Manual of Gardening (Second Edition)
L. H. Bailey
Part 10 out of 10
_Kale._--In very exposed or northern locations cover it lightly with
_Onions._--For winter storage select only well-ripened, perfectly dry
bulbs. Store them in a dry, airy place, not in the cellar. They may be
spread out thinly on the floor, away from the walls, allowed to freeze
solid, and then covered several feet deep with hay or straw.
_Parsnips._--Take up some roots for winter use and store them in sand in
_Strawberry-beds_ should be given their winter covering of marsh hay,
etc., as soon as the ground is frozen solid.
SUGGESTIONS AND REMINDERS.--II. FOR THE SOUTH
_Annuals._--All kinds of hardy annuals and perennials, such as alyssum,
snapdragon, foxglove, hollyhock, phlox, poppy, pansy, lobelia,
candytuft, sweet pea, Chinese pink, sweet william, larkspur, foliage
cinerarias, centaurea, mignonette, and many others of the same class may
be sown. Most of them should be sown thinly and where they are intended
to flower, as they transplant poorly in this latitude.
_Cannas, caladiums, perennial phloxes, chrysanthemums, and verbenas_ may
be taken up, divided, and replanted.
_Roses_ may be planted in quantities. Let the ground intended for them
have a thorough dressing of manure. Occasionally a plant may be taken up
and divided. The hybrid varieties may now be layered. This is done as
follows: Select a shoot and bend it flat upon the ground; hold it in
both hands, having a distance of about 6 in. between them; keep the left
hand firm, and with the right give the shoot a sharp twist; now cover it
with 4 in. of earth and tie the free end to an upright stake.
_Asparagus beds_ should be liberally manured. New beds should now be
made. Set the plants 6 in. deep. Sow seed now.
_Beets and all hardy vegetables_ (carrots, parsnips, turnips, rutabagas,
kohlrabi, spinach, lettuce, herbs, etc.) may now be sown, planted, or
_Cabbage plants_ should be set out on heavily manured ground. Sow seed
of Early Summer for a later supply.
_Fruits._--If possible, all planting and transplanting of fruit-trees
and grape-vines should be finished this month. Pruning should be
completed as soon as possible, and preparation made to protect the
blossoms of tender fruits next month. Set out strawberry-plants, and
during dry weather run the cultivator through all old beds that are at
all weedy. It is a good plan, where practicable, to mulch the beds.
Here, pine-straw can be had plentifully for the purpose. Examine peach
trees for borers. Raspberries and blackberries should be pruned now if
the work is not already done. Cuttings of Le Conte pears, Marianna
plums, grape-vines, and pomegranates should be put in at once if they
have heretofore been forgotten. Root-grafting should be progressing
rapidly; this is the best time for this important work.
_Onion seeds._--Sow at once, and plant sets as soon as possible.
_Peas._--Sow early and late varieties. The late varieties succeed best
if sown at this season.
_Seasonable work._--This is a good month to obtain canes for staking
peas, tomatoes, and beans, hauling manure, making repairs, and examining
tools, etc. As the fall crop is harvested, the land should be prepared
for another crop. Tile-draining is now is order. Prepare frames to cover
with canvas for use next month.
_Sweet-potatoes._--A few may be bedded in a frame from which to obtain
"draws" for setting out about March 15.
_Tomatoes, egg-plants, and peppers._--Sow now on a slight hotbed. When
the plants come up, all the air possible should be given during the day.
They can be raised without heat, but at this season this plan would
better be attempted only by the skillful.
_Asters, cannas, dahlias, heliotropes, lobelias, petunias, pyrethrums,
ricinus, salvias, and verbenas_ are best sown in a coldframe, where they
can have some protection from heavy rain.
_Cannas_ should be transplanted now.
_Chrysanthemums_ must be planted in well-manured ground in a position
where water can be readily supplied to them.
_Dahlias_ may be taken up and divided as soon as they begin growth.
_Gladiolus and tuberose bulbs_ should be planted now. It is a good plan
to extend the planting through March and April.
