Increasing Efficiency In Business
Walter Dill Scott

Part 5 out of 6

_Special Conditions Favorable to the Formation
of Practical judgments_

In addition to the four general conditions
discussed on pages 278 to 283@@@ the special
conditions most favorable to the formation of
practical judgments are the three following:--

1. The experiences most effective in arousing
practical judgments are those that are most
recent. A few days ago I purchased a piece
of real estate and was asked how I wanted the
property transferred. I replied immediately
that I wanted a warranty deed and a guarantee
policy. This was a practical judgment made
upon the basis of a recent previous experience.

As a matter of fact there are three distinct
methods of transferring real estate, but until
after my judgment had been made I was perfectly
oblivious of the other methods, although
I had had experience with them some years
before. Thus I utilized only my recent experience
in making my practical judgment.

2. Other things being equal, those experiences
are most valuable in arousing practical
judgments that have been the most frequent.
I have seen burns dressed many times and in
many ways, but most often they have been
dressed with soda and water. When I was
called upon recently to dress a burn I recalled
the method which I had seen most often and
formed a practical judgment based thereupon
and was helped out of my difficulty.

3. Our most vivid and intense experiences
are the ones most likely to be recalled and to
be utilized in the formation of practical judgments.
The mistakes that I have to pay for
and the deed that secured my promotion are
the experiences most fertile in the formation of
practical judgments.

_Special Conditions Favorable to the Formation
of Reflective judgments_

In addition to the general conditions mentioned
on page 278@@@ the special conditions favorable
for the formation of reflective judgments
are as follows:--

1. A theoretical education. Proverbially
schools teach generalizations, abstractions, and
principles. The scholar and the student are
compelled to practice in this most effective form
of thinking. A justifiable criticism of the
schools is that they are inclined to neglect the
lower forms of thinking--the dealing with the
concrete--in their zeal for the highest forms of
thinking. However, a school education not
only gives practice in handling generalizations,
abstractions, and principles, but it provides
the conditions necessary to stimulate the learners
to amass a useful stock of concepts that at
a later time will be used in reflective judgments.

2. Suggestions from others. Reflective
judgments depend upon condensed experience.
The condensation is not produced by compres-

sion but by selecting the common though essential
element from various former experiences
and by uniting these elements into a new unity.
This breaking up of former experiences by
analyzing out the essential factor is a difficult
task and one in which no man can proceed far
without assistance from others.

At a recent meeting of psychologists a
speaker presented a paper on the most helpful
order of presentation of topics for a course in
psychology. He simply called our attention to
certain facts which we had all experienced as
teachers of psychology. He then combined
these abstracted elements in a new unity in
such a way that I was enabled to form a reflective
judgment as to the order of presenting
topics in psychology. Without his suggestion
I probably never would have been able to make
the analysis necessary for the reflective judgment.

We need all the help we can get to assist us
to analyze our own experiences. To this end
we employ with great profit such agencies as
conferences with fellow-workmen, conventions,

visitations, trade journals, and technical discussions
upon our own problem (cf. Chapter

3. Verbal expression. We cannot well unite
factors of previous experience into a new whole
unless we have some symbol to stand for the
new unity. As such a symbol, a word is the
most effective. Animals never carry on reflective
judgments and never can, since they do
not possess a language adequate to such demands.
The attempt to express one's thought
in words is in reality often a means for creating
the thought as well as a means for its expression.
A few years ago I prepared a paper on
the subject, ``Making Psychology Practical.''
In my attempt to express myself I clarified
my thinking, formed new generalizations, and
therefore was enabled to do with full consciousness
(with reflective judgments) what previously
I had done but blindly.

It is a most helpful practice to attempt to
express in words just what one is trying to
accomplish; what are the conditions necessary
for success; what the conditions that are lower-

ing efficiency; and what are the possibilities of
the work, etc. The method of analysis and
expression assists wonderfully in abstracting
the aspects of one's experience necessary for
the generalization, abstraction, and principle
used in reflective judgments.

_Special Conditions Favorable to the Formation
of Expert judgments_

There are no clearly defined special conditions
for increasing one's capacity to apply expert
judgments. The general conditions discussed
on page 278@@@ seem to cover the case. If I have
provided, as an executive, for all these conditions
for developing expert judgments:--

(1) if I have good vigorous health,

(2) if I am working with enthusiastic application,

(3) if I have the right attitude towards my

(4) and finally, if I am having frequent
experience in making practical and theoretical
judgments,--I am then fulfilling the conditions
most favorable for the development of expert



AFTER spending four years in an Eastern
college, a young graduate was put in
charge of a group of day laborers. He
assumed toward them the attitude of the athletic
director and the coach combined. He set
out to develop a winning team, one that could
handle more cubic yards of dirt in a day than
any other group on the job.

He had no guidebook and no official records
to direct him. He did not know what the
best ``form'' was for shoveling dirt, and he
did not know how much a good man could
accomplish in an hour. With stop watch
and notebook in hand, he began to observe
the movements of the man who seemed the
best worker in the group. He counted the
different movements made in handling a

shovelful of dirt, and the exact time required
for each of the movements. He then made similar
observations upon other men. He found
that the best man was making fewer movements
and faster movements than his companions.
But he also discovered that even
this best workman was making movements
which were not necessary, and that he was
making some movements too slowly and thus
losing the advantage of the momentum which a
higher speed would have produced, and which
would have enabled him to accomplish the task
with less effort.

