Legends of the Middle Ages
H.A. Guerber

Part 6 out of 8

The king, angry at this treachery, banished the jealous courtiers, and,
aided by Rodrigo, defeated the hostile Moors in Estremadura. There the
Christian army besieged Coimbra in vain for seven whole months, and were
about to give up in despair of securing the city, when St. James appeared
to a pilgrim, promising his help on the morrow.

[Sidenote: Battle cry of the Spaniards.] When the battle began, the
Christian knights were fired by the example of a radiant warrior, mounted
on a snow-white steed, who led them into the thickest of the fray and
helped them win a signal victory. This knight, whom no one recognized as
one of their own warriors, was immediately hailed as St. James, and it was
his name which the Spaniards then and there adopted as their favorite
battle cry.

The city of Coimbra having been taken, Don Rodrigo was duly knighted by the
king; while the queen and princesses vied with one another in helping him
don the different pieces of his armor, for they too were anxious to show
how highly they valued his services.

After a few more victories over his country's enemies, the triumphant Cid
returned to Zamora, where Ximena, his wife, was waiting for him, and where
the five Moorish kings sent not only the promised tribute, but rich gifts
to their generous conqueror. Although the Cid rejoiced in these tokens, he
gave all the tribute and the main part of the spoil to Ferdinand, his liege
lord, for he considered the glory of success a sufficient reward for

While the Cid was thus resting upon his laurels, a great council had been
held at Florence, where the Emperor (Henry III.) of Germany complained to
the Pope that King Ferdinand had not done him homage for his crown, and
that he refused to acknowledge his superiority. The Pope immediately sent a
message to King Ferdinand asking for homage and tribute, and threatening a
crusade in case of disobedience. This unwelcome message greatly displeased
the Spanish ruler, and roused the indignation of the Cid, who declared that
his king was the vassal of no monarch, and offered to fight any one who
dared maintain a contrary opinion.

"'Never yet have we done homage--
Shall we to a stranger bow?
Great the honor God hath given us--
Shall we lose that honor now?

"'Send then to the Holy Father,
Proudly thus to him reply--
Thou, the king, and I, Rodrigo,
Him and all his power defy.'"
_Ancient Spanish Ballads_ (Lockhart's tr.).

This challenge was sent to the Pope, who, not averse to having the question
settled by the judgment of God, bade the emperor send a champion to meet
Rodrigo. This imperial champion was of course defeated, and all King
Ferdinand's enemies were so grievously routed by the ever-victorious Cid
that no further demands of homage or tribute were ever made.

Old age had now come on, and King Ferdinand, after receiving divine warning
of his speedy demise, died. He left Castile to his eldest son, Don Sancho,
Leon to Don Alfonso, Galicia to Don Garcia, and gave his daughters, Dona
Urraca and Dona Elvira, the wealthy cities of Zamora and Toro. Of course
this disposal of property did not prove satisfactory to all his heirs, and
Don Sancho was especially displeased, because he coveted the whole realm.
He, however, had the Cid to serve him, and selected this doughty champion
to accompany him on a visit to Rome, knowing that he would brook no insult
to his lord. These previsions were fully justified, for the Cid, on
noticing that a less exalted seat had been prepared for Don Sancho than for
the King of France, became so violent that the Pope excommunicated him. But
when the seats had been made of even height, the Cid, who was a good
Catholic, humbled himself before the Pope, and the latter, knowing the
hero's value as a bulwark against the heathen Moors, immediately granted
him full absolution.

"'I absolve thee, Don Ruy Diaz,
I absolve thee cheerfully,
If, while at my court, thou showest
Due respect and courtesy.'"
_Ancient Spanish Ballads_ (Lockhart's tr.).

[Sidenote: The Cid Campeador.] On his return to Castile, Don Sancho found
himself threatened by his namesake, the King of Navarre, and by Don Ramiro
of Aragon. They both invaded Castile, but were ignominously repulsed by the
Cid. As some of the Moors had helped the invaders, the Cid next proceeded
to punish them, and gave up the siege of Saragossa only when the
inhabitants made terms with him. This campaign won for the Cid the title of
"Campeador" (Champion), which he well deserved, as he was always ready to
do battle for his king.

While Don Sancho and his invaluable ally were thus engaged, Don Garcia,
King of Galicia, who was also anxious to increase his kingdom, deprived his
sister Dona Urraca of her city of Zamora. In her distress the infanta came
to Don Sancho and made her lament, thereby affording him the long-sought
pretext to wage war against his brother, and rob him of his kingdom.

This war, in which the Cid reluctantly joined, threatened at one time to
have serious consequences for Sancho. He even once found himself a prisoner
of Garcia's army, shortly after Garcia had been captured by his. The Cid,
occupied in another part of the field, no sooner heard of this occurrence
than he hastened to the Galician nobles to offer an exchange of prisoners;
but, as they rejected his offer with contempt, he soon left them in anger.

"'Hie thee hence, Rodrigo Diaz,
An thou love thy liberty;
Lest, with this thy king, we take thee
Into dire captivity.'"
_Ancient Spanish Ballads_ (Lockhart's tr.).

The wrath which the Cid Campeador experienced at this discourteous
treatment so increased his usual strength that he soon put the enemy to
flight, recovered possession of his king, and not only made Don Garcia a
prisoner, but also secured Don Alfonso who had joined in the revolt. Don
Garcia was sent in chains to the castle of Luna, where he eventually died,
entreating that he might be buried, with his fetters, in the city of Leon.

[Sidenote: Alfonso at Toledo.] As for Don Alfonso, Dona Urraca pleaded his
cause so successfully that he was allowed to retire into a monastery,
whence he soon effected his escape and joined the Moors at Toledo. There he
became the companion and ally of Alimaymon, learned all his secrets, and
once, during a pretended nap, overheard the Moor state that even Toledo
could be taken by the Christians, provided they had the patience to begin a
seven-years' siege, and to destroy all the harvests so as to reduce the
people to starvation. The information thus accidentally obtained proved
invaluable to Alfonso, as will be seen, and enabled him subsequently to
drive the Moors out of the city Toledo.

In the mean while Sancho, not satisfied with his triple kingdom, robbed
Dona Elvira of Toro, and began to besiege Dona Urraca in Zamora, which he
hoped to take also in spite of it almost impregnable position.

"'See! where on yon cliff Zamora
Lifteth up her haughty brow;
Walls of strength on high begird her,
Duero swift and deep below.'"
_Ancient Spanish Ballads_ (Lockhart's tr.).

The king, utterly regardless of the Cid's openly expressed opinion that it
was unworthy of a knight to attempt to deprive a woman of her inheritance,
now bade him carry a message to Dona Urraca, summoning her to surrender at
once. The hero went reluctantly, but only to be bitterly reproached by
Urraca. She dismissed him after consulting her assembled people, who vowed
to die ere they would surrender.

"Then did swear all her brave vassals
In Zamora's walls to die,
Ere unto the king they'd yield it,
And disgrace their chivalry."
_Ancient Spanish Ballads_ (Lockhart's tr.).

[Sidenote: Siege of Zamora.] This message so enraged Don Sancho that he
banished the Cid. The latter departed for Toledo, whence he was soon
recalled, however, for his monarch could do nothing without him. Thus
restored to favor, the Cid began the siege of Zamora, which lasted so long
that the inhabitants began to suffer all the pangs of famine.

At last a Zamoran by the name of Vellido (Bellido) Dolfos came out of the
town in secret, and, under pretense of betraying the city into Don Sancho's
hands, obtained a private interview with him. Dolfos availed himself of
this opportunity to murder the king, and rushed back to the city before the
crime was discovered. He entered the gates just in time to escape from the
Cid, who had mounted hastily, without spurs, and thus could not urge
Babieca on to his utmost speed and overtake the murderer.

"'Cursed be the wretch! and cursed
He who mounteth without spur!
Had I arm'd my heels with rowels,
I had slain the treacherous cur.'"
_Ancient Spanish Ballads_ (Lockhart's tr.).

The grief in the camp at the violent death of the king was very great. Don
Diego Ordonez immediately sent a challenge to Don Arias Gonzalo, who, while
accepting the combat for his son, swore that none of the Zamorans knew of
the dastardly deed, which Dolfos alone had planned.

"'Fire consume us, Count Gonzalo,
If in this we guilty be!
None of us within Zamora
Of this deed had privity.

"'Dolfos only is the traitor;
None but he the king did slay.
Thou canst safely go to battle,
God will be thy shield and stay.'"
_Ancient Spanish Ballads_ (Lockhart's tr.).

This oath was confirmed by the outcome of the duel, and none of the
besiegers ever again ventured to doubt the honor of the Zamorans.

[Sidenote: Alfonso king.] As Don Sancho had left no children to inherit his
kingdom, it came by right of inheritance to Don Alfonso, who was still at
Toledo, a nominal guest, but in reality a prisoner. Dona Urraca, who was
deeply attached to her brother, now managed to convey to him secret
information of Don Sancho's death, and Don Alfonso cleverly effected his
escape, turning his pursuers off his track by reversing his horse's shoes.
When he arrived at Zamora, all were ready to do him homage except the Cid,
who proudly held aloof until Don Alfonso had publicly sworn that he had not
bribed Dolfos to commit the dastardly crime which had called him to the

"'Wherefore, if thou be but guiltless,
Straight I pray of thee to swear,--
Thou and twelve of these thy liegemen,
Who with thee in exile were,--
That in thy late brother's death
Thou hadst neither part nor share
That none of ye to his murder
Privy or consenting were.'"
_Ancient Spanish Ballads_ (Lockhart's tr.).

The king, angry at being thus called upon to answer for his conduct to a
mere subject, viewed the Cid with great dislike, and only awaited a
suitable occasion to take his revenge. During a war with the Moors he made
use of a trifling pretext to banish him, allowing him only nine days to
prepare for departure. The Cid accepted this cruel decree with dignity,
hoping that the time would never come when the king would regret his
absence, and his country need his right arm.

"'I obey, O King Alfonso,
Guilty though in naught I be,
For it doth behoove a vassal
To obey his lord's decree;
Prompter far am I to serve thee
Than thou art to guerdon me.

"'I do pray our Holy Lady
Her protection to afford,
That thou never mayst in battle
Need the Cid's right arm and sword.'"
_Ancient Spanish Ballads_ (Lockhart's tr.).

Amid the weeping people of Burgos, who dared not offer him help and shelter
lest they should incur the king's wrath, lose all their property, and even
forfeit their eyesight, the Cid slowly rode away, and camped without the
city to make his final arrangements. Here a devoted follower supplied him
with the necessary food, remarking that he cared "not a fig" for Alfonso's
prohibitions, which is probably the first written record of the use of this
now popular expression.

