
miles from me on the Little Missouri once found a she-bear and three
half-grown cubs feeding at a berry-patch in a ravine. He shot the old
she in the small of the back, whereat she made a loud roaring and
squealing. One of the cubs rushed towards her; but its sympathy proved
misplaced, for she knocked it over with a hearty cuff, either out of
mere temper, or because she thought her pain must be due to an
unprovoked assault from one of her offspring. The hunter then killed
one of the cubs, and the other two escaped. When bears are together
and one is wounded by a bullet, but does not see the real assailant,
it often falls tooth and nail upon its comrade, apparently attributing
its injury to the latter.

Bears are hunted in many ways. Some are killed by poison; but this
plan is only practised by the owners of cattle or sheep who have
suffered from their ravages. Moreover, they are harder to poison than
wolves. Most often they are killed in traps, which are sometimes dead-
falls, on the principle of the little figure-4 trap familiar to every
American country boy, sometimes log-pens in which the animal is taken
alive, but generally huge steel gins. In some states there is a bounty
for the destruction of grislies; and in many places their skins have a
market price, although much less valuable than those of the black
bear. The men who pursue them for the bounty, or for their fur, as
well as the ranchmen who regard them as foes to stock, ordinarily use
steel traps. The trap is very massive, needing no small strength to
set, and it is usually chained to a bar or log of wood, which does not
stop the bear's progress outright, but hampers and interferes with it,
continually catching in tree stumps and the like. The animal when
trapped makes off at once, biting at the trap and the bar; but it
leaves a broad wake and sooner or later is found tangled up by the
chain and bar. A bear is by no means so difficult to trap as a wolf or
fox although more so than a cougar or a lynx. In wild regions a
skilful trapper can often catch a great many with comparative ease. A
cunning old grisly however, soon learns the danger, and is then almost
impossible to trap, as it either avoids the neighborhood altogether or
finds out some way by which to get at the bait without springing the
trap, or else deliberately springs it first. I have been told of bears
which spring traps by rolling across them, the iron jaws slipping
harmlessly off the big round body. An old horse is the most common
bait.

It is, of course, all right to trap bears when they are followed
merely as vermin or for the sake of the fur. Occasionally, however,
hunters who are out merely for sport adopt this method; but this
should never be done. To shoot a trapped bear for sport is a
thoroughly unsportsmanlike proceeding. A funny plea sometimes advanced
in its favor is that it is "dangerous." No doubt in exceptional
instances this is true; exactly as it is true that in exceptional
instances it is "dangerous" for a butcher to knock over a steer in the
slaughter-house. A bear caught only by the toes may wrench itself free
as the hunter comes near, and attack him with pain-maddened fury; or
if followed at once, and if the trap and bar are light, it may be
found in some thicket, still free, and in a frenzy of rage. But even
in such cases the beast has been crippled, and though crazy with pain
and anger is easily dealt with by a good shot; while ordinarily the
poor brute is found in the last stages of exhaustion, tied tight to a
tree where the log or bar has caught, its teeth broken to splinted
stumps by rabid snaps at the cruel trap and chain. Some trappers kill
the trapped grislies with a revolver; so that it may easily be seen
that the sport is not normally dangerous. Two of my own cowboys,
Seawell and Dow, were originally from Maine, where they had trapped a
number of black bears; and they always killed them either with a
hatchet or a small 32-calibre revolver. One of them, Seawell, once
came near being mauled by a trapped bear, seemingly at the last gasp
which he approached incautiously with his hatchet.

There is, however, one very real danger to which the solitary bear-
trapper is exposed, the danger of being caught in his own trap. The
huge jaws of the gin are easy to spring and most hard to open. If any
unwary passer-by should tread between them and be caught by the leg,
his fate would be doubtful, though he would probably die under the
steadily growing torment of the merciless iron jaws, as they pressed
ever deeper into the sore flesh and broken bones. But if caught by the
arms, while setting or fixing the trap, his fate would be in no doubt
at all, for it would be impossible for the stoutest man to free
himself by any means. Terrible stories are told of solitary mountain
hunters who disappeared, and were found years later in the lonely
wilderness, as mouldering skeletons, the shattered bones of the
forearms still held in the rusty jaws of the gin.