_Pansies._--Plant them out in the beds where they are to flower.
_Routine work._--Sodding should now proceed rapidly. If sods cannot be
obtained, the ground may be planted with Bermuda grass. Plant small
pieces of the grass a foot apart and water them if the weather is dry,
and they will grow rapidly. Hedges should be cleared up and put in good
shape. All planting of trees and shrubs should be finished this month.
All pruning of trees must be done early in the month. Young roses cannot
be set too early in February. They thrive best when planted in fall.
Roll the drives and repair them when necessary. The lawn will now
require constant care, and the mower should be used before the grass
becomes 1-1/2 in. high.
_Bush-beans_ may be planted February 14. On alluvial land it is best to
plant them on slight rises as a protection against the rains which
sometimes occur toward the end of the month. If frost should threaten
just as the beans begin to peep out, cover them an inch deep with the
plow or hand cultivator. Sow Early Mohawk first, and at the end of the
month sow Early Valentine; a week later sow the wax varieties.
_Cabbage,_--Sow early varieties, such as Early Summer, Early Drumhead,
and Early Flat Dutch. Etampes, Extra Early Express, and Winnigstadt sown
for small heads in the order named have done very well in southern
Louisiana. The earlier sown plants should be transplanted as often as
convenient. Should worms cause trouble, dust the plants with a mixture
of one part of pyrethrum powder to six of fine dust.
_Carrots, celery, beets, endive, kohlrabi, onion sets, parsley,
parsnips, radishes and purple-top turnips_ must now be sown.
_Corn._--Plant Extra Early Adams, Yellow Canada, Stowell Evergreen, and
White Flint toward the middle of the month. Sow again a week later, and
again after another week. If the first two sowings fail, the last one
will give the early crop.
_Cucumbers._--Sow and protect with small boxes during cold days and
nights, or sow in pots or on sods. Protect the seedlings with sashes or
canvas, and plant them out late.
_Lettuce._--Sow seeds and transplant the plants on hand. This crop
requires a soil well supplied with plant-food.
_Melons._--Plant seeds in the same manner as advised for cucumbers.
_Okra._--Sow seeds on sods and set out the plants next month.
_Peas._--Sow seeds of a number of varieties.
_Peppers and egg-plants,_ if not sown last month, should be sown now.
Sow them under glazed sashes and keep close. When the plants appear,
give some air, and increase it according to the weather. If a large
number of plants is required, the sowing may be delayed until next
month. Should flea-beetles trouble you, use plenty of bordeaux on
_Potatoes, Irish._--The main crop should be planted as early as
possible. Standard varieties are Early Rose, Peerless, and Burbank.
_Strawberries._--Run the cultivator through them at least once every
three weeks; if they are to be mulched, collect the necessary material.
Strawberries planted in February seldom yield much of a crop.
_Sweet-potatoes,_ can now be bedded and protected with canvas, or a row
or two of whole tubers may be planted for "draws" and vines.
_Tomatoes_ in frames should be given all the air and light possible and
plenty of room if protected with canvas, do not allow the plants
_Beans._--Sow all varieties for a fall crop. As soon as the plants
appear, the cultivator must be run through the crop, and kept going as
often as necessary.
_Corn._--Continue to plant; and we recommend harrowing the patch as soon
as the young corn appears. It is generally planted in hills 3 or 4 ft.
apart, but better results will be obtained-by planting in drills and
leaving one stalk every 12 in.
_Cucumbers._--Sow in hills 4 ft. apart, using a liberal quantity of seed
to each hill. When the plants come up, thin them to about six in the
hill. When the plants begin to get rough leaves, pull out one or two
more from each hill. Striped cucumber-beetles are sometimes very
numerous, and in order to get a stand of plants it is necessary to go
through the patch early every morning and sprinkle all the hills with
_Egg-plants._--Toward the end of the month the plants growing in frames
may be transplanted to their fruiting quarters. Seed may be sown outside
after March 15; sooner if a warm and sheltered spot is selected.