[Sidenote: The Cid in exile.] To obtain the necessary money the Cid pledged
two locked coffers full of sand to the Jews. They, thinking that the boxes
contained vast treasures, or relying upon the Cid's promise to release them
for a stipulated sum, advanced him six hundred marks of gold. The Cid then
took leave of his beloved wife Ximena, and of his two infant daughters,
whom he intrusted to the care of a worthy ecclesiastic, and, followed by
three hundred men, he rode slowly away from his native land, vowing that he
would yet return, covered with glory, and bringing great spoil.

"'Comrades, should it please high Heaven
That we see Castile once more,--
Though we now go forth as outcasts,
Sad, dishonor'd, homeless, poor,--
We'll return with glory laden
And the spellings of the Moor.'"
_Ancient Spanish Ballads_ (Lockhart's tr.).

Such success attended the little band of exiles that within the next three
weeks they won two strongholds from the Moors, and much spoil, among which
was the sword Colada, which was second only to Tizona. From the spoil the
Cid selected a truly regal present, which he sent to Alfonso, who in return
granted a general pardon to the Cid's followers, and published an edict
allowing all who wished to fight against the Moors to join him. A few more
victories and another present so entirely dispelled Alfonso's displeasure
that he restored the Cid to favor, and, moreover, promised that thereafter
thirty days should be allowed to every exile to prepare for his departure.

When Alimaymon, King of Toledo, died, leaving Toledo in the hands of his
grandson Yahia, who was generally disliked, Alfonso thought the time
propitious for carrying out his long-cherished scheme of taking the city.
Thanks to the valor of the Cid and the destruction of all the crops, the
siege of the city progressed favorably, and it finally fell into the hands
of the Christian king.

A second misunderstanding, occasioned principally by the jealous courtiers,
caused Alfonso to insult the Cid, who in anger left the army and made a
sudden raid in Castile. During his absence, the Moors resumed courage, and
became masters of Valencia. Hearing of this disaster, the Cid promptly
returned, recaptured the city, and, establishing his headquarters there,
asked Alfonso to send him his wife and daughters. At the same time he sent
more than the promised sum of money to the Jews to redeem the chests which,
as they now first learned, were filled with nothing but sand.

"'Say, albeit within the coffers
Naught but sand they can espy,
That the pure gold of my truth
Deep beneath that sand doth lie."'
_Ancient Spanish Ballads_ (Lockhart's tr.).

[Sidenote: The Counts of Carrion.] As the Cid was now master of Valencia
and of untold wealth, his daughters were soon sought in marriage by many
suitors. Among them were the Counts of Carrion, whose proposals were warmly
encouraged by Alfonso. To please his royal master, the Cid consented to an
alliance with them, and the marriage of both his daughters was celebrated
with much pomp. In the "Chronicle of the Cid," compiled from all the
ancient ballads, these festivities are recorded thus: "Who can tell the
great nobleness which the Cid displayed at that wedding! the feasts and the
bullfights, and the throwing at the target, and the throwing canes, and how
many joculars were there, and all the sports which are proper at such

Pleased with their sumptuous entertainment, the Infantes of Carrion
lingered at Valencia two years, during which time the Cid had ample
opportunity to convince himself that they were not the brave and upright
husbands he would fain have secured for his daughters. In fact, all soon
became aware of the young men's cowardice, for when a lion broke loose from
the Cid's private menagerie and entered the hall where he was sleeping,
while his guests were playing chess, the princes fled, one falling into an
empty vat in his haste, and the other taking refuge behind the Cid's couch.
Awakened by the noise, the Cid seized his sword, twisted his cloak around
his arm, and, grasping the lion by its mane, thrust it back into its cage,
and calmly returned to his place.

"Till the good Cid awoke; he rose without alarm;
He went to meet the lion, with his mantle on his arm.
The lion was abash'd the noble Cid to meet,
He bow'd his mane to earth, his muzzle at his feet.
The Cid by the neck and mane drew him to his den,
He thrust him in at the hatch, and came to the hall again;
He found his knights, his vassals, and all his valiant men.
He ask'd for his sons-in-law, they were neither of them there."
_Chronicles of the Cid_ (Southey's tr.).

This cowardly conduct of the Infantes of Carrion could not fail to call
forth some gibes from the Cid's followers. The young men, however,
concealed their anger, biding their time to take their revenge. During the
siege of Valencia, which took place shortly after this adventure, the
Infantes did not manage to show much courage either; and it was only
through the kindness of Felez Munoz, a nephew of the Cid, that one of them
could exhibit a war horse which he falsely claimed to have taken from the

Thanks to the valor of the Cid, the Moors were driven away from Valencia
with great loss, and peace was restored. The Infantes of Carrion then asked
permission to return home with their brides, and the spoil and presents the
Cid had given them, among which were the swords Colada and Tizona. The Cid
escorted them part way on their journey, bade farewell to his daughters
with much sorrow, and returned alone to Valencia, which appeared deserted
without the presence of the children he loved.

"The Cid he parted from his daughters,
Naught could he his grief disguise;
As he clasped them to his bosom,
Tears did stream from out his eyes."
_Ancient Spanish Ballads_ (Lockhart's tr.).

[Sidenote: Cruelty of Infantes of Carrion.] After journeying on for some
time with their brides and Felez Munoz, who was acting as escort, the
Infantes of Carrion camped near the Douro. Early the next day they sent all
their suite ahead, and, being left alone with their wives, stripped them of
their garments, lashed them with thorns, kicked them with their spurs, and
finally left them for dead on the blood-stained ground, and rode on to join
their escort. Suspecting foul play, and fearing the worst, Felez Munoz
cleverly managed to separate himself from the party, and, riding swiftly
back to the banks of the Douro, found his unhappy cousins in a sorry
plight. He tenderly cared for their wounds, placed them upon his horse, and
took them to the house of a poor man, whose wife and daughters undertook to
nurse them, while Felez Munoz hastened back to Valencia to tell the Cid
what had occurred. The Cid Campeador then swore that he would be avenged;
and as Alfonso was responsible for the marriage, he applied to him for

"'Lo! my daughters have been outrag'd!
For thine own, thy kingdom's sake,
Look, Alfonso, to mine honor!
Vengeance thou or I must take.'"
_Ancient Spanish Ballads_ (Lockhart's tr.).

The king, who had by this time learned to value the Cid's services, was
very angry when he heard how the Infantes of Carrion had insulted their
wives, and immediately summoned them to appear before the Cortes, the
Spanish assembly, at Toledo, and justify themselves, if it were possible.
The Cid was also summoned to the same assembly, where he began by claiming
the two precious blades Tizona and Colada, and the large dowry he had given
with his daughters. Then he challenged the young cowards to fight. When
questioned, they tried to excuse themselves by declaring that the Cid's
daughters, being of inferior birth, were not fit to mate with them.

[Sidenote: Embassy from Navarre.] The falseness of this excuse was shown,
however, by an embassy from Navarre, asking the hands of the Cid's
daughters for the Infantes of that kingdom, who were far superior in rank
to the Infantes of Carrion. The Cid consented to this new alliance, and
after a combat had been appointed between three champions of his selection
and the Infantes of Carrion and their uncle, he prepared to return home.

As proof of his loyalty, however, he offered to give to Alfonso his
favorite steed Babieca, an offer which the king wisely refused, telling him
that the best of warriors alone deserved that peerless war horse.

"''Tis the noble Babieca that is fam'd for speed and force,
Among the Christians nor the Moors there is not such another one,
My Sovereign, Lord, and Sire, he is fit for you alone;
Give orders to your people, and take him for your own.'
The King replied, 'It cannot be; Cid, you shall keep your horse;
He must not leave his master, nor change him for a worse;
Our kingdom has been honor'd by you and by your steed--
The man that would take him from you, evil may he speed.
A courser such as he is fit for such a knight,
To beat down Moors in battle, and follow them in flight.'"
_Chronicles of the Cid_ (Southey's tr.).

Shortly after, in the presence of the king, the Cid, and the assembled
Cortes, the appointed battle took place. The Infantes of Carrion and their
uncle were defeated and banished, and the Cid returned in triumph to
Valencia. Here his daughters' second marriage took place, and here he
received an embassy bringing him rich gifts from the Sultan of Persia, who
had heard of his fame.

Five years later the Moors returned, under the leadership of Bucar, King of
Morocco, to besiege Valencia. The Cid was about to prepare to do battle
against this overwhelming force when he was favored by a vision of St.
Peter. The saint predicted his death within thirty days, but assured him
that, even though he were dead, he would still triumph over the enemy whom
he had fought against for so many years.

"'Dear art thou to God, Rodrigo,
And this grace he granteth thee:
When thy soul hath fled, thy body
Still shall cause the Moors to flee;
And, by aid of Santiago,
Gain a glorious victory.'"
_Ancient Spanish Ballads_ (Lockhart's tr.).

The pious and simple-hearted warrior immediately began to prepare for the
other world. He appointed a successor, gave instructions that none should
bewail his death lest the news should encourage the Moors, and directed
that his embalmed body should be set upon Babieca, and that, with Tizona in
his hand, he should be led against the enemy on a certain day, when he
promised a signal victory.

[Illustration: THE CID'S LAST VICTORY.--Rochegrosse.]

"'Saddle next my Babieca,
Arm him well as for the fight;
On his back then tie my body,
In my well-known armor dight.

"'In my right hand place Tizona;
Lead me forth unto the war;
Bear my standard fast behind me,
As it was my wont of yore.'"
_Ancient Spanish Ballads_ (Lockhart's tr.).

[Sidenote: The Cid's last battle.] When these instructions had all been
given, the hero died at the appointed time, and his successor and the brave
Ximena strove to carry out his every wish. A sortie was planned, and the
Cid, fastened upon his war horse, rode in the van. Such was the terror
which his mere presence inspired that the Moors fled before him. Most of
them were slain, and Bucar beat a hasty retreat, thinking that seventy
thousand Christians were about to fall upon him, led by the patron saint of

"Seventy thousand Christian warriors,
All in snowy garments dight,
Led by one of giant stature,
Mounted on a charger white;

"On his breast a cross of crimson,
In his hand a sword of fire,
With it hew'd he down the Paynims,
As they fled, with slaughter dire."
_Ancient Spanish Ballads_ (Lockhart's tr.).

The Christians, having routed the enemy, yet knowing, as the Cid had told
them, that they would never be able to hold Valencia when he was gone, now
marched on into Castile, the dead hero still riding Babieca in their midst.
Then Ximena sent word to her daughters of their father's demise, and they
came to meet him, but could scarcely believe that he was dead when they saw
him so unchanged.