The young collegian then set about to standardize
the necessary movements and the most
economical speed for each movement required
in the work of his group. He instructed his
best man in the improved method of working,
and offered him a handsome bonus if he would
follow the specifications and accomplish the
task in the estimated time. The man, eager
to earn the increase, followed the directions
closely, and in a few weeks was enabled to
accomplish more than twice the work of the

average workman. The improved habit of
working was then taught the other workmen,
and the result was a winning team.

The success of the young collegian did not
get into the colored supplements of the daily
press, but it was heralded by mechanical engineers
as marking an epoch in the industrial
advance of humanity. It made manifest
the necessity of a study of habits, the elimination
of the useless ones, and the acquisition
of those most beneficial.

The study of habit has not received from the
practical business man the attention which it
deserves because he has too often looked upon
habit as something detrimental to efficiency.
The possession of any and of all habits has at
times been regarded as a misfortune.

An employer of men for responsible positions
recently made this inquiry concerning each
applicant for a position, ``Does he have any
habits? If so, what are they?'' This employer
confused all habits with such things
as habits of intemperance, habits of slovenliness,
habits of dishonesty, and habits of loafing.

Little did he suspect that the habits of the men
were in reality their strongest recommendation.
He did not realize that the capitalized experience
of these men was funded in the masses of
useful habits which they had acquired.

Habits are but ways of thinking and of acting
which by reason of frequent repetition
have become more or less automatic. We are
all creatures of habit; we all possess both good
and bad habits.

In performing an habitual act we do not pay
attention to the individual separate steps included
in the act. So we are liable to think of
our habitual acts as those done _*carelessly_, and
of other acts as those performed with caution
and consideration. The folly of such a criticism
of habit is made apparent by the study of
any act which may be performed by one person
as a habit and by another person as an act
every step of which demands attention. A
barber stropping his razor is a familiar
illustration of the working of habit. An adult
attempting to strop a razor for the first time
and compelled to give attention to each step

in the process is a typical illustration of an act
demanding attention in contrast with an
habitual act which needs no such attention.

We are also inclined to deprecate habits on
the ground that the man in the grip of habit
is hopelessly in the _*rut_, that the man who has
reduced his work to habit ceases to be original
and is incapable of further improvement.
On the contrary, the grip of habit is but a
support. The editor could not write his
trenchant editorials, and the advertiser could
not write his compelling copy, unless in the act
of writing each could turn over to habit the
manipulation of the pen, the formation of the
letters, and the spelling of the words. The
attorney cannot make his most logical arguments
and the salesman cannot make the best
presentation of his goods, unless they can depend
upon habit for correct verbal expressions,
unless their thoughts clothe themselves
automatically in appropriate verbal forms.
When we are in the grip of habit, if it be a good
habit, we are not so much in a rut as on the
steel rails where alone the greatest progress is

made possible. We are not enslaved by good
habits, but rather might it be said that no
man is truly free to advance and to make
rapid progress till he has succeeded in establishing
a mass of useful habits.


Modern physiological psychology has dealt
with the problem of explaining the possibility
of the formation and maintenance of habits.
The explanation is found in the mutual development
of the mind and the nervous system
and in the dependence of thought and
action upon the nervous system, and particularly
upon the brain. To understand habit
we must look beyond thought and action and
consider some of the fundamental characteristic
features of the nervous system. One
such characteristic is the plasticity of the nervous
substance. If I bend a piece of paper and
crease it, the crease will remain even after the
paper is straightened out again. The paper is
plastic, and plasticity means simply that the
substance offers some resistance to adopting a

new form, but that when the new form is once
impressed upon the substance it is retained.
Some effort is required to overcome the plasticity
of the paper and to form the crease, but
when it is once formed the plasticity of the
paper preserves the crease.

Modern conceptions of psychology have
emphasized the intimate relationship existing
between our thoughts and our brains. Every
time we think, a slight change takes place in
the delicate nerve-cells in some part of the
brain. Every action among these cells leaves
its indelible mark, or crease. Just as it is
easy for the paper to bend where it has been
creased before, it is likewise easy for action to
take place in the brain where it has taken place

The brain may also be likened to the cylinder
or disk used in a dictating machine and in
phonographs, and a thought likened to the
needle making the original record. It takes
some energy to force the needle through the
substance of the cylinder, but thereafter it
moves along the opened groove with a mini-

mum of resistance. In a similar way it is
easy to think the old thought or to perform
the old act, but it is most difficult to be original
in thinking and in acting. When an idea
has been thought or an act performed many
times, the crease or groove becomes so well
established that thinking or acting along that
crease or groove is easier than other thoughts
or actions, and so this easier one may be said
to have become habitual. In a very real sense
the thoughts and actions form the brain by
means of the delicate physical changes which
they produce; and then, when the brain is
formed, its plasticity is so great that it determines
our future thinking and acting.