_Lettuce._--Sow in drills, and when the plants are large enough, thin to
a foot apart. If transplanted at this season, they often go to seed.
_Okra._--A sowing may be made now, but the main planting would best be
deferred until after March 15. Sow in drills 3 ft. apart and thin the
plants to 18 in. apart in the drills.
_Peas._--Early varieties may be sown; it is now too late to sow
_Peppers._--Treat as advised for egg-plants.
_Potatoes, Irish._--It is not too late to plant them, but the sooner
they are planted the better. The crop planted in February should be
harrowed as soon as the shoots begin to come up, and when the rows can
be fairly seen, the cultivator must be set to work to keep down weeds
_Squashes._--Plant seed in hills 6 ft. apart. The directions for
planting melons may be followed. The same remarks apply to pumpkins and
other vegetables of this kind.
_Sweet-potatoes._--If slips or vines are at hand, they may be planted
late in the month for the earliest tubers. The whole potatoes may be
planted on a ridge to yield vines for later planting.
_Strawberries._--The mulching of beds or rows should be no longer
delayed, if clean and plentiful fruit is wanted.
_Tomatoes._--About March 15 the frame plants may go to their fruiting
quarters. It is necessary to use some judgment in this matter, as they
may be killed or injured by an April frost. Seed may be sown in the open
ground for plants for late fruiting. Set the plants 4 ft. apart
_Alternantheras_ should go out now.
_Annuals_ of all kinds may still be sown where they are to flower, as
they transplant with difficulty at this season.
_Coleuses._--Plant out in the beds now. Cuttings root readily, simply
requiring to be stuck in.
_Beans_ of all kinds can be planted, limas especially.
_Beets._--Make another sowing.
_Cabbage plants_ obtained from spring sowings should be set out as soon
as fit. The ground requires to be very rich to carry this crop.
_Cucumbers._--These can be sown anywhere now.
_Corn._--Make a sowing to yield roasting ears to come in after that sown
_Okra._--Sow in drills 3 or 4 ft. apart.
_Peas._--Make a sowing of early varieties for the last time.
_Squash (bush) and pumpkin_ may now be planted.
_Tomatoes_ should be got out to their fruiting quarters as early in the
month as possible. Let them be set at least 4 ft. apart each way.
_Beans._--Plant a few more bush and pole beans.
_Celery_ may now be started. The bed or box needs plenty of water, and
should be shaded from sun.
_Lettuce_ requires careful handling to encourage it to germinate. It is
best sown in a box and kept shaded and moist.
_Melons, cucumbers, squashes, and pumpkins_ may be sown.
_Radishes._--Sow the yellow and white summer varieties.
_Remarks._--It is a constant struggle with weeds throughout this month,
and the cultivator and plow are ever going. As the land becomes vacant,
sow corn or plant sweet-potatoes--draws or vines. Sow some late Italian
cauliflower. Let the orchard have constant and thorough cultivation, and
remove all unnecessary growth from the trees as soon as they appear. Be
always on the lookout for borers. Keep the strawberries as free of grass
and coco, or knob-grass, as possible.
_Beans._--All kinds may now be sown.
_Cauliflower._--Sow the Italian kinds.
_Corn._--Make a planting at the beginning of the month and again at the
_Cucumbers._--Plant a few more hills. The plants at this season must be
given plenty of water.
_Endive._--Sow, and attend to the tying up of the plants that are of
_Melons._--Sow for a succession a few more water and muskmelons.
_Okra_ may still be sown.
_Radishes._--Sow the summer varieties now.
_Squashes and pumpkins_ may yet be sown.
_Sweet-potato_ vines may now be set out in quantities.
_Tomatoes._--About the middle of the month sow for the fall crop.
_Beans._--Bush and pole beans may be planted towards the end of the
_Cabbage and cauliflower_ may now be sown, but the main sowing should be
deferred until next month.
_Carrots._--A sowing should be made.
_Celery._--Sow and transplant what plants there may be on hand.
_Cucumbers._--These may be sown now for pickling.
_Endive._--Transplant and sow.