By Alfonso's order the Cid's body was placed in the Church of San Pedro de
Cardena, where for ten years it remained seated in a chair of state, and in
plain view of all. Such was the respect which the dead hero inspired that
none dared lay a finger upon him, except a sacrilegious Jew, who,
remembering the Cid's proud boast that no man had ever dared lay a hand
upon his beard, once attempted to do so. Before he could touch it, however,
the hero's lifeless hand clasped the sword hilt and drew Tizona a few
inches out of its scabbard.

"Ere the beard his fingers touched,
Lo! the silent man of death
Grasp'd the hilt, and drew Tizona
Full a span from out the sheath!"
_Ancient Spanish Ballads_ (Lockhart's tr.).

Of course, in the face of such a miracle, the Jew desisted, and the Cid
Campeador was reverently laid in the grave only when his body began to show
signs of decay. His steed Babieca continued to be held in great honor, but
no one was ever again allowed to bestride him.

[Sidenote: Evacuation of Valencia.] As for the Moors, they rallied around
Valencia. After hovering near for several days, wondering at the strange
silence, they entered the open gates of the city, which they had not dared
to cross for fear of an ambuscade, and penetrated into the court of the
palace. Here they found a notice, left by the order of the Cid, announcing
his death and the complete evacuation of the city by the Christian army.
The Cid's sword Tizona became an heirloom in the family of the Marquis of
Falies, and is said to bear the following inscriptions, one on either side
of the blade: "I am Tizona, made in era 1040," and "Hail Maria, full of



[Sidenote: Cycles of romance.] In the preceding chapters we have given an
outline of the principal epics which formed the staple of romance
literature in the middle ages. As has been seen, this style of composition
was used to extol the merits and describe the great deeds of certain famous
heroes, and by being gradually extended it was made to include the prowess
of the friends and contemporaries of these more or less fabulous
personages. All these writings, clustering thus about some great character,
eventually formed the so-called "cycles of romance."

There were current in those days not only classical romances, but stories
of love, adventure, and chivalry, all bearing a marked resemblance to one
another, and prevailing in all the European states during the four
centuries when knighthood flourished everywhere. Some of these tales, such
as those of the Holy Grail, were intended, besides, to glorify the most
celebrated orders of knighthood,--the Templars and Knights of St. John.

Other styles of imaginative writing were known at the same time also, yet
the main feature of the literature of the age is first the metrical, and
later the prose, romance, the direct outcome of the great national epics.

We have outlined very briefly, as a work of this character requires, the
principal features of the Arthurian, Carolingian, and Teutonic cycles. We
have also touched somewhat upon the Anglo-Danish and Scandinavian
contributions to our literature.

Of the extensive Spanish cycle we have given only a short sketch of the
romance, or rather the chronicle, of the Cid, leaving out entirely the vast
and deservedly popular cycles of Amadis of Gaul and of the Palmerins. This
omission has been intentional, however, because these romances have left
but few traces in our literature. As they are seldom even alluded to, they
are not of so great importance to the English student of letters as the
Franco-German, Celto-Briton, and Scandinavian tales.

The stories of Amadis of Gaul and of the Palmerins are, moreover, very
evident imitations of the principal romances of chivalry which we have
already considered. They are formed of an intricate series of adventures
and enchantments, are, if anything, more extravagant than the other
mediaeval romances, and are further distinguished by a tinge of Oriental
mysticism and imagery, the result of the Crusades.

The Italian cycle, which we have not treated separately because it relates
principally to Charlemagne and Roland, is particularly noted for its
felicity of expression and richness of description. Like the Spanish
writers, the Italians love to revel in magic, as is best seen in the
greatest gems of that age, the poems of "Orlando Innamorato" and "Orlando
Furioso," by Boiardo and Ariosto.

Mediaeval literature includes also a very large and so-called "unaffiliated
cycle" of romances. This is composed of many stories, the precursors of the
novel and "short story" of the present age. We are indebted to this cycle
for several well-known works of fiction, such as the tale of patient
Griseldis, the gentle and meek-spirited heroine who has become the
personification of long-suffering and charity. After the mediaeval writers
had made much use of this tale, it was taken up in turn by Boccaccio and
Chaucer, who have made it immortal.

The Norman tale of King Robert of Sicily, so beautifully rendered in verse
by Longfellow in his "Tales of a Wayside Inn," also belongs to this cycle,
and some authorities claim that it includes the famous animal epic "Reynard
the Fox," of which we have given an outline. The story of Reynard the Fox
is one of the most important mediaeval contributions to the literature of
the world, and is the source from which many subsequent writers have drawn
the themes for their fables.

[Sidenote: Classical cycle.] A very large class of romances, common to all
European nations during the middle ages, has also been purposely omitted
from the foregoing pages. This is the so-called "classical cycle," or the
romances based on the Greek and Latin epics, which were very popular during
the age of chivalry. They occupy so prominent a place in mediaeval
literature, however, that we must bespeak a few moments' attention to their

In these classical romances the heroes of antiquity have lost many of their
native characteristics, and are generally represented as knight-errants,
and made to talk and act as such knights would. Christianity and mythology
are jumbled up together in a most peculiar way, and history, chronology,
and geography are set at defiance and treated with the same scorn of

The classical romances forming this great general cycle are subdivided into
several classes or cycles. The interest of the first is mainly centered
upon the heroes of Homer and Hesiod. The best-known and most popular of
these mediaeval works was the "Roman de Troie," relating the siege and
downfall of Troy.

Based upon post-classical Greek and Latin writings rather than upon the
great Homeric epic itself, the story, which had already undergone many
changes to suit the ever-varying public taste, was further transformed by
the Anglo-Norman trouvere, Benoit de Sainte-More, about 1184. He composed a
poem of thirty thousand lines, in which he related not only the siege and
downfall of Troy, but also the Argonautic expedition, the wanderings of
Ulysses, the story of Aeneas, and many other mythological tales.

This poet, following the custom of the age, naively reproduced the manners,
customs, and, in general, the beliefs of the twelfth century. There is
plenty of local color in his work, only the color belongs to his own
locality, and not to that of the heroes whose adventures he purports to
relate. In his work the old classical heroes are transformed into typical
mediaeval knights, and heroines such as Helen and Medea, for instance, are
portrayed as damsels in distress.

This prevalent custom of viewing the ancients solely from the mediaeval
point of view gave rise not only to grotesque pen pictures, but also to a
number of paintings, such as Gozzoli's kidnapping of Helen. In this
composition, Paris, in trunk hose, is carrying off the fair Helen
pickaback, notwithstanding the evident clamor raised by the assembled court
ladies, who are attired in very full skirts and mediaeval headdresses.

On account of these peculiarities, and because the customs, dress,
festivities, weapons, manners, landscapes, etc., of the middle ages are so
minutely described, these romances have, with much justice, been considered
as really original works.

[Sidenote: The Roman de Troie.] The "Roman de Troie" was quite as popular
in mediaeval Europe as the "Iliad" had been in Hellenic countries during
the palmy days of Greece, and was translated into every dialect. There are
still extant many versions of the romance in every European tongue, for it
penetrated even into the frozen regions of Scandinavia and Iceland. It was
therefore recited in every castle and town by the wandering minstrels,
trouveres, troubadours, minnesingers, and scalds, who thus individually and
collectively continued the work begun so many years before by the Greek
rhapsodists. Thus for more than two thousand years the story which still
delights us has been familiar among high and low, and has served to beguile
the hours for old and young.

This cycle further includes a revised and much-transformed edition of the
adventures of Aeneas and of the early history of Rome. But although all
these tales were first embodied in metrical romances, these soon gave way
to prose versions of equally interminable length, which each relator varied
and embellished according to his taste and skill.

The extreme popularity of Benoit de Sainte-More's work induced many
imitations, and the numerous _chansons de gestes_, constructed on the same
general plan, soon became current everywhere. Sundry episodes of these
tales, having been particularly liked, were worked over, added to, and
elaborated, until they assumed the proportions of romances in themselves.
Such was, for example, the case with the story of Troilus and Cressida,
which was treated by countless mediaeval poets, and finally given the form
in which we know it best, first by Chaucer in his "Canterbury Tales," and
lastly by Shakespeare in his well-known play.

[Sidenote: Alexandre le Grant.] Another great romance of the classical
cycle is the one known as "Alexandre le Grant." First written in verse by
Lambert le Cort, in a meter which is now exclusively known as Alexandrine,
because it was first used to set forth the charms and describe the deeds of
this hero, it was recast by many poets, and finally turned into a prose
romance also.

The first poetical version was probably composed in the eleventh century,
and is said to have been twenty-two thousand six hundred lines long. Drawn
from many sources,--for the Greek and Latin writers had been all more or
less occupied with describing the career of the youthful conqueror and the
marvels he discovered in the far East,--the mediaeval writers still further
added to this heterogeneous material.

The romance of "Alexandre le Grant," therefore, purports to relate the life
and adventures of the King of Macedon; but as Lambert le Cort and his
numerous predecessors and successors were rather inclined to draw on
imagination, the result is a very extravagant tale.

In the romance, as we know it, Alexander is described as a mediaeval rather
than an ancient hero. After giving the early history of Macedon, the poet
tells of the birth of Alexander,--which is ascribed to divine
intervention,--and dwells eloquently upon the hero's youthful prowess.
Philip's death and the consequent reign of Alexander next claim our
attention. The conquest of the world is, in this romance, introduced by the
siege and submission of Rome, after which the young monarch starts upon his
expedition into Asia Minor, and the conquest of Persia. The war with Porus
and the fighting in India are dwelt upon at great length, as are the riches
and magnificence of the East. Alexander visits Amazons and cannibals, views
all the possible and impossible wonders, and in his fabulous history we
find the first mention, in European literature, of the marvelous "Fountain
of Youth," the object of Ponce de Leon's search in Florida many years

When, in the course of this lengthy romance, Alexander has triumphantly
reached the ends of the earth, he sighs for new worlds to conquer, and even
aspires to the dominion of the realm of the air. To wish is to obtain. A
magic glass cage, rapidly borne aloft by eight griffins, conveys the
conqueror through the aerial kingdom, where all the birds in turn do homage
to him, and where he is enabled to understand their language, thanks to the
kind intervention of a magician.

But Alexander's ambition is still insatiable; and, earth and air having
both submitted to his sway, and all the living creatures therein having
recognized him as master and promised their allegiance, he next proposes to
annex the empire of the sea. Magic is again employed to gratify this wish,
and Alexander sinks to the bottom of the sea in a peculiarly fashioned
diving bell. Here all the finny tribe press around to do him homage; and
after receiving their oaths of fealty, and viewing all the marvels of the
deep, as conceived by the mediaeval writer's fancy, Alexander returns to

Earth, air, and sea having all been subdued, the writer, unable to follow
the course of Alexander's conquests any further, now minutely describes a
grand coronation scene at Babylon, where, with the usual disregard for
chronology which characterizes all the productions of this age, he makes
the hero participate in a solemn mass!

