Lives of John Donne, Henry Wotton, Rich'd Hooker, George Herbert,
Izaak Walton

Part 4 out of 5

general use, whether we respect the Art or the Author. For Logic may
be said to be an Art of right reasoning; an Art that undeceives men
who take falsehood for truth; enables men to pass a true judgment, and
detect those fallacies, which in some men's understandings usurp the
place of right reason. And how great a master our Author was in this
art, will quickly appear from that clearness of method, argument, and
demonstration, which is so conspicuous in all his other writings. He,
who had attained to so great a dexterity in the use of reason
himself, was best qualified to prescribe rules and directions for the
instructions of others. And I am the more satisfied of the excellency
and usefulness of this, his first public undertaking, by hearing that
most Tutors in both Universities teach Dr. Sanderson's Logic to their
Pupils, as a foundation upon which they are to build their future
studies in Philosophy. And, for a further confirmation of my belief,
the Reader may note, that since his Book of Logic was first printed
there has not been less than ten thousand sold: and that 'tis like to
continue both to discover truth and to clear and confirm the reason of
the unborn world.[5]

[Sidenote: Senior Proctor]

It will easily be believed that his former standing for a Proctor's
place, and being disappointed, must prove much displeasing to a man of
his great wisdom and modesty, and create in him an averseness to run a
second hazard of his credit and content: and yet he was assured by Dr.
Kilbie, and the Fellows of his own College, and most of those that
had opposed him in the former Election, that his Book of Logic had
purchased for him such a belief of his learning and prudence, and
his behaviour at the former Election had got for him so great and so
general a love, that all his former opposers repented what they had
done; and therefore persuaded him to venture to stand a second time.
And, upon these, and other like encouragements, he did again, but not
without an inward unwillingness, yield up his own reason to their's,
and promised to stand. And he did so; and was the tenth of April,
1616, chosen Senior Proctor for the year following; Mr. Charles
Crooke[6] of Christ Church being then chosen the Junior.

In this year of his being Proctor, there happened many memorable
accidents; namely, Dr. Robert Abbot,[7] Master of Balliol College, and
Regius Professor of Divinity,--who being elected or consecrated Bishop
of Sarum some months before,--was solemnly conducted out of Oxford
towards his Diocese, by the Heads of all Houses, and the chief of
all the University. And Dr. Prideaux[8] succeeded him in the
Professorship, in which he continued till the year 1642,--being then
elected Bishop of Worcester,--and then our now Proctor, Mr. Sanderson,
succeeded him in the Regius Professorship.

[Sidenote: Dr. Lake]

And in this year Dr. Arthur Lake[9]--then Warden of New College--was
advanced to the Bishopric of Bath and Wells: a man of whom I take
myself bound in justice to say, that he has made the great trust
committed to him, the chief care and whole business of his life. And
one testimony of this proof may be, that he sate usually with his
Chancellor in his Consistory, and at least advised, if not assisted,
in most sentences for the punishing of such offenders as deserved
Church-censures. And it may be noted, that, after a sentence for
penance was pronounced, he did very rarely or never, allow of any
commutation for the offence, but did usually see the sentence
for penance executed; and then as usually preached a Sermon on
mortification and repentance, and did so apply them to the offenders,
that then stood before him, as begot in them a devout contrition, and
at least resolutions to amend their lives: and having done that, he
would take them--though never so poor--to dinner with him, and use
them friendly, and dismiss them with his blessing and persuasions to
a virtuous life, and beg them to believe him. And his humility and
charity, and other Christian excellencies, were all like this. Of
all which the Reader may inform himself in his Life, truly writ, and
printed before his Sermons.

And in this year also, the very prudent and very wise Lord Ellesmere,
who was so very long Lord Chancellor of England, and then of Oxford,
resigning up the last, the Right Honourable, and as magnificent,
William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, was chosen to succeed him.

[Sidenote: University matters]

And in this year our late King Charles the First--then Prince of
Wales--came honourably attended to Oxford; and having deliberately
visited the University, the Schools, Colleges, and Libraries, he and
his attendants were entertained with ceremonies and feasting suitable
to their dignity and merits.

And this year King James sent letters to the University for the
regulating their studies; especially of the young Divines: advising
they should not rely on modern sums and systems, but study the Fathers
and Councils, and the more primitive learning. And this advice was
occasioned by the indiscreet inferences made by very many Preachers
out of Mr. Calvin's doctrine concerning Predestination, Universal
Redemption, the Irresistibility of God's Grace, and of some other
knotty points depending upon these; points which many think were not,
but by interpreters forced to be, Mr. Calvin's meaning; of the truth
or falsehood of which I pretend not to have an ability to judge; my
meaning in this relation, being only to acquaint the Reader with the
occasion of the King's Letter.

[Sidenote: Revision of the Statutes]

It may be observed, that the various accidents of this year did afford
our Proctor large and laudable matter to dilate and discourse upon:
and that though his office seemed, according to statute and custom,
to require him to do so at his leaving it; yet he chose rather to
pass them over with some very short observations, and present the
governors, and his other hearers, with rules to keep up discipline and
order in the University; which at that time was, either by defective
Statutes, or want of the due execution of those that were good, grown
to be extremely irregular. And in this year also, the magisterial part
of the Proctor required more diligence, and was more difficult to be
managed than formerly, by reason of a multiplicity of new Statutes,
which begot much confusion; some of which Statutes were then, and
others suddenly after, put into an useful execution. And though these
Statutes were not then made so perfectly useful as they were designed,
till Archbishop Laud's time--who assisted in the forming and promoting
them;--yet our present Proctor made them as effectual as discretion
and diligence could do: of which one example may seem worthy the
noting; namely, that if in his night-walk he met with irregular
Scholars absent from their Colleges at University hours, or disordered
by drink, or in scandalous company, he did not use his power of
punishing to an extremity; but did usually take their names, and a
promise to appear before him unsent for next morning; and when they
did, convinced them, with such obligingness, and reason added to it,
that they parted from him with such resolutions, as the man after
God's own heart was possessed with, when he said, "There is mercy with
thee, and therefore thou shall be feared:" Psal. cxxx. 4. And by this
and a like behaviour to all men, he was so happy as to lay down this
dangerous employment, as but very few, if any, have done, even without
an enemy.

[Sidenote: Looking back]

After his speech was ended, and he retired with a friend into a
convenient privacy, he looked upon his friend with a more than common
cheerfulness, and spake to him to this purpose: "I look back upon my
late employment with some content to myself, and a great thankfulness
to Almighty God, that he hath made me of a temper not apt to provoke
the meanest of mankind, but rather to pass by infirmities, if noted;
and in this employment I have had--God knows--many occasions to do
both. And when I consider, how many of a contrary temper are by sudden
and small occasions transported and hurried by anger to commit such
errors, as they in that passion could not foresee, and will in their
more calm and deliberate thoughts upbraid, and require repentance: and
consider, that though repentance secures us from the punishment of
any sin, yet how much more comfortable it is to be innocent than need
pardon: and consider, that errors against men, though pardoned both by
God and them, do yet leave such anxious and upbraiding impressions in
the memory, as abates of the offender's content:--when I consider all
this, and that God hath of his goodness given me a temper that hath
prevented me from running into such enormities, I remember my temper
with joy and thankfulness. And though I cannot say with David--I wish
I could,--that therefore 'his praise shall always be in my mouth;'
Psal. xxxiv. 1; yet I hope, that by his grace, and that grace seconded
by my endeavours, it shall never be blotted out of my memory; and I
now beseech Almighty God that it never may."

[Sidenote: Gilbert Sheldon]

And here I must look back, and mention one passage more in his
Proctorship, which is, that Gilbert Sheldon, the late Lord Archbishop
of Canterbury, was this year sent to Trinity College in that
University; and not long after his entrance there, a letter was sent
after him from his godfather--the father of our Proctor--to let his
son know it, and commend his godson to his acquaintance, and to
more than a common care of his behaviour; which proved a pleasing
injunction to our Proctor, who was so gladly obedient to his father's
desire, that he some few days after sent his servitor to intreat
Mr. Sheldon to his chamber next morning. But it seems Mr. Sheldon
having--like a young man as he was--run into some such irregularity
as made him conscious he had transgressed his statutes, did therefore
apprehend the Proctor's invitation as an introduction to punishment;
the fear of which made his bed restless that night: but, at their
meeting the next morning, that fear vanished immediately by the
Proctor's cheerful countenance, and the freedom of their discourse of
friends. And let me tell my Reader, that this first meeting proved the
beginning of as spiritual a friendship as human nature is capable of;
of a friendship free from all self ends: and it continued to be so,
till death forced a separation of it on earth; but it is now reunited
in Heaven.

[Sidenote: Ordination]

And now, having given this account of his behaviour, and the
considerable accidents in his Proctorship, I proceed to tell my
Reader, that, this busy employment being ended, he preached his sermon
for his Degree of Bachelor in Divinity in as elegant Latin, and as
remarkable for the matter, as hath been preached in that University
since that day. And having well performed his other exercises for that
Degree, he took it the nine and twentieth of May following, having
been ordained Deacon and Priest in the year 1611, by John King, then
Bishop of London, who had not long before been Dean of Christ Church,
and then knew him so well, that he became his most affectionate
friend. And in this year, being then about the twenty-ninth of his
age, he took from the University a license to preach.

[Sidenote: Wibberton and Boothby Pagnell]

In the year 1618, he was by Sir Nicholas Sanderson, Lord Viscount
Castleton, presented to the Rectory of Wibberton, not far from Boston,
in the County of Lincoln, a living of very good value; but it lay in
so low and wet a part of that country as was inconsistent with his
health. And health being--next to a good conscience--the greatest of
God's blessings in this life, and requiring therefore of every man a
care and diligence to preserve it, he, apprehending a danger of losing
it, if he continued at Wibberton a second Winter, did therefore resign
it back into the hands of his worthy kinsman and patron, about one
year after his donation of it to him.

And about this time of his resignation he was presented to the Rectory
of Boothby Pannell, in the same County of Lincoln; a town which
has been made famous, and must continue to be famous, because Dr.
Sanderson, the humble and learned Dr. Sanderson, was more than forty
years Parson of Boothby Pannell, and from thence dated all or most of
his matchless writings.

To this living--which was of no less value, but a purer air than
Wibberton--he was presented by Thomas Harrington, of the same County,
and Parish, Esq., who was a gentleman of a very ancient family, and of
great use and esteem in his country during his whole life. And in this
Boothby Pannell the meek and charitable Dr. Sanderson and his patron
lived with an endearing, mutual, and comfortable friendship, till the
death of the last put a period to it.

[Sidenote: Resigns his Fellowship]

About the time that he was made Parson of Boothby Pannell, he resigned
his Fellowship of Lincoln College unto the then Rector and Fellows;
and his resignation is recorded in these words:

Ego Robertus Sanderson perpetuus, &c.

I Robert Sanderson, Fellow of the College of St. Mary's and
All-Saints, commonly called Lincoln College, in the University of
Oxford, do freely and willingly resign into the hands of the Rector
and Fellows, all the right and title that I have in the said College,
wishing to them and their successors all peace, and piety, and
happiness, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
Ghost. Amen.


May 6, 1619.

And not long after this resignation, he was by the then Bishop of
York,[10] or the King _sede vacante_, made Prebend of the Collegiate
Church of Southwell in that Diocese; and shortly after of Lincoln by
the Bishop of that See.