_Grapes_ should be kept well tied to trellis, and unnecessary growth
removed, so that the wood may have the chance of becoming thoroughly
ripened. If the cultivator and plow are not used judiciously, a second
growth will be started, which is not desirable.
_Lettuce._--The seed requires to be sprouted before being sown, and if
the sowing is done on a dry day the drills should be watered.
_Radishes._--Sow the summer kinds.
_Strawberries._--Keep the beds clean of weeds and grass.
_Tomatoes._--Make a sowing early in the month, or, what is much better,
take cuttings from plants still in bearing.
_Turnips._--Sow a few after a shower towards the end of the month.
_Remarks._--Much cannot be done this month, as the weather is hot and
dry, but the opportunity should not be lost for killing weeds and
preparing for the planting season, which is now rapidly drawing near.
_Artichokes._--Seed of the Green Globe may be sown now and large plants
obtained by spring. The seed-bed requires to be shaded.
_Bush beans, beets, pole beans, carrots, celery, endive, kohlrabi,
lettuce, mustard, Black Spanish and Rose China radishes, parsley,
turnips, rutabagas, and salad plants_ of all kinds may now be sown. The
seed should be sown on small ridges, adaptable to the kind of plants,
for level culture is not successful in the vegetable garden in
_Broccoli_ should be more grown, for it is hardier than the cauliflower.
Many cannot tell the difference between the two. Sow now.
_Cabbages_ must be sown by the middle of the month. Make the ground very
rich and shade the seed-bed, keeping it moist during the whole of
_Cauliflower_ should also be sown.
_Potatoes, Irish,_ should be planted by the middle of the month, if
possible. Plant only those that have sprouted, and instead of planting
on top of the ridge set in the furrow and cover 2 in. deep; as the
potatoes grow, work more soil down to them.
_Salsify._--Sow now or early next month.
_Shallots._--Plant them now.
_Squash._--Bush kinds may be planted now at any time.
_Sweet-potatoes._--Vines may still be set out, with prospects of
harvesting a fair crop.
_Tomatoes._--If short of plants, cut off good-sized limbs from bearing
plants and plant them deep. Keep them moist, and they will root in a few
days. Do this just before it rains.
_Annuals_ of the hardy class may be sown this month: the following list
will assist in making a selection: Calliopsis, candytuft, calendulas,
canterbury bells, columbine, corn-flower, daisies, forget-me-nots,
gaillardia, godetia, larkspur, _Limnanthes Douglasii,_ mignonette,
pansies, _Phlox Drummondii,_ primroses, poppies of all kinds, _Saponaria
Calabrica, Silene pendula,_ sweet williams, and sweet peas.
_Bulbs._--Study the catalogues and make out your wants, for it is
nearing planting time.
_Lilies._--If success is required of the St. Joseph's or Virgin lily
(_L. candidum_), it must be planted right away.
_Perennials and biennials_ should be sown early this month. They have
two good growing months ahead of them yet to make considerable progress.
The seed-bed will require shade during the middle of the day until the
young plants come up; frequent weedings will be required, as coco has
not yet quit growing, and winter weeds are now putting in an appearance.
_Remarks._--All plants used for salad purposes may be sown this month.
The ground between the rows of growing crops should be kept in a fine,
friable condition. Vegetable seeds of all kinds should always be sown on
slight ridges on all but very sandy soils. If the seed is sown on a
level bed, as practiced at the North, the ground will become as hard as
a turnpike road should a heavy rain occur; and should this shower come
along before the plants are up, a crust a quarter of an inch deep will
be formed, and the plants will never see daylight. Sown on a ridge they
come all right, as the water gradually drains away, leaving the top of
the ridge loose and soft.
