Memoirs of Journeys to Venice and the Low Countries
Albrecht Durer

This etext was produced by John Mamoun

Albrecht Dürer's Records [letters/memoirs] of Journeys to
Venice and the Low Countries

(See the end of this electronic text for information about
the edition)




Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) was probably the greatest
graphical artist of the Northern Renaissance. He is the
first to have elevated the self-portrait to a high art form,
and was known for his fascination with animals, which form
the subjects of many of his graphical works. He reveled in
portraying men of learning and/or high stature as well as
peasants, believing that portraits of the latter could be as
instructive as those of the former. His marriage to his
wife Agnes was childless and banal, apparently because Dürer
was too preoccupied with intellectual matters to be much
interested in romantic pursuits.

In the letters below, this unusually modern thinker
demonstrates his noble, righteous utilitarian personal
philosophy, and meticulously records his personal and travel
expenses, while journeying throughout Venice and various
other European cities and divided German states. Numerous
kings and laypeople sought to meet and host him, since he
was renowned and loved as a painter while still alive. He
comments on Martin Luther, Erasmus of Rotterdam and
painting, and demonstrates his curious, inquiring nature. He
also describes his visit to Zeeland to see a beached whale,
which washed away before he got there; but during this
visit, Dürer may have caught the disease from which he may
have died several years later. Like Rembrandt, he enjoyed
collecting things, and demonstrates this in his letters.



Whatever one's final estimate of his art, Dürer's
personality is at once so imposing and so attractive, and
has been so endeared to us by familiarity, that something of
this personal attachment has been transferred to our
aesthetic judgment. The letters from Venice and the Diary
of his journey in the Netherlands, which form the contents
of this volume, are indeed the singularly fortunate means
for this pleasant intercourse with the man himself. They
reveal Dürer as one of the distinctively modern men of the
Renaissance: intensely, but not arrogantly, conscious of his
own personality; accepting with a pleasant ease the
universal admiration of his genius-a personal admiration,
too, of an altogether modern kind; careful of his fame as
one who foresaw its immortality. They show him as having,
though in a far less degree, something of Leonardo da
Vinci's scientific interest, certainly as possessing a
quick, though naive curiosity about the world and a quite
modern freedom from superstition. It is clear that his
dominating and yet kindly personality, no less than his
physical beauty and distinction, made him the center of
interest wherever he went. His easy and humorous good-
fellowship, of which the letters to Pirkheimer are eloquent,
won for him the admiring friendship of the best men of his

To all these characteristics we must add a deep and sincere
religious feeling, which led him to side with the leaders of
the Reformation, a feeling which comes out in his passionate
sense of loss when he thinks that Luther is about to be put
to death, and causes him to write a stirring letter to
Erasmus, urging him to continue the work of reform. For all
that, there is no trace in him of either Protestantism or
Puritanism. He was perhaps fortunate--certainly as an artist
he was fortunate--to live at a time when the line of
cleavage between the reformers and the Church was not yet so
marked as to compel a decisive action.



Agnes: Dürer's wife
Wilibald Pirkheimer: Dürer's best friend
Wolgemut: The master painter to whom Dürer began formal
training as an apprentice. Later, Dürer painted a richly
detailed self-portrait of him.
Giovanni Bellini: Famous Renaissance painter and
contemporary of Dürer.
Jan van Eyk: Famous Renaissance painter.
Imhof: Hans Imhof, the elder, at Nuremberg; the younger
Imhof was in Venice.
Schott: Kunz Schott, an enemy of the town of Nuremberg.
Weisweber: A Nuremberg general.



Marcelli: A Venetian coin worth 10 soldi.
Stiver: A Netherlandish coin worth about 80 pfennigs.
Philip's: A Netherlandish coin worth rather less than a
Rhenish florin.
Crown: A Netherlandish coin worth 6.35 marks.
Noble: The Rosennobel = 8 marks, 20 pfennigs. The Flemish
noble = 9 marks, 90 pfennigs.
Blanke: A silver coin = 2 stivers.
Angel: An English coin = 2 florins, 2 stivers Netherlandish.



Venice, 6th January, 1506

To the Honourable and wise Wilibald Pirkheimer, in

My dear Master, To you and all yours, many happy good New
Years. My willing service to you, dear Herr Pirkheimer. Know
that I am in good health; may God send you better even than
that. Now as to what you commissioned me, namely, to buy a
few pearls and precious stones, you must know that I can
find nothing good enough or worth the money: everything is
snapped up by the Germans.

Those who go about on the Riva always expect four times the
value for anything, for they are the falsest knaves that
live there. No one expects to get an honest service of them.
For that reason some good people warned me to be on my guard
against them. They told me that they cheat both man and
beast, and that you could buy better things for less money
at Frankfort than at Venice.

As for the books which I was to order for you, Imhof has
already seen to it, but if you are in need of anything else,
let me know, and I shall do it for you with all zeal. And
would to God that I could do you some real good service. I
should gladly accomplish it, since I know how much you do
for me.

And I beg of you be patient with my debt, for I think
oftener of it than you do. As soon as God helps me to get
home I will pay you honourably, with many thanks; for I have
to paint a picture for the Germans, for which they are
giving me 110 Rhenish gulden, which will not cost me as much
as five. I shall have finished laying and scraping the
ground-work in eight days, then I shall at once begin to
paint, and if God will, it shall be in its place for the
altar a month after Easter.

[Editor note: This refers to the [altarpiece called the]
"Madonna of the Rose Garlands," painted for the chapel of S.
Bartolommeo, the burial-place of the German colony. About
the year 1600 it was bought for a high price by the Emperor
Rudolf II, who is said to have had it carried [over the
Alps] by four men all the way to Prague to avoid the risk of
damage in transport. [It suffered serious water damage
during the Thirty Years' War of 1618-1648, and many parts of
it had to be repainted to replace much of the original paint
that was lost, but] it still remains one of the most
important [and lavishly colored] of all Dürer's works.]

The money I hope, if God will, to put by; and from that I
will pay you: for I think that I need not send my mother and
wife any money at present; I left 10 florins with my mother
when I came away; she has since got 9 or 10 florins by
selling works of art. Dratzieher has paid her 12 florins,
and I have sent her 9 florins by Sebastian Imhof, of which
she has to pay Pfinzing and Gartner 7 florins for rent. I
gave my wife 12 florins and she got 13 more at Frankfort,
making all together 25 florins, so I don't think she will be
in any need, and if she does want anything, her brother will
have to help her, until I come home, when I will repay him
honourably. Herewith let me commend myself to you.