Human efficiency depends in part upon the
rapidity with which we are able to accomplish
our tasks. It is surprising to us all when we
find how rapidly we can accomplish our habitual
acts and how slowly we perform the tasks to
which we are compelled to give specific atten-

tion. I find that I can repeat the twenty-six
letters of the alphabet in two seconds. I do
not give attention to the order of the letters)
but all I seem to do is to start the process, and
then it says itself. If, however, I attempt to
pronounce the alphabet backward, my first
attempt takes a full minute. If I attempt to say
the alphabet forward but to insert after each
letter a single syllable, such as ``two,'' it takes
sixteen seconds. Thus, a 2, b 2, C 2, d 2, etc.,
requires eight times as many seconds as the
simple alphabet, a, b, c, d, e, etc. The
sequence which has become most perfectly
habitual requires but two seconds; the process
which employs the old habit in part requires
sixteen seconds; but the act which
has never been reduced to a habit at all (repeating
the alphabet backward) requires at
least sixty seconds.

Some time ago I could pick out the letters
on a typewriter at the rate of about one per
second. Writing is now becoming reduced
to a habit, and I can write perhaps three
letters a second. When the act has been

reduced to the pure habit form, I shall be
writing at the rate of not less than five letters
per second.

I can send a telegraph message at a rate but
little faster than one contact per second.
Those who have reduced the transmission of
messages to a habit are capable of making
twelve contacts per second.

In multiplying one three-place number by
another I have the fixed habit of writing the
multiplier under the multiplicand, the partial
products under these, and the final product
beneath all. If I reverse all these positions,
the multiplying should be no more difficult,
but as a matter of fact this simple reversal
increases the time of operation about eighty-five
per cent. All mathematical operations are
rapid in proportion to the degree to which they
are habitual.

The speed of thought is slow unless it follows
the old creases and the old grooves. No
adequate speed is possible so long as attention
must be given to the succeeding stages of the
thought or act. This is true of all acts and

of all thoughts, whether in the home or upon
the street, in the shop or in the office.

Great speed of thought and action must
not be confused with hurried thought and
action. Speed which is habitual is never
hurried. There are many acts of skill which
can be done much more easily if performed
rapidly than if performed slowly. When
working hurriedly, there is a speeding up of
all movements whether necessary or unnecessary;
but the speed secured from correct habits
is primarily dependent upon the elimination of
useless movements and the concentration of
energy at the essential point.


Where machinery can be employed we find
greatly increased accuracy of work. The
product of the loom and the lathe are more
perfect, more uniform, and more accurate in all
details than similar work produced by hand.
The product of the printing press thus attains
a greater degree of accuracy in details than

was ever attained by the ancient monk in the
printing of his scrolls.

In general, our work becomes accurate, as
well as swift, in the degree to which we are
able to mechanize it into habits. The beginner
in piano playing or typewriting pays
attention to the striking of each key. When
he is in this stage of development he is liable
at any time to strike the wrong key and certainly
cannot be depended upon for regularity
of touch. As soon as he has reduced the
striking of the keys to a habit, he ceases to
strike the wrong keys and secures uniformity of

The expert marksman has reduced to a habit
the necessary steps of shooting and gives no
special attention to the position of the fingers,
the tension of the hands, the angle of the head,
the closing of the eye, and the pulling of the
trigger. He has reduced all these to habit
before he is able to secure his expert skill.

The reliable bookkeeper has reduced to
habit the combining of all the ordinary sums
of the ledger. The man of accuracy of speech

is the one whose thoughts clothe themselves
in the verbal expressions by habit but with
no conscious selection of words. The man of
the most accurate judgment in any field is the
one who has succeeded in reducing to habit most
of the steps of the judgments in that field, the
one who has the largest stock of intuitive


Attention cannot be directed to more
than one thing at a time. It is doubtless
true that the ``one thing'' may be very complex,
_e.g_. four letters or even four words.
So long as the performance of an act demands
attention, this one act is practically all that
can be done at that time. As soon as this
thing is reduced to habit, it may go on automatically,
and the attention may be turned
to other things.

When I begin to learn to play the piano,
the finger movements require all my attention
so that I cannot read the notes on the
scale and make the proper execution at the

same time. Gradually, the reading of notes
and the execution are reduced to habit, and
I can then turn my attention to the reading
of the words of the air. As each essential detail
is reduced to habit, I acquire the ability to
read the score, to make the correct finger and
foot movements, to read the words of the
song, to sing it correctly, and at the same
time to be thinking more or less of other

My use of the pen has become so reduced
to habit that I need pay no attention to the
writing, but am enabled to give my entire
attention to the thought which I am attempting
to formulate. So every useful habit
becomes a power or a tool which may be used
for multiplying the efficiency of the individual.
Habit formation is the greatest labor saving
device in the human economy. No one has
expressed this truth so forcefully as the late
Professor William James.

``The great thing, then, in all education,
is to make our nervous system our ally instead
of our enemy. It is to fund and capitalize

our acquisitions, and live at ease upon the
interest of the fund. For this we must make
automatic and habitual, as early as possible,
as many useful actions as we can, and guard
against the growing into ways that are likely
to be disadvantageous to us as we should
guard against the plague. The more of the
details of our daily life we can hand over to the
effortless custody of automatism, the more our
higher powers of mind will be set free for their
own proper work. There is no more miserable
human being than one in whom nothing is
habitual but indecision, and for whom the
lighting of every cigar, the drinking of every
cup, the time of rising and going to bed every
day, and the beginning of every bit of work,
are subjects of express volitional deliberation.
Full half the time of such a man goes to the
deciding or regretting of matters which ought
to be so ingrained in him as practically not to
exist for his consciousness at all. If there be
such daily duties not yet ingrained in any one
of my readers, let him begin this very hour to
set the matter right.''