_All spring flower seeds_ should be sown in boxes or trays in the
conservatory, and all spring bulbs should be planted. The hyacinth,
narcissus, tulip and anemone, ranunculus and various lily bulbs, will
bloom in good season planted at this time. The bedding plants should be
carefully watched, so that any attack of aphis may be treated
immediately. Sweet peas may be planted the first of this month, although
they are commonly sown in September. A rich spot should be selected for
them. This is the time to make the new lawn. The soil should be
thoroughly stirred and well pulverized, mixing in a good dressing of
commercial fertilizer, or, if one prefers it, a mixture which may be
made at home, consisting of cotton-seed meal, acid phosphate, and
sulfate of potash, at the rate of 1000 lb., 300 lb., and 100 lb.
respectively, per acre. A rich, well-rotted compost, as a top dressing,
would also be highly beneficial. Roses pruned late in September or early
this month will produce fine winter blooms.
_In the garden_ this is a busy month; some of the winter vegetables are
growing, and others should be sown. The bud artichokes should be
separated and set fully 3 ft. apart. Onions may still be sown in the
early part of the month, and shallots should be divided and set. Some
beans may be risked, and English peas sown for winter crop. A few
cauliflowers may be tried and cucumbers planted in pots for the hotbeds
next month. The following vegetables should be sown: Carrots, corn
salad, chervil, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, beets, endive, kohlrabi,
kale, lettuce, leeks, mustard, parsley, parsnip, radish, roquette,
spinach, Swiss chard, salsify. Some cabbage and a few cauliflowers
should be added to the list. Turnips should be sown for succession every
two weeks until April or May. The celery should be kept growing and
banking up commenced.
This is an excellent time to plant the new strawberry bed. Make the bed
rich with well-rotted manure and select good, healthy sets. The Michel's
Early and Cloud are probably the most popular varieties for general
planting, and should be set in alternating rows.
_Flower seeds and bulbs_ may be planted this month of the same varieties
as in October. Cuttings of all the herbaceous plants should be made and
potted, for use in the house and for the borders next season. The
coldframes should also be put in order. Some of the bulbs for winter
forcing should be selected and potted. One of the best Louisiana
gardeners recommends the following treatment: Select good, strong bulbs
and plant them in rich, light soil, in 5-in. pots, covering them about
half an inch. Water well and bury the pots 6 or 8 in. deep in the
ground, leaving them there about five weeks, when the bulbs will be
found to be well rooted. From this time gradually expose to the light,
and they will soon put forth blooms.
_The same vegetables_ may be sown as for October, and the late cabbage
seed planted. The Flat Dutch and Drumhead strains are prime favorites.
New sowings of peas, turnips, mustard, and radishes should be made, and
the hotbeds prepared and set out to cucumbers. Too much care cannot be
taken that the manure should be in the best condition possible, so that
a good supply of heat may be depended upon. The cucumbers planted last
month will be ready now for setting in the hotbeds, and a winter
_Orchard and vineyard planting._--This is the time to prepare land.
That on which a late crop of cowpeas has grown is well suited for the
purpose, and should be plowed deeply and well worked over. Towards the
last of the month it should be cultivated again, in order to be ready
for the trees next month.
_Lawns and yards_ need watching this month, and attention should be paid
to the old leaves and fall rubbish, which makes the yard look untidy. A
good place for the leaves is the compost heap. Hedges should be put in
shape and the surface drains kept open. Shrubs and roses should be
pruned for an early supply of flowers. The Camellia Japonicas are now in
bloom, and care should be taken that the small branches are not torn
off, instead of being cut properly. Many of these most beautiful of
southern ornamental trees have been ruined by careless plucking
_Garden and orchard._--Many of the fall vegetables may be sown this
month and others sown for a succession. Peas, spinach, roquette,
radishes, lettuce, endive, and some Early York cabbage should also be
sown. In the old spent hotbeds, tomatoes, peppers, and egg-plants may be
started; there will not be enough heat to hurry them, and good, strong
stocky plants will be secured if care is taken. Irish potatoes may be
risked, should there be a favorable time for planting during the latter
part of the month. Usually they are planted in January. The chances are
about equal should they be planted late this month. Nuts of all kinds,
both for budding and otherwise, should be planted. Some of the best
Louisiana pecans are said to come true from seed, and may be sown where
they are intended to grow.