Given at Venice on the day of the Holy Three Kings
(Epiphany), the year 1506. Greet for me Stephen Paumgartner
and my other good friends who ask after me.

--Albrecht Dürer

7th February, 1506

First my willing service to you, dear Master. If it is well
with you, I am as whole-heartedly glad as I should be for
myself. I wrote to you recently. I hope the letter reached
you. In the meantime my mother has written to me, chiding me
for not writing to you, and has given me to understand that
you are displeased with me because I do not write to you;
and that I must excuse myself to you fully. And she is much
worried about it, as is her wont. Now I do not know what
excuse to make, except that I am lazy about writing and that
you have not been at home. But as soon as I knew that you
were at home or were coming home, I wrote to you at once; I
also specially charged Castel (Fugger) to convey my service
to you. Therefore I most humbly beg you to forgive me, for I
have no other friend on earth but you; but I do not believe
you are angry with me, for I hold you as no other than a

How I wish you were here at Venice, there are so many good
fellows among the Italians who seek my company more and more
every day--which is very gratifying to me--men of sense, and
scholarly, good lute-players, and pipers, connoisseurs in
painting, men of much noble sentiment and honest virtue, and
they show me much honour and friendship. On the other hand,
there are also amongst them the most faithless, lying,
thievish rascals; such as I scarcely believed could exist on
earth; and yet if one did not know them, one would think
that they were the nicest men on earth. I cannot help
laughing to myself when they talk to me: they know that
their villainy is well known, but that does not bother them.

I have many good friends among the Italians who warn me not
to eat and drink with their painters, for many of them are
my enemies and copy my work in the churches and wherever
they can find it; afterwards they criticize it and claim
that it is not done in the antique style and say it is no
good, but Giambellin (Giovanni Bellini) has praised me
highly to many gentlemen. He would willingly have something
of mine, and came himself to me and asked me to do something
for him, and said that he would pay well for it, and
everyone tells me what an upright man he is, so that I am
really friendly with him. He is very old and yet he is the
best painter of all.

[Editor's note: The character of Bellini agrees with all we
know of him. Camerarius tells an amusing story of the two
artists, to the effect that Bellini once asked Dürer for one
of the brushes with which he painted hairs. Dürer produced
several quite ordinary brushes and offered them to Bellini.
Bellini replied that he did not mean those, but some brush
with the hairs divided which would enable him to draw a
number of fine parallel lines such as Dürer did. Dürer
assured him that he used no special kind, and proceeded to
draw a number of long wavy lines like tresses with such
absolute regularity and parallelism that Bellini declared
that nothing but seeing it done would have convinced him
that such a feat of skill was possible.]

And the thing which pleased me so well eleven years ago
pleases me no longer, and if I had not seen it myself, I
would not have believed anyone who told me. And you must
know too that there are many better painters here than
Master Jacob (Jacopo de Barbari), though Antonio Kolb would
take an oath that there was no better painter on earth than
Jacob. Others sneer at him and say if he were any good, he
would stay here. I have only today begun the sketch of my
picture, for my hands are so scabby that I could not work,
but I have cured them.

And now be lenient with me and do not get angry so quickly,
but be gentile like me. You will not learn from me, I do not
know why. My dear, I should like to know whether any of your
loves is dead--that one close by the water, for instance, or
the one like [drawing of a flower] or [drawing of a brush]
or [drawing of a running dog]'s girl so that you might get
another in her stead.

Given at Venice at the ninth hour of the night on Saturday
after Candlemas in the year 1506. [Editor's note: Reckoning
from sunset, at this season [this] would be about 2:30 a.m.]
Give my service to Stephen Paumgartner and to Masters Hans
Harsdorfer and Volkamer.

--Albrecht Dürer

28th February, 1506

First my willing service to you, dear Herr Pirkheimer. If
things go well with you, then I am indeed glad. Know, too,
that by the grace of God I am doing well and working fast.
Still I do not expect to have finished before Whitsuntide.
I have sold all my pictures except one. For two I got 24
ducats, and the other three I gave for these three rings,
which were valued in the exchange as worth 24 ducats, but I
have shown them to some good friends and they say they are
only worth 22, and as you wrote to me to buy you some
jewels, I thought that I would send you the rings by Franz
Imhof. Show them to people who understand them, and if you
like them, keep them for what they are worth. In case you do
not want them, send them back by the next messenger, for
here at Venice a man who helped to make the exchange will
give me 12 ducats for the emerald and 10 ducats for the ruby
and diamond, so that I need not lose more than 2 ducats.

I wish you had occasion to come here, I know the time would
pass quickly, for there are so many nice men here, real
artists. And I have such a crowd of foreigners (Italians)
about me that I am forced sometimes to shut myself up, and
the gentlemen all wish me well, but few of the painters.

Dear Master, Andreas Kunhofer sends you his service and
means to write to you by the next courier. Herewith let me
be commended to you, and I also commend my mother to you. I
am wondering greatly why she has not written to me for so
long, and as for my wife, I begin to think that I have lost
her, and I am surprised too that you do not write to me, but
I have read the letter which you wrote to Sebastian Imhof
about me. Please give the two enclosed letters to my mother,
and have patience, I pray, till God brings me home, when I
will honourably repay you. My greetings to Stephen
Pirkheimer and other good friends, and let me know if any of
your loves are dead. Read this according to the sense: I am

Given in Venice, the Sunday before Whitsunday, the year

--Albrecht Dürer

[p.s.] Tomorrow it is good to confess.