Doubtless the grisly could be successfully hunted with dogs, if the
latter were trained to the purpose, but as yet this has not been done,
and though dogs are sometimes used as adjuncts in grisly hunting they
are rarely of much service. It is sometimes said that very small dogs
are the best for this end. But this is only so with grislies that have
never been hunted. In such a case the big bear sometimes becomes so
irritated with the bouncing, yapping little terriers or fice-dogs that
he may try to catch them and thus permit the hunter to creep upon him.
But the minute he realizes, as he speedily does, that the man is his
real foe, he pays no further heed whatever to the little dogs, who can
then neither bring him to bay nor hinder his flight. Ordinary hounds,
of the kinds used in the south for fox, deer, wild-cat, and black
bear, are but little better. I have known one or two men who at
different times tried to hunt the grisly with a pack of hounds and
fice-dogs wonted to the chase of the black bear, but they never met
with success. This was probably largely owing to the nature of the
country in which they hunted, a vast tangled mass of forest and craggy
mountain; but it was also due to the utter inability of the dogs to
stop the quarry from breaking bay when it wished. Several times a
grisly was bayed, but always in some inaccessible spot which it took
hard climbing to reach, and the dogs were never able to hold the beast
until the hunters came up.

Still a well-trained pack of large hounds which were both bold and
cunning could doubtless bay even a grisly. Such dogs are the big half-
breed hounds sometimes used in the Alleghanies of West Virginia, which
are trained not merely to nip a bear, but to grip him by the hock as
he runs and either throw him or twirl him round. A grisly could not
disregard a wary and powerful hound capable of performing this trick,
even though he paid small heed to mere barking and occasional nipping.
Nor do I doubt that it would be possible to get together a pack of
many large, fierce dogs, trained to dash straight at the head and hold
on like a vise, which could fairly master a grisly and, though unable,
of course, to kill him, would worry him breathless and hold him down
so that he could be slain with ease. There have been instances in
which five or six of the big so-called blood-hounds of the southern
States--not pure blood-hounds at all, but huge, fierce, ban-dogs, with
a cross of the ferocious Cuban blood-hound, to give them good scenting
powers--have by themselves mastered the cougar and the black bear.
Such instances occurred in the hunting history of my own forefathers
on my mother's side, who during the last half of the eighteenth, and
the first half of the present, century lived in Georgia and over the
border in what are now Alabama and Florida. These big dogs can only
overcome such foes by rushing in in a body and grappling all together;
if they hang back, lunging and snapping, a cougar or bear will destroy
them one by one. With a quarry so huge and redoubtable as the grisly,
no number of dogs, however large and fierce, could overcome him unless
they all rushed on him in a mass, the first in the charge seizing by
the head or throat. If the dogs hung back, or if there were only a few
of them, or if they did not seize around the head, they would be
destroyed without an effort. It is murder to slip merely one or two
close-quarter dogs at a grisly. Twice I have known a man take a large
bulldog with his pack when after one of these big bears, and in each
case the result was the same. In one instance the bear was trotting
when the bulldog seized it by the cheek, and without so much as
altering its gait, it brushed off the hanging dog with a blow from the
fore-paw that broke the latter's back. In the other instance the bear
had come to bay, and when seized by the ear it got the dog's body up
to its jaws, and tore out the life with one crunch.

A small number of dogs must rely on their activity, and must hamper
the bear's escape by inflicting a severe bite and avoiding the
counter-stroke. The only dog I ever heard of which, single-handed, was
really of service in stopping a grisly, was a big Mexican sheep-dog,
once owned by the hunter Tazewell Woody. It was an agile beast with
powerful jaws, and possessed both intelligence and a fierce, resolute
temper. Woody killed three grislies with its aid. It attacked with
equal caution and ferocity, rushing at the bear as the latter ran, and
seizing the outstretched hock with a grip of iron, stopping the bear
short, but letting go before the angry beast could whirl round and
seize it. It was so active and wary that it always escaped damage; and
it was so strong and bit so severely that the bear could not possibly
run from it at any speed. In consequence, if it once came to close
quarters with its quarry, Woody could always get near enough for a
shot.