The story ends with a highly sensational description of the death of
Alexander by poisoning, and an elaborate enumeration of the pomps of his

[Sidenote: Rome la Grant.] A third order of romances, also belonging to
this cycle, includes a lengthy poem known as "Rome la Grant." Here Virgil
appears as a common enchanter. With the exception of a few well-known
names, all trace of antiquity is lost. The heroes are now exposed to
hairbreadth escapes; wonderful adventures succeed one another without any
pause; and there is a constant series of enchantments, such as the Italian
poets loved to revel in, as is shown in the works by Boiardo and Ariosto
already mentioned.

These tales, and those on the same theme which had preceded them, gave rise
to a generally accepted theory of European colonization subsequent to the
Trojan war; and every man of note and royal family claimed to descend from
the line of Priam.

[Sidenote: Story of Brutus.] As the Romans insisted that their city owed
its existence to the descendants of Aeneas, so the French kings Dagobert
and Charles the Bald claimed to belong to the illustrious Trojan race. The
same tradition appeared in England about the third century, and from Gildas
and Nennius was adopted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. It is from this historian
that Wace drew the materials for the metrical tale of Brutus (Brute), the
supposed founder of the British race and kingdom. This poem is twenty
thousand lines long, and relates the adventures and life of Brutus, the
great-grandson of Aeneas.

At the time of Brutus' birth his parents were frightened by an oracle
predicting that he would be the cause of the death of both parents, and
only after long wanderings would attain the highest pitch of glory. This
prophecy was duly fulfilled. Brutus' mother, a niece of Lavinia, died at
his birth. Fifteen years later, while hunting, he accidentally slew his
father; and, expelled from Italy on account of this involuntary crime, he
began his wanderings.

In the course of time Brutus went to Greece, where he found the descendants
of Helenus, one of Priam's sons, languishing in captivity. Brutus headed
the revolted Trojans, and after helping them to defeat Pandrasus, King of
Greece, obtained their freedom, and invited them to accompany him to some
distant land, where they could found a new kingdom.

Led by Brutus, who in the mean while had married the daughter of Pandrasus,
the Trojans sailed away, and, landing on the deserted island of Leogecia,
visited the temple of Diana, and questioned her statue, which gave the
following oracle:

"'Brutus! there lies beyond the Gallic bounds
An island which the western sea surrounds,
By giants once possessed; now few remain
To bar thy entrance, or obstruct thy reign.
To reach that happy shore thy sails employ;
There fate decrees to raise a second Troy,
And found an empire in thy royal line,
Which time shall ne'er destroy, nor bounds confine.'"

Thus directed by miracle, Brutus sailed on, meeting with many adventures,
and landed twice on the coast of Africa. The Pillars of Hercules once
passed, the travelers beheld the sirens, and, landing once more, were
joined by Corineus, who proposed to accompany them.

Brutus then coasted along the shores of the kingdom of Aquitaine and up the
Loire, where his men quarreled with the inhabitants. He found himself
involved in a fierce conflict, in which, owing to his personal valor and to
the marvelous strength of Corineus, he came off victor in spite of the odds
against him.

In this battle Brutus' nephew, Turonus, fell, and was buried on the spot
where the city of Tours was subsequently built and named after the dead
hero. After having subdued his foes, Brutus embarked again and landed on an
island called Albion. Here he forced the giants to make way for him, and in
the encounters with them Corineus again covered himself with glory.

We are told that the first germ of the nursery tale of Jack the Giant
Killer is found in this poem, for Corineus, having chosen Corinea
(Cornwall) as his own province, defeated there the giant Goemagot, who was
twelve cubits high and pulled up an oak as if it were but a weed. Corineus,
after a famous wrestling bout, flung this Goemagot into the sea, at a place
long known as Lam Goemagot, but now called Plymouth.

[Sidenote: The founding of London.] Brutus pursued his way, and finally
came to the Thames, on whose banks he founded New Troy, a city whose name
was changed in honor of Lud, one of his descendants, to London. Brutus
called the newly won kingdom Britain, and his eldest sons, Locrine and
Camber, gave their names to the provinces of Locria and Cambria when they
became joint rulers of their father's kingdom, while Albanact, his third
son, took possession of the northern part, which he called Albania

Albanact was not allowed to reign in peace, however, but was soon called
upon to war against Humber, King of the Huns. The latter was defeated, and
drowned in the stream which still bears his name. Locrine's daughter,
Sabrina, also met with a watery death, and gave her name to the Severn.

[Sidenote: King Leir.] The posterity of Brutus now underwent many other
vicissitudes. There was fighting at home and abroad; and after attributing
the founding of all the principal cities to some ruler of this line, the
historian relates the story of King Leir, the founder of Leicester. As this
monarch's life has been used by Shakespeare for one of his dramas,--the
tragedy of "King Lear,"--and is familiar to all students of English
literature, there is no need to outline Geoffrey of Monmouth's version of
the tale.

The chronicler then resumes the account of Brutus' illustrious descendants,
enumerating them all, and relating their adventures, till we come to the
reign of Cassivellaunus and the invasion of Britain by the Romans. Shortly
after, under the reign of Cymbelinus, he mentions the birth of Christ, and
then resumes the thread of his fabulous history, and brings it down to the
reign of Uther Pendragon, where it has been taken up in the Arthurian

This chronicle, which gave rise to many romances, was still considered
reliable even in Shakespeare's time, and many poets have drawn freely from
it. The mediaeval poets long used it as a mental quarry, and it has been
further utilized by some more recent poets, among whom we must count
Drayton, who makes frequent mention of these ancient names in his poem
"Polyolbion," and Spenser, who immortalizes many of the old legends in his
"Faerie Queene."

There are, of course, many other mediaeval tales and romances; but our aim
has been to enable the reader to gain some general idea of the principal
examples, leaving him to pursue the study in its many branches if he wishes
a more complete idea of the literature of the past and of the influence it
has exerted and still exerts upon the writers of our own day.


Ariosto, 141, 211.
Arnold, Matthew, 212, 243, 269.
Beowulf, (translations by Conybeare, Keary, Longfellow, Metcalfe), 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21.
Buchanan, 145, 146.
Bulwer Lytton, 219.
Burney, Dr. (translation), 141.
Byron, 150.
Chanson de Roland (translations by Rabillon), 144, 145, 147, 148.
Conybeare (translations), 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21.
Cursor Mundi, 4.
Death Song of Regner Lodbrock (translations by Herbert), 272, 276, 279.
Dippold, G. T., (translations, Great Epics of Mediaeval Germany, Roberts
Bros., Boston,), 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 188, 190,
195, 237, 239.
Dragon of Wantley, 238.
Drayton, 208, 210, 217, 218.
Ellis, 207, 208, 209, 210, 227.
Ettin Langshanks, The, 115, 116.
Geoffrey of Monmouth, 308.
Giles (translation), 308.
Goethe, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49 50, 52.
Gottfried von Strassburg, 237, 239, 241.
Gudrun, (translations by Dippold, Great Epics of mediaeval Germany,
Roberts Bros., Boston), 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34.
Hartmann von Aue, 223.
Head, Sir Edmund, (Ticknor's Spanish Literature, Messrs. Harper Bros., New
York), 150.
Heldenbuch (translations by Weber), 95, 96, 101, 105, 106, 107, 118, 119,
Hemans, Mrs., 278.
Herbert (translations), 272, 276, 279.
Hildebrand, Song of, (translation by Bayard Taylor, Studies in German
Literature, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York), 127.
Ingemann, 136.
Jamieson (translations), 115, 116.
Jones, J.C., 17.
Keary (translation), 11.
King Arthur's Death, 230.
Lady Alda's Dream (translation by Head), 149.
Layamon, 232.
Legend of King Arthur, 218.
Lettsom (translations), 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66,
68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85.
Lockhart, (Ancient Spanish Ballads, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York), 282,
283, 284, 285, 286, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297,
298, 299, 300.
Longfellow, (Poets and Poetry of Europe, and Poetical Works, Houghton,
Mifflin & Co., Boston), 12, 13, 95, 137, 251, 253, 254, 256, 258, 265.
Lord Lovel, Ballad of, 245.
McDowall (translation), 200.
Metcalfe (translations), 16, 21.
Morris, William, 275.
Nibelungenlied (translations by Lettsom), 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61,
62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82,
83, 84, 85.
Niendorf, 34.
Rabillon (translations), 144, 145, 147, 148.
Ragnar Lodbrok Saga, (The Viking Age, by Paul du Chaillu, Charles
Scribner's Sons, New York), 270.
Ragnar's Sons' Saga, (The Viking Age, by Paul du Chaillu, Charles
Scribner's Sons, New York), 277.
Robert of Gloucester, 209.
Rogers (translations), 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50,
Roland and Ferragus, 141, 142, 143.
Rose (translation), 211.
Scott, Sir Walter, 235.
Sir Lancelot du Lake, 220.
Sir Otuel, 148.
Sotheby (translations), 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174,
175, 176, 177, 178, 179.
Southey, 132, 133, 295, 298.
Spalding (translations), 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259,
260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 266, 267, 268.
Spenser, 211.
Swinburne, 206, 240, 241.
Taylor, Bayard, (Studies in German Literature, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New
York,), 127, 190, 193, 223, 241.
Tegner, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262,
263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268.
Tennyson, 212, 214, 215, 216, 217, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 229,
231, 232.
Vail, 281.
Weber (translations), 95, 96, 101, 105, 106, 107, 118, 119, 121.
Wieland, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178,
Wolfram von Eschenbach, 188, 190, 193, 195, 200.