8th March, 1506

First my willing service to you, dear Herr Pirkheimer. I
send you herewith a ring with a sapphire about which you
wrote so urgently. I could not send it sooner, for the past
two days I have been running around to all the German and
Italian goldsmiths that are in all Venice with a good
assistant whom I hired: and we made comparisons, but were
unable to match this one at the price, and only after much
entreaty could I get it for 18 ducats 4 marcelli from a man
who was wearing it on his own hand and who let me have it as
a favour, as I gave him to understand that I wanted it for
myself. And as soon as I had bought it a German goldsmith
wanted to give me 3 ducats more for it than I paid, so I
hope that you will like it. Everybody says that it is a good
stone, and that in Germany it would be worth about 50
florins; however, you will know whether they tell truth or
lies. I understand nothing about it. I had first of all
bought an amethyst for 12 ducats from a man whom I thought
was a good friend, but he deceived me, for it was not worth
7; but the matter was arranged between us by some good
fellows: I will give him back the stone and make him a
present of a dish of fish. I was glad to do so and took my
money back quickly. As my good friend values the ring, the
stone is not worth much more than 10 Rhenish florins, whilst
the gold of the ring weighs about up to 5 florins, so that I
have not gone beyond the limit set me, as you wrote "from 15
to 20 florins." But the other stone I have not yet been able
to buy, for 10 one finds them rarely in pairs; but I will do
all I can about it. They say here that such trumpery fool's
work is to be had cheaper in Germany, especially now at the
Frankfurt Fair. For the Italians take such stuff abroad, and
they laugh at me, especially about the jacinth cross, when I
speak of 2 ducats, so write quickly and tell me what I am to
do. I have heard of a good diamond ornament in a certain
place, but I do not yet know what it will cost. I shall buy
it for you until you write again, for emeralds are as dear
as anything I have seen in all my days. It is easy enough
for anyone to get a small amethyst if he thinks it worth 20
or 25 ducats.

It really seems to me you must have taken a mistress; only
beware you don't get a master. But you are wise enough
about your own affairs.

Dear Pirkheimer, Andreas Kunhofer sends you his service. He
intends in the meantime to write to you, and he prays you if
necessary to explain for him to the Council why he does not
stay at Padua; he says there is nothing there for him to
learn. Don't be angry I pray you with me for not sending all
the stones on this occasion, for I could not get them all
ready. My friends tell me that you should have the stone set
with a new foil and it will look twice as good again, for
the ring is old, and the foil spoiled. And I beg you too to
tell my mother to write me soon and have good care of
herself. Herewith I commend myself to you.

Given at Venice on the second Sunday in Lent, 1506.

--Albrecht Dürer

[p.s.] Greetings to your loves.

2nd April, 1506

First my willing service to you, dear Sir.

I received a letter from you on the Thursday before Palm
Sunday, together with the emerald ring, and went immediately
to the man from whom I got the rings. He will give me back
my money for it, although it is a thing that he does not
like to do; however, he has given me his word and he must
hold to that. Do you know that the jewelers buy emeralds
abroad and sell them here at a profit? But my friends tell
me that the other two rings are well worth 6 ducats apiece,
for they say that they are fine and clear and contain no
flaws. And they say that instead of taking them to the
valuer you should enquire for such rings as they can show
you and then compare them and see whether they are like
them; and if when I got them by exchange I had been willing
to lose 2 ducats on the three rings, Bernard Holzbeck, who
was present at the transaction, would have bought them of
me. I have since sent you a sapphire ring by Franz Imhof, I
hope it has reached you. I think I made a good bargain at
that place, for they offered to buy it of me at a profit on
the spot. But I shall find out from you, for you know that I
understand nothing about such things and am forced to trust
those who advise me.

The painters here you must know are very unfriendly to me.
They have summoned me three times before the magistrates,
and I have had to pay 4 florins to their School. You must
know too that I might have gained much money if I had not
undertaken to make the painting for the Germans, for there
is a great deal of work in it and I cannot well finish it
before Whitsuntide; yet they only pay me 85 ducats for it.
[Editor's note: Bellini at this time received 100 ducats for
a large picture]. That, you know, will go in living
expenses, and then I have bought some things, and have sent
some money away, so that I have not much in hand now; but I
have made up my mind not to leave here until God enables me
to repay you with thanks and to have too florins over
besides. I should easily earn this if I had not got to do
the German picture, for, except the painters, everyone
wishes me well.

Please tell my mother to speak to Wolgemut about my brother,
and to ask him whether he can give him work until I get
back, or whether he can find employment with others.
[Editor's note: Dürer's brother was Hans Dürer, who was
fifteen at this date. He became a painter of second-rate
ability, and afterwards helped Albrecht in the decoration of
the Emperor Maximilian's prayer book]. I should like to
have brought him with me to Venice, which would have been
useful both to me and to him and he would have learned the
language, but she was afraid that the sky would fall on him.
I pray you keep an eye on him: women are no use for that.
Tell the boy, as you can so well, to be studious and
independent till I come, and not to rely on his mother, for
I cannot do everything although I shall do my best. If it
were only for myself, I should not starve; but to provide
for so many is too hard for me, and nobody is throwing money

Now I commend myself to you, and tell my mother to be ready
to sell at the Crown Fair. I am expecting my wife to come
home, and have written to her too about everything. I shall
not purchase the diamond ornament until you write. I do not
think I shall be able to return home before next Autumn.
What I earn for the picture which was to have been ready by
Whitsuntide will all be gone in living expenses and
payments. But what I gain afterwards I hope to save. If you
think it right, say nothing of this and I shall keep putting
it off from day to day and writing as though I was just
coming. Indeed I am quite irresolute; I do not know myself
what I shall do.

Write to me again soon.

Given on Thursday before Palm Sunday in the year 1506.

--Albrecht Dürer

[p.s.] Your servant

23rd April, 1506

First my willing service to you, dear Sir. I wonder why you
do not write to me to say how you like the sapphire ring
which Hans Imhof has sent you by the messenger Schon from
Augsburg. I do not know whether it has reached you or not. I
have been to Hans Imhof and enquired, and he says that he
knows no reason why it should not have reached you, and
there is a letter with it which I wrote to you, and the
stone is done up in a sealed packet and has the same size as
is drawn here, for 1 drew it in my note-book. I managed to
get it only after hard bargaining. The stone is clear and
fine, and my friends say it is very good for the money I
gave for it. It weighs about 3 florins Rhenish, and I gave
for it 18 ducats and 4 marzelle, and if it should be lost I
should be half mad, for it has been valued at quite twice
what I gave for it. There were people who would have given
me more for it the moment I had bought it. So, dear Herr
Pirkheimer, tell Hans Imhof to enquire of the messenger what
he has done with the letter and packet. The messenger was
sent off by Hans Imhof the younger on the 11th March.

Now may God keep you, and let me commend my mother to you.
Tell her to take my brother to Wolgemut that he may work and
not be idle.

Ever your servant.

Read by the sense. I am in a hurry, for I have seven letters
to write, part written. I am sorry for Herr Lorenz. Greet
him and Stephen Paumgartner.

Given at Venice in the year 1506, on St. Mark's Day.

Write me an answer soon, for I shall have no rest till I
hear. Andreas Kunhofer is deadly ill as I have just heard.