Hitherto, however, the mountain hunters--as distinguished from the
trappers--who have followed the grisly have relied almost solely on
their rifles. In my own case about half the bears I have killed I
stumbled across almost by accident; and probably this proportion holds
good generally. The hunter may be after bear at the time, or he may be
after blacktail deer or elk, the common game in most of the haunts of
the grisly; or he may merely be travelling through the country or
prospecting for gold. Suddenly he comes over the edge of a cut bank,
or round the sharp spur of a mountain or the shoulder of a cliff which
walls in a ravine, or else the indistinct game trail he has been
following through the great trees twists sharply to one side to avoid
a rock or a mass of down timber, and behold he surprises old Ephraim
digging for roots, or munching berries, or slouching along the path,
or perhaps rising suddenly from the lush, rank plants amid which he
has been lying. Or it may be that the bear will be spied afar rooting
in an open glade or on a bare hill-side.

In the still-hunt proper it is necessary to find some favorite
feeding-ground, where there are many roots or berry-bearing bushes, or
else to lure the grisly to a carcass. This last method of "baiting"
for bears is under ordinary circumstances the only way which affords
even a moderately fair chance of killing them. They are very cunning,
with the sharpest of noses, and where they have had experience of
hunters they dwell only in cover where it is almost impossible for the
best of still-hunters to approach them.

Nevertheless, in favorable ground a man can often find and kill them
by fair stalking, in berry time, or more especially in the early
spring, before the snow has gone from the mountains, and while the
bears are driven by hunger to roam much abroad and sometimes to seek
their food in the open. In such cases the still-hunter is stirring by
the earliest dawn, and walks with stealthy speed to some high point of
observation from which he can overlook the feeding-grounds where he
has previously discovered sign. From this vantage he scans the country
far and near, either with his own keen eyes or with powerful glasses;
and he must combine patience and good sight with the ability to
traverse long distances noiselessly and yet at speed. He may spend two
or three hours sitting still and looking over a vast tract of country
before he will suddenly spy a bear; or he may see nothing after the
most careful search in a given place, and must then go on half a dozen
miles to another, watching warily as he walks, and continuing this
possibly for several days before getting a glimpse of his game. If the
bear are digging roots, or otherwise procuring their food on the bare
hill sides and table-lands, it is of course comparatively easy to see
them; and it is under such circumstances that this kind of hunting is
most successful. Once seen, the actual stalk may take two or three
hours, the nature of the ground and the direction of the wind often
necessitating a long circuit; perhaps a gully, a rock, or a fallen log
offers a chance for an approach to within two hundred yards, and
although the hunter will, if possible, get much closer than this, yet
even at such a distance a bear is a large enough mark to warrant
taking a shot.

Usually the berry grounds do not offer such favorable opportunities,
as they often lie in thick timber, or are covered so densely with
bushes as to obstruct the view; and they are rarely commanded by a
favorable spot from which to spy. On the other hand, as already said,
bears occasionally forget all their watchfulness while devouring
fruit, and make such a noise rending and tearing the bushes that, if
once found, a man can creep upon them unobserved.



CHAPTER IV.

HUNTING THE GRISLY.

If out in the late fall or early spring, it is often possible to
follow a bear's trail in the snow; having come upon it either by
chance or hard hunting, or else having found where it leads from some
carcass on which the beast has been feeding. In the pursuit one must
exercise great caution, as at such times the hunter is easily seen a
long way off, and game is always especially watchful for any foe that
may follow its trail.

Once I killed a grisly in this manner. It was early in the fall, but
snow lay on the ground, while the gray weather boded a storm. My camp
was in a bleak, wind-swept valley, high among the mountains which form
the divide between the head-waters of the Salmon and Clarke's Fork of
the Columbia. All night I had lain in my buffalo-bag, under the lea of
a windbreak of branches, in the clump of fir-trees, where I had halted
the preceding evening. At my feet ran a rapid mountain torrent, its
bed choked with ice-covered rocks; I had been lulled to sleep by the
stream's splashing murmur, and the loud moaning of the wind along the
naked cliffs. At dawn I rose and shook myself free of the buffalo
robe, coated with hoar-frost. The ashes of the fire were lifeless; in
the dim morning the air was bitter cold. I did not linger a moment,
but snatched up my rifle, pulled on my fur cap and gloves, and strode
off up a side ravine; as I walked I ate some mouthfuls of venison,
left over from supper.