AA'CHEN. See _Aix-la-Chapelle_.
AB-RA-CA-DAB'RA. Malagigi's charm, 158.
A'CRE. Ogier besieges, 138.
ADENET (ae-de-na') Author of an epic on Ogier, 138.
AE'GIR. Northern god of the sea, 250.
AE-NE'AS. In mediaeval literature, 303;
adventures of, 304;
Romans claim, 307.
AES'CHE-RE. Seized by Grendel's mother, 15;
Beowulf offers to avenge, 16.
AF'RI-CA. Brutus lands in, 308.
AG'NAR. Son of Ragnar and Thora, 272;
a great viking, 274;
fights Eystein, 276.
AG'RA-VAINE. Doubts Arthur's title to throne, 216.
AI-GO-LAN'DUS. Revolts against Charlemagne, 141.
AIX-LA-CHA-PELLE'. Founding of, 133;
Ganelon executed at, 148;
Renaud's body to be taken to, 162.
A'LARD. Son of Aymon, 154;
Renaud's affection for, 155;
plays chess with Chariot, 155;
prisoner of Charlemagne, 157;
freed by Malagigi, 158.
AL'BA-NACT. Son of Brutus, 309;
wars against Humber, 309.
AL-BA'NI-A. Name for Scotland, 309.
AL'BER-ICH. Dwarf guardian of treasure, 61;
delivers hoard, 70;
meets Ortnit under tree, 96;
the father of Ortnit, 97;
helps Ortnit, 97;
warns Ortnit against dragons, 98;
receives magic ring, 98;
Wolfdietrich warned by, 107;
meets Dietrich, 111.
See _Laurin_ and _Elbegast_.
AL'BI-ON. Brutus lands in, 308.
AL'BOIN. Sent in quest of armor, 86;
and Rosamund, 87;
cruelty of, 87;
death of, 88.
AL'DRI-AN. I. Father of Hagen, 75.
AL'DRI-AN. II. Son of Hagen, 127;
betrays Etzel, 127.
AL'E-BRAND. See _Hadubrand_.
AL-EX-AN'DER. Hero of metrical romance, 305;
conquests of, 306;
death of, 307.
AL-EX-AN'DRE LE GRANT. Synopsis of, 305.
AL-EX-AN'DRINE METER. Origin of, 305.
A-LEX'IS. Angela restored to, 170.
AL'FER-ICH. See _Alberich_.
AL'FILD. First wife of Sigurd Ring, 269.
AL-FON'SO, DON. King of Leon, 288;
made prisoner, 290;
escapes to Toledo, 290;
hears of Don Sancho's death, 292;
escapes from Toledo, 292;
king of Castile, 292;
banishes Cid, 293;
restores Cid to favor, 294;
makes edict in favor of exiles, 294;
takes Toledo, 294;
defeated by Cid, 294;
encourages suit of Counts of Carrion, 295;
responsible for marriage of Cid's daughters, 297;
Cid seeks redress from, 297;
refuses Babieca, 297;
gives orders for burial of Cid, 300.
AL'FRED. An ally of Ella, 279.
ALF'SOL. Sigurd Ring wooes, 270;
death of, 270.
AL-I-MAY'MON. Reveals how Toledo can be taken, 290;
death of, 294.
ALMES'BUR-Y. Guinevere at, 232;
Lancelot visits, 233;
Guinevere dies at, 233.
AL'PRIS. See _Alberich_.
AL'TE-CLER. Sword of Oliver, 139.
AM'A-DIS OF GAUL. Cycle of, 302.
AM'A-LING LAND. Italy called, 121;
Dietrich king of, 121;
invaded by imperial army, 123;
Dietrich returns to, 125.
AM'A-LUNG. Son of Hornbogi, 121.
A-MAN'DA. Rezia called, 175;
marriage of, 175;
in Titania's valley, 175;
mother of Huonet, 176;
loses her child, and is captured by pirates, 176;
shipwreck of, 177;
slave of the Sultan, 178;
visits fairyland, 179;
journeys to Paris, 179.
AM'A-ZONS. Alexander visits, 306.
AM-BRO'SI-US AU-RE-LI-A'NUS. British chief, 205.
AM'E-LINGS. The, 100-109.
AM'EL-RICH. Ferryman's signal, 76.
AM-FOR'TAS. Son of Frimontel, 188;
king of Montsalvatch, 189;
wound of, 189;
agony of, 193;
brother of, 199;
cured, 200;
death of, 200;
armor of, 201.
AN-GAN'TYR. Helps to recover ship Ellida, 250;
ruler of Orkney Islands, 250;
Frithiof sent to claim tribute from, 258;
Frithiof's landing seen by watchman of, 260;
Frithiof's visit to, 261;
purse of, 261.
ANGEL. Visits Charlemagne, 130;
visits Ogier, 137;
visits Oliver, 139.
AN'GE-LA. Huon advised by, 170;
Huon delivers, 170.
AN-GLO-SAX'ONS. "Beowulf" probably composed by, 9.
AN-GOU-LAF'FRE. Castle of, 169;
Huon's encounter with, 169;
ring of, 173.
AN-GUR-VA'DEL. Magic sword, 247;
Thorsten receives, 249;
Frithiof inherits, 253.
AN'TON. See _Hector_.
ANT'WERP. Marriage of Else and Lohengrin at, 203.
AN'ZI-US. Emperor of Constantinople, 100.
A-POL'LO. Marsile worships, 144.
A-PU'LI-A. Part of Rother's kingdom, 89.
A-QUI-TAINE'. Walther son of duke of, 124;
Brutus coasts along, 308.
AR'ABS. Huon defeats a band of, 166;
Spain under the, 282.
AR'A-GON. Calahorra cause of quarrel in, 286;
Don Ramiro of, 286.
ARDENNES (aer-den'). Quest for robber knight of the, 134;
Aymon's sons take refuge in, 160.
AR-GO-NAU'TIC EXPEDITION. In mediaeval literature, 303.
A'RI-AS GON-ZA'LO, DON. Receives challenge, 291.
A-RIB'A-DALE. Bearer of Holy Grail, 201.
A-RI-OS'TO. Version of Roland by, 130;
Merlin's fountain mentioned by, 211;
works of, 302, 307.
AR'NOLD, MATTHEW. Treats of Arthurian legend, 204;
version of Tristan and Iseult, 234.
AR'THUR. Dietrich wooes daughter of, 123;
Ogier joins, 138;
in Avalon, 139;
Parzival sets out for court of, 189;
at Nantes, 191;
Parzival's request to, 192;
Parzival sends conquered knights to, 196;
knights Parzival, 196;
Gawain a knight of, 196;
hears of Gawain's prowess, 198;
Parzival visits, 200;
vain quest for Holy Grail, 201;
legend of King, 204, 214-233;
Merlin serves, 205, 210;
birth of, 210;
Merlin makes palace and armor for, 211;
adventures of, 214;
brought up by Sir Hector, 214;
comes to London, 215;
adventure with sword, 215;
overcomes Gawain, 216;
secures sword Excalibur, 217;
victories of, 217;
marriage of with Guinevere, 217;
receives Round Table, 217;
welcomes Lancelot, 220;
repudiates and reinstates Guinevere, 220;
questions knights, 225;
cannot defend Guinevere in judicial duel, 226;
yearly tournaments of, 226;
and Elaine, 229;
quarrels with Lancelot, 229;
leaves Guinevere with Mordred, 230;
wars against Mordred. 230;
mortal wound of. 231;
disposes of Excalibur, 231;
departs in barge. 232;
Philip II.'s oath in favor of. 232;
buried at Glastonbury. 232;
Lancelot buried at feet of. 233;
Tristan a contemporary of, 234;
Tristan goes to court of. 243;
Tristan delivers, 244;
reconciles Mark and Iseult, 244.
AS'CA-LON. Huon at, 174.
A'SI-A. Monarch of, 179;
Alexander sets out for, 306.
ASK'HER. See _Aeschere_.
AS'LAUG. Same as Krake;
story of birth and childhood of, 274;
prediction of, 275;
sons of, 275;
begs that her sons may avenge Agnar and Erik, 276.
AS'PRI-AN. King of northern giants, 90;
and the lion, 90;
carries off Imelot, 92.
AS'TO-LAT. Lancelot at, 227;
Lancelot comes to, 227;
Elaine the lily-maid of, 228;
Gawain comes to, 228.
AT'LE. Challenges Frithiof, 260.
AT'LI. Same as Etzel, 53.
AT'TI-LA. Same as Etzel, 94, 118;
Theodoric born after death of, 128.
AUCH-IN-LECK' MANUSCRIPT. Sir Otuel in the, 143.
AUDE. (od) Beloved by Roland, 149.
AU'DOIN. King of Langobards, 86.
AU-RE'LI-US AM-BRO'SI-US. Son of Constans, 205.
AV'A-LON. Ogier to dwell in, 135;
Morgana takes Ogier to, 138;
Arthur in, 232.
A'VARS. Aymon wars against the, 152.
A-VEN'TI-CUM. See _Wiflisburg_.
A'YA. Aymon marries, 154;
Aymon sends for, 154;
goes to find her husband, 155;
intercedes for her sons, 160;
and Renaud, 161.
AY'MON. _Chansons de gestes_ relating to, 152;
a peer of Charlemagne, 152;
wages war against Charlemagne, 152;
helped by Bayard and Malagigi, 153;
besieged by Charlemagne, 153;
flight and victories of, 154;
Charlemagne makes peace with, 154;
marriage of, 154;
adventures of, 154;
distributes his property, 155;
recovery of, 155;
flees from court, 156;
a captive, 156;
Turpin's promise to, 156;
oath of, 156;
tries to seize his sons, 157;
Malagigi frees sons of, 158;
adventures of sons of, 158-161.