The various acts connected with my morning
toilet have been reduced to sheerest habit.
I do not think of the different acts as I perform
them--they seem to perform themselves.
The sequence of the various acts and the manner
of performing them are not particularly
good, but I do not seem inclined to change
them. I put on my left shoe before my right,
my right sleeve before my left. I have the
absurd habit of washing my teeth after I
have washed my face. That my habits may
execute themselves automatically, all the articles
of my toilet must be in their proper
places. I am thwarted in carrying out my
habits unless my laundry has been properly
placed, unless towels, brushes, etc., are all
where they should be. If everything is in its
place, I get down to breakfast refreshed and
recuperated. If the toilet articles are so located
that I am compelled to do consciously
what I might have done subconsciously, I get
down to breakfast irritated and nervously

depleted. The peace and restfulness of an
orderly and systematic household are in part
dependent upon the fact that it is only in such
a household that we are enabled to turn over
to habit the accomplishment of untold recurrent

The experienced accountant can add figures
continuously for eight hours a day, and
at the end of the day may feel no great
exhaustion. The man who has not reduced
to habit the necessary steps in addition
cannot add continuously for two hours
without a degree of exhaustion so great that
it paralyzes effort. The same is true with
typewriting, telegraphing, and with all forms
of manipulations which may be reduced to

The habit of reading in a foreign language
is rarely so well established as the habit of
interpreting the printed symbols of the mother
tongue. Even when I seem to be reading
German as easily as English, a few hours spent
in reading German is to me much more exhausting
than the same amount of time spent

with an English book. Attending lectures
delivered in German is to me more exhausting
than the same lectures would be if delivered
in English.

Work that requires much constructive thinking
cannot be continued for many hours a day.
This is due to the fact that such thinking does
not admit of complete reduction to specific
habits. The executive who accomplishes much
is the man who has formed many useful habits
and who is able to fall back on them for a large
part of his work. His decisions are reached
in a habitual manner. Investigations take a
regular, automatic course. All the details
of the office are reduced to mechanical system.
No useless energy is spent in giving attention
to details that can be better done by habit,
and the mind is thus freed from exhaustion
and left fresh for attacking the problems
arising for solution.

The performance of every new act and the
thinking of every new idea is of necessity exhausting,
and they become easy to the extent
to which they utilize old habits. Although

constructive thinking is most stimulating and
exciting, no man can continue it for more than
a few hours or a few minutes unless it depends
mainly upon old habits.

Some of the most constructive thinkers of
the world have been men who could work at
their original work for but a few minutes at
a time. One brilliant contemporary writer
accomplishes most when he works not more
than fifteen minutes at a time. Charles
Darwin is famous for the originality of his
thinking, and hence we are not surprised when
we find that he was able to work but three
hours out of the twenty-four.


Personal habits are the most apparent and
those by which we most often judge an individual.
Manner of dress becomes so much a
matter of habit that the wearing apparel is
sometimes spoken of as the habit, and, as
Shakespeare says, it oft betrays the man.
Cleanliness and neatness of appearance, the
tone and accent of voice, the manner of walk-

ing and of carrying the head, and the use of
language are personal habits which are acquired
early in life, but which mean much in
the chances of success. The manner of eating,
of sleeping, and of caring for all the needs
of body and mind are for most persons mainly
a matter of habit, yet they, to a large extent,
determine the condition of health and the
length of days.

We become fond of doing things in the
manner to which we have become habituated.
This tendency manifests itself to an abnormal
degree in the drinking and the smoking habit.
In a lesser degree we see the same thing in the
attachment of the babe for his pacifier and the
child for his chewing gum. Habit creates a
craving for the good as well as for the bad.
The ways to which we have become habituated
seem pleasing to us whether they be good or
bad. There is truth in the proverb, ``Train
up a child in the way he should go and when
he is old, he will not depart from it.'' It might
be added that the child will not want to depart
from the way to which he has been trained, for

the habits thus acquired beget a fondness for
the acts themselves.

It is very unusual for any one to acquire
a language after the age of twenty so as to
speak it without a foreign accent. All other
personal habits are like the use of language in
that they are acquired during the early years
and are not easily changed. So far as personal
habits are concerned, but little change
need be anticipated after the twentieth year.


Our treatment of others is largely a matter
of habit. We are affable or gruff according
to habit. Honesty and dishonesty in dealing
with others is, in the main, a matter of habit.
The honest man is the one who takes honesty
for granted and acts honestly from habit.
So soon as he begins to observe that he is an
honest man, to call attention to the fact, and
to be much impressed by the honor of his
choices--at that moment suspicion of him
should be entertained, for honesty has with
him ceased to be a habit.

We classify individuals largely by means
of their personal and social habits. By these
the gentleman is recognized as surely as the
boor. By means of them we select our friends
and engage new employees. Efficiency in
every life calling depends upon our success in
dealing with people. Such success is largely
dependent upon the social habits that we


Until the recent rise of interest in psychology,
relatively little attention had been given
to the study of those habits which are developed
in business. When proper care is not
given to the formation of these habits developed
in connection with one's daily occupation,
wrong habits are certain to appear. The mason
makes two motions with his trowel where
he should make but one. The accountant
substitutes ``short cuts'' in adding where all
the operations should be taken in regular order
and made as automatic as the few short cuts
previously developed. The executive has the

habit of depending upon ``desultory'' memory
where the logical should be developed. The
salesman in speaking to a critical customer
says ``he don't,'' instead of saying ``he doesn't'';
``gents' goods'' instead of ``men's goods.''
Every investigation into the human actions
and the human methods of thinking as involved
in business reveals the presence of unfortunate
habits such as the examples here cited.