[Sidenote: Marriage]

And being now resolved to set down his rest in a quiet privacy at
Boothby Pannell, and looking back with some sadness upon his removal
from his general acquaintance left in Oxford, and the peculiar
pleasures of a University life; he could not but think the want of
society would render this of a country Parson the more uncomfortable,
by reason of that want of conversation; and therefore he did put
on some faint purposes to marry. For he had considered, that though
marriage be cumbered with more worldly care than a single life; yet a
complying and a prudent wife changes those very cares into so mutual a
content, as makes them become like the sufferings of St. Paul, Colos.
i. 24, which he would not have wanted because they occasioned his
rejoicing in them. And he, having well considered this, and observed
the secret unutterable joys that children beget in parents, and
the mutual pleasures and contented trouble of their daily care and
constant endeavours to bring up those little images of themselves, so
as to make them as happy as all those cares and endeavours can make
them: he, having considered all this, the hopes of such happiness
turned his faint purposes into a positive resolution to marry. And he
was so happy as to obtain Anne, the daughter of Henry Nelson, Bachelor
in Divinity, then Rector of Haugham, in the County of Lincoln, a man
of noted worth and learning. And the Giver of all good things was so
good to him, as to give him such a wife as was suitable to his own
desires; a wife, that made his life happy by being always content when
he was cheerful; that divided her joys with him, and abated of his
sorrow, by bearing a part of that burden; a wife that demonstrated her
affection by a cheerful obedience to all his desires, during the whole
course of his life; and at his death too, for she outlived him.

[Sidenote: A country parson]

And in this Boothby Pannell, he either found or made his parishioners
peaceable, and complying with him in the decent and regular service
of God. And thus his Parish, his patron, and he lived together in
a religious love and a contented quietness; he not troubling their
thoughts by preaching high and useless notions, but such plain truths
as were necessary to be known, believed and practised, in order to
their salvation. And their assent to what he taught was testified by
such a conformity to his doctrine, as declared they believed and loved
him. For he would often say, "That, without the last, the most evident
truths--heard as from an enemy, or an evil liver--either are not, or
are at least the less effectual; and do usually rather harden than
convince the hearer."

And this excellent man did not think his duty discharged by only
reading the Church prayers, catechising, preaching, and administering
the Sacraments seasonably; but thought--if the Law or the Canons may
seem to enjoin no more,--yet that God would require more, than the
defective laws of man's making can or do enjoin; the performance of
that inward law, which Almighty God hath imprinted in the conscience
of all good Christians, and inclines those whom he loves to perform.
He, considering this, did therefore become a law to himself,
practising what his conscience told him was his duty, in reconciling
differences, and preventing lawsuits, both in his Parish and in the
neighbourhood. To which may be added his often visiting sick and
disconsolate families, persuading them to patience, and raising them
from dejection by his advice and cheerful discourse, and by adding
his own alms, if there were any so poor as to need it: considering how
acceptable it is to Almighty God, when we do as we are advised by
St. Paul, Gal. vi. 2, "Help to bear one another's burden," either of
sorrow or want: and what a comfort it will be, when the Searcher of
all hearts shall call us to a strict account for that evil we have
done, and the good we have omitted, to remember we have comforted and
been helpful to a dejected or distressed family.

[Sidenote: The poor tenant]

And that his practice was to do good, one example may be, that he met
with a poor dejected neighbour, that complained he had taken a meadow,
the rent of which was 9_l_. a year; and when the hay was made ready
to be carried into his barn, several days' constant rain had so raised
the water, that a sudden flood carried all away, and his rich Landlord
would bate him no rent; and that unless he had half abated, he and
seven children were utterly undone. It may be noted, that in this age
there are a sort of people so unlike the God of Mercy, so void of the
bowels of pity, that they love only themselves and children: love them
so, as not to be concerned, whether the rest of mankind waste their
days in sorrow or shame; people that are cursed with riches, and a
mistake that nothing but riches can make them and their's happy. But
it was not so with Dr. Sanderson; for he was concerned, and spoke
comfortably to the poor dejected man; bade him go home and pray, and
not load himself with sorrow, for he would go to his Landlord next
morning; and if his Landlord would not abate what he desired, he and a
friend would pay it for him.

[Sidenote: The rich landlord]

[Sidenote: A successful mediator]

To the Landlord he went the next day, and, in a conference, the
Doctor presented to him the sad condition of his poor dejected Tenant;
telling him how much God is pleased when men compassionate the poor:
and told him, that though God loves sacrifice, yet he loves mercy so
much better, that he is pleased when called the God of Mercy. And
told him, the riches he was possessed of were given him by that God of
Mercy, who would not be pleased, if he, that had so much given,
yea, and forgiven him too, should prove like the rich steward in the
Gospel, "that took his fellow servant by the throat to make him pay
the utmost farthing." This he told him: and told him, that the law of
this nation--by which law he claims his rent--does not undertake to
make men honest or merciful; but does what it can to restrain men from
being dishonest or unmerciful, and yet was defective in both: and that
taking any rent from his poor Tenant, for what God suffered him not to
enjoy, though the law allowed him to do so, yet if he did so, he was
too like that rich Steward which he had mentioned to him; and told him
that riches so gotten, and added to his great estate, would, as Job
says, "prove like gravel in his teeth:" would in time so corrode his
conscience, or become so nauseous when he lay upon his deathbed, that
he would then labour to vomit it up, and not be able: and therefore
advised him, being very rich, to make friends of his unrighteous
Mammon, before that evil day come upon him: but however, neither
for his own sake, nor for God's sake, to take any rent of his poor,
dejected, sad Tenant; for that were to gain a temporal, and lose his
eternal happiness. These and other such reasons were urged with so
grave and compassionate an earnestness, that the Landlord forgave his
Tenant the whole rent.

The Reader will easily believe that Dr. Sanderson, who was so meek and
merciful, did suddenly and gladly carry this comfortable news to the
dejected Tenant; and we believe, that at the telling of it there was
mutual rejoicing. It was one of Job's boasts, that "he had seen none
perish for want of clothing: and that he had often made the heart of
the widow to rejoice." Job xxxi. 19. And doubtless Dr. Sanderson
might have made the same religious boast of this and very many like
occasions. But, since he did not, I rejoice that I have this just
occasion to do it for him; and that I can tell the Reader, I might
tire myself and him, in telling how like the whole course of Dr.
Sanderson's life was to this which I have now related.

[Sidenote: Contented obscurity]

Thus he went on in an obscure and quiet privacy, doing good daily both
by word and by deed, as often as any occasion offered itself; yet not
so obscurely, but that his very great learning, prudence, and piety
were much noted and valued by the Bishop of his Diocese, and by most
of the nobility and gentry of that county. By the first of which
he was often summoned to preach many Visitation Sermons, and by the
latter at many Assizes. Which Sermons, though they were much esteemed
by them that procured, and were fit to judge them; yet they were the
less valued, because he read them, which he was forced to do; for
though he had an extraordinary memory,--even the art of it,--yet he
had such an innate invincible fear and bashfulness, that his memory
was wholly useless, as to the repetition of his sermons as he had writ
them; which gave occasion to say, when they were first printed and
exposed to censure, which was in the year 1632,--"that the best
Sermons that were ever read, were never preached."

[Sidenote: Chaplain to Charles I.]

In this contented obscurity he continued, till the learned and good
Archbishop Laud,[11] who knew him well in Oxford,--for he was
his contemporary there,--told the King,--'twas the knowing and
conscientious King Charles the First,--that there was one Mr.
Sanderson, an obscure country Minister, that was of such sincerity,
and so excellent in all casuistical learning, that he desired
his Majesty would make him his Chaplain. The King granted it most
willingly, and gave the Bishop charge to hasten it, for he longed to
discourse with a man that had dedicated his studies to that useful
part of learning. The Bishop forgot not the King's desire, and Mr.
Sanderson was made his Chaplain in Ordinary in November following,
1631. And when they became known to each other, the King did put many
Cases of Conscience to him, and received from him such deliberate,
safe, and clear solutions, as gave him great content in conversing
with him; so that, at the end of his month's attendance, the King told
him, "he should long for the next November; for he resolved to have a
more inward acquaintance with him, when that month and he returned."
And when the month and he did return, the good King was never absent
from his Sermons, and would usually say, "I carry my ears to hear
other preachers; but I carry my conscience to hear Mr. Sanderson,
and to act accordingly." And this ought not to be concealed from
posterity, that the King thought what he spake; for he took him to be
his adviser, in that quiet part of his life, and he proved to be his
comforter in those days of his affliction, when he apprehended himself
to be in danger of death or deposing. Of which more hereafter.

[Sidenote: Clerk of the Convocation]

In the first Parliament of this good King,--which was 1625,--he was
chosen to be a Clerk of the Convocation for the Diocese of Lincoln;
which I here mention, because about that time did arise many disputes
about Predestination, and the many critical points that depend upon,
or are interwoven in it; occasioned, as was said, by a disquisition of
new principles of Mr. Calvin's, though others say they were before
his time. But of these Dr. Sanderson then drew up, for his own
satisfaction, such a scheme--he called it _Pax Ecclesiae_--as then gave
himself, and hath since given others, such satisfaction, that it still
remains to be of great estimation among the most learned. He was also
chosen Clerk of all the Convocations during that good King's reign.
Which I here tell my Reader, because I shall hereafter have occasion
to mention that Convocation in 1640, the unhappy Long Parliament,
and some debates of the Predestination points as they have been since
charitably handled betwixt him, the learned Dr. Hammond,[12] and Dr.
Pierce,[13] the now Reverend Dean of Salisbury.

[Sidenote: "D.D."]

In the year 1636, his Majesty, then in his progress, took a fair
occasion to visit Oxford, and to take an entertainment for two days
for himself and honourable attendants; which the Reader ought to
believe was suitable to their dignities. But this is mentioned,
because at the King's coming thither, Dr. Sanderson did attend him,
and was then--the 31st of August--created Doctor of Divinity; which
honour had an addition to it, by having many of the Nobility of this
nation then made Doctors and Masters of Arts with him; some of whose
names shall be recorded and live with his, and none shall outlive it.
First, Dr. Curle and Dr. Wren,[14] who were then Bishops of Winton and
of Norwich,--and had formerly taken their degrees in Cambridge,
were with him created Doctors of Divinity in his University. So was
Meric,[15] the son of the learned Isaac Casaubon; and Prince Rupert,
who still lives, the then Duke of Lenox, Earl of Hereford, Earl of
Essex, of Berkshire, and very many others of noble birth--too many to
be named--were then created Masters of Arts.

[Sidenote: The New Covenant]

[Sidenote: What followed]

Some years before the unhappy Long Parliament, this nation being then
happy and in peace,--though inwardly sick of being well,--namely, in
the year 1639, a discontented party of the Scots Church were zealously
restless for another reformation of their Kirk-government; and to
that end created a new Covenant, for the general taking of which
they pretended to petition the King for his assent, and that he would
enjoin the taking of it by all of that nation. But this petition was
not to be presented to him by a committee of eight or ten men of their
fraternity; but by so many thousands, and they so armed as seemed
to force an assent to what they seemed to request; so that though
forbidden by the King, yet they entered England, and in the heat of
zeal took and plundered Newcastle, where the King was forced to meet
them with an army: but upon a treaty and some concessions, he sent
them back,--though not so rich as they intended, yet,--for that time,
without bloodshed. But, Oh! this peace, and this Covenant, were but
the fore-runners of war, and the many miseries that followed: for in
the year following there were so many chosen into the Long Parliament,
that were of a conjunct council with these very zealous and as
factious reformers, as begot such a confusion by the several desires
and designs in many of the members of that Parliament, and at last
in the very common people of this nation, that they were so lost by
contrary designs, fears, and confusions, as to believe the Scots and
their Covenant would restore them to their former tranquillity. And to
that end the Presbyterian party of this nation did again, in the year
1643, invite the Scotch Covenanters back into England: and hither they
came marching with it gloriously upon their pikes and in their hats,
with this motto: "For the Crown and Covenant of both Kingdoms." This
I saw, and suffered by it. But when I look back upon the ruin of
families, the bloodshed, the decay of common honesty, and how the
former piety and plain dealing of this now sinful nation is turned
into cruelty and cunning, I praise God that he prevented me from being
of that party which helped to bring in this Covenant, and those sad
confusions that have followed it. And I have been the bolder to say
this to myself, because in a sad discourse with Dr. Sanderson, I heard
him make the like grateful acknowledgment.