BAR'I-CAN. King of Hyrcania, 171;
Rezia dreams of, 171.
BA-BIE'CA. Steed of the Cid, 286;
Cid's ride to Zamora on, 291;
offered to Alfonso, 297;
Cid's last ride on, 298, 299;
end of, 300.
BAB'Y-LON. Ogier besieges, 138;
same as Bagdad in mediaeval literature, 164;
Alexander crowned at, 306.
BAG-DAD'. Huon to go to, 163, 163;
same as Babylon, 164;
Sherasmin indicates road to, 165;
Huon resumes journey to, 169;
Huon's adventures in, 171.
BAL'DER. Shrine of, 254, 256, 257;
temple of, 267.
BA'LI-AN. Seaport in Hagen's kingdom, 26.
BAL'TIC SEA. Bornholm, island in the, 247.
BAN. Father of Lancelot, 219.
BA'RI. Capital of Rother, 89;
arrival of magician's vessel at, 93.
BAU'TA. A memorial stone for Beowulf, 21.
BA-VA'RI-A. Ruediger rides through, 71.
BAY'ARD. Aymon's marvelous steed, 153;
Satan steals, 153;
Malagigi recovers, 153;
Aymon saved by, 154;
given to Renaud, 155;
Renaud and his brothers escape on, 156;
Renaud's adventures in Paris with, 157;
Renaud's escape on, 158;
timely kick of, 159;
Charlemagne demands death of, 161.
BECH-LAR'EN. Ruediger of, 71, 120;
Kriemhild at, 73;
Burgundians at, 76.
BED'I-VERE, SIR. Finds Arthur dying, 231;
bids Arthur farewell, 232.
BEE HUNTER. See _Beowulf_.
BELE (be-la'). Heir of Sogn, 249;
replaced on throne, 250;
conquers Orkney Islands, 250;
helps Thorsten secure Voelund ring, 251;
sons of, 251;
last instructions of, 252;
kings seated on tomb of, 254.
BEL-FO-RA'DO. Given to Rodrigo, 285.
BEL-I-A'GOG. Tristan conquers, 244.
BEL'LI-GAN. City of, 106.
BEL-LIS-SAN'DE. Wife of Ogier, 136.
BEL'LYN. Escort of Reynard, 46;
death of, 47;
deceived by Reynard, 48;
accused of treachery, 49.
BEL'RI-PAR. Capital of Conduiramour, 192;
Kardeiss king of, 201.
BE-NOIT' DE SAINTE-MORE. Poem of, 303;
popularity of work of, 305.
BE'O-WULF, 9-21;
epic of, 9;
resolves to visit Denmark, 11;
honors won by, 12;
arrival in Denmark, 13;
guards Heorot and wounds Grendel, 13, 14;
receives Brisingamen, 15;
hears of Aeschere's death, 15;
and Grendel's mother, 16, 17;
regency of, 18;
reign of, 19;
adventure with dragon, 19, 20;
death and burial of, 21.
BERCH'THER OF ME'RAN. Adviser of Rother, 89;
sons of, 89;
accompanies Rother, 90;
guardian of Hugdietrich, 100;
journey to Thessalonica, 101;
finds Wolfdietrich. 102;
foster father of Wolfdietrich, 103;
warns Wolfdietrich against Rauch-Else, 104;
Wolfdietrich remembers, 106;
sons of delivered from captivity, 108;
rewards given to sons of, 109.
BERCH'TUNG. See _Berchther of Meran_.
BE-RIL'LUS. Goes to Rome, 185.
BERN. Same as Verona, 77, 110;
hero of, 115, 116, 126;
Heime in, 115;
Wittich in, 116;
Dietrich returns to, 117, 121;
Wildeber comes to. 117;
Laurin a prisoner in, 120;
Wittich's return to, 122;
Dietrich surrenders, 124;
Dietrich's triumphant entry into, 126.
BER'NERS, LORD. Translates "Huon of Bordeaux," 163.
BER'SERK-ER. Rage, 24, 261;
Atle a, 260.
BER-TAN'GA LAND. Same as Britain, 123.
BER'THA. I. Mother of Charlemagne, 129.
BER'THA. II. Sister of Charlemagne and mother of Roland, 133.
BERTHE'LOT. Same as Charlot, 155.
BER'WICK. See _Joyeuse Garde_.
BI'BUNG. Dwarf protector of Virginal, 133.
BJOeRN. I. Confidant of Frithiof, 254;
plays chess with Frithiof, 255;
steers Ellida, 259;
carries men ashore, 259;
takes charge of Ellida, 264.
BJOeRN. II. Son of Ragnar, 274.
BLAISE. A holy man who baptizes Merlin, 206.
BLAIVE. Roland buried at, 147;
Lady Aude buried at, 149.
BLANCHE'FLEUR. Wife of Meliadus and mother of Tristan, 235.
BLOe'DE-LIN. Kriemhild bribes, 80.
BOC-CAC'CIO. Makes use of story of Griseldis, 302.
BO'GEN. Son of Hildburg. 103.
BO'HORT. Cousin of Lancelot, 219.
BO-IAR'DO. Writer of a version of the adventures of Roland, 130, 302;
love of the marvelous shown in works of, 307.
BOl-FRI-AN'A. Captivity of, 116;
Dietrich rescues, 117;
Wittich marries, 122.
BOOK OF HEROES. Same as "Heldenbuch," 86;
Dietrich principal character in, 110.
BOR-DEAUX'. Huon in captivity in, 180.
BORN'HOLM. Viking born in, 247.
BOUILLON (boo-yon'). Godfrey of, 139.
BRA-BANT'. Else, Duchess of, 202.
BRANG'WAINE. Attendant of Iseult, 240;
confidante of Iseult, 242;
Ganhardin falls in love with image of, 244.
BREI'SACH. Harlungs dwell at, 123.
BRE'KA. Enters into swimming match with Beowulf, 12.
BRET'LAND. Sote buried in, 251.
BRI-SIN'GA-MEN. Necklace given to Beowulf, 15.
BRIT'AIN. Same as Bertanga land, 123;
Uther and Pendragon's wars in, 208;
Holy Grail vanishes from, 208;
named by Brutus, 309;
invaded by Romans, 309.
BRITISH MUSEUM. Manuscripts in, 9.
BRIT'ONS. War of, 208.
BRIT'TA-NY. Soltane, forest in, 188;
Broceliande in, 212;
Arthur's campaign in, 217;
Ban king of, 219;
Lancelot retires to, 230;
Arthur's second campaign in, 230;
Tristan goes to, 243;
Tristan returns to, 244.
BRO-CE-LI-AN'DE. Forest in Brittany, 212.
BRONS. Brother-in-law of Joseph of Arimathea, 184.
BROWN. Sent to summon Reynard, 39;
arrives at Malepartus, 39;
caught in tree trunk, 40;
returns to court, 41;
injuries of, 43;
imprisonment of, 46;
release of, 47.
BRUN'HILD. Gunther wishes to marry, 58;
test of strength of, 60;
defeat of, 60;
leaves her own country, 62;
objects to Kriemhild's marriage, 62;
binds Gunther, 63;
is conquered by Siegfried, and loses fabulous strength, 63;
invites Siegfried and Kriemhild to Worms, 64;
quarrels with Kriemhild, 64;
in care of Rumolt, 75;
son of made king of Burgundy, 85;
Aslaug daughter of, 274.
BRU'TE. See _Brutus_.
BRU'TUS. Metrical romance of, 307;
descendant of Aeneas, 307;
adventures of, 307-309;
descendants of, 309.
BU'CAR. Besieges Valencia, 298;
retreat of, 299.
BUCH-AN'AN. Poem of on Roland, 130.
BUR'GOS. Cid born at, 282;
Ximena at, 284;
inhabitants weep at Cid's departure from, 293.
BUR-GUN'DI-ANS. Siegfried challenges, 56;
Nibelungs support king of, 61;
Nibelungs angry with, 69;
nobles escort Kriemhild, 73;
often called Nibelungs, 75;
warnings conveyed to, 77;
see hostility of Huns, 79;
kindly treated by Etzel, 79;
murder of squires of, 80;
bloody fight of, 81;
bravery of, 82;
slaughter of, 83;
name Gunther's son king, 85;
Hagen a hostage for, 124.
BUR'GUN-DY. King and queen of, 53;
Siegfried goes to, 55;
threatened invasion of, 56;
Brunhild receives king of, 59;
Kriemhild remains in, 69;
Kriemhild wishes to leave, 71;
Kriemhild's brothers return to, 73;
chaplain returns to, 76;
Etzel promises to send his son to, 80;
Etzel makes peace with, 124;
Hagen returns to, 124;
Gunther, king of, 124.
CA-LA-HOR'RA. On frontier between Castile and Aragon, 286.
CAM'BER. Son of Brutus, names Cambria, 309.
CAM'BRI-A. Named after Camber, 309.
CAM'E-LOT. Palace at, 211, 218;
feast at, 217;
twelve kings buried at, 218;
Lancelot at, 220, 221;
knights assemble at, 224;
appearance of Holy Grail at, 225;
knights return to, 226;
Guinevere's feast at, 226;
funeral barge arrives at, 228;
Lancelot leaves and returns to, 229.
CAM-PE-A-DOR'. Title given to Cid, 289, 290.
CAN'TER-BUR-Y TALES. Troilus and Cressida in, 305.
CA-PE'TIAN KINGS. Ogier reaches France during reign of one of, 138;
origin of race of, 181.
CAP-PA-DO'CIA. Berillus from, 185.
CAR'DU-EL. Same as Carlisle, 208;
knights assemble at, 209.
CAR-LISLE'. See _Carduel_.
Naismes the Nestor of, 144.
CAR'RI-ON, COUNTS or INFANTES OF. Marry Cid's daughters, 295;
cowardice of, 295;
Cid's followers gibe at, 296;
illtreat their wives, 296;
Alfonso's anger with, 297;
before the Cortes, 297;
challenged, 297;
defeat of, 298.
CAS-SI-VEL-LAU'NUS. Tristan may be a contemporary of, 234;
a descendant of Brutus, 309.
CAS-TILE'. Invasion of, 283, 289;
Calahorra near, 286;
Don Sancho king of, 288;
Cid and Don Sancho return to, 289;
Cid's raid in, 294.
CHAMP DE MARS. The Frank assembly, 36.
CHAN'SON DE RO'LAND. Sung at Hastings, 130;
most famous version of Roland's death, 147.
CHAR'LE-MAGNE. Conquers Lombardy, 88, 129, 137;
and his paladins, 129-151;
favorite hero of mediaeval literature, 129;
champion of Christianity, 129;
fabulous adventures of, 129;
Einhard son-in-law of, 130;
_chansons de gestes_ referring to, 130;
receives angel's visit, 130;
conspirators punished by, 131;
and Frastrada, 131;
affection of for Turpin, 132;
founds Aix-la-Chapelle, 133;
and the boy Roland, 134;
asks for jewel of knight of the Ardennes, 134;
knights Roland, 135;
makes war against Denmark, 135;
releases Ogier, 136;
insulted by Ogier, 136;
appearance of, 136, 137, 141;
and Ogier, 137;
quarrels with Duke of Genoa, 139;
Roland champion of, 139;
vow and pilgrimage of, 139;
peers of, 139;
vision of, 140;
besieges Pamplona, 140;
pilgrimage of to Compostela, 140;
Aigolandus revolts against, 141;
challenged by Ferracute, 141;
sends Ogier to fight Ferracute, 142;
dove alights on, 143;
wars in Spain, 143;
sends embassy to Marsiglio, 144;
retreat of, 144;
hears Roland's horn, 145;
Turpin celebrates mass before, 147;
returns to Roncesvalles, 147;
orders trial of Ganelon, 148;
Aymon a peer of, 152;
character of, 152;
wars against Aymon, 153;
treats with Aymon, 154;
coronation of at Rome, 155;
hostility toward sons of Aymon, 156;
captures sons of Aymon, 157;
bribes Iwo, 158;
Richard carried captive to, 159;
besieges Montauban, 159;
and Malagigi, 160;
Aya intercedes with, 161;
and Bayard, 161;
Huon does homage to, 163;
gives orders to Huon, 163, 172;
tournament of 179;
pardons Huon, 181;
contemporary of Ragnar Lodbrok, 269;
Italian cycle treats of, 302.
CHARLES THE BALD. Struggles of, 152;
claims descent from Trojan race, 307.
CHARLES MAR-TEL'. Deeds of attributed to Charlemagne, 129.
CHAR'LOT. Kills Ogier's son, 136;
Ogier demands death of, 137;
Renaud defeats, 155;
quarrels with Alard, 155;
death of, 163.
CHAU'CER. Uses tale of Griseldis, 302;
uses Troilus and Cressida, 305.
CHRESTIEN DE TROYES (kr[=a]-t[=e]-an' deh trwae'). Poems of, 182, 204, 219,
CHRIST. Jews angry against Joseph for burying, 183;
Vespasian hears story of, 183;
born during reign of Cymbelinus, 309.
CHRISTIAN. Faith taught to Rezia 175;
legends, 184;
Fierefiss becomes a, 200;
faith, 277;
army besieges Coimbra, 287;
king takes Toledo, 294;
army evacuates Valencia, 300.
CHRIS-TI-A'NI-A-FIORD. Frithiof in the, 264.
CHRISTIANITY. Charlemagne champion of, 129;
Roland argues about, 142;
sadly mixed with mythology, 303.
CHRISTIANS. Triumph in Spain, 143;
massacre of, 145;
enmity between Moors and, 154;
can take Toledo, 290;
Bucar retreats before, 299;
Moors routed by, 299.
CID, THE, 282-300;
birth of, 282;
Ximena accuses, 284;
Ximena marries, 285;
pilgrimage of to Santiago de Compostela, 285;
adventure with leper, 286;
duel of with Martin Gonzalez, 286;
saved by Moorish kings, 287;
at Zamora with Ximena, 287;
defeats champion of Henry III., 288;
vassal of Don Sancho, 288;
victories of, 289;
conducts siege of Zamora, 291;
banished by Alfonso, 293;
at Valencia, 294;
cowardly sons-in-law of, 295;
daughters of illtreated, 296;
at the Cortes, 297;
offers Babieca to Alfonso, 297;
returns to Valencia, 298;
warned of coming death, 298;
last instructions of, 298;
death of, 299:
last victory of, 299;
body of in state, 300;
sword of, 300;
chronicle of, 302.
CI-SAIRE', PASS OF. Roland's ghost at, 145.
CLARETIE (kla-re-tee'). Ancestress of Capetian race, 181.
CLAR'ICE. Ogier marries, 138.
CLA-RIS'SA. Wife of Renaud, 156;
treachery of father of, 158;
intercedes for her father, 159;
death of, 161.
CLEVES. Henry the Fowler at, 202.
CO-IM'BRA. Siege of, 287.
CO-LA'DA. Sword won by Cid, 294;
given to Infante of Carrion, 296;
recovery of, 297.
CO-LOGNE'. Death and burial of Renaud at, 162.
CON-DUIR'A-MOUR. Parzival rescues and marries, 192;
Parzival reminded of, 195;
at Montsalvatch, 200;
children of, 201.
CON'STANS. King of England, 205;
sons of, 205, 208.
CON'STAN-TINE. I. Father of Oda, 89;
and Rother, 90-93;
II. Son of Constans, 205.
CON-STAN-TI-NO'PLE. Embassy arrives at, 89;
Rother's visit to, 89-93, 100;
Anzius emperor of, 100;
Hildburg goes to, 102;
Wolfdietrich king of, 103, 108;
the Normans in, 281.
CO-RI-NE'A. Same as Cornwall, 309.
CO-RI-NE'US. Companion of Brutus, 308;
the original Jack the Giant Killer, 308;
kills Goemagot. 309;
CORN'WALL. Tintagel in, 209;
Gorlois duke of, 209;
Mark king of, 235, 240;
Tristan in, 236, 237, 238;
Iseult embarks for, 241;
Iseult lands in, 242;
Tristan's passion for Iseult of, 243, 244;
Kurvenal's journey to, 244;
arrival in Brittany of Iseult of, 245;
Tristan and Iseult buried in, 243, 244;
Corineus settles in, 309.
COR'TES. Infantes of Carrion at the, 297, 298.
CRU-SADES'. Influence of on literature, 302.
CYM-BE-LI'NUS. Christ born during reign of, 309.