Therefore, one of the most noteworthy events
in the business and industrial world of the last
twenty years is the study of the occupation
habits of the workman to which reference was
made in the first paragraphs of this chapter.
The research has been especially successful
in dealing with the occupation habits of mechanics.

The fundamental discovery was made that
the workman's occupation habits are not such
as enable him to accomplish his task in an
economical and efficient manner. To discover
what occupation habits should be developed,
experts in each of several typical
establishments were assigned the task of

making a careful study of every movement of
eye, hand, foot, and body, and the rate and
sequence of all the movements necessary for
performing single tasks most easily and efficiently.
The experts were also to study the
tools, the materials, and conditions best
adapted to the work. In general, the experts
found the greatest opportunity for improvement
in the _*movements_ of the men. As a
result of this research, numerous processes
have been scientifically standardized. The
workmen have been taught the new and better
way and have been drilled till the processes
have been, so far as possible, reduced to occupation
habits. The workmen have been easily
induced to acquire the new habits, as their
earning capacity is thereby greatly increased.
Ordinarily, a considerable bonus is awarded to
all workmen who develop the desired habits
and perform the task exactly as prescribed by
the expert.

An investigation into the results secured
from the adoption of this scientific attempt
to study and to regulate the occupation

habits of workmen reveals most gratifying

Mr. H. R. Hathaway, an expert engineer,
testifies that ``under this system a workman
can turn out from two to four times as much
work'' as he was able to accomplish when
working with his old habits,

Mr. Lewis Sanders, of the General Engineering
Company, New York, reports most
satisfactory results from the introduction of
this systematic attempt to regulate the occupation
habits of employees. A typical example
which he reports is the following: It
regularly took a man one minute and forty
seconds to set a piece in a jig. ``After a study
of the exact motions required to pick the piece
up and set it accurately, we showed the same
man how to do it in twenty seconds.'' This
workman soon reduced the correct movement
to habit, attained the specified speed, and
without in any way working harder than formerly
was assisted to increase his efficiency four
hundred per cent.

A well-known engineering company re-

quired the reading of twelve thermometers,
each every two minutes. The man assigned
to the task could rarely read so many as
eight of them in the two minutes. An expert
took up the problem and at first could
do no better than the first man. The expert
studied the most favorable position of the
head and eyes for reading, eliminated all
useless motions, and discovered that the
twelve thermometers could then be read in
one minute and fifty seconds. The workman
who previously had with difficulty read
eight thermometers in two minutes soon
acquired the proper occupation habits and
was enabled to read the twelve with perfect
ease. His efficiency was increased forty per
cent, and the task was rendered less exacting
than before.

Typewriting is carried on by habits. The
habit of writing most naturally formed is
that known as the sight system. Recently,
attempts have been successfully made to enable
the operators to form the habit of writing
by touch rather than by sight. The

operator who acquires the habit of locating
the keys by touch writes much faster and
with less nervous strain than the operator
who writes from sight.

No one has been more successful in studying
occupation habits than Mr. Frank B.
Gilbreth, an expert in the building trades.
He discovered that in constructing a brick
wall a good mason can lay one hundred
and twenty bricks in an hour and that in
laying each brick he makes eighteen distinct
motions. The motions were not made in an
economical sequence; some of them were
useless, and merely exhausted the energy
of the workman. Mr. Gilbreth attempted
to apply to the industry of bricklaying the
principles of billiard playing. Every motion
of the mason should be a ``play for position.''
He should make each motion so
as to be ready for the next. For example,
the motion of placing the mortar for the end
joint should end with the trowel in position
ready to cut off the hanging mortar. When
the motions are made in the correct sequence,

two or more of them can be combined and
performed in but little more time than would
be required to make each of the separate
motions. Thus, cutting off mortar, buttering
the end of the laid brick, and reaching for
more mortar can all be performed as a single
movement. In this way the motions of the
mason have been reduced from eighteen to
five per brick. All this change has been
brought about from a study of the occupation
habits of masons. In discussing the results,
Mr. Gilbreth says: ``It has changed the entire
method of laying bricks by reducing the kind,
number, sequence, and length of motions.
The economic value of motion study has been
proved by the fact that we have more than
tripled the workman's output in bricklaying
and at the same time lowered cost and increased
wages simultaneously, and the end
is not yet.''

Attempts to develop beneficial occupation
habits in executives have not yet been
exhaustively and scientifically carried out.
Such experiments are, however, sure to be

successful, and it is quite probable that before
another decade has passed the habits
of executives will have been as successfully
studied and controlled as have the occupation
habits of mechanics cited above.