[Sidenote: Changes in the Service Book]

This digression is intended for the better information of the reader
in what will follow concerning Dr. Sanderson. And first, that the
Covenanters of this nation, and their party in Parliament, made many
exceptions against the Common Prayer and ceremonies of the Church, and
seemed restless for a Reformation: and though their desires seemed not
reasonable to the King, and the learned Dr. Laud, then Archbishop
of Canterbury; yet, to quiet their consciences, and prevent future
confusion, they did, in the year 1641, desire Dr. Sanderson to call
two more of the Convocation to advise with him, and that he would
then draw up some such safe alterations as he thought fit in the
Service-book, and abate some of the ceremonies that were least
material for satisfying their consciences:--and to this end they did
meet together privately twice a week at the Dean of Westminster's[16]
house, for the space of three months or more. But not long after that
time, when Dr. Sanderson had made the reformation ready for a view,
the Church and State were both fallen into such a confusion, that Dr.
Sanderson's model for reformation became then useless. Nevertheless,
his reputation was such, that he was, in the year 1642, proposed by
both Houses of Parliament to the King, then in Oxford, to be one of
their trustees for the settling of Church-affairs, and was allowed of
by the King to be so: but that treaty came to nothing.

[Sidenote: Regius Professor of Divinity]

In the year 1643, the two Houses of Parliament took upon them to make
an ordinance, and call an Assembly of Divines, to debate and settle
some Church-controversies, of which many were very unfit to judge; in
which Dr. Sanderson was also named, but did not appear; I suppose for
the same reason that many other worthy and learned men did forbear,
the summons wanting the King's authority. And here I must look back,
and tell the Reader, that in the year 1642, he was, July 21st, named
by a more undoubted authority to a more noble employment, which was
to be Professor Regius of Divinity in Oxford: but, though knowledge be
said to puff up, yet his modesty and too mean an opinion of his great
abilities, and some other real or pretended reasons,--expressed in his
speech, when he first appeared in the chair, and since printed,--kept
him from entering into it till October, 1646.

[Sidenote: His lectures]

He did, for about a year's time, continue to read his matchless
Lectures, which were first _de Juramento_, a point very difficult, and
at that time very dangerous to be handled as it ought to be. But this
learned man, as he was eminently furnished with abilities to satisfy
the consciences of men upon that important subject; so he wanted not
courage to assert the true obligation of Oaths in a degenerate age,
when men had made perjury a main part of their religion. How much
the learned world stands obliged to him for these, and his following
Lectures _de Conscientia_, I shall not attempt to declare, as
being very sensible that the best pens must needs fall short in the
commendation of them: so that I shall only add, that they continued
to this day, and will do for ever, as a complete standard for the
resolution of the most material doubts in Casuistical Divinity. And
therefore I proceed to tell the Reader, that about the time of his
reading those Lectures,--the King being then prisoner in the Isle of
Wight,--the Parliament had sent the Covenant, the Negative Oath, and
I know not what more, to be taken by the Doctor of the Chair, and
all Heads of Houses; and all other inferior Scholars, of what degree
soever, were all to take these Oaths by a fixed day; and those that
did not, to abandon their College, and the University too, within
twenty-four hours after the beating of a drum; for if they remained
longer, they were to be proceeded against as spies.

Dr. Laud, then Archbishop of Canterbury, the Earl of Strafford, and
many others, had been formerly murdered by this wicked Parliament; but
the King yet was not: and the University had yet some faint hopes that
in a Treaty then in being, or pretended to be suddenly, there might
be such an agreement made between King and Parliament, that the
Dissenters in the University might both preserve their consciences and
subsistence which they then enjoyed by their Colleges.

[Sidenote: A mistaken hope]

[Sidenote: Manifesto to Parliament.]

And being possessed of this mistaken hope, that the Parliament were
not yet grown so merciless as not to allow manifest reason for their
not submitting to the enjoined Oaths, the University appointed
twenty delegates to meet, consider, and draw up a Manifesto to the
Parliament, why they could not take those oaths but by violation
of their consciences: and of these delegates Dr. Sheldon,--late
Archbishop of Canterbury,--Dr. Hammond,--Dr. Sanderson, Dr.
Morley,--now Bishop of Winchester,--and that most honest and as
judicious Civil Lawyer, Dr. Zouch,[17] were a part; the rest I cannot
now name: but the whole number of the delegates requested Dr. Zouch
to draw up the Law part, and give it to Dr. Sanderson: and he was
requested to methodise and add what referred to reason and conscience,
and put it into form. He yielded to their desires and did so. And
then, after they had been read in a full Convocation, and allowed of,
they were printed in Latin, that the Parliament's proceedings and the
University's sufferings might be manifested to all nations: and the
imposers of these oaths might repent, or answer them: but they were
past the first; and for the latter, I might swear they neither can,
nor ever will. And these Reasons were also suddenly turned into
English by Dr. Sanderson, that those of these three kingdoms might the
better judge of the loyal party's sufferings.

[Sidenote: "Cases of Conscience"]

[Sidenote: The King's errors]

[Sidenote: Translation of "De Juramento"]

About this time the Independents--who were then grown to be the most
powerful part of the army--had taken the King from a close to a
more large imprisonment; and, by their own pretences to liberty of
conscience, were obliged to allow somewhat of that to the King,
who had, in the year 1646, sent for Dr. Sanderson, Dr. Hammond, Dr.
Sheldon,--the late Archbishop of Canterbury,--and Dr. Morley,--the now
Bishop of Winchester,--to attend him, in order to advise with them,
how far he might with a good conscience comply with the proposals of
the Parliament for a peace in Church and State: but these, having been
then denied him by the Presbyterian Parliament, were now allowed
him by those in present power. And as those other Divines, so Dr.
Sanderson gave his attendance on his Majesty also in the Isle of
Wight, preached there before him, and had in that attendance many,
both public and private, conferences with him, to his Majesty's great
satisfaction. At which time he desired Dr. Sanderson, that, being the
Parliament had proposed to him the abolishing of Episcopal Government
in the Church, as inconsistent with Monarchy, that he would consider
of it; and declare his judgment. He undertook to do so, and did it;
but it might not be printed till our King's happy Restoration, and
then it was. And at Dr. Sanderson's taking his leave of his Majesty in
his last attendance on him, the King requested him to betake himself
to the writing Cases of Conscience for the good of posterity. To which
his answer was, "That he was now grown old, and unfit to write Cases
of Conscience." But the King was so bold with him as to say, "It was
the simplest answer he ever heard from Dr. Sanderson; for no young man
was fit to be a judge, or write Cases of Conscience." And let me here
take occasion to tell the Reader this truth, not commonly known;
that in one of these conferences this conscientious King told Dr.
Sanderson, or one of them that then waited with him, "that the
remembrance of two errors did much afflict him; which were, his assent
to the Earl of Strafford's death, and the abolishing Episcopacy in
Scotland; and that if God ever restored him to be in a peaceable
possession of his Crown, he would demonstrate his repentance by a
public confession, and a voluntary penance,"--I think barefoot--from
the Tower of London, or Whitehall, to St. Paul's Church, and desire
the people to intercede with God for his pardon. I am sure one of them
that told it me lives still, and will witness it. And it ought to
be observed, that Dr. Sanderson's Lectures _de Juramento_ were so
approved and valued by the King, that in this time of his imprisonment
and solitude he translated them into exact English; desiring Dr.
Juxon,[18]--then Bishop of London,--Dr. Hammond, and Sir Thomas
Herbert,[19] who then attended him,--to compare them with the
original. The last still lives, and has declared it, with some other
of that King's excellencies, in a letter under his own hand, which was
lately shewed me by Sir William Dugdale, King at Arms. The book was
designed to be put into the King's Library at St. James's; but, I
doubt, not now to be found there. I thought the honour of the Author
and the Translator to be both so much concerned in this relation, that
it ought not to be concealed from the Reader, and 'tis therefore here

[Sidenote: Expelled from Oxford]

I now return to Dr. Sanderson in the Chair in Oxford; where they that
complied not in taking the Covenant, Negative Oath, and Parliament
Ordinance for Church-discipline and worship, were under a sad and
daily apprehension of expulsion: for the Visitors were daily expected,
and both City and University full of soldiers, and a party of
Presbyterian Divines, that were as greedy and ready to possess, as the
ignorant and ill-natured Visitors were to eject the Dissenters out of
their Colleges and livelihoods: but, notwithstanding, Dr. Sanderson
did still continue to read his Lecture, and did, to the very faces of
those Presbyterian Divines and soldiers, read with so much reason, and
with a calm fortitude make such applications, as, if they were not,
they ought to have been ashamed, and begged pardon of God and him,
and forborne to do what followed. But these thriving sinners were
hardened; and, as the Visitors expelled the Orthodox, they, without
scruple or shame, possessed themselves of their Colleges; so that,
with the rest, Dr. Sanderson was in June, 1648, forced to pack up and
be gone, and thank God he was not imprisoned, as Dr. Sheldon, and Dr.
Hammond, and others then were.

[Sidenote: Dr. Morley]

[Sidenote: His fortitude]

I must now again look back to Oxford, and tell my Reader, that the
year before this expulsion, when the University had denied this
subscription, and apprehended the danger of that visitation which
followed, they sent Dr. Morley, then Canon of Christ Church,--now
Lord Bishop of Winchester,--and others, to petition the Parliament for
recalling the injunction, or a mitigation of it, or accept of their
reasons why they could not take the Oaths enjoined them; and the
petition was by Parliament referred to a committee to hear and report
the reasons to the House, and a day set for hearing them. This done,
Dr. Morley and the rest went to inform and fee Counsel, to plead their
cause on the day appointed; but there had been so many committed
for pleading, that none durst undertake it; for at this time the
privileges of that Parliament were become a _Noli me tangere_, as
sacred and useful to them, as traditions ever were, or are now, to the
Church of Rome; their number must never be known, and therefore not
without danger to be meddled with. For which reason Dr. Morley was
forced, for want of Counsel, to plead the University's Reasons for
non-compliance with the Parliament's injunctions: and though this was
done with great reason, and a boldness equal to the justice of his
cause; yet the effect of it was, but that he and the rest appearing
with him were so fortunate as to return to Oxford without commitment.
This was some few days before the Visitors and more soldiers were sent
down to drive the Dissenters out of the University. And one that
was, at this time of Dr. Morley's pleading, a powerful man in
the Parliament,[20] and of that committee, observing Dr. Morley's
behaviour and reason, and inquiring of him and hearing a good report
of his morals, was therefore willing to afford him a peculiar favour;
and, that he might express it, sent for me that relate this story, and
knew Dr. Morley well, and told me, "he had such a love for Dr. Morley,
that knowing he would not take the Oaths, and must therefore be
ejected his College, and leave Oxford; he desired I would therefore
write to him to ride out of Oxford, when the Visitors came into it,
and not return till they left it, and he should be sure then to
return in safety; and that he should, without taking any Oath or other
molestation, enjoy his Canon's place in his College." I did receive
this intended kindness with a sudden gladness, because I was sure
the party had a power, and as sure he meant to perform it, and did
therefore write the Doctor word: and his answer was, that I must
not fail to return my friend,--who still lives,--his humble and
undissembled thanks, though he could not accept of his intended
kindness; for when the Dean, Dr. Gardner, Dr. Paine, Dr. Hammond, Dr.
Sanderson and all the rest of the College were turned out, except Dr.
Wall,[21] he should take it to be, if not a sin, yet a shame, to be
left behind with him only. Dr. Wall I knew, and will speak nothing of
him, for he is dead.

[Sidenote: Matters in London]

It may easily be imagined, with what a joyful willingness these
self-loving reformers took possession of all vacant preferments, and
with what reluctance others parted with their beloved Colleges and
subsistence; but their consciences were dearer than their subsistence,
and out they went; the reformers possessing them without shame or
scruple: where I leave these scruple-mongers, and make an account of
the then present affairs of London, to be the next employment of my
Reader's patience.