--Albrecht Dürer

28th August, 1506

To the first greatest man in the world; your servant and
slave, Albert Dürer, sends salutation to his magnificent
Master Wilibaldo Pirkamer. By my faith, I hear gladly and
with great pleasure of your health and great honour, and I
marvel how it is possible for a man like you to stand
against so many, tyrants, bullies, and soldiers. Not
otherwise than by the grace of God. When I read your letter
about this strange abuse it gave me great fright; I thought
it was a serious matter. But I warrant you frighten even
Schott's men, for you look wild enough, especially on holy
days with your skipping gait! But it is very improper for
such a soldier to smear himself with civet. You want to be a
regular silk tail, and you think that if only you manage to
please the girls, it is all right. If you were only as
taking a fellow as I am, I should not be so provoked. You
have so many loves that it would take you a month and more
to visit each.

However, let me thank you for having arranged my affairs so
satisfactorily with my wife. I know there is no lack of
wisdom in you. If only you were as gentle as I am, you would
have all the virtues. Thank you, too, for everything you are
doing for me, if only you would not bother me about the
rings. If they do not please you, break off their heads and
throw them in the privy, as Peter Weisweber says.

What do you mean by setting me to such dirty work, I have
become a gentiluomo at Venice. I have heard that you can
make lovely rhymes; you would be a find for our fiddlers
here. They play so beautifully that they weep over their own
music. Would God that our Rechenmeister girl could hear
them, she would cry too. At your command I will again lay
aside my anger and behave even better than usual.

But I cannot get away from here in two months, for I have
not enough money yet to start myself off, as I have written
to you before; and so I pray you if my mother comes to you
for a loan, let her have 10 florins till God helps me out.
Then I will scrupulously repay you the whole.

With this I am sending you the glass things by the
messenger. And as for the two carpets, Anthon Kolb will help
me to buy the most beautiful, the broadest, and the
cheapest. As soon as I have them I'll give them to Imhof the
younger to pack off to you. I shall also look after the
crane's feathers. I have not been able to find any as yet.
But of swan's feathers for writing with there are plenty.
How would it do if you stuck them on your hats in the

A book printer of whom I enquired tells me that he knows of
no Greek books that have been brought out recently, but any
that he comes across he will acquaint me with that I may
write to you about them.

And please inform me what sort of paper you want me to buy,
for I know of no finer quality than we get at home.

As to the Historical pieces, I see nothing extraordinary in
what the Italians make that would be especially useful for
your work. It is always the same thing. You yourself know
more than they paint. I have sent you a letter recently by
the messenger Kannengiesser. Also I should like to know how
you are managing with Kunz Imhof.

Herewith let me commend myself to you. Give my willing
service to our prior. Tell him to pray God for me that I may
be protected, and especially from the French sickness, for
there is nothing I fear more now and nearly everyone has it.
Many men are quite eaten up and die of it. And greet Stephen
Paumgartner and Herr Lorenz and those who kindly ask after

Given at Venice on the 18th August, 1506

--Albrecht Dürer

Noricus civis

P.S. Lest I forget, Andreas is here and sends you his
service. He is not yet strong, and is in want of money. His
long illness and debts have eaten up everything he had. I
have myself lent him 8 ducats, but don't tell anyone, in
case it should come back to him. He might think I told you
in bad faith. You must know, too, that he behaves himself so
honourably that everyone wishes him well. I have a mind, if
the King comes to Italy, to go with him to Rome.

8th September, 1506

Most learned, approved, wise, master of many languages, keen
to detect all uttered lies, and quick to recognize real
truth, honourable, Herr Wilibald Pirkheimer, your humble
servant, Albrecht Dürer, wishes you all health, great and
worthy honour, with the devil as much of such nonsense as
you like.

I will wager that for this you too would think me an orator
of a hundred headings. A chamber must have more than four
corners which is to contain gods of memory. I will not addle
my pate with it. I will recommend it to you, but I believe
that however many chambers there may be in the head, you
would have a little bit in each of them. The Margrave would
not grant a long enough audience. A hundred headings and to
each head say a hundred words: that takes 9 days, 7 hours,
52 minutes, not counting the sighs, which I have not yet
reckoned; but you could not get through the whole in one go:
it would draw itself out like some dotard's speech.

I have taken every trouble about the carpets, but I cannot
find any wide ones; they are all narrow and long. However, I
still look out for them every day, and so does Anthon Kolb.

I gave your respects to Bernhard Hirschvogel and he sent you
his service. He is full of sorrow for the death of his son,
the nicest boy that I have ever seen. I can't get any of
your fool's feathers. Oh, if you were only here, how you
would admire these fine Italian soldiers! How often I think
of you! Would God that you and Kuntz Kamerer could see them!
They have scythe-shaped lances with 218 points; if they only
touch a man with them he dies, for they are all poisoned.
Heigho! but I can do it well, I'll be an Italian soldier.
The Venetians are collecting many men; so is the Pope and
the King of France. What will come of it I don't know, for
people scoff at our King a great deal.

Wish Stephen Paumgartner much happiness from me. I can't
wonder at his having taken a taken wife. My greeting to
Borsch, Herr Lorenz, and our fair friend, as well as to your
Rechenmeister girl, and thank your Club for its greeting;
says it's a dirty one. I sent you olive-wood from Venice to
Augsburg, where I let it stay, a full ten hundred weight.
But it says it won't wait, hence the stink.

My picture [the self-portrait Dürer painted?], you must
know, says it would give a ducat for you to see it. It is
well painted and finely coloured. I have got much praise but
little profit by it. I could have easily earned 200 ducats
in the time, and I have had to decline big commissions in
order to come home.

I have shut up all the painters, who used to say that I was
good at engraving, but that in painting I didn't know how to
handle my colours. Now they all say they never saw better

My French mantle greets you, and so does my Italian coat. It
seems to me that you smell of gallantry. I can scent it from
here; and they say here, that when you go courting, you
pretend to be no more than 25 years old. Oh, yes! Multiply
that and I`ll believe it. My friend, there `s a devil of a
lot of Italians here who are just like you. I don't know how
it is!

The Doge and the Patriarch have seen my picture. Herewith
let me commend myself as your servant. I really must sleep,
for it's striking seven at night, and I have already written
to the Prior of the Augustines, to my father-in-law, to
Mistress Dietrich, and to my wife, and they are all sheets
cram full. So I have had to hurry over this. Read according
to the sense. You would do it better if you were writing to
princes. Many good nights to you, and days too. Given at
Venice on Our Lady's Day in September.