The introduction of physics and chemistry
have led to marvelous results in methods
of manufacture and transportation. Those
who have given most attention to the advances
of psychology during the past two
decades are confident that by the proper
application of psychology the efficiency of
men is to be increased beyond the idle dream
of the optimist of the past. Since by a study
of habits the efficiency of men in fundamental
occupations has been increased from forty
to four hundred per cent, it is hard to prophesy
what results are to be secured from more extensive

{The remaider of this etext (Index + Advert.) is raw OCR}

Ability, potential, 231.
Accidents, mine, 96.
Acclimated, 17.
Acclimatization, 18.
Accountant, experienced, 319.
Advance, periods of, 232; of
learning, 242.
Africa, 189.
Air, 172; foul, 180.
Alertness, mental, 44.
Alphabet, repeating, 284.
Altruistic, 203.
American, business, 24; steel-
makers, 48, 206; executives,
118; ideals, 205; people, 209 f.,
Architecture, 174.
Armour, 87.
Athletic, contest, 9; events, 169;
trainer, 2 11.
Attention, 3; passive, 109 f.;
secondary passive, 112 ff.;
voluntary, III ff., 123, 234,
249 ff., 279.
Attitudes, 132 ff., 177; receptive,
182, 183, 187; promotion of,
193, 202, 215; ``do-or-die,''
250; personal, 279 ff.
Authority, plenary, 88.

``Bad days,'' 207.
Bessemer converters, 48.
Bicycles, 194.
``Big'' selling months, 72.
``Bogy'' in golf, 55 f.
Bohemian woman, 288.
Bonus, 35, 142, 145, 165, 178,
252, 304; system, 297, 326.
Book, W. F., ``Psychology of
Skill,'' 227.
Bookkeeping, experience in, 282.
Boor, 324.
Boss, 49, 83, 178, 253.
Boy, messenger, 7; errand, 277.
Brain, 309.
Breakdowns, 208.
`` Breaking in,'' 41, 232, 237.
British Iron and Steel Institute,
Brooding, habit of, 216.
Bryan & Harter, _Psychological
Review_, 230.

Cabinet meetings,'' 119.
Campaign, educational, 102, 155;
advertising, 238.
Capacities, mental, 134, 178.
experience, 303 ff.
Andrew, 49 ff.; mills,
57 f., 87; his cabinet, 94 f.,
Caution in competition, 61.
Cells, brain and muscle, 172,

Chemistry, 4, 7, 331.
85, 206.
Clauston, Dr., 206.
Cleveland, Grover, 188.
Clubs, local, 220.
Coach, 9, 303.
Coaching, effect of, 9, 10.
College grades, 16.
Combustion, 171.
Commendation in competition,
62 f., 73.
Competition, 48 ff .
104 ff .
body and mind, 121.
Consciousness, 172.
Conservation of individuality,
comparative, 50,
Contests, 68; shooting match, 69;
balloon race, 70.
Coperation of employees, 80.
Cost of living, 160.
Courses, coperative, 270 f; in
college, 282; automatic, 320.
Crane, R. P., 20.
Curve practice, 224 ff.

Danger signal, 211.
Darwin, Charles, 22 ff.
Devices, mechanical, 170.
Dickens, C., 176.
Discipline, 11, 179.
165, 177.
Disparity, 168.
Dissipations, 220.
Distinction, social, 141.
1, 3, 4-

Doherty, H. L., 217.
``Dragged out,'' 08.
Drill, 3.

``Easy improvements,'' 246.
Edison, 14, 37.
Education, industrial, 201; work
on, 21Q; school, 264; theoretical,
Efficiency, see Chap. 1, 7, A;
personal, io5, 18o, 186; curve
Of, 223, 251; high, 240; slumps
in, 253.
Effort, voluntary, 111[, 124.
Electric, fans, YL66; lights, 2.
`` Employment,'' ioi.
Energies, 16; mental, 20; expenditure
Of, 21.
Engines, gas, 2; steam turbine, 2.
English, ironmasters, 48, 319,
Enthusiasm, 186, 1187, 190.
Environment, physical, 2, 179 f.,
18o; factors in, 253.
Establishments, 49, 158; successful,
European, 208.
Exhaustion, A8, 172, 173, 284.
Experience, see Chaps. XI-XII;
most valuable, 296.
Expression, verbal, 3oi.

``February sale,'' 53.
Field, Marshall, 87, 94, 193.
Fluctuations, in learning, 232;
subject to, 249.
Food, 172.
Football, 9.

Forfeiture of bond, 75.
French, reading, 284.
``Garden cities,'' 122.
General Electric CO., 271.
Generations, rising, 220.
Geniuses, potential, T.9i; business,
German, 319, 320.
`` Getting together,'' 198.
Gilbreth, F. B., 329 f.
Girls, sewing, 05.
Gladstone, 113, 2 2 1.
Golf, 54; bogy, 194, 248.
``Go stale,'' 235, 251.
Government, paternalistic, 8o.
Grant, 9r.
Grasp, intellectual, 22.
Great Lakes, 48.
ancient, 219.
Grip, maximum, 225 f.
Guilds, industrial, 1197-

Habit formation, see Chap. XIII;
special conditions, 296 ff., 3o8;
social, 323; personal, 3 2 1
reduce exhaustion, 318.
in competition, 61;
principle of, 61 f.
Handy men,'' o6, 253.
E. H., 17.
H. R., 327.
Health and vigor, 278.
Herculean, 14, 205.
J. J., 20,
Hours, reasonable, 82; of freedom,

House organs,'' see papers,
35; photographs in, 63, 67, 69,
House patriotism,'' 8o; history
and policies, go; picnics,
Human sympathy, as a factor,
85 ff.