And in London all the Bishops' houses were turned to be prisons, and
they filled with Divines, that would not take the Covenant, or forbear
reading Common Prayer, or that were accused for some faults like
these. For it may be noted, that about this time the Parliament set
out a proclamation, to encourage all laymen that had occasion to
complain of their Ministers for being troublesome or scandalous, or
that conformed not to Orders of Parliament, to make their complaint to
a committee for that purpose; and the Minister, though a hundred
miles from London, should appear there, and give satisfaction, or be
sequestered;--and you may be sure no Parish could want a covetous, or
malicious, or cross-grained complaint;--by which means all prisons
in London, and in some other places, became the sad habitations of
conforming Divines.

And about this time the Bishop of Canterbury having been by an unknown
law condemned to die, and the execution suspended for some days, many
of the malicious citizens, fearing his pardon, shut up their shops,
professing not to open them till justice was executed. This malice and
madness is scarce credible; but I saw it.

[Sidenote: Mr. Thomas Brightman]

The Bishops had been voted out of the House of Parliament, and some
upon that occasion sent to the Tower; which made many Covenanters
rejoice, and believe Mr. Brightman[22]--who probably was a good and
well-meaning man--to be inspired in his "Comment on the Apocalypse,"
an abridgment of which was now printed, and called Mr. Brightman's
"Revelation of the Revelation." And though he was grossly mistaken
in other things, yet, because he had made the Churches of Geneva and
Scotland, which had no Bishops, to be Philadelphia in the Apocalypse,
the Angel that God loved; Rev. iii. 7-13, and the power of Prelacy to
be Antichrist, the evil Angel, which the House of Commons had now
so spewed up, as never to recover their dignity; therefore did those
Covenanters approve and applaud Mr. Brightman for discovering and
foretelling the Bishops' downfall; so that they both railed at them,
and rejoiced to buy good pennyworths of their land, which their
friends of the House of Commons did afford them, as a reward of their
diligent assistance to pull them down.

[Sidenote: Contentions]

And the Bishops' power being now vacated, the common people were made
so happy, as every Parish might choose their own Minister, and tell
him when he did, and when he did not, preach true doctrine: and by
this and like means, several Churches had several teachers, that
prayed and preached for and against one another: and engaged their
hearers to contend furiously for truths which they understood not;
some of which I shall mention in the discourse that follows.

[Sidenote: and contradictions]

I have heard of two men, that in their discourse undertook to give a
character of a third person: and one concluded he was a very honest
man, "for he was beholden to him;" and the other, that he was not,
"for he was not beholden to him." And something like this was in the
designs both of the Covenanters and Independents, the last of which
were now grown both as numerous and as powerful as the former: for
though they differed much in many principles, and preached against
each other, one making it a sign of being in the state of grace, if we
were but zealous for the Covenant; and the other, that we ought to buy
and sell by a measure, and to allow the same liberty of conscience to
others, which we by Scripture claim to ourselves; and therefore not
to force any to swear the Covenant contrary to their consciences, and
lose both their livings and liberties too. Though these differed thus
in their conclusions, yet they both agreed in their practice to preach
down Common Prayer, and get into the best sequestered livings; and
whatever became of the true owners, their wives and children, yet to
continue in them without the least scruple of conscience.

They also made other strange observations of Election, Reprobation,
and Free Will, and the other points dependent upon these; such as the
wisest of the common people were not fit to judge of; I am sure I am
not: though I must mention some of them historically in a more proper
place, when I have brought my Reader with me to Dr. Sanderson at
Boothby Pannell.

And in the way thither I must tell him, that a very Covenanter, and a
Scot too, that came into England with this unhappy Covenant, was got
into a good sequestered living by the help of a Presbyterian Parish,
which had got the true owner out. And this Scotch Presbyterian, being
well settled in this good living, began to reform the Churchyard,
by cutting down a large yew-tree, and some other trees that were an
ornament to the place, and very often a shelter to the parishioners;
who, excepting against him for so doing, were answered, "That the
trees were his, and 'twas lawful for every man to use his own, as he,
and not as they thought fit." I have heard, but do not affirm it,
that no action lies against him that is so wicked as to steal the
winding-sheet of a dead body after it is buried; and have heard the
reason to be, because none were supposed to be so void of humanity;
and that such a law would vilify that nation that would but suppose so
vile a man to be born in it: nor would one suppose any man to do what
this Covenanter did. And whether there were any law against him, I
know not; but pity the Parish the less for turning out their legal

[Sidenote: Boothby again]

We have now overtaken Dr. Sanderson at Boothby Parish, where he hoped
to enjoy himself though in a poor, yet in a quiet and desired privacy;
but it proved otherwise: for all corners of the nation were filled
with Covenanters, confusion, Committee-men, and soldiers, serving
each other to their several ends, of revenge, or power, or profit: and
these Committee-men and soldiers were most of them so possessed with
this Covenant, that they became like those that were infected with
that dreadful Plague of Athens; the plague of which Plague was, that
they by it became maliciously restless to get into company, and to
joy,--so the Historian saith,--when they had infected others, even
those of their most beloved or nearest friends or relations:[23] and
though there might be some of these Covenanters that were beguiled and
meant well; yet such were the generality of them, and temper of
the times, that you may be sure Dr. Sanderson, who though quiet
and harmless, yet an eminent dissenter from them, could not live
peaceably; nor did he: for the soldiers would appear, and visibly
disturb him in the Church when he read prayers, pretending to advise
him how God was to be served most acceptably: which he not approving,
but continuing to observe order and decent behaviour in reading the
Church-service, they forced his book from him, and tore it, expecting
extemporary prayers.

At this time he was advised by a Parliament man of power and note,
that valued and loved him much, not to be strict in reading all the
Common Prayer, but make some little variation, especially if the
soldiers came to watch him; for then it might not be in the power of
him and his other friends to secure him from taking the Covenant, or
Sequestration: for which reasons he did vary somewhat from the strict
rules of the Rubric. I will set down the very words of confession
which he used, as I have it under his own hand; and tell the Reader,
that all his other variations were as little, and much like to this.

[Sidenote: A Confession]


"O Almighty God and merciful Father, we, thy unworthy servants, do
with shame and sorrow confess, that we have all our life long gone
astray out of thy ways like lost sheep; and that, by following
too much the vain devices and desires of our own hearts, we have
grievously offended against thy holy laws, both in thought, word, and
deed; we have many times left undone those good duties which we might
and ought to have done; and we have many times done those evils,
when we might have avoided them, which we ought not to have done.
We confess, O Lord! that there is no health at all, nor help in
any creature to relieve us; but all our hope is in thy mercy, whose
justice we have by our sins so far provoked. Have mercy therefore upon
us, O Lord! have mercy upon us miserable offenders: spare us, good
God, who confess our faults, that we perish not; but, according to
thy gracious promises declared unto mankind in Christ Jesus our Lord,
restore us upon our true repentance into thy grace and favour. And
grant, O most merciful Father! for his sake, that we henceforth study
to serve and please thee by leading a godly, righteous, and a sober
life, to the glory of thy holy name, and the eternal comfort of our
own souls, through Jesus Christ our Lord."


[Sidenote: Wise submission]

In these disturbances of tearing his servicebook, a neighbour came on
a Sunday, after the Evening service was ended, to visit and condole
with him for the affront offered by the soldiers. To whom he spake
with a composed patience, and said; "God hath restored me to my
desired privacy, with my wife and children; where I hoped to have met
with quietness, and it proves not so: but I will labour to be pleased,
because God, on whom I depend, sees it is not fit for me to be quiet.
I praise him, that he hath by his grace prevented me from making
shipwreck of a good conscience to maintain me in a place of great
reputation and profit: and though my condition be such, that I need
the last, yet I submit; for God did not send me into this world to do
my own, but suffer his will, and I will obey it." Thus by a sublime
depending on his wise, and powerful, and pitiful Creator, he did
cheerfully submit to what God had appointed, justifying the truth of
that doctrine which he had preached.

About this time that excellent book of "The King's Meditations in his
Solitude" was printed, and made public; and Dr. Sanderson was such a
lover of the Author, and so desirous that the whole world should see
the character of him in that book, and something of the cause for
which they suffered, that he designed to turn it into Latin: but
when he had done half of it most excellently, his friend Dr. Earle
prevented him, by appearing to have done the whole very well before

[Sidenote: Preaching without book]

About this time his dear and most intimate friend, the learned Dr.
Hammond, came to enjoy a conversation and rest with him for some days;
and did so. And having formerly persuaded him to trust his excellent
memory, and not read, but try to speak a sermon as he had writ it, Dr.
Sanderson became so compliant, as to promise he would. And to that end
they two went early the Sunday following to a neighbour Minister,
and requested to exchange a sermon; and they did so. And at Dr.
Sanderson's going into the pulpit, he gave his sermon--which was a
very short one--into the hand of Dr. Hammond, intending to preach
it as it was writ: but before he had preached a third part, Dr.
Hammond,--looking on his sermon as written,--observed him to be out,
and so lost as to the matter, that he also became afraid for him: for
'twas discernible to many of the plain auditory. But when he had ended
this short sermon, as they two walked homeward, Dr. Sanderson said
with much earnestness, "Good Doctor, give me my sermon; and know, that
neither you nor any man living, shall ever persuade me to preach again
without my books." To which the reply was, "Good Doctor, be not angry:
for if I ever persuade you to preach again without book, I will give
you leave to burn all those that I am master of."

Part of the occasion of Dr. Hammond's visit, was at this time to
discourse with Dr. Sanderson about some opinions, in which, if they
did not then, they had doubtless differed formerly; it was about those
knotty points, which are by the learned called the Quinquarticular
Controversy; of which I shall proceed, not to give any judgment,--I
pretend not to that,--but some short historical account which shall

[Sidenote: Liberties of doctrine]

There had been, since the unhappy Covenant was brought and so
generally taken in England, a liberty given or taken by many
Preachers--those those of London especially--to preach and be too
positive in the points of Universal Redemption, Predestination, and
those other depending upon these. Some of which preached, "That
all men were, before they came into this world, so predestinated to
salvation or damnation, that it was not in their power to sin so, as
to lose the first, nor by their most diligent endeavour to avoid the
latter. Others, that it was not so: because then God could not be said
to grieve for the death of a sinner, when he himself had made him
so by an inevitable decree, before he had so much as a being in this
world;" affirming therefore, "that man had some power left him to do
the will of God, because he was advised to work out his salvation with
fear and trembling;" maintaining, "that it is most certain every man
can do what he can to be saved;" and that "he that does what he can
to be saved, shall never be damned." And yet many that affirmed this
would confess, "That that grace, which is but a persuasive offer, and
left to us to receive, or refuse, is not that grace which shall bring
men to Heaven." Which truths, or untruths, or both, be they which they
will, did upon these, or the like occasions, come to be searched into,
and charitably debated betwixt Dr. Sanderson, Dr. Hammond, and Dr.
Pierce,--the now Reverend Dean of Salisbury,--of which I shall proceed
to give some account, but briefly.

[Sidenote: A charitable disquisition]

In the year 1648, the fifty-two London Ministers--then a fraternity of
Sion College in that City--had in a printed Declaration aspersed Dr.
Hammond most heinously, for that he had in his Practical Catechism
affirmed, that our Saviour died for the sins of all mankind. To
justify which truth, he presently makes a charitable reply--as 'tis
now printed in his works.--After which there were many letters passed
betwixt the said Dr. Hammond, Dr. Sanderson and Dr. Pierce, concerning
God's grace and decrees. Dr. Sanderson was with much unwillingness
drawn into this debate; for he declared it would prove uneasy to him,
who in his judgment of God's decrees differed with Dr. Hammond,--whom
he reverenced and loved dearly,--and would not therefore engage him
into a controversy, of which he could never hope to see an end: but
they did all enter into a charitable disquisition of these said points
in several letters, to the full satisfaction of the learned; those
betwixt Dr. Sanderson and Dr. Hammond being printed in his works; and
for what passed betwixt him and the learned Dr. Pierce, I refer my
Reader to a Letter annexed to the end of this relation.