Two hours of toil up the steep mountain brought me to the top of a
spur. The sun had risen, but was hidden behind a bank of sullen
clouds. On the divide I halted, and gazed out over a vast landscape,
inconceivably wild and dismal. Around me towered the stupendous
mountain masses which make up the backbone of the Rockies. From my
feet, as far as I could see, stretched a rugged and barren chaos of
ridges and detached rock masses. Behind me, far below, the stream
wound like a silver ribbon, fringed with dark conifers and the
changing, dying foliage of poplar and quaking aspen. In front the
bottoms of the valleys were filled with the sombre evergreen forest,
dotted here and there with black, ice-skimmed tarns; and the dark
spruces clustered also in the higher gorges, and were scattered thinly
along the mountain sides. The snow which had fallen lay in drifts and
streaks, while, where the wind had scope it was blown off, and the
ground left bare.

For two hours I walked onwards across the ridges and valleys. Then
among some scattered spruces, where the snow lay to the depth of half
a foot, I suddenly came on the fresh, broad trail of a grisly. The
brute was evidently roaming restlessly about in search of a winter
den, but willing, in passing, to pick up any food that lay handy. At
once I took the trail, travelling above and to one side, and keeping a
sharp look-out ahead. The bear was going across wind, and this made my
task easy. I walked rapidly, though cautiously; and it was only in
crossing the large patches of bare ground that I had to fear making a
noise. Elsewhere the snow muffled my footsteps, and made the trail so
plain that I scarcely had to waste a glance upon it, bending my eyes
always to the front.

At last, peering cautiously over a ridge crowned with broken rocks, I
saw my quarry, a big, burly bear, with silvered fur. He had halted on
an open hillside, and was busily digging up the caches of some rock
gophers or squirrels. He seemed absorbed in his work, and the stalk
was easy. Slipping quietly back, I ran towards the end of the spur,
and in ten minutes struck a ravine, of which one branch ran past
within seventy yards of where the bear was working. In this ravine was
a rather close growth of stunted evergreens, affording good cover,
although in one or two places I had to lie down and crawl through the
snow. When I reached the point for which I was aiming, the bear had
just finished rooting, and was starting off. A slight whistle brought
him to a standstill, and I drew a bead behind his shoulder, and low
down, resting the rifle across the crooked branch of a dwarf spruce.
At the crack he ran off at speed, making no sound, but the thick
spatter of blood splashes, showing clear on the white snow, betrayed
the mortal nature of the wound. For some minutes I followed the trail;
and then, topping a ridge, I saw the dark bulk lying motionless in a
snow drift at the foot of a low rock-wall, from which he had tumbled.

The usual practice of the still-hunter who is after grisly is to toll
it to baits. The hunter either lies in ambush near the carcass, or
approaches it stealthily when he thinks the bear is at its meal.

One day while camped near the Bitter Root Mountains in Montana I found
that a bear had been feeding on the carcass of a moose which lay some
five miles from the little open glade in which my tent was pitched,
and I made up my mind to try to get a shot at it that afternoon. I
stayed in camp till about three o'clock, lying lazily back on the bed
of sweet-smelling evergreen boughs, watching the pack ponies as they
stood under the pines on the edge of the open, stamping now and then,
and switching their tails. The air was still, the sky a glorious blue;
at that hour in the afternoon even the September sun was hot. The
smoke from the smouldering logs of the camp fire curled thinly
upwards. Little chipmunks scuttled out from their holes to the packs,
which lay in a heap on the ground, and then scuttled madly back again.
A couple of drab-colored whisky-jacks, with bold mien and fearless
bright eyes, hopped and fluttered round, picking up the scraps, and
uttering an extraordinary variety of notes, mostly discordant; so tame
were they that one of them lit on my outstretched arm as I half dozed,
basking in the sunshine.

When the shadows began to lengthen, I shouldered my rifle and plunged
into the woods. At first my route lay along a mountain side; then for
half a mile over a windfall, the dead timber piled about in crazy
confusion. After that I went up the bottom of a valley by a little
brook, the ground being carpeted with a sponge of soaked moss. At the
head of this brook was a pond covered with water-lilies; and a
scramble through a rocky pass took me into a high, wet valley, where
the thick growth of spruce was broken by occasional strips of meadow.
In this valley the moose carcass lay, well at the upper end.