DAG'O-BERT. Claims descent from Trojan, race, 307.
DANE. Hawart the, 81;
Dietlieb the, 117;
Ogier the, 129, 135.
DANES. Beowulf escorted by, 16;
gratitude of, 18;
disapprove of Ragnar's marriage, 274;
Eystein declares war against, 276.
DAN'ISH. Writers, 246;
dynasty connected with Sigurd, 269;
ships burned by English, 276;
kings make raids, 280;
settlements, 280.
DANK'RAT. King of Burgundy, 53.
DANK'WART. Under Siegfried's orders, 56;
accompanies Gunther to Issland, 59;
suspicion of, 59, 61;
goes to Hungary, 75;
helps Hagen, 76;
warns Hagen, 80.
DAN'UBE. Journey of Kriemhild down the, 73;
Burgundians reach the, 75.
DEN'MARK. Hrothgar king of, 9;
Beowulf sails for, 12;
Wealtheow queen of, 15;
Ludegast king of, 56;
Charlemagne defeats king of, 135;
Ogier king of, 136;
Krake queen of, 274.
DES'ERT BAB-Y-LO'NI-A. Kingdom of Imelot, 91;
Constantine takes possession of, 92.
DES-I-DE'RI-US. See _Didier_.
DI-A'NA. Brutus in temple of, 308.
DID'I-ER. Ogier flees to, 136.
DIEGO LAYNEZ (dee-ay'go ly'nez). Insulted by Don Gomez, 282;
avenged by Rodrigo, 283;
takes Rodrigo to court, 283.
DI-E'GO OR-DO'NEZ, DON. Sends challenge to Don Arias Gonzalo, 291.
DIE-TE-LIN'DE. Daughter of Ruediger, 73;
Giselher betrothed to, 77.
DIE'THER. Brought up by Hildebrand, 112;
Helche cares for, 124;
death of, 126.
DIET'LIEB. Merry-making and athletic feats of, 117;
lord of Steiermark, 118;
and Laurin, 119, 120;
victory and reward of, 120.
DIET'MAR. Grandson of Wolfdietrich, 109;
ruler of Bern, 110;
death of, 121.
DIE'TRICH VON BERN. Warns Burgundians, 77;
defies Kriemhild, 78;
abstains from tournament, 79;
Kriemhild tries to bribe, 80;
a safe-conduct for, 81;
saves Etzel and Kriemhild, 81;
hears of Ruediger's death, 83;
fights and captures Gunther and Hagen, 84;
lament of, 85;
ancestors of, 109;
story of, 110-128;
birth of, 110;
fiery breath of, 110, 119;
Hildebrand friend and teacher of, 110;
adventure of with Hilde and Grim, 111;
wins sword Nagelring, 111;
fights with Sigenot, 112;
sees and rescues Virginal, 114;
marries Virginal, 114;
gains possession of Heime and Falke, 115;
Wittich's adventure with, 116;
adventures of with Ecke and Fasolt, 116;
delivers Sintram, 117;
visits Rome, 117;
and Laurin, 118-120;
visits Etzel, 121;
becomes king of Amaling land, 121;
victories in Wilkina land, 121;
wars against Rimstein, 122;
Eckhardt joins, 123;
Ermenrich wars against, 123;
wooes Hilde, 123;
exile of in Hungary, 124;
victories and wounds of, 125;
returns to Bern, 125;
fights against Ermenrich, 126;
marriage of, 126;
kills Sibich, 127;
made emperor of West, 127;
old age of, 128;
Wild Hunt led by, 128;
Ragnar saga like saga of, 269.
DOL'FOS, VEL'LI-DO or BEL'LI-DO. Murders Don Sancho, 291.
DOR-DOGNE'. Aymon of, 152;
Lord Hug of, 152.
DORT'MUND. Renaud's body at, 162.
DOU'RO. River in Spain, 296.
DO'VER. Arthur encounters Mordred near, 230.
DRA'CHEN-FELS. Dietrich saves lady of, 116;
Wittich marries lady of, 122;
Roland wooes maid of, 150;
Roland's return to, 151.
DRAGON SLAYER. Surname of Siegfried, 275.
DRAGONS. See _Beowulf, Siegfried, Ortnit, Wolfdietrich, Tristan, Ragnar._
DRAY'TON. Author of "Polyolbion," 310.
DRU'SI-AN. Kidnaps Sigeminne, 105;
Wolfdietrich captive of, 105;
death of, 106.
DUB'LIN. Morold's corpse carried to, 237;
Tristan's visit to, 238.
DU'O-LIN DE MAY'ENCE. A _chanson de geste_, 152.
DU-RAN-DA'NA. Sword of Roland, 139;
powerless upon Ferracute, 142;
Roland disposes of, 146.