[Sidenote: Changes of judgment]

I think the judgment of Dr. Sanderson, was, by these debates, altered
from what it was at his entrance into them; for in the year 1632, when
his excellent Sermons were first printed in quarto, the Reader may on
the margin find some accusation of Arminius for false doctrine; and
find that, upon a review and reprinting those Sermons in folio, in the
year 1657, that accusation of Arminius is omitted. And the change
of his judgment seems more fully to appear in his said letter to Dr.
Pierce. And let me now tell the Reader, which may seem to be perplexed
with these several affirmations of God's decrees before mentioned,
that Dr. Hammond, in a postscript to the last letter of Dr.
Sanderson's, says, "God can reconcile his own contradictions,
and therefore advises all men, as the Apostle does, to study
mortification, and be wise to sobriety." And let me add farther, that
if these fifty-two Ministers of Sion College were the occasion of the
debates in these letters, they have, I think, been the occasion of
giving an end to the Quinquarticular Controversy: for none have since
undertaken to say more; but seem to be so wise, as to be content to be
ignorant of the rest, till they come to that place, where the secrets
of all hearts shall be laid open. And let me here tell the Reader
also, that if the rest of mankind would, as Dr. Sanderson, not conceal
their alteration of judgment, but confess it to the honour of God
and themselves, then our nation would become freer from pertinacious
disputes, and fuller of recantations.

[Sidenote: Dr. Laud]

I cannot lead my Reader to Dr. Hammond and Dr. Sanderson, where we
left them at Boothby Pannell, till I have looked back to the Long
Parliament, the Society of Covenanters in Sion College, and those
others scattered up and down in London, and given some account
of their proceedings and usage of the late learned Dr. Laud, then
Archbishop of Canterbury. And though I will forbear to mention the
injustice of his death, and the barbarous usage of him, both then and
before it; yet my desire is that what follows may be noted, because it
does now, or may hereafter, concern us; namely, that in his last sad
sermon on the scaffold at his death, he having freely pardoned all his
enemies, and humbly begged of God to pardon them, and besought those
present to pardon and pray for him; yet he seemed to accuse the
magistrates of the City, for suffering a sort of wretched people,
that could not know why he was condemned, to go visibly up and down
to gather hands to a petition, that the Parliament would hasten his
execution. And having declared how unjustly he thought himself to be
condemned, and accused for endeavouring to bring in Popery,--for
that was one of the accusations for which he died,--he declared with
sadness, "That the several sects and divisions then in England,--which
he had laboured to prevent,--were like to bring the Pope a far greater
harvest, than he could ever have expected without them." And said,
"These sects and divisions introduce profaneness under the cloak of an
imaginary Religion; and that we have lost the substance of Religion by
changing it into opinion: and that by these means this Church, which
all the Jesuits' machinations could not ruin, was fallen into apparent
danger by those which were his accusers." To this purpose he spoke at
his death: for this, and more of which, the Reader may view his last
sad sermon on the scaffold. And it is here mentioned, because his dear
friend, Dr. Sanderson, seems to demonstrate the same in his two large
and remarkable Prefaces before his two volumes of Sermons; and he
seems also with much sorrow to say the same again in his last Will,
made when he apprehended himself to be very near his death. And these
Covenanters ought to take notice of it, and to remember, that, by the
late wicked war begun by them, Dr. Sanderson was ejected out of the
Professor's Chair in Oxford; and that if he had continued in it,--for
he lived fourteen years after,--both the learned of this, and other
nations, had been made happy by many remarkable Cases of Conscience,
so rationally stated, and so briefly, so clearly, and so convincingly
determined, that posterity might have joyed and boasted, that Dr.
Sanderson was born in this nation, for the ease and benefit of all the
learned that shall be born after him: but this benefit is so like time
past, that they are both irrecoverably lost.

[Sidenote: Prisoner at Lincoln]

I should now return to Boothby Pannell, where we left Dr. Hammond and
Dr. Sanderson together; but neither can be found there: for the first
was in his journey to London, and the second seized upon the day
after his friend's departure, and carried prisoner to Lincoln, then
a garrison of the Parliament's. For the pretended reason of which
commitment, I shall give this following account.

[Sidenote: Exchanged for Dr. Clarke]

There was one Mr. Clarke, the Minister of Alington, a town not many
miles from Boothby Pannell, who was an active man for the Parliament
and Covenant; one that, when Belvoir Castle--then a garrison for the
Parliament--was taken by a party of the King's soldiers, was taken
in it, and made a prisoner of war in Newark, then a garrison of the
King's; a man so active and useful for his party, that they became so
much concerned for his enlargement, that the Committee of Lincoln sent
a troop of horse to seize and bring Dr. Sanderson a prisoner to that
garrison: and they did so. And there he had the happiness to meet with
many, that knew him so well as to treat him kindly; but told him,
"He must continue their prisoner, till he should purchase his own
enlargement by procuring an exchange for Mr. Clarke, then prisoner in
the King's garrison of Newark." There were many reasons given by the
Doctor of the injustice of his imprisonment, and the inequality of
the exchange: but all were ineffectual; for done it must be, or he
continue a prisoner. And in time done it was, upon the following

[Sidenote: Mode of life]

First, that Dr. Sanderson and Mr. Clarke being exchanged, should live
undisturbed at their own Parishes; and if either were injured by the
soldiers of the contrary party, the other, having notice of it, should
procure him a redress, by having satisfaction made for his loss, or
for any other injury; or if not, he to be used in the same kind by the
other party. Nevertheless, Dr. Sanderson could neither live safe nor
quietly, being several times plundered, and once wounded in three
places: but he, apprehending the remedy might turn to a more
intolerable burden by impatience or complaining, forbore both;
and possessed his soul in a contented quietness, without the least
repining. But though he could not enjoy the safety he expected by this
exchange, yet, by His providence that can bring good out of evil, it
turned so much to his advantage, that whereas as his living had been
sequestered from the year 1644, and continued to be so till this time
of his imprisonment, he, by the Articles of War in this exchange for
Mr. Clarke, procured his sequestration to be recalled, and by that
means enjoyed a poor, but contented subsistence for himself, wife, and
children, till the happy restoration of our King and Church.

In this time of his poor, but contented privacy of life, his
casuistical learning, peaceful moderation, and sincerity, became so
remarkable, that there were many that applied themselves to him for
resolution in cases of conscience; some known to him, many not; some
requiring satisfaction by conference, others by letters; so many, that
his life became almost as restless as their minds; yet he denied
no man: and if it be a truth which holy Mr. Herbert says, "That all
worldly joys seem less, when compared with shewing mercy or doing
kindnesses;" then doubtless Dr. Sanderson might have boasted for
relieving so many restless and wounded consciences; which, as Solomon
says, "are a burden that none can bear, though their fortitude may
sustain their other infirmities;" and if words cannot express the
joy of a conscience relieved from such restless agonies; then Dr.
Sanderson might rejoice that so many were by him so clearly and
conscientiously satisfied, for he denied none, and would often praise
God for that ability, and as often for the occasion, and that God had
inclined his heart to do it to the meanest of any of those poor, but
precious souls, for which his Saviour vouchsafed to be crucified.

[Sidenote: Cases of conscience]

Some of these very many cases that were resolved by letters, have been
preserved and printed for the benefit of posterity; as namely,

1. Of the Sabbath.
2. Marrying with a Recusant.
3. Of unlawful love.
4. Of a military life.
5. Of Scandal.
6. Of a bond taken in the King's name.
7. Of the Engagement.
8. Of a rash vow.

But many more remain in private hands, of which one is of Simony; and
I wish the world might see it, that it might undeceive some Patrons,
who think they have discharged that great and dangerous trust, both
to God and man, if they take no money for a living, though it may be
parted with for other ends less justifiable.

[Sidenote: Preface to last sermons]

And in this time of his retirement, when the common people were amazed
and grown giddy by the many falsehoods, and misapplications of truths
frequently vented in sermons; when they wrested the Scripture by
challenging God to be of their party, and called upon him in their
prayers to patronise their sacrilege and zealous frenzies; in this
time he did so compassionate the generality of this misled nation,
that though the times threatened danger, yet he then hazarded his
safety by writing the large and bold Preface now extant before his
last twenty Sermons;--first printed in the year 1655;--in which there
was such strength of reason, with so powerful and clear convincing
applications made to the Non-conformists, as being read by one of
those dissenting brethren, who was possessed with such a spirit of
contradiction, as being neither able to defend his error, nor yield
to truth manifest,--his conscience having slept long and quietly in
a good sequestered living,--was yet at the reading of it so awakened,
that after a conflict with the reason he had met, and the damage he
was to sustain if he consented to it,--and being still unwilling to be
so convinced, as to lose by being over-reasoned,--he went in haste to
the bookseller of whom it was bought, threatened him, and told him in
anger, "he had sold a book in which there was false Divinity; and that
the Preface had upbraided the Parliament, and many godly Ministers of
that party, for unjust dealing." To which his reply was,--'twas Tim.
Garthwaite,--"That 'twas not his trade to judge of true or false
Divinity, but to print and sell books: and yet if he, or any friend
of his, would write an answer to it, and own it by setting his name to
it, he would print the Answer, and promote the selling of it."

[Sidenote: A meeting in Little Britain]

About the time of his printing this excellent Preface, I met him
accidentally in London, in sad-coloured clothes, and, God knows,
far from being costly. The place of our meeting was near to Little
Britain, where he had been to buy a book, which he then had in his
hand. We had no inclination to part presently, and therefore turned
to stand in a corner under a penthouse,--for it began to rain,--and
immediately the wind rose, and the rain increased so much, that both
became so inconvenient, as to force us into a cleanly house, where we
had bread, cheese, ale, and a fire for our money. This rain and wind
were so obliging to me, as to force our stay there for at least an
hour, to my great content and advantage; for in that time he made to
me many useful observations, with much clearness and conscientious
freedom. I shall relate a part of them, in hope they may also turn to
the advantage of my Reader. He seemed to lament, that the Parliament
had taken upon them to abolish our Liturgy, to the scandal of so many
devout and learned men, and the disgrace of those many martyrs, who
had sealed the truth and use of it with their blood: and that no
Minister was now thought godly that did not decry it, and at least
pretend to make better prayers _ex tempore_: and that they, and only
they, that could do so, prayed by the Spirit, and were godly; though
in their sermons they disputed, and evidently contradicted each other
in their prayers. And as he did dislike this, so he did most highly
commend the Common Prayer of the Church, saying, "the Collects were
the most passionate, proper, and most elegant expressions that any
language ever afforded; and that there was in them such piety, and so
interwoven with instructions, that they taught us to the power, the
wisdom, the majesty, and mercy of God, and much of our duty both to
him and our neighbour: and that a congregation, behaving themselves
reverently, and putting up to God these joint and known desires for
pardon of sins, and praises for mercies received, could not but be
more pleasing to God, than those raw, unpremeditated expressions, to
which many of the hearers could not say, Amen."

[Sidenote: "The Treasury of Christian comfort"]

And he then commended to me the frequent use of the Psalter, or Psalms
of David; speaking to this purpose: "That they were the Treasury of
Christian comfort, fitted for all persons and necessities; able to
raise the soul from dejection by the frequent mention of God's mercies
to repentant sinners; to stir up holy desires: to increase joy; to
moderate sorrow; to nourish hope, and teach us patience, by waiting
God's leisure: to beget a trust in the mercy, power, and providence of
our Creator; and to cause a resignation of ourselves to his will; and
then, and not till then, to believe ourselves happy." This, he said,
the Liturgy and Psalms taught us; and that by the frequent use of the
last, they would not only prove to be our soul's comfort, but would
become so habitual, as to transform them into the Image of his soul
that composed them. After this manner he expressed himself concerning
the Liturgy and Psalms; and seemed to lament that this, which was
the devotion of the more primitive times, should in common pulpits
be turned into needless debates about Freewill, Election, and
Reprobation, of which, and many like questions, we may be safely
ignorant, because Almighty God intends not to lead us to Heaven by
hard questions, but by meekness and charity, and a frequent practice
of devotion.