You needn't lend my wife and mother anything. They have got
money enough.

--Albert Dürer

23 Sept. 1506

Your letter telling me of the overflowing praise that you
received from princes and nobles gave me great allegrezza.
[Editor's note: Allegrezza means "joy;" in Venetian in
original]. You must have changed completely to have become
so gentle; I must do likewise when I meet you again. Know
also that my picture is finished, likewise another quadro,
[Editor's note: quadro is Venetian for "painting"] the like
of which I never made before. And as you are so pleased with
yourself, let me tell you now that there is no better
Madonna picture in all the land, for all the painters praise
it as the nobles do you. They say that they have never seen
a nobler, more charming painting.

The oil for which you wrote I am sending by Kannengiesser.
And burnt glass that I sent you by Farber--tell me if it
reached you safely. As for the carpets, I have not bought
any yet, for I cannot find any square ones. They are all
narrow and long. If you would like any of these, I will
willingly buy them; let me know about it.

Know also that in four weeks at the latest I shall be
finished here, for I have to paint first some portraits that
I have promised, and in order that I may get home soon, I
have refused, since my picture was finished, orders for more
than 2,000 ducats; all my neighbours know of this.

Now let me commend myself to you. I had much more to write,
but the messenger is ready to start: besides, I hope, if God
will, to be with you again soon and to learn new wisdom from
you. Bernhard Holzbeck told me great things of you, but I
believe that he did so because you have become his brother-
in-law. But nothing makes me more angry than to hear anyone
say that you are handsome, for then I should have to be
ugly; that would make me mad.

The other day I found a gray hair on my head, which was
produced by sheer misery and annoyance. I think I am fated
to have evil days. My French mantle and the doublet and the
brown coat send you a hearty greeting. But I should like to
see what your drinking club can do that you hold yourself so

Given the year 1506 on Wednesday after St. Matthew's

--Albrecht Dürer

About the 13th October, 1506

Once I know that you are aware of my devotion to your
service, there is no need to write about it; but so much the
more necessary is it for me to tell you of the great delight
it gives me to hear of the high honour and fame that you
have attained to by your manly wisdom and learned skill.
This is the more to be wondered at, for seldom or never can
the like be found in a young body; but it comes to you by
the special grace of God, as it does to me. How pleased we
both feel when we think well of ourselves, I with my
picture, and you con vostra [with your] learning! When
anyone praises us we hold up our head and believe him, yet
perhaps he is only some false flatterer who is making fun of
us, so don't credit anyone who praises you, for you have no
notion how unmannerly you are.

I can readily portray you to myself standing before the
Margrave and making pretty speeches. You carry on just as
though you were making love to the Rosentaler girl, cringing

It did not escape me, when you wrote the last letter, you
were full of amorous thoughts. You ought to be ashamed of
yourself, for making yourself out so good looking when you
are so old. Your flirting is like a big shaggy dog playing
with a little kitten. If you were only as nice and sleek as
I am, I might understand it; but when I get to be a
burgomaster I will shame you with the Luginsland [Editor's
note: this was a Nuremberg prison], as you do the pious
Zamener and me. I will have you shut up there for once with
the Rechenmeister, Rosentaler, Gartner, Schlitz, and Por
girls, and many others whom for shortness I will not name.
They must deal with you. They ask after me more than after
you, however, for you yourself write that both girls and
ladies ask after me--that is a sign of my virtue! But if God
brings me home again safely, I do not know how I shall get
along with you with your great wisdom: but I `m glad on
account of your virtue and good nature; and your dogs will
be the better for it, for you will not beat them lame any
more. But if you are so highly respected at home, you will
not dare to be seen speaking with a poor painter in the
streets, it would be a great disgrace, con poltrone di

Oh, dear Herr Pirkheimer, this very minute, while I was
writing to you in good humour, the fire alarm sounded and
six houses over by Peter Pender's are burned, and woolen
cloth of mine, for which I paid only yesterday 8 ducats, is
burned; so I too am in trouble. There are often fire alarms

As for your plea that I should come home quickly, I will
come just as soon as I can; but I must first gain money for
my expenses. I have paid out about 100 ducats for colours
and other things, and I have ordered two carpets which I
shall pay for tomorrow; but I could not get them cheaply. I
will pack them up with my linen.

As for your previous comment that I should come home soon or
else you would give my wife a "washing," you are not
permitted to do so, since you would ride her to death.

Know, too, that I decided to learn dancing and went twice to
the school, for which I had to pay the master a ducat. No
one could get me to go there again. To learn dancing, I
should have had to pay away all that I have earned, and at
the end I should have known nothing about it.

As for the glass, the messenger Farber will bring it to you.
I cannot find out anywhere that they are printing any new
Greek books. I will pack up a ream of your paper for you. I
thought Keppler had more like it; but I have not been able
to get the feathers you wanted, and so I bought white ones
instead. If I find the green ones, I will buy some and bring
them with me.

Stephen Paumgartner has written to me to buy him fifty
Carnelian beads for a rosary. I have ordered them, but they
are dear. I could not get any larger ones, and shall send
them to him by the next messenger.

As to your question as to when I shall come home, I tell
you, so that my lords may make their arrangements, that I
shall have finished here in ten days. After that I should
like to travel to Bologna to learn the secrets of the art of
perspective, which a man there is willing to teach me. I
should stay there about eight or ten days and then come back
to Venice; after that I should come with the next messenger.

How I shall freeze after this sun! Here I am a gentleman, at
home a parasite. Let me know how old Dame Kormer behaves as
a bride, and that you will not grudge her to me. There are
many things about which I should like to write to you, but I
shall soon be with you.

Given at Venice about the 14th day after Michaelmas, 1506.

--Albrecht Dürer

P.S. When will you let me know whether any of your children
have died? You also wrote me once that Joseph Rummel had
married ----z's daughter, and forgot to mention whose. How
should I know what you mean? If I only had my cloth back! I
am afraid my mantle has been burned too. That would drive me
crazy. I seem doomed to bad luck; not more than three weeks
ago a man ran away who owed me 8 ducats.