Idaho orchard, 287.
Ideas, management, 44.
Illumination, i8o.
Imitation, 26 ff., 53; voluntary,
periods Of, 233.
Incubation, periods Of, 233, 247,
249, 253.
towns, 122.
Industry, attitude of, 136.
Injuries, 16q.
Instincts, to collect, 139, 188;
hunting, 188; specific, igo;
of man, igo; of competition,
Institute, Smithsonian, r8g.
Insurance, 16o.
Interests, outside, 222; novelty,
239, 249; sustained, 240;
appeals to, 240; spontaneous,
In the running,'' 71.
270 f.
Invention, 3, 48, 217; flagging,

James, Professor William, 207,
218) 30.
Jones, W. R.) A 50 f.

Judgments, practical, 285 ff.;
reflective, 287 ff. ; expert,
293 ff.

Knowledge, empirical, 244; acquired,

Labor, hand, 3, 101; intellectual,
168, 70; manual, r68; dignity
of, 19q.
Law, 7.
Lawyers, 175.
rate Of, 231.
Love of the game, 186 ff.;
classifying, 19o; summarized,
192; social prestige, 194, 1195;
tostimulate, 97; developing,
Loyalty, 75 ff .
Joseph, 208, 209.

McCormick, C. H., 24.
Machinist, skilled, 26o.
Magician, i.
Making Experience an Asset,
276 ff.
Making good,'' 71, 25T.
Making Psychology Practical,''
Manager, 6, 154; successful, 143;
office, 244.
Marketing, 3.
Medium of competition, 64.
Memory, desultory, 325.
Methods, business, i; specific, 25;
of training, iig; improved, 181,
304; acquisition Of, 243, 266 ff.

Millennium, 203.
Miser, i4o.
Models, energetic, 2, 33.
mental, 218.
Movements, preleamed, 246;
necessary, 303 ff.
raking, 195-

National Cash Register CO., 272.
Nature, laws Of, 211.
Need,'' 73.
New blood,'' 156, 276.
New York Herald, 210.
Nourishment, 18.
Nervous system, 12.
Novice, 244, 277.

Ohio territory, o8.
One thing,'' 315.
Organization spirit,'' 8o, 84.
Ornamentation, unobtrusive, i8o.
Output, 158, 165, 167, 08.
`` Overselling,'' 98.
Overtension, 214.

Pace, 2.
Pacemaker, 52.
`` Pain economy,'' 179.
Potter, 87.
Papers, weekly or monthly, 35.
Peers, rivalry between, 56.
Perseverance, 16q.
Personal relations in loyalty, 83.
relationship with workers,
87 ff .
84, 87, 93~ 176.
Philanthropy, 221 f.
Physics, 7, 331.

Piano playing, 284.
``Pick Up,'' 259.
Piecework, 142,143, 145) 162,178,
Plans, profit-sharing, go.
Plateau, 233 ff., 239, 243 ff.
165 ff .
house's, 152; Multiple
tryout, 99.
Population, British, 207.
`` Pop Up,'' 127.
plus Theory, 254 ff .
printing, 2; punch, 3.
Preventive, 16q.
Prizes in competition, 62, 67,
Production, instruments of, i.
Profits, surrender of, 84.
Promotions, 73, 101, 155, 156,
Prostrations, nervous, 21.
Psychology, 6, 7; law Of, 25;
modem, 20; work on, 132;
conception Of, T34; student of,
x38; research, iog; course,
295, 300, 3o8 ff.; interest in,
324, 331.
Public opinion, 75.
Chinese block, 266 ff.;
mechanical, 290; results Of, 291.

Quarters, working, 82.
Quota, 72.

Rate of Improvement in Efficiency,
223 ff.
Recognition, social, 148.

Recreation, 174; hours Of, 221.
Recruits, new, 46, 96.
Regiments, 57.
204 ff.; necessity for,
210; power Of. 214; gospel Of.
complete, 216.
Research, 14.
Resistance, line of, i io.
Reward, monetary, 139.
Right way, 11 252.
Rockefeller, 221.
R6oms, work, 181; lunch, 181.
Roosevelt, Theodore, 13, 189.
``Rush'' months, 65; seasons,

Sales quota,'' 65 ff .
Lewis, 327.
Francisco fire, 98.
School, night, 181, 201 ; life, 282
engineering, 270, 299; sales.
training, 28 f.
Scientific manage-it,'' 252
Scientific study, 5.
Second wind, 12.
Self-preservation, means of, 139,
139, 144; instincts of, 1141 .
Self-protection, methods of, iij.
Selling, haphazard, 5o.
Settlement workers, 220.
Shadwell, Arthur, 206.
Ships, steam, 2.
`` Showing how,'' 46.
`` Sidelines,'' 26, 131Y 154.
E. C., 20.
Sixth sense, 6.
Skill, special, 43; acquisition of,
246; act of, 256; in perform-