[Sidenote: Dangerous mistakes]

[Sidenote: A year of Homilies]

And he seemed to lament very much, that, by the means of irregular and
indiscreet preaching, the generality of the nation were possessed with
such dangerous mistakes, as to think, "they might be religious first,
and then just and merciful; that they might sell their consciences,
and yet have something left that was worth keeping; that they might
be sure they were elected, though their lives were visibly scandalous;
that to be cunning was to be wise; that to be rich was to be happy,
though their wealth was got without justice or mercy; that to be
busy in things they understood not, was no sin." These and the like
mistakes he lamented much, and besought God to remove them, and
restore us to that humility, sincerity, and singleheartedness, with
which this nation was blessed before the unhappy Covenant was brought
into the nation, and every man preached and prayed what seemed best
in his own eyes. And he then said to me, "That the way to restore this
nation to a more meek and Christian temper, was to have the body of
Divinity--or so much of it as was needful to be known--to be put into
fifty-two Homilies or Sermons, of such a length as not to exceed a
third, or fourth part of an hour's reading: and these needful points
to be made so clear and plain, that those of a mean capacity might
know what was necessary to be believed, and what God requires to be
done; and then some applications of trial and conviction: and these
to be read every Sunday of the year, as infallibly as the blood
circulates the body; and then as certainly begun again, and continued
the year following: and that this being done, it might probably abate
the inordinate desires of knowing what we need not, and practising
what we know and ought to do." This was the earnest desire of this
prudent man. And Oh that Dr. Sanderson had undertaken it! for then in
all probability it would have proved effectual.

[Sidenote: Another conference]

At this happy time of enjoying his company and his discourse, he
expressed a sorrow by saying to me, "Oh that I had gone Chaplain
to that excellently accomplished gentleman, your friend, Sir Henry
Wotton! which was once intended, when he first went Ambassador to
the State of Venice: for by that employment I had been forced into a
necessity of conversing, not with him only, but with several men of
several nations; and might thereby have kept myself from my unmanly
bashfulness, which has proved very troublesome, and not less
inconvenient to me; and which I now fear is become so habitual as
never to leave me: and by that means I might also have known, or at
least have had the satisfaction of seeing, one of the late miracles
of general learning, prudence, and modesty, Sir Henry Wotton's dear
friend, Padre Paulo, who, the author of his life says, was born with
a bashfulness as invincible as I have found my own to be: a man whose
fame must never die, till virtue and learning shall become so useless
as not to be regarded."

This was a part of the benefit I then had by that hour's conversation:
and I gladly remember and mention it, as an argument of my happiness,
and his great humility and condescension. I had also a like advantage
by another happy conference with him, which I am desirous to impart
in this place to the Reader. He lamented much, that in many Parishes,
where the maintenance was not great, there was no Minister to
officiate; and that many of the best sequestered livings were
possessed with such rigid Covenanters as denied the Sacrament to their
Parishioners, unless upon such conditions, and in such a manner, as
they could not take it. This he mentioned with much sorrow, saying,
"The blessed Sacrament did, by way of preparation for it, give
occasion to all conscientious receivers to examine the performance
of their vows, since they received their last seal for the pardon of
their sins past; and to examine and re-search their hearts, and make
penitent reflections on their failings; and, that done, to bewail
them, and then make new vows or resolutions to obey all God's
commands, and beg his grace to perform them. And this done,
the Sacrament repairs the decays of grace, helps us to conquer
infirmities, gives us grace to beg God's grace, and then gives us
what we beg; makes us still hunger and thirst after his righteousness,
which we then receive, and being assisted with our endeavours, will
still so dwell in us, as to become our satisfaction in this life, and
our comfort on our last sick beds." The want of this blessed benefit
he lamented much, and pitied their condition that desired, but could
not obtain it.

[Sidenote: His character]

I hope I shall not disoblige my Reader, if I here enlarge into a
further character of his person and temper. As first, that he was
moderately tall: his behaviour had in it much of a plain comeliness,
and very little, yet enough, of ceremony or courtship; his looks and
motion manifested affability and mildness, and yet he had with these a
calm, but so matchless a fortitude, as secured him from complying
with any of those many Parliament injunctions, that interfered with a
doubtful conscience. His learning was methodical and exact, his wisdom
useful, his integrity visible, and his whole life so unspotted, that
all ought to be preserved as copies for posterity to write after; the
Clergy especially, who with impure hands ought not to offer sacrifice
to that God, whose pure eyes abhor iniquity.

There was in his Sermons no improper rhetoric, nor such perplexed
divisions, as may be said to be like too much light, that so dazzles
the eyes, that the sight becomes less perfect: but there was therein
no want of useful matter, nor waste of words; and yet such clear
distinctions as dispelled all confused notions, and made his hearers
depart both wiser, and more confirmed in virtuous resolutions.

[Sidenote: His memory]

[Sidenote: His even temper]

His memory was so matchless and firm, as 'twas only overcome by his
bashfulness; for he alone, or to a friend, could repeat all the Odes
of Horace, all Tully's Offices, and much of Juvenal and Persius,
without book: and would say, "the repetition of one of the Odes of
Horace to himself, was to him such music, as a lesson on the viol was
to others, when they played it to themselves or friends." And though
he was blest with a clearer judgment than other men, yet he was so
distrustful of it, that he did over-consider of consequences, and
would so delay and re-consider what to determine, that though none
ever determined better, yet, when the bell tolled for him to appear
and read his Divinity Lectures in Oxford, and all the Scholars
attended to hear him, he had not then, or not till then, resolved and
writ what he meant to determine; so that that appeared to be a truth,
which his old dear friend Dr. Sheldon would often say, namely, "That
his judgment was so much superior to his fancy, that whatsoever
this suggested, that disliked and controlled; still considering, and
re-considering, till his time was so wasted, that he was forced to
write, not, probably, what was best, but what he thought last." And
yet what he did then read, appeared to all hearers to be so useful,
clear, and satisfactory, as none ever determined with greater
applause. These tiring and perplexing thoughts begot in him an
averseness to enter into the toil of considering and determining all
casuistical points; because during that time, they neither gave rest
to his body or mind. But though he would not be always loaden with
these knotty points and distinctions; yet the study of old records,
genealogies, and Heraldry, were a recreation and so pleasing, that he
would say they gave rest to his mind. Of the last of which I have seen
two remarkable volumes; and the Reader needs neither to doubt their
truth or exactness.

And this humble man had so conquered all repining and ambitious
thoughts, and with them all other unruly passions, that, if the
accidents of the day proved to his danger or damage, yet he both began
and ended it with an even and undisturbed quietness; always praising
God that he had not withdrawn food and raiment from him and his poor
family; nor suffered him to violate his conscience for his safety, or
to support himself or them in a more splendid or plentiful condition;
and that he therefore resolved with David, "That his praise should be
always in his mouth."

[Sidenote: "De Conscientia"]

I have taken a content in giving my Reader this character of his
person, his temper, and some of the accidents of his life past; and
more might be added of all; but I will with sorrow look forward to the
sad days, in which so many good men suffered, about the year 1658, at
which time Dr. Sanderson was in a very low condition as to his estate;
and in that time Mr. Robert Boyle[24]--a gentleman of a very noble
birth, and more eminent for his liberality, learning, and virtue,
and of whom I would say much more, but that he still lives--having
casually met with and read his Lectures _de Juramento_, to his great
satisfaction, and being informed of Dr. Sanderson's great innocence
and sincerity, and that he and his family were brought into a low
condition by his not complying with the Parliament's injunctions,
sent him by his dear friend Dr. Barlow[25]--the now learned Bishop of
Lincoln--50_l._ and with it a request and promise. The request was,
that he would review the Lectures _de Conscientia_, which he had read
when he was Doctor of the Chair in Oxford, and print them for the good
of posterity:--and this Dr. Sanderson did in the year 1659.--And the
promise was, that he would pay him that, or a greater sum if desired,
during his life, to enable him to pay an amanuensis, to ease him from
the trouble of writing what he should conceive or dictate. For the
more particular account of which, I refer my Reader to a letter
writ by the said Dr. Barlow, which I have annexed to the end of this

[Sidenote: The Restoration]

Towards the end of this year, 1659, when the many mixed sects, and
their creators and merciless protectors, had led or driven each other
into a whirlpool of confusion: when amazement and fear had seized
them, and their accusing consciences gave them an inward and fearful
intelligence, that the god which they had long served was now ready to
pay them such wages, as he does always reward witches with for their
obeying him: when these wretches were come to foresee an end of
their cruel reign, by our King's return; and such sufferers as Dr.
Sanderson--and with him many of the oppressed Clergy and others--could
foresee the cloud of their afflictions would be dispersed by it; then,
in the beginning of the year following, the King was by God restored
to us, and we to our known laws and liberties, and a general joy
and peace seemed to breathe through the three nations. Then were the
suffering Clergy freed from their sequestration, restored to their
revenues, and to a liberty to adore, praise, and pray to God in such
order as their consciences and oaths had formerly obliged them. And
the Reader will easily believe, that Dr. Sanderson and his dejected
family rejoiced to see this day, and be of this number.

[Sidenote: Commended to Charles II.]

It ought to be considered--which I have often heard or read--that in
the primitive times men of learning and virtue were usually sought
for, and solicited to accept of Episcopal government, and often
refused it. For they conscientiously considered, that the office of
a Bishop was made up of labour and care; that they were trusted to be
God's almoners of the Church's revenue, and double their care for the
poor; to live strictly themselves, and use all diligence to see that
their family, officers, and Clergy did so; and that the account of
that stewardship, must, at the last dreadful day, be made to the
Searcher of all Hearts: and that in the primitive times they were
therefore timorous to undertake it. It may not be said, that Dr.
Sanderson was accomplished with these, and all the other requisites
required in a Bishop, so as to be able to answer them exactly: but
it may be affirmed, as a good preparation, that he had at the age of
seventy-three years--for he was so old at the King's Return--fewer
faults to be pardoned by God or man, than are apparent in others in
these days, in which, God knows, we fall so short of that visible
sanctity and zeal to God's glory, which was apparent in the days of
primitive Christianity. This is mentioned by way of preparation to
what I shall say more of Dr. Sanderson; and namely, that, at
the King's return, Dr. Sheldon, the late prudent Bishop of
Canterbury,--than whom none knew, valued, or loved Dr. Sanderson more
or better,--was by his Majesty made a chief trustee to commend to him
fit men to supply the then vacant Bishoprics. And Dr. Sheldon knew
none fitter than Dr. Sanderson, and therefore humbly desired the King
that he would nominate him: and, that done, he did as humbly desire
Dr. Sanderson that he would, for God's and the Church's sake,
take that charge and care upon him. Dr. Sanderson had, if not an
unwillingness, certainly no forwardness to undertake it; and would
often say, he had not led himself, but his friend would now lead him
into a temptation, which he had daily prayed against; and besought
God, if he did undertake it, so as to assist him with his grace, that
the example of his life, his cares and endeavours, might promote his
glory, and help forward the salvation of others.

[Sidenote: Bishop of Lincoln]

This I have mentioned as a happy preparation to his Bishopric; and
am next to tell, that he was consecrated Bishop of Lincoln at
Westminster, the 28th of October, 1660.

[Sidenote: Mr. Richard Baxter]

There was about this time a Christian care taken, that those whose
consciences were, as they said, tender, and could not comply with the
service and ceremonies of the Church, might have satisfaction given
by a friendly debate betwixt a select number of them, and some like
number of those that had been sufferers for the Church-service and
ceremonies, and now restored to liberty; of which last some were then
preferred to power and dignity in the Church. And of these Bishop
Sanderson was one, and then chose to be a moderator in that debate:
and he performed his trust with much mildness, patience, and reason;
but all proved ineffectual: for there be some prepossessions like
jealousies, which, though causeless, yet cannot be removed by reasons
as apparent as demonstration can make any truth. The place appointed
for this debate was the Savoy in the Strand: and the points debated
were, I think, many; some affirmed to be truth and reason, some denied
to be either; and these debates being then in words, proved to be so
loose and perplexed as satisfied neither party. For some time that
which had been affirmed was immediately forgot or denied, and so no
satisfaction given to either party. But that the debate might become
more useful, it was therefore resolved that the day following the
desires and reasons of the Non-conformists should be given in writing,
and they in writing receive answers from the conforming party. And
though I neither now can, nor need to mention all the points debated,
nor the names of the dissenting brethren; yet I am sure Mr. Baxter was
one, and am sure what shall now follow was one of the points debated.