July, 1521)

Anno 1520

On Thursday after St. Kilian's Day, I, Albrecht Dürer, at my
own charges and costs, took myself and my wife from
Nuremberg away to the Netherlands, and the same day, after
we had passed through Eriangen, we put up for the night at
Baiersdorff, and spent there 3 crowns, less 6 pfennigs. From
thence on the next day, Friday, we came to Forchheim, and
there paid for the conveying thence on the journey to
Bamberg 22 pf., and presented to the Bishop a painted Virgin
and a "Life of the Virgin," an "Apocalypse," and a florin's
worth of engravings. He invited me to be his guest, gave me
a toll-pass and three letters of introduction, and settled
my bill at the inn, where I had spent about a florin. I paid
6 florins in gold to the boatmen who took me from Bamberg to
Frankfurt. Master Lucas Benedict and Hans the painter sent
me a present of wine. Spent 4 pf. for bread and 13 pf. as

Then I journeyed from Bamberg to Eltman and showed my pass,
and they let me go free. And from there we passed by Zeil;
in the meantime I spent 21 pf. Next I came to Hassfurt, and
showed my pass, and they let me go without paying duty;
I paid 1 florin to the Bishop of Bamberg's chancery. Next I
came to Theres to the monastery, and I showed my pass, and
they also let me go free; then we journeyed to Lower
Euerheim. There I stayed the night and spent I pf. Thence
we went to Meinberg, and I showed my papers and was allowed
to pass. Then we came to Schweinfurt, where Dr. George
Rebart invited me, and he gave us wine in the boat: they let
me also pass free. 10 pf. for a roast fowl, 18 pf. in the
kitchen and to the boy. Then we traveled to Volkach and I
showed my pass, and we went on and came to Schwarzach, and
there we stopped the night and spent 22 pf., and on Monday
we were up early and went toward Tettelbach and came to
Kitzingen, and I showed my letter, and they let me go on,
and I spent 37 pf. After that we went past Sulzfeld to
Marktbreit, and I showed my letter and they let me through,
and we traveled by Frickenhausen to Ochsenfurth, where I
showed my pass and they let me go free: and we came to
Eibelstadt, and from that to Haidingsfeldt, and thence to
Wurzburg; there I showed my pass and they let me go free.
Thence we journeyed to Erlabrunn and stopped the night
there, and I spent 22 pf. From that we journeyed on past
Retzbath and Zellingen and came to Karlstadt; here I showed
my pass and they let me go on. Thence I traveled to Gmunden,
and there we breakfasted and spent 22 pf. I also showed my
pass, and they let me go free. We traveled thence to
Hofstetten; I showed my pass, and they let me through. We
came next to Lohr, where I showed my pass and passed on;
from there we came to Neustadt and showed our letter, and
they let us travel on; also I paid 10 pf. for wine and
crabs. From there we came to Rothenfels, and I showed my
pass, and they let me go free, and we stayed there for a
night, and spent 20 pf.; and on Wednesday early we started
and passed by St. Eucharius and came to Heidenfeld, and
thence to Triefenstein; from there we came to Homburg, where
I showed my pass and they let me through; from there we came
to Wertheim, and I showed my letter, and they let me go
free, and I spent 57 pf. From there we went to Prozelten;
here I showed my pass, and they let me through. Next we went
on past Freudenberg, where I showed my letter once more, and
they let me through; from there we came to Miltenberg and
stayed there over night, and I also showed my pass and they
let me go, and I spent 61 pf.; from there we came to
Klingenberg. I showed my pass and they let me through; and
we came to Worth and from there passed Obernburg to
Aschaffenburg; here I presented my pass and they let me
through, and I spent 52 pf.; from there we journeyed on to
Selgenstadt; from there to Steinheim, where I showed my
letter and they let me go on, and we stayed with Johannes
for the night, who showed us the town and was very friendly
to us; there I spent 16 pf., and so early on Friday morning
we traveled to Kesselstadt, where I showed my pass and they
let me go on; from there we came to Frankfurt, and I showed
my pass again, and they let me through, and I spent 6 white
pf. and one thaler and a half, and I gave the boy 2 white
pf. Herr Jacob Heller gave me some wine at the inn. I
bargained to be taken with my goods from Frankfurt to Mainz
for 1 florin and 2 white pf., and I also gave the lad 5
Frankfurt thaler, and for the night we spent 8 white pf. On
Sunday I traveled by the early boat from Frankfurt to Mainz,
and midway there we came to Hochst, where I showed my pass
and they let me go on; I spent 8 Frankfurt pf. there. From
there we journeyed to Mainz; I have also paid I white pf.
for landing my things, besides 14 Frankfurt thaler to the
boatmen and 18 pf. for a girdle; and I took passage in the
Cologne boat for myself and my things for 3 florins, and at
Mainz also I spent 17 white pf. Peter Goldschmidt, the
warden there, gave me two bottles of wine. Veit Varnbuler
invited me, but his host would take no payment from him,
insisting on being my host himself; they showed me much

So I started from Mainz, where the Main flows into the
Rhine, and it was the Monday after Mary Magdalen's Day, and
I paid 10 thaler for meat and bread, and for eggs and pears
9 thaler. Here, too, Leonhard Goldschmidt gave me wine and
fowls in the boat to cook on the way to Cologne. Master
Jobst's brother likewise gave me a bottle of wine, and the
painters gave me two bottles of wine in the boat. From there
we came to Elfeld, where I showed my letter and they took no
toll; from there we came to Rudesheim and I gave 2 white pf.
for loading the boat; then we came to Ehrenfels, and there I
showed my letter, but I had to give two gold florins; if,
however, I were to bring them a free pass within two months,
the customs officer would give me back the 2 gold florins.
From there we came to Bacharach, and there I had to promise
in writing that I would either bring them a free pass in two
months, or pay the toll; from there we came to Caub, and
there again I showed my pass, but it would carry me no
further, and I had to promise in writing as before; there I
spent 11 thaler. Next we came to St. Goar, and here I showed
my pass, and the customs officer asked me how they had
treated me elsewhere, so I said I would pay him nothing; I
gave 2 white pf. to the messenger. From there we came to
Boppard, and I showed my pass to the Trier customhouse
officer, and they let me go through, only I had to certify
in writing under my seal that I carried no common
merchandise, and then the man let me go willingly.