ing, 256 ff.; perfection Of, 262,
264 f.
Sleep, 14.
``Slowing down'' process, 32.
Slump, summer, 165 f.; general,
226 ; profound, 247.
Social, Y94; prestige, 202; demands,
Social approval, desire for, 72.
Society, organized, 113; whims
Of, 194.
Speed, extra, 83; daily record for,
224; average, 224, 282; economical,
Speeding up, 34, 313.
Herbert, 219.
`` Sporting editor,'' 69, 73.
`` Square deal,'' 99.
Stability, native, 2 2 f.
Stagnation, periods of, 233.
Standard, of artist, 197; Of
capitalist, 197; method, 252;
of efficiency, 253.
`` Star'' club, 67.
``Steady job,'' 154.
`` Stealing his trade,'' 26o ff.
Steel Corporation, 5o ff.
Stephenson, 37.
Stepping stones, 196.
Stimulus, YL96; personal efficiencyideals,
Storage battery, 174.
muscular, 7, 183, 184;
physical, 226.
Strike, 161.
Students, 16, 133; colleges, 278.
Subordinate, 187.
Success, first, 239-

Suggestible, 177.
Suggestion, 177, 178, 183, 185.
`` Swell,'' 196.
Swift, E. J., ``Mind in the
Making,'' 231.
System, apprentice, 26; suggestion,
44; premium, 178.

Talks to Teachers,'' 208, 219.
Taylor, F. W., 5 ff., 24.
Teachers, college, 270.
Team work, go, 145.
Telegraph, 7; operator, 226 f.
Telephone, 2, 7.
Tennis, 284 f.
Therapeutics, mental, 214.
Thompson, Edgar, works, Si.
Torrid zone, 17 f.
Traditions and ideals, or.
Trifles, I.
Trips, educational, 44 ff.
Tugboat, 213, 2X4,

Union, assemblers', 152.
Union Pacific, 17.

Vacation camps, iox.
Vacations, 14.
Ventilation, 179.

Wages, fair, 82, 153,~ cOrAmiFsions,
143; piece rates for, i5o;
maximum, 152; sums paid in,
153; value, 241; little or no,
Wanamaker, John, 271.

Warming up, I 1, 12, 232.
``Wars,'' 68.
Washington, 85) 91.
elimination of, 6; body,
173; poisonous, 173; in methods,
Watson, E. P., 13 f.
Weariness, 12; aftermath of, 177-

``Welfare,'' features, 122.
Westinghouse, 37.
Will, effort of, 111, 124; strength
Wizard, I.

Yawning, contagion of, 31.

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11 , * . full of fresh feeling and grace of style, a draught from the
fountain of youth.''--Outlook.

Herrick--The Common Lot. By ROBERT HERRICK.

``A story of present-day life, intensely real in its picture of a young
architect whose ideals in the beginning were, at their highest, sthetic
rather than spiritual. It is an unusual novel of great interest.''

London -Adventure. By JACK LONDON.

11 No reader of Jack London's stories need be told that this abounds
with romantic and dramatic incident.''-Los Angeles Tribune.

London- Burning Daylight. BY JACK LONDON.

``Jack London has outdone himself in ' Burning Daylight.'
The Springfield Union.

Loti--Disenchanted. By PIERRE LOTI.

``It gives a more graphic picture of the life of the rich Turkish
women of to-day than anything that has ever been written.''
Brooklyn Daily Eagle.

Lucas--Mr. Ingleside. By E. V. LUCAS.

``He displays himself as an intellectual and amusing observer of
life's foibles with a hero characterized by inimitable kindness and
humor.''--The Independent.

Mason--The Four Feathers. By A. E. W. MASON.

``' The Four Feathers ' is a first-rate story, with more legitimate
thrills than any novel we have read in a long time.''--New York

Norris -Mother. By KATHLEEN NORRIS.
`` Worth its weight in gold.''--Catholic Columbian.

Oxenham- The Long Road. BY JOHN OXENHAM.

``I The Long Road' is a tragic, heart-gripping story of Russian
.political and social conditions.''--The Craftsman.

Pryor- The Colonel's Story. By MRS. ROGER A. PRYOR.

``The story is one in which the spirit of the Old South figures
largely; adventure and romance have their play and carry the plot
to a satisfying end.''

Remington -Ermine of the Yellowstone. By JOHN REMINGTON.

``A very original and remarkable novel wonderful in its vigor and

Roberts--Kings in Exile. By CHARLES G. D. ROBERTS.

``The author catches the spirit of forest and sea life, and the reader
comes to have a personal love and knowledge of our animal friends.''
- Boston Globe.

Robins -The Convert. By ELIZABETH ROBINS.

``' The Convert ' devotes itself to the exploitation of the recent
suffragist movement in England. It is a book not easily forgotten
by any thoughtful reader.''--Chicago Evening Post.

Robins--A Dark Lantern. By ELIZABETH ROBINS.

A powerful and striking novel, English in scene, which takes an
essentially modern view of society and of certain dramatic situations.

Ward- The History of David Grieve. By MRS. HUMPHREY WARD.
`` A perfect picture of life, remarkable for its humor and extraordinary
success at character analysis.''


This collection of juvenile books contains works of standard quality,
on a variety of subjects--history, biography, fiction, science, and
poetry--carefully chosen to meet the needs and interests of both
boys and girls.

Each volume, cloth, 12mo, 50 cents net; postage, 10 cents extra

Altsheler--The Horsemen of the Plains. By JOSEPH A. ALTSHELER.

A story of the West, of Indians, of scouts, trappers, fur traders,


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