Concerning a command of lawful superiors, what was sufficient to its
being a lawful command; this proposition was brought by the conforming

"That command which commands an act in itself lawful, and no other act
or circumstance unlawful, is not sinful."

Mr. Baxter[26] denied it for two reasons, which he gave in with his
own hand in writing, thus:

One was, "Because that may be a sin _per accidens_, which is not so in
itself, and may be unlawfully commanded, though that accident be
not in the command." Another was, "That it may be commanded under an
unjust penalty."

Again this proposition being brought by the Conformists, "That command
which commandeth an act in itself lawful, and no other act whereby
any unjust penalty is enjoined, nor any circumstance whence, _per
accidens_, any sin is consequent which the commander ought to provide
against, is not sinful."

[Sidenote: His contentions or denials]

Mr. Baxter denied it for this reason, then given in with his own
hand in writing thus: "Because the first act commanded may be _per
accidens_ unlawful, and be commanded by an unjust penalty, though no
other act or circumstance commanded be such."

Again, this proposition being brought by the Conformists, "That
command which commandeth an act in itself lawful, and no other act
whereby any unjust penalty is enjoined, nor any circumstance,
whence directly, or _per accidens_, any sin is consequent, which the
commander ought to provide against, hath in it all things requisite
to the lawfulness of a command, and particularly cannot be guilty of
commanding an act _per accidens_ unlawful, nor of commanding an act
under an unjust penalty."

Mr. Baxter denied it upon the same reasons.



These were then two of the disputants, still alive, and will attest
this; one being now Lord Bishop of Ely, and the other of Chester.
And the last of them told me very lately, that one of the
Dissenters--which I could, but forbear to name--appeared to Dr.
Sanderson to be so bold, so troublesome, and so illogical in the
dispute, as forced patient Dr. Sanderson--who was then Bishop of
Lincoln, and a moderator with other Bishops--to say, with an unusual
earnestness, "That he had never met with a man of more pertinacious
confidence, and less abilities, in all his conversation."

[Sidenote: Results of the debate]

But though this debate at the Savoy was ended without any great
satisfaction to either party, yet both parties knew the desires, and
understood the abilities, of the other, much better than before it:
and the late distressed Clergy, that were now restored to their former
rights and power, did, at the next meeting in Convocation, contrive to
give the dissenting party satisfaction by alteration, explanation, and
addition to some part both of the Rubric and Common Prayer, as also
by adding some new necessary Collects, and a particular Collect
of Thanksgiving. How many of those new Collects were worded by Dr.
Sanderson, I cannot say; but am sure the whole Convocation valued him
so much that he never undertook to speak to any point in question, but
he was heard with great willingness and attention; and when any point
in question was determined, the Convocation did usually desire him to
word their intentions, and as usually approve and thank him.

[Sidenote: New Offices]

At this Convocation the Common Prayer was made more complete, by
adding three new necessary Offices; which were, "A Form of Humiliation
for the Murder of King Charles the Martyr; A Thanksgiving for the
Restoration of his Son our King; and For the Baptising of Persons of
riper Age." I cannot say Dr. Sanderson did form, or word them all,
but doubtless more than any single man of the Convocation; and he
did also, by desire of the Convocation, alter and add to the forms of
Prayers to be used at Sea--now taken into the Service-Book.--And
it may be noted, that William, the now Right Reverend Bishop of
Canterbury,[29] was in these employments diligently useful; especially
in helping to rectify the Calendar and Rubric. And lastly, it may
be noted, that, for the satisfying all the dissenting brethren and
others, the Convocation's reasons for the alterations and additions
to the Liturgy were by them desired to be drawn up by Dr. Sanderson;
which being done by him, and approved by them, was appointed to be
printed before the Liturgy, and may be known by this title--"The
Preface;" and begins thus--"It hath been the Wisdom of the Church."--

I shall now follow him to his Bishopric, and declare a part of his
behaviour in that busy and weighty employment. And first, that it was
with such condescension and obligingness to the meanest of his Clergy,
as to know and be known to them. And indeed he practised the like to
all men of what degree soever, especially to his old neighbours or
parishioners of Boothby Pannell; for there was all joy at his table,
when they came to visit him: then they prayed for him, and he for
them, with an unfeigned affection.

I think it will not be denied, but that the care and toil required of
a Bishop, may justly challenge the riches and revenue with which their
predecessors had lawfully endowed them: and yet he sought not that so
much, as doing good both to the present age and posterity; and he made
this appear by what follows.

[Sidenote: The Bishop at Buckden]

[Sidenote: Repairs and restorations]

The Bishop's chief house at Buckden, in the County of Huntingdon, the
usual residence of his predecessors,--for it stands about the midst
of his Diocese,--having been at his consecration a great part of it
demolished, and what was left standing under a visible decay, was by
him undertaken to be erected and repaired: and it was performed with
great speed, care, and charge. And to this may be added, that the King
having by an Injunction commended to the care of the Bishops, Deans,
and Prebends of all Cathedral Churches, "the repair of them, their
houses, and augmentation of small Vicarages;" he, when he was
repairing Buckden, did also augment the last, as fast as fines were
paid for renewing leases so fast, that a friend, taking notice of his
bounty, was so bold as to advise him to remember, "he was under his
first-fruits, and that he was old, and had a wife and children yet but
meanly provided for, especially if his dignity were considered." To
whom he made a mild and thankful answer, saying, "It would not become
a Christian Bishop to suffer those houses built by his predecessors
to be ruined for want of repair; and less justifiable to suffer any of
those, that were called to so high a calling as to sacrifice at God's
altar, to eat the bread of sorrow constantly, when he had a power by
a small augmentation, to turn it into the bread of cheerfulness: and
wished, that as this was, so it were also in his power to make all
mankind happy, for he desired nothing more. And for his wife and
children, he hoped to leave them a competence, and in the hands of a
God that would provide for all that kept innocence, and trusted his
providence and protection, which he had always found enough to make
and keep him happy."

[Sidenote: His favourite books]

There was in his Diocese a Minister of almost his age, that had been
of Lincoln College when he left it, who visited him often, and always
welcome, because he was a man of innocence and openheartedness. This
Minister asked the Bishop what books he studied most, when he laid the
foundation of his great and clear learning. To which his answer was,
"that he declined reading many; but what he did read were well chosen,
and read so often, that he became Very familiar with them;" and said,
"they were chiefly three, Aristotle's Rhetoric, Aquinas's _Secunda
Secundit_, and Tully, but chiefly his offices, which he had not read
over less than twenty times, and could at this age say without book."
And told him also, "the learned Civilian Doctor Zouch--who died
lately--had writ _Elementa Jurisprudentiae_, which was a book that he
could also say without book; and that no wise man could read it too
often, or love or commend too much;" and told him, "these had been his
toil: but for himself he always had a natural love to genealogies and
Heraldry; and that when his thoughts were harassed with any perplexed
studies, he left off, and turned to them as a recreation; and that his
very recreation had made him so perfect in them, that he could, in a
very short time, give an account of the descent, arms, and antiquity
of any family of the Nobility or gentry of this nation."

[Sidenote: His Will]

Before I give an account of Dr. Sanderson's last sickness, I desire to
tell the Reader that he was of a healthful constitution, cheerful and
mild, of an even temper, very moderate in his diet, and had had little
sickness, till some few years before his death; but was then every
winter punished with a diarrhoea, which left not till warm weather
returned and removed it: and this distemper did, as he grew older,
seize him oftener, and continue longer with him. But though it
weakened him, yet it made him rather indisposed than sick, and did no
way disable him from studying--indeed too much.--In this decay of his
strength, but not of his memory or reason,--for this distemper works
not upon the understanding,--he made his last Will, of which I shall
give some account for confirmation of what hath been said, and what I
think convenient to be known, before I declare his death and burial.

He did in his last Will,[30] give an account of his faith and
persuasion in point of religion, and Church-government, in these very

"I, Robert Sanderson, Doctor of Divinity, an unworthy Minister of
Jesus Christ, and, by the providence of God, Bishop of Lincoln, being
by the long continuance of an habitual distemper brought to a great
bodily weakness and faintness of spirits, but--by the great mercy of
God--without any bodily pain otherwise, or decay of understanding,
do make this my Will and Testament,--written all with my own
hand,--revoking all former Wills by me heretofore made, if any such
shall be found. First, I commend my soul into the hands of Almighty
God, as of a faithful Creator, which I humbly beseech him mercifully
to accept, looking upon it, not as it is in itself,--infinitely
polluted with sin,--but as it is redeemed and purged with the precious
blood of his only beloved Son, and my most sweet Saviour Jesus Christ;
in confidence of whose merits and mediation alone it is, that I cast
myself upon the mercy of God for the pardon of my sins, and the hopes
of eternal life. And here I do profess, that as I have lived, so I
desire, and--by the grace of God--resolve, to die in the communion
of the Catholic Church of Christ, and a true son of the Church
of England: which, as it stands by law established, to be both in
doctrine and worship agreeable to the word of God, and in the most,
and most material points of both conformable to the faith and practice
of the godly Churches of Christ in the primitive and purer times, I do
firmly believe: led so to do, not so much from the force of custom and
education,--to which the greatest part of mankind owe their particular
different persuasions in point of Religion,--as upon the clear
evidence of truth and reason, after a serious and impartial
examination of the grounds, as well of Popery as Puritanism, according
to that measure of understanding, and those opportunities which God
hath afforded me: and herein I am abundantly satisfied, that the
schism which the Papists on the one hand, and the superstition which
the Puritan on the other hand, lay to our charge, are very justly
chargeable upon themselves respectively. Wherefore I humbly beseech
Almighty God, the Father of mercies, to preserve the Church by his
power and providence, in peace, truth, and godliness, evermore to
the world's end: which doubtless he will do, if the wickedness and
security of a sinful people--and particularly those sins that are so
rife, and seem daily to increase among us, of unthankfulness, riot,
and sacrilege--do not tempt his patience to the contrary. And I also
further humbly beseech him, that it would please him to give unto our
gracious Sovereign, the reverend Bishops, and the Parliament, timely
to consider the great danger that visibly threatens this Church in
point of Religion by the late great increase of Popery, and in point
of revenue by sacrilegious inclosures; and to provide such wholesome
and effectual remedies, as may prevent the same before it be too

And for a further manifestation of his humble thoughts and desires,
they may appear to the Reader by another part of his Will which

"As for my corruptible body, I bequeath it to the earth whence it was
taken, to be decently buried in the Parish Church of Buckden,
towards the upper end of the Chancel, upon the second, or--at the
furthest--the third day after my decease; and that with as little
noise, pomp, and charge as may be, without the invitation of any
person how near soever related unto me, other than the inhabitants
of Buckden; without the unnecessary expense of escutcheons, gloves,
ribbons, &c., and without any blacks to be hung any where in or about
the house or Church, other than a pulpit cloth, a hearse-cloth, and
a mourning gown for the Preacher; whereof the former--after my body
shall be interred--to be given to the Preacher of the Funeral Sermon,
and the latter to the Curate of the Parish for the time being. And
my will further is that the Funeral Sermon be preached by my own
household Chaplain, containing some wholesome discourse concerning
Mortality, the Resurrection of the Dead and the Last Judgment; and
that he shall have for his pains 5_l._ upon condition that he speak
nothing at all concerning my person, either good or ill, other than
I myself shall direct; only signifying to the auditory that it was my
express will to have it so. And it is my will, that no costly monument
be erected for my memory, but only a fair flat marble stone to be laid
over me, with this inscription in legible Roman characters, DEPOSITUM
RESURRECTIONIS. This manner of burial, although I cannot but foresee
it will prove unsatisfactory to sundry my nearest friends and
relations, and be apt to be censured by others, as an evidence of
my too much parsimony and narrowness of mind, as being altogether
unusual, and not according to the mode of these times: yet it is
agreeable to the sense of my heart, and I do very much desire my Will
may be carefully observed herein, hoping it may become exemplary to
some or other: at least however testifying at my death--what I have so
often and earnestly professed in my life time--my utter dislike of the
flatteries commonly used in Funeral Sermons, and of the vast expenses
otherwise laid out in Funeral solemnities and entertainments, with
very little benefit to any; which if bestowed in pious and charitable
works, might redound to the public or private benefit of many

[Sidenote: His death]

I am next to tell, that he died the 29th of January, 1662; and that
his body was buried in Buckden, the third day after his death; and for
the manner, that it was as far from ostentation as he desired it;
and all the rest of his Will was as punctually performed. And when
I have--to his just praise--told this truth, "that he died far from
being rich," I shall return back to visit, and give a further account
of him on his last sick bed.