EAD'GILS. Son of Othere, 19.
EAST. Ogier goes to the, 138;
Holy Grail in the far, 201;
Alexander's journey to the, 305;
wealth of the, 306.
EAST GOTH'LAND. Thora dwells in, 271.
ECK'E. Giant killed by Falke, 116;
Dietrich takes sword of, 117.
ECK'EN-LIED. Story of Ecke, 116.
ECK'E-SAX. Sword of Ecke, 117.
ECK'E-WART I. Escorts Kriemhild, 64;
remains with Kriemhild, 70;
accompanies Kriemhild to Hungary, 72;
warns Burgundians, 76.
ECK'E-WART II. See _Eckhardt_.
ECK'HARDT. Fidelity of, 109, 123;
flees to Dietrich, 123.
EC'TOR DE MA'RIS, SIR. Lancelot eulogized by, 233.
ED'DA. Hilde in the, 22;
Hedin in the, 25.
EIN'HARD. Son-in-law of Charlemagne, 130.
EIN-HE'RI-AR. Ragnar leader of the, 279.
E-LAINE'. Story of, 227-229.
EL'BE-GAST. Same as Alberich, 111;
Charlemagne's adventure with, 130, 131.
E'LI-AS. See _Ylyas_.
EL-KI'NAR. Isegrim bound to bell at, 42.
EL'LA. King of Northumberland,
captures and kills Ragnar, 278;
defeats Ragnar's sons, 279;
gives land to Normans, 279;
Ivar kills, 280.
EL-LI'DA. The dragon ship given to Viking by Aegir, 250;
belongs to Frithiof, 253;
in the storm, 258;
arrives at Orkney Islands, 259;
Frithiof sails in, 262.
EL'SE. Story of Lohengrin and, 201-3.
EL-SI-NORE'. Ogier sleeping in, 136.
EL-VI'RA, DONA. Receives Toro, 288;
robbed of Toro, 290.
ENG'LAND. Invasion of, 9;
rhyme introduced in, 9;
Clarice, princess of, 138;
Ogier leaves, 138;
Hengist driven from, 205;
Merlin brings stones to, 208;
Merlin's predictions concerning future of, 210;
Arthur's name in, 214;
dissensions in, 229;
firm belief in concerning Arthur's return, 232;
vikings' raids in, 276;
stone altars in, 280;
tradition of Trojan descent in, 307.
ENG'LISH. Version of Roland, 130;
more than eighteen versions of Frithiof saga in, 246;
fight Ragnar's sons at Whitaby, 276.
E'NID THE FAIR. Story of, 222-224.
ENIGEE (ay' nee-zhay). Sister of Joseph of Arimathea, 184.
E'REC. Name for Geraint in French and German poems, 223.
E'RIK. Son of Ragnar, 272;
a great viking, 274;
attacked by enchanted cow, 276.
ER'ME-LYN. Wife of Reynard, 45, 46, 47.
ER'MEN-RICH. Treasure of, 45;
emperor of the West, 110;
Dietrich's visit to, 117;
Dietlieb rewarded by, 118;
Dietrich helps, 122;
and Sibich, 122, 123;
wars against Dietrich, 126;
death of, 126.
ER'MO-NIE. Meliadus lord of, 234.
ERP. Son of Helche, 125;
death of, 126.
ES-CLAR-MON'DE. Same as Rezia, 171, 175;
early version of story of, 180.
ES-TRE-MA-DU'RA. Moors defeated in, 287.
E-TRU'RI-A. Luna in, 276.
ET'ZEL. Same as Atli, 53;
wooes Kriemhild, 71;
Kriemhild sets out for court of, 72;
Kriemhild wife of, 73;
invites Burgundians to Hungary, 74;
welcomes Burgundians, 78;
banquet of, 79;
promises to send son to Burgundy, 80;
saved from massacre, 81;
Burgundians wish to treat with, 82;
cannot save Hagen, 84;
lament of, 85;
Helche marries, 94;
Dietlieb serves, 118;
Dietrich visits, 121, 124;
Walther escapes from, 124;
gold stolen from, 124;
cowardice of, 125;
helps Dietrich, 125;
marries Kriemhild, 126;
killed by Aldrian, 127;
same as Attila, 128.
EU'ROPE. "Beowulf" oldest relic of spoken language in, 9;
"Reynard the Fox" popular in, 35;
to be infested by dragons, 98;
Charlemagne conquers nearly all, 140;
introduction of legend of Holy Grail in, 182;
popularity of Arthurian legends in, 214;
popularity of "Roman de Troie" in, 304.
EU-RO-PE'AN. Versions of legends, 205;
versions of Tristan, 234;
languages, sagas translated into, 246;
states, romances current in, 301;
nations, classical romances in, 303;
versions of Iliad, 304;
literature, mention of Fountain of Youth in, 306;
colonization, 307.
EX-CAL'I-BUR. Arthur's sword, 217;
Arthur disposes of, 231.
EY'STEIN. Ragnar visits, 274;
wars against Danes, 276;
magic cow of, 276.

FA'E-RIE QUEENE. Merlin's fountain mentioned in, 211;
contains mediaeval legends, 310.
FAF'NIR. Sigurd slayer of, 269, 274.
FAF'NIS-BANE. Surname of Sigurd, 274.
FAIR AN'NET. Loved by Lord Thomas, 245.
FA'LIES, MARQUIS OF. Sword Tizona in family of, 300.
FAL'KE. Horse of Dietrich, 115;
kills Ecke, 116.
FAL'STER WOOD. Heime in the, 117.
FA'SOLT. Dietrich defeats, 117.
FA'TA MOR-GA'NA. Mirage called, 95.
FAT'I-MA. Attendant of Rezia, 173;
in Tunis, 177;
finds Amanda, 178;
taken to fairyland, 179;
rescued by Huon and Sherasmin, 180.
FE'LEZ MU-NOZ.' Nephew of Cid, 296;
rescues his cousins, 296.
FER'DI-NAND. Rodrigo's first visit to, 283;
recalls Rodrigo, 284;
Ximena before, 284;
receives gifts from Cid, 287;
Henry III. complains of to Pope, 287;
threatened by Pope, 288;
Cid's victories for, 288;
death and legacies of, 288.
FER'RA-CUTE. Challenges Charlemagne, 141;
defeats Ogier and Renaud, 142;
fights and argues with Roland, 142, 143;
Otuel, nephew of, 143.
FER'RA-GUS. See _Ferracute_.
FIEREFISS (fyar-e-f[=e]s'). Encounters Parzival, 199;
conversion and marriage of, 200;
father of founder of Knights Templars, 200.
FIRE'DRAKE. Ravages of the, 19;
slain by Beowulf, 20.
FLAM'BERGE. Sword of Aymon, 154;
Renaud, owner of, 158;
Renaud breaks, 161.
FLAN'DERS. "Reynard the Fox" in, 35.
FLOR'ENCE. Council at, 287.
FLOR'I-DA. Ponce de Leon in, 306.
FRAM'NAeS. Home of Thorsten and Frithiof, 250, 251, 253;
ruins of, 261.
FRANCE. "Reynard the Fox" in, 35;
Charlemagne principal hero of, 129;
Ogier in, 135, 138;
Charlemagne in, 140, 141, 144, 148;
Huon embarks for, 174;
Capetian kings of, 181;
legend of Holy Grail in, 182;
Merlin brings armies from, 210;
viking raids in, 276;
king of, 289.
FRANKS. And "Reynard the Fox," 35;
assembly of, 36;
hostage from, 124;
at feud with Lombardy, 136.
FRAS-TRAD'A. Wife of Charlemagne, 131.
FRED'ER-ICK BAR-BAR-OS'SA. Ogier like, 136.
FRED'ER-ICK OF TEL'RA-MUND. Guardian and oppressor of Else, 202;
defeated by Lohengrin, 203.
FRENCH. Version of Roland, 130;
army betrayed by Ganelon, 144;
version of Tristan, 234;
kings descended from Priam, 307.
FRIE'SIAN. Invasion, 18;
sea, Charlemagne's vision of, 140.
FRIES'LAND. Invasion of, 18.
FRI-MOU-TEL'. Anointed king, 188;
death of, 189.
FRITHIOF (frit'yof). Story of, 246-268;
saga put into verse by Tegner, 246;
birth of, 251;
loves Ingeborg, 251, 252;
home of, 253;
sues for hand of Ingeborg, 254;
suit of rejected, 255;
Ingeborg's brothers ask aid of, 255;
meets Ingeborg in temple, 256;
tries to make terms with kings, 257;
journey to Orkney Islands, 258;
in tempest, 259;
fights Atle, 260;
visits Angantyr, 261;
returns to Framnaes, 261;
goes into exile, 262;
becomes a pirate, 263;
visits Sigurd Ring, 264;
Ingeborg recognizes, 265;
loyalty of, 265;
guardian of infant king, 266;
rebuilds temple, 267;
marries Ingeborg, 267.
FRUTE. Follower of Hettel, 25;
in quest of Hilde, 26.

GA'HER-IS. Doubts Arthur's title to throne, 216.
GA-LA'FRE. Huon and Sherasmin at court of, 180.
GALA-HAD, SIR. Knighted by Lancelot, 224;
occupies "Siege Perilous," 224;
sees Holy Grail, 226.
GA-LI'CIA. Charlemagne called to, 140;
Don Garcia king of, 288, 289.
GA-LI'CIAN. Nobles refuse to exchange prisoners, 289.
GAL'Y-EN. Son of Oliver, and king of Jerusalem, 140.
GAL'Y-EN RHET-OR-E'. A _chanson de geste_, 139.
GA'MU-RET. Marries Herzeloide, 188.
GA'NE-LON. Treachery of, 144, 145;
accused and sentenced, 148;
advises Charlot, 155.
GANHARDIN (gan-har-dan'). Wishes to marry Brangwaine, 244.
GARADIE (ga-ra-d[=e]'), COUNT. Hagen in the hands of, 24.
GAR-CI'A, DON. King of Galicia, 288;
seizes Zamora, 289;
dies in captivity, 290.
GAR'DEN. Wolfdietrich at, 107;
Herbrand receives, 109;
Hildebrand inherits, 109;
Ermenrich takes, 123;
Dietrich master of, 126;
Hildebrand's return to, 126.
GA'RETH, SIR. Knighted by Lancelot, 221;
adventures with Lynette, 222;
Geraint brother of, 222.
GA'RY. Messenger sent by Gunther to Siegfried, 64;
goes to Hungary, 75.
GA'WAIN. Rides after Parzival, 196;
and Duchess Orgueilleuse, 197;
adventures with Gramoflaus and Klingsor, 197, 198;
marriage of, 198;
one of Arthur's knights, 209;
doubts Arthur's title to throne, 216;
strength of, 216;
comes to Astolat, 228.
GEATES. Minstrel flees to the, 11;
Beowulf escorted by the, 16;
wait for Beowulf, 17;
return with Hygelac's body, 18.
GEIRS'-ODD. Sacrificial runes called, 266.
GEL'FRAT. Fights Hagen, 76.
GEN'O-A, DUKE OF. Charlemagne's quarrel with, 139.
GEOF'FREY DE LIGNY (leen'yee). Author of a Lancelot romance, 219.
GEOF'FREY OF MON'MOUTH. Writings of, 204, 307, 309.
GEP'I-DAE. Settle in Pannonia, 86;
quarrel with Lombards, 87.
GE-RAINT'. Brother of Gareth, 222;
story of Enid and, 222-224.
GE-RAS'MES. See _Sherasmin_.
GER'HART. Claims Liebgart's hand, 108.
GER'IMS-BURG. Siege of, 122.
GER-LIN'DA. Cruelty of, 30-32;
death of, 33.
GER'MAN. Manuscript of "Gudrun," 22, 23;
Von Otterdingen a, 53;
literature, 53;
language, Eckewart's fidelity proverbial in, 70;
version of Roland legend, 130;
Wagner a, 182;
more than eighteen versions of Frithiof saga in, 246.
GER'MA-NY. Maximilian emperor of, 22;
Hettel king of, 25;
"Reynard the Fox" in, 35;
the greatest epic of, 53;
in Charlemagne's vision, 140;
legend of Holy Grail in, 182;
Henry the Fowler emperor of, 202;
Henry III. emperor of, 287.
GER'NOT. Son of Dankrat and Ute, 53;
under Siegfried's orders, 56;
advice of, 57;
Hagen tries to rouse anger of, 66;
sympathy of, 69;


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