From there we came to Lahnstein, and I showed my pass, and
the customs officer let me go through, but he asked me that
I should speak for him to my most gracious Lord of Mainz,
and he gave me a can of wine, too, for he knew my wife well
and he was glad to see me. From there we came to Engers,
which is in the Trier territory; I presented my pass and
they let me go through; I said, too, that I would mention it
to my Lord of Bamberg. From there we came to Andernach, and
I showed my pass, and they let me go through; and I spent
there 7 thaler and 4 thaler more; then on St. James's Day
early I traveled from Andernach to Linz; from there we went
to the custom house at Bonn, and there again they let me go
through; from there we came to Cologne, and in the boat I
spent 9 white pf. and I more, and 4 pf. for fruit. At
Cologne I spent 7 white pf. for unloading, to the boatmen 14
thaler, and to Nicolas, my cousin, I made a present of my
black fur-lined coat edged with velvet, and to his wife I
gave a florin; also at Cologne Fugger gave me wine: Johann
Grosserpecker also gave me wine, and my cousin Nicolas gave
me wine. They gave us also a collation at the Barefoot
Convent, and one of the monks gave me a handkerchief;
moreover, Herr Johann Grosserpecker has given me 12 measures
of the best wine, and I paid 2 white pf. and 8 thaler to the
boy; I have spent besides at Cologne 2 florins and 14 white
pf. and 10 white pf. for packing, and 3 pf. for fruit;
further, I gave I pf. at leaving, and I white pf. to the

From there we journeyed on St. Pantaleon's Day from Cologne
to a village called Busdorf. We lay there over night, and
spent 3 white pf.; and early on Sunday, we traveled to
Rodingen, where we had breakfast and spent 2 white pf. and 3
pf. more, and again 3 pf. Thence we came to Frei-Aldenhoven,
where we lay the night, and spent 3 white pf.; thence we
traveled early on Monday to Frelenberg, and passed the
little town of Gangelt, breakfasting at a village called
Stisterseel, and spent 2 white pf. 2 thaler, further 1 white
pf., and again 2 white pf. From there we journeyed to
Sittard, a pretty little town, and from there to Stocken,
which belongs to Liege; where we had a fine inn and stayed
there over night, and spent 4 white pf. And when we had
crossed over the Maas we started off early on Tuesday
morning and came to Merten Lewbehen [sic]: there we had
breakfast and spent 2 stivers and gave a white pf. for a
young fowl. From there we traveled across the heath and came
to Stosser, where we spent 2 stivers, and lay there the
night: from thence on Wednesday morning early we traveled to
West Meerbeck, where I paid 3 stivers for bread and wine;
and we went on as far as Branthoek, where we had breakfast
and spent 1 stiver; from there we traveled to Uylenberg,
where we stayed the night and spent 3 stivers; from there we
traveled on Thursday early to op ten Kouys, where we
breakfasted and spent 2 stivers; thence we came to Antwerp.

There I sent to Jobst Planckfelt's inn, and the same evening
the Fugger's factor, by name Bernhard Stecher, invited me
and gave us a costly meal--my wife dined at the inn. I paid
the driver for bringing us three, 3 florins in gold, and 2
stivers for carrying the goods.

On Saturday after the Feast of St. Peter in Chains, my host
took me to see the burgomaster's house at Antwerp, which is
newly built and large beyond measure, very well arranged
with extraordinarily beautiful large rooms; a tower,
splendidly ornamented; a very large garden; in short, such a
noble house as I have never seen in all German lands. A very
long new street has been built in his honour, and with his
assistance, leading up to the house on both sides. I gave 3
stivers to the messenger, and 2 pf. for bread and 2 pf. for
ink; and on Sunday, which was St. Oswald's Day, the Painters
invited me to their hall with my wife and maid, where
everything was of silver, and they had other costly
ornaments and very costly meats; and all their wives were
there too; and as I was being led to the table, everyone on
both sides stood up as if they were leading some great lord.
There were among them men of high position, who all showed
me the greatest respect and bowed low to me, and said they
would do everything in their power to serve and please me.
And as I sat there in honour, there came the messenger of
the Town Council of Antwerp with two servants and presented
to me four cans of wine from the Magistrates of Antwerp, who
told him to say that they wished thereby to show their
respect for me and to assure me of their good-will;
wherefore I returned them my humble thanks and offered my
humble services. Thereupon came Master Peter, the town
carpenter, and gave me two cans of wine with offer of his
willing service; so when we had spent a long time together
merrily, till late into the night, they accompanied us home
with lanterns in great honour. They begged me to be assured
of their good-will, and promised that in whatever I did they
would help me in every way; so I thanked them, and laid down
to sleep.

Also I have been in Master Quentin's house, and I have been
in all the three great shooting places. [Editor's note:
Quentin Matsys, the painter]. I had a very splendid dinner
at Staiber's. Another time at the Portuguese factor's, whose
portrait I have drawn in charcoal; I have made a portrait of
my host as well; Jobst Plankfelt gave me a branch of white
coral; paid 2 stivers for butter and 2 stivers to the joiner
at the Painters' armoury.

Also my host took me to the Painters' workshop in the
armoury at Antwerp, where they are making the triumphal
arches through which King Charles is to make his entry. It
is 400 bows in length and each arch is 40 feet wide: they
are to be set up on both sides of the streets, beautifully
arranged and two stories high, and on them they are to act
the plays; and this costs to make, 4,000 florins for the
joiners and painters, and the whole work is very
magnificently done.

I have dined again with the Portuguese factor, and once with
Alexander Imhof. Sebald Fischer bought of me at Antwerp
sixteen "Small Passions" for 4 florins, thirty-two of the
large books for 8 florins, also six engraved "Passions" for
3 florins, also twenty half-sheets of all kinds taken
together at 1 florin to the value of 3 florins, and again 5
1/4 florins' worth of quarter-sheets,--forty-five of all
kinds at 1 florin, and eight miscellaneous leaves at 1
florin; it is paid.

To my host I have sold a "Madonna" picture, painted on small
canvas, for 2 florins Rhenish. I took once more the portrait
of Felix the lute player. 1 stiver for pears and bread; 2
stivers to the surgeon-barber: besides I have given 14
stivers for three small panels, besides 4 stivers for laying
in the white and preparing them. I have dined once with
Alexander the goldsmith, and once with Felix Hungersberg;
once Master Joachim has eaten with me, and his partner also

I have made a drawing in half colours for the Painters. I
have taken 1 florin for expenses. I made Peter Wolffgang a
present of four new little pieces. Master Joachim's partner
has again dined with me. I gave Master Joachim 1 florin's
worth of prints for lending me his apprentice and colours,
and I gave his apprentice 3 crowns' worth of prints. I have
sent the four new pieces to Alexander, the goldsmith. I made
charcoal portraits of these Genoese by name: Tomasin
Florianus Romanus, native of Lucca, and his two brothers,
named Vincentius and Gerhard, all three Bombelli.