The flowering annuals, being mostly in alphabetical list, are not
ailanthus, shoots of,
ammoniacal carbonate of copper,
annuals for bedding,
annuals that bloom after frost,
annuals by color,
annuals, cultivation of,
annuals listed by height,
annuals for ribbon-beds,
annuals, distances apart,
apple, culture of,
apricot, culture of,
arsenate of lead formula,
Asparagus plumosus and tenuissimus,
azalea, culture of,
blackberries, laying down,
blackberry, culture of,
blackberry, disease of,
blood as fertilizer,
brooks, treatment of,
bulbs, culture of,
bulbs in window-garden,
Burnette, F. H., quoted,
carbolic acid emulsion,
carbonate of copper,
carex for ground cover,
cherry trees, shapes of,
chestnut, culture of,
chickens in gardens,
Chinese sacred lily,
coltsfoot for banks,
conifers, discussion on,
conservation of moisture,
Convolvulus Japonicus and Sepium,
corrosive sublimate for scab,
coxcomb for bedding,
crocus, fall blooming,
Cucumis foetidissima (perennius),
Dahlia arborea or excelsa,
dewberry, culture of,
dewberry for banks,
diseases of plants,
dogs and gardens,
Donnell, Webb, quoted,
drainage of land,
drainage of walks,
drives and walks,
Duggar, on mushrooms,
emulsion, carbolic acid; kerosene,
enemies of plants,
enriching the land,
evergreens, discussion on,
Falconer, Wm., quoted,
Fatsia Japonica and F. papyrifera,
Fletcher, S.W., quoted,
flower-garden in landscape,
foliage in landscapes,
formalin for scab,
formulas for fungicides; insecticides,
Forsythia suspensa; viridissima,
fruits, culture of,
fungi and insects,
Gardiner Hepburn, mentioned,
grape, culture of
grapes for ornament
grass for lawns
Greiver, T. quoted
guards for trees
handling the laud
handling the plants
hellebore for insects
Hicks, Edward, quoted
hitching to trees
Hunn, C.E., quoted
hydrocyanic acid gas
insects, remedies for
insects and fungi
ivy, Boston, Japanese
lime and sulfur wash
liver of sulfur
Long, E.A., quoted
maggots of cabbage
manure for hotbeds
Mathews, Schuyler, picture by
mock orange of South
moneywort (see lysimachia)
moving large trees
muriate of potash
nitrate of soda
orange, culture of
oxalis for window-gardens
paeonia see: peony
palms for South.
pansy, culture of.
paris green formula.
peach, culture of.
pear, culture of.
perennials, cultivation of.
Philadelphus coronarius and grandiflorus.
phlox, culture of.
picture in landscape.
Pieris floribunda (Andromeda).
plan of grounds.
plum, culture of.
protecting in winter
pruning at transplanting
quince, culture of
raspberry, culture of
records of plantation
removing large trees
rhubarb for ornament
rose, culture of
roses in landscapes
rows, to make straight
San Jose scale
saving of moisture
scab on potatoes.
scale, San Jose.
screens for wind.
screen to protect against insects.
sedges for bogs.
Senecio macroglossus and mikanioides.
shrubs, list of.
shrubs for the South.
Simonds, O.C., quoted.
Smith, H.W., quoted.
Smith and Townsend, quoted.
South Carolina, rock.
sowing the seeds.
St. John's wort.
storing of fruits and vegetables.
strawberry, culture of.
streams, treatment of.
street trees, repairing.
strychnine for sparrows.
subtropical gardening, mentioned
sulfate of potash
sulfide of potassium
sulfur as fungicide
sweet pea, culture of
tanks for aquatics
Taylor, A.D., quoted
Townsend and Smith, quoted
Tracy's garden plan
transplanting young plants;
Trees, lists and discussion
trees, moving large
tubers, culture of
tulips, culture of
vegetables, culture of
Vinca minor (see periwinkle, myrtle)
violet, culture of
Walker, E., quoted
walks and drives
watering house plants.
wax for grafting.
well about a tree.
willow, species of.
wires, injury by.
Back to Full Books