His last Will--of which I have mentioned a part--was made about three
weeks before his death, about which time, finding his strength to
decay by reason of his constant infirmity, and a consumptive cough
added to it, he retired to his chamber, expressing a desire to enjoy
his last thoughts to himself in private, without disturbance or care,
especially of what might concern this world. And that none of his
Clergy--which are more numerous than any other Bishop's--might suffer
by his retirement, he did by commission impower his Chaplain, Mr.
Pullin,[31] with Episcopal power to give institutions to all livings
or Church-preferments, during this his disability to do it himself.
In this time of his retirement he longed for his dissolution; and when
some that loved him prayed for his recovery, if he at any time found
any amendment, he seemed to be displeased, by saying, "His friends
said their prayers backward for him: and that it was not his desire to
live a useless life, and by filling up a place keep another out of it,
that might do God and his Church service." He would often with
much joy and thankfulness mention, "That during his being a
housekeeper--which was more than forty years--there had not been one
buried out of his family, and that he was now like to be the first."
He would also often mention with thankfulness, "That till he was
three score years of age, he had never spent five shillings in law,
nor--upon himself--so much in wine: and rejoiced much that he had
so lived, as never to cause an hour's sorrow to his good father; and
hoped he should die without an enemy."

[Sidenote: Rules and habits]

He, in this retirement, had the Church prayers read in his chamber
twice every day; and at nine at night, some prayers read to him and
a part of his family out of "The Whole Duty of Man." As he was
remarkably punctual and regular in all his studies and actions, so he
used himself to be for his meals. And his dinner being appointed to
be constantly ready at the ending of prayers, and he expecting and
calling for it, was answered, "It would be ready in a quarter of an
hour." To which his reply was, "A quarter of an hour! Is a quarter
of an hour nothing to a man that probably has days not many hours to
live?" And though he did live many hours after this, yet he lived
not many days; for the day after--which was three days before his
death--he was become so weak and weary of either motion or sitting,
that he was content, or forced, to keep his bed: in which I desire he
may rest, till I have given some account of his behaviour there, and
immediately before it.

[Sidenote: His last days]

The day before he took his bed,--which was three days before his
death,--he, that he might receive a new assurance for the pardon of
his sins past, and be strengthened in his way to the New Jerusalem,
took the blessed Sacrament of the Body and Blood of his and our
blessed Jesus, from the hands of his Chaplain, Mr. Pullin, accompanied
with his wife, children, and a friend, in as awful, humble, and ardent
a manner, as outward reverence could express. After the praise and
thanksgiving for it was ended, he spake to this purpose: "Thou, O
God! tookest me out of my mother's womb, and hast been the powerful
protector of me to this present moment of my life: Thou hast neither
forsaken me now I am become greyheaded, nor suffered me to forsake
thee in the late days of temptation, and sacrifice my conscience for
the preservation of my liberty or estate. It was by grace that I have
stood, when others have fallen under my trials: and these mercies I
now remember with joy and thankfulness; and my hope and desire is,
that I may die praising thee."

[Sidenote: Use of the Psalms]

The frequent repetition of the Psalms of David, hath been noted to be
a great part of the devotion of the primitive Christians; the Psalms
having in them not only prayers and holy instructions, but such
commemorations of God's mercies, as may preserve, comfort, and confirm
our dependence on the power, and providence, and mercy of our Creator.
And this is mentioned in order to telling, that as the holy Psalmist
said, that his eyes should prevent both the dawning of the day and
night watches, by meditating on God's word (Psal. cxix. 147), so it
was Dr. Sanderson's constant practice every morning to entertain his
first waking thoughts with a repetition of those very Psalms that
the Church hath appointed to be constantly read in the daily Morning
service: and having at night laid him in his bed, he as constantly
closed his eyes with a repetition of those appointed for the service
of the evening, remembering and repeating the very Psalms appointed
for every day; and as the month had formerly ended and began again,
so did this exercise of his devotion. And if his first waking thoughts
were of the world, or what concerned it, he would arraign and condemn
himself for it. Thus he began that work on earth, which is now his
employment in Heaven.

[Sidenote: Death]

After his taking his bed, and about a day before his death, he
desired his Chaplain, Mr. Pullin, to give him absolution: and at his
performing that office, he pulled off his cap, that Mr. Pullin
might lay his hand upon his bare head. After this desire of his was
satisfied, his body seemed to be at more ease, and his mind more
cheerful; and he said, "Lord, forsake me not now my strength faileth
me; but continue thy mercy, and let my mouth be filled with thy
praise." He continued the remaining night and day very patient, and
thankful for any of the little offices that were performed for his
ease and refreshment: and during that time did often say the 103rd
Psalm to himself, and very often these words, "My heart is fixed, O
God! my heart is fixed where true joy is to be found." His thoughts
seemed now to be wholly of death, for which he was so prepared, that
the King of Terrors could not surprise him as a thief in the night:
for he had often said, he was prepared, and longed for it. And as this
desire seemed to come from Heaven, so it left him not till his soul
ascended to that region of blessed spirits, whose employments are to
join in concert with him, and sing praise and glory to that God, who
hath brought them to that place, into which sin and sorrow cannot

Thus this pattern of meekness and primitive innocence changed this for
a better life. 'Tis now too late to wish that my life may be like
his; for I am in the eighty-fifth year of my age: but I humbly beseech
Almighty God, that my death may: and do as earnestly beg of every
Reader, to say--Amen.

Blessed is the man in whose spirit there is no guile, Psal. xxxii. 2.

[Footnote 1: This is a mistake; Bishop Sanderson was born at Sheffield
on the 19th of September.]

[Footnote 2: Thomas Scot, or Rotheram, so called after his
birth-place, Fellow of King's College, in Cambridge, was afterward
Master of Pembroke Hall, and 1483 and 1484, Chancellor of the
University. He obtained great ecclesiastical preferment, being
successively Provost of Beverley, Bishop of Rochester and of Lincoln,
and lastly Archbishop of York. Nor was he less adorned with civil
honours, having been appointed, first, Keeper of the Privy Seal, and
then Lord Chancellor of England. The two Universities and his native
town still enjoy the fruits of his bounty. He died 29th May, 1500.]

[Footnote 3: Dr. Gilbert Sheldon was born July 19, 1598.--His father,
Roger Sheldon, though of no obscure parentage, was a menial servant
to Gilbert Earl of Shrewsbury.--He was of Trinity College, Oxford, and
took his Master's degree in May, 1620. He was introduced to Charles I.
by Lord Coventry, and became one of His Majesty's Chaplains. Upon the
Restoration, he was made Dean of the Chapel Royal, succeeded Dr. Juxon
as Bishop of London, and after as Archbishop of Canterbury; in 1667
he was elected Chancellor of the University of Oxford. He died at
Lambeth, Nov. 9, 1677.]

[Footnote 4: Dr. Richard Kilbie, born at Ratcliffe, in Leicestershire,
and a great benefactor to his College, since he restored the neglected
library, added eight new repositories for books, and gave to it
many excellent volumes. He became Rector in 1590, and in 1610 he was
appointed the King's Hebrew Professor. He died in 1620.]

[Footnote 5: An edition of this work was published in Oxford so
recently as 1841.]

[Footnote 6: Mr. Charles Crooke, a younger son of Sir John Crooke, of
Chilton, in Bucks, one of the Justices of the King's Bench. In 1615,
he proceeded D.D., being then Rector of Amersham and a Fellow of Eton

[Footnote 7: Brother of George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, born
at Guildford in 1560, and promoted to the See of Salisbury in 1615, as
a reward for his Lectures against Suarez and Bellarmine, in defence of
the King's supreme power. On his way to Sarum, he made an oration to
the University, and his friends parted from him with tears. He died
March 2nd, 1617-8.]

[Footnote 8: Dr. John Prideaux, born at Harford, in Devon in 1578, and
Rector of Exeter College in 1612, when he acquired so much fame in the
government of it, that several eminent foreigners placed themselves
under his care. He was made King's Professor in Divinity in 1615, and
Bishop of Worcester in 1641; but was reduced to great poverty in the
Civil Wars, and died July 20th, 1650.]

[Footnote 9: Dr. Arthur Lake, born at Southampton about 1550, and
educated at Winchester School, whence he proceeded to New College,
Oxford. He was created Dean of Worcester in 1608, and Bishop of Bath
and Wells in 1616. He died on 4th May, 1626.]

[Footnote 10: Dr. Tobias Matthew--died March 29, 1628, aged 83.]

[Footnote 11: Dr. William Laud, born at Reading, Oct. 7, 1573, and
educated there, and at St. John's College, Oxford. In 1616, he was
made Dean of Gloucester, in 1621 Bishop of St. David's, and in 1622 he
had a conference with Fisher the Jesuit, of which the printed account
evinces how opposed he was to Popery; but his Arminian tenets gave
offence to the Calvinists. In 1626 he was translated to the See of
Bath and Wells, in 1628 to London, and in 1633 to Canterbury. His zeal
for the establishment of the Liturgy in Scotland produced him numerous
enemies, by whose means he was imprisoned in the Tower for three
years, and beheaded Jan. 10th, 1644-45. His works were published at
Oxford, 6 vols. 8vo., 1847-9.]

[Footnote 12: Dr. Henry Hammond was born at Chertsey, in Surrey, Aug.
18th, 1605, and was educated at Eton, and Magdalen College, Oxford.
His loyalty caused him to be deprived of his preferments during the
Civil Wars, and at the Restoration he was designed for Bishop of
Worcester, but died before consecration, April 25th, 1660. His
principal works are, his "Practical Catechism," and "A Paraphrase and
Annotations on the New Testament."]

[Footnote 13: Dr. Thomas Pierce, for some years President of Magdalen
College, Oxford. In his epitaph composed by himself he says, "Here
lies all that was mortal, the outside, dust, and ashes of Thomas
Pierce, D.D., once the President of a College in Oxford, at first the
Rector of _Brington-cum-Membris,_ Canon of Lincoln, and at last Dean
of Sarum; who fell asleep in the Lord Jesus [Mar. 28, an. 1691], but
in hope of an awake at the resurrection."]

[Footnote 14: Dr. Matthew Wren, successively Bishop of Hereford,
Norwich, and Ely, died April 14, 1667, aged eighty-one years and
upwards. He was distinguished for his extraordinary attachment to the
royal cause, having suffered an imprisonment for eighteen years with
singular patience and magnanimity.

It should not be forgotten, that when Cromwell had repeatedly offered
to release the Bishop, he refused to accept of the proffered boon,
saying, "that he scorned to receive his liberty from a tyrant and
usurper." His life was kindly prolonged by Providence, that as he had
seen the destruction, so he might also see the happy restoration of
his order.]

[Footnote 15: Born at Geneva on August 14, 1599, and educated at
Christ Church, Oxford. Archbishop Laud gave him the living of Minster,
Kent, and a Prebend in the Cathedral of Canterbury. He suffered
much in the civil wars, but at the Restoration he recovered his
preferments. Among his works are "A Treatise of Use and Custom,"


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