In moccasined feet I trod softly through the soundless woods. Under
the dark branches it was already dusk, and the air had the cool chill
of evening. As I neared the clump where the body lay, I walked with
redoubled caution, watching and listening with strained alertness.
Then I heard a twig snap; and my blood leaped, for I knew the bear was
at his supper. In another moment I saw his shaggy, brown form. He was
working with all his awkward giant strength, trying to bury the
carcass, twisting it to one side and the other with wonderful ease.
Once he got angry and suddenly gave it a tremendous cuff with his paw;
in his bearing he had something half humorous, half devilish. I crept
up within forty yards; but for several minutes he would not keep his
head still. Then something attracted his attention in the forest, and
he stood motionless looking towards it, broadside to me, with his
fore-paws planted on the carcass. This gave me my chance. I drew a
very fine bead between his eye and ear; and pulled trigger. He dropped
like a steer when struck with a pole-axe.

If there is a good hiding-place handy it is better to lie in wait at
the carcass. One day on the head-waters of the Madison, I found that a
bear was coming to an elk I had shot some days before; and I at once
determined to ambush the beast when he came back that evening. The
carcass lay in the middle of a valley a quarter of a mile broad. The
bottom of this valley was covered by an open forest of tall pines; a
thick jungle of smaller evergreens marked where the mountains rose on
either hand. There were a number of large rocks scattered here and
there, one, of very convenient shape, being only some seventy or
eighty yards from the carcass. Up this I clambered. It hid me
perfectly, and on its top was a carpet of soft pine needles, on which
I could lie at my ease.

Hour after hour passed by. A little black woodpecker with a yellow
crest ran nimbly up and down the tree-trunks for some time and then
flitted away with a party of chickadees and nut-hatches. Occasionally
a Clarke's crow soared about overhead or clung in any position to the
swaying end of a pine branch, chattering and screaming. Flocks of
cross-bills, with wavy flight and plaintive calls, flew to a small
mineral lick near by, where they scraped the clay with their queer
little beaks.

As the westering sun sank out of sight beyond the mountains these
sounds of bird-life gradually died away. Under the great pines the
evening was still with the silence of primeval desolation. The sense
of sadness and loneliness, the melancholy of the wilderness, came over
me like a spell. Every slight noise made my pulses throb as I lay
motionless on the rock gazing intently into the gathering gloom. I
began to fear that it would grow too dark to shoot before the grisly
came.

Suddenly and without warning, the great bear stepped out of the bushes
and trod across the pine needles with such swift and silent footsteps
that its bulk seemed unreal. It was very cautious, continually halting
to peer around; and once it stood up on its hind legs and looked long
down the valley towards the red west. As it reached the carcass I put
a bullet between its shoulders. It rolled over, while the woods
resounded with its savage roaring. Immediately it struggled to its
feet and staggered off; and fell again to the next shot, squalling and
yelling. Twice this was repeated; the brute being one of those bears
which greet every wound with a great outcry, and sometimes seem to
lose their feet when hit--although they will occasionally fight as
savagely as their more silent brethren. In this case the wounds were
mortal, and the bear died before reaching the edge of the thicket.

I spent much of the fall of 1889 hunting on the head-waters of the
Salmon and Snake in Idaho, and along the Montana boundary line from
the Big Hole Basin and the head of the Wisdom River to the
neighborhood of Red Rock Pass and to the north and west of Henry's
Lake. During the last fortnight my companion was the old mountain man,
already mentioned, named Griffeth or Griffin--I cannot tell which, as
he was always called either "Hank" or "Griff." He was a crabbedly
honest old fellow, and a very skilful hunter; but he was worn out with
age and rheumatism, and his temper had failed even faster than his
bodily strength. He showed me a greater variety of game than I had
ever seen before in so short a time; nor did I ever before or after
make so successful a hunt. But he was an exceedingly disagreeable
companion on account of his surly, moody ways. I generally had to get
up first, to kindle the fire and make ready breakfast, and he was very
quarrelsome. Finally, during my absence from camp one day, while not
very far from Red Rock pass, he found my whisky-flask, which I kept
purely for emergencies, and drank all the contents. When I came back
he was quite drunk. This was unbearable, and after some high words I
left him, and struck off homeward through the woods on my own account.
We had with us four pack and saddle horses; and of these I took a very
intelligent and gentle little bronco mare, which possessed the
invaluable trait of always staying near camp, even when not hobbled. I
was not hampered with much of an outfit, having only my buffalo
sleeping-bag, a fur coat, and my washing kit, with a couple of spare
pairs of socks and some handkerchiefs. A frying-pan, some salt pork,
and a hatchet, made up a light pack, which, with the bedding, I
fastened across the stock saddle by means of a rope and a spare
packing cinch. My cartridges and knife were in my belt; my compass and
matches, as always, in my pocket. I walked, while the little mare
followed almost like a dog, often without my having to hold the lariat
which served as halter.

The country was for the most part fairly open, as I kept near the
foot-hills where glades and little prairies broke the pine forest. The
trees were of small size. There was no regular trail, but the course
was easy to keep, and I had no trouble of any kind save on the second
day. That afternoon I was following a stream which at last "canyoned
up," that is sank to the bottom of a canyon-like ravine impossible for
a horse. I started up a side valley, intending to cross from its head
coulies to those of another valley which would lead in below the
canyon.

However, I got enmeshed in the tangle of winding valleys at the foot
of the steep mountains, and as dusk was coming on I halted and camped
in a little open spot by the side of a small, noisy brook, with
crystal water. The place was carpeted with soft, wet, green moss,
dotted red with the kinnikinnic berries, and at its edge, under the
trees where the ground was dry, I threw down the buffalo bed on a mat
of sweet-smelling pine needles. Making camp took but a moment. I
opened the pack, tossed the bedding on a smooth spot, knee-haltered
the little mare, dragged up a few dry logs, and then strolled off,
rifle on shoulder, through the frosty gloaming, to see if I could pick
up a grouse for supper.

For half a mile I walked quickly and silently over the pine needles,
across a succession of slight ridges separated by narrow, shallow
valleys. The forest here was composed of lodge-pole pines, which on
the ridges grew close together, with tall slender trunks, while in the
valleys the growth was more open. Though the sun was behind the
mountains there was yet plenty of light by which to shoot, but it was
fading rapidly.

At last, as I was thinking of turning towards camp, I stole up to the
crest of one of the ridges, and looked over into the valley some sixty
yards off. Immediately I caught the loom of some large, dark object;
and another glance showed me a big grisly walking slowly off with his
head down. He was quartering to me, and I fired into his flank, the
bullet, as I afterwards found, ranging forward and piercing one lung.
At the shot he uttered a loud, moaning grunt and plunged forward at a
heavy gallop, while I raced obliquely down the hill to cut him off.
After going a few hundred feet he reached a laurel thicket, some
thirty yards broad, and two or three times as long which he did not
leave. I ran up to the edge and there halted, not liking to venture
into the mass of twisted, close-growing stems and glossy foliage.
Moreover, as I halted, I head him utter a peculiar, savage kind of
whine from the heart of the brush. Accordingly, I began to skirt the
edge, standing on tiptoe and gazing earnestly to see if I could not
catch a glimpse of his hide. When I was at the narrowest part of the
thicket, he suddenly left it directly opposite, and then wheeled and
stood broadside to me on the hill-side, a little above. He turned his
head stiffly towards me; scarlet strings of froth hung from his lips;
his eyes burned like embers in the gloom.

I held true, aiming behind the shoulder, and my bullet shattered the
point or lower end of his heart, taking out a big nick. Instantly the
great bear turned with a harsh roar of fury and challenge, blowing the
blood foam from his mouth, so that I saw the gleam of his white fangs;
and then he charged straight at me, crashing and bounding through the
laurel bushes, so that it was hard to aim. I waited until he came to a
fallen tree, raking him as he topped it with a ball, which entered his
chest and went through the cavity of his body, but he neither swerved
nor flinched, and at the moment I did not know that I had struck him.
He came steadily on, and in another second was almost upon me. I fired
for his forehead, but my bullet went low, entering his open mouth,
smashing his lower jaw and going into the neck. I leaped to one side
almost as I pulled trigger; and through the hanging smoke the first
thing I saw was his paw as he made a vicious side blow at me. The rush
of his charge carried him past. As he struck he lurched forward,
leaving a pool of bright blood where his muzzle hit the ground; but he
recovered himself and made two or three jumps onwards, while I
hurriedly jammed a couple of cartridges into the magazine, my rifle
holding only four, all of which I had fired. Then he tried to pull up,
but as he did so his muscles seemed suddenly to give way, his head


 


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