I have dined with Tomasin so often: IIIIIIIIIIII. The
treasurer also gave me a "Child's Head" on linen and a
weapon from Calicut, and one of the light wood reeds.
Tomasin Imhof has also given me a plaited hat of elder pith.

I dined once more with the Portuguese; I also gave one of
Tomasin's brothers 3 florins' worth of engravings. Herr
Erasmus has given me a small Spanish mantilla and three
portraits of men. Tomasin's brother gave me a pair of gloves
for 3 florins' worth of engravings. I have once more made
the portrait of Tomasin's brother Vincentius; and I gave
Master Augustus Lombard two of the Imagines. Moreover, I
made a portrait of the crooked-nosed Italian named Opitius.
Also my wife and maid dined one day at Herr Tomasin's; that
makes four meals.

Our Lady's Church at Antwerp is so vast that many masses may
be sung there at one time without interfering one with
another. The altars are richly endowed; the best musicians
that can be had are employed; the Church has many devout
services and much stonework, and in particular a beautiful
tower. I also visited the rich Abbey of St. Michael, where
are the finest galleries of stonework that I have ever seen,
and a rich throne in the choir. But at Antwerp they spare no
cost in such things, for they have plenty of money.

I have made a portrait of Herr Nicolas, an astronomer who
lives with the King of England, and is very helpful and of
great service to me in many matters. He is a German, a
native of Munich. Also I have made the portrait of Tomasin's
daughter, Maid Zutta by name. Hans Pfaffroth gave me a
Philip's florin for taking his portrait in charcoal. I have
dined once more with Tomasin. My host's brother-in-law
entertained me and my wife once. I changed 2 light florins
for 24 stivers for living expenses; and I gave 1 stiver for
a tip to a man who let me see an altar-piece.

The Sunday after the Feast of the Assumption I saw the great
procession of Our Lady's Church at Antwerp, where all the
whole town was gathered together, with all the trades and
professions, and each was dressed in his best according to
his rank; every guild and profession had its sign by which
it might be recognized. Between the companies were carried
great costly gold pole-candlesticks and their long old
Frankish silver trumpets; and there were many pipers and
drummers in the German fashion; all were loudly and noisily
blown and beaten. I saw the procession pass along the
street, spread far apart so that they took up much space
crossways, but close behind one another: goldsmiths,
painters, stonecutters, broiderers, sculptors, joiners,
carpenters, sailors, fishermen, butchers, leather workers,
cloth makers, bakers, tailors, shoemakers, and all kinds of
craftsmen and workmen who work for their livelihood.
There were likewise shopkeepers and merchants with their
assistants of all sorts. After them came the marksmen with
their guns, bows, and cross-bows; then the horsemen and foot
soldiers; then came a large company of the town guard; then
a fine troop of very gallant men, nobly and splendidly
costumed. Before them, however, went all the religious
orders and the members of some foundations, very devoutly,
in their respective groups. There was, too, in this
procession, a great troop of widows, who support themselves
by their own labour and observe special rules, all dressed
from head to foot in white linen robes made expressly for
the occasion, very sorrowful to behold. Among them I saw
some very stately persons, the Canons of Our Lady's Church
with all their clergy, scholars, and treasures. Twenty
persons bore the image of the Virgin Mary and of the Lord
Jesus, adorned in the richest manner, to the honour of the
Lord God. The procession included many delightful things
splendidly got up, for example, many wagons were drawn along
with stagings of ships and other constructions. Then there
came the company of the Prophets in their order, and scenes
from the New Testament, such as the Annunciation, the Three
Magi riding great camels, and other strange beasts, very
skillfully arranged, and also how Our Lady fled into Egypt--
very conducive to devotion--and many other things which for
shortness I must leave out. Last of all came a great dragon,
which St. Margaret and her maidens led by a girdle; she was
extraordinarily beautiful. Behind her followed a St. George
with his squire, a very fine cuirassier. There also rode in
the procession many pretty and richly dressed boys and girls
in the costumes of many lands representing various saints.
This procession from beginning to end, where it passed our
house, lasted more than two hours; there were so many things
there that I could not write them in a book, so I let it

I visited Fugger's house in Antwerp, which is newly built,
with a wonderful tower, broad and high, and with a beautiful
garden, and I also saw his fine stallions. Tomasin has given
my wife fourteen ells of good thick arras for a mantle and
three and a half ells of half satin to line it. I drew a
design for a lady's forehead band for the goldsmith.

The Portuguese factor has given me a present of wine in the
inn, both Portuguese and French. Signor Rodrigo of Portugal
has given me a small cask full of all sorts of sweetmeats,
amongst them a box of sugar candy, besides two large dishes
of barley sugar, marchpane, many other kinds of sugar-work,
and some sugar-canes just as they grow; I gave his servant
in return 1 florin as a tip. I have again changed for my
expenses a light florin for 12 stivers.

The pillars in the Convent of St. Michael of Antwerp are all
made out of single blocks of a beautiful black touchstone.
Herr Egidius, King Charles's warden, has taken for me from
Antwerp the "St. Jerome in the Cell," the "Melancholy," and
three new "Marys," the "Anthony" and the "Veronica" for the
good sculptor, Master Conrad, whose like I have not seen; he
serves Lady Margaret, the Emperor's daughter. Also I gave
Master Figidius a "Eustace" and a "Nemesis." I owe my host 7
florins, 20 stivers, I thaler--that is, on Sunday before St.
Bartholomew: for sitting room, bedroom, and bedding I am to
pay him 11 florins a month.

I came to a new agreement with my host on the 20th August--
on the Monday before St, Bartholomew's, I am to eat with him
and pay 2 stivers for the meal, and extra for drink, but my
wife and the maid can cook and eat up here.

I gave the Portuguese factor a statuette of a child: besides
that, I gave him an "Adam and Eve," a "Jerome in his Cell,"
a "Hercules," a "Eustace," a "Melancholy," and a "Nemesis;"
then of the half-sheets, three new "Virgins," the
"Veronica," the "Anthony," "The Nativity," and "The
Crucifixion," also the best of the quarter-sheets, eight
pieces, and then the three books of the "Life of the
Virgin," "The Apocalypse," and the "Great Passion," also the
"Little Passion" and the "Passion" on copper, all together,
5 florins' worth. The same quantity I gave to Signor
Rodrigo, the other Portuguese. Rodrigo has given my wife a
small green parrot.


On the Sunday after St. Bartholomew's, I traveled with Herr
Tomasin from Antwerp to Mechlin, where we lay for the night;
there I invited Master Conrad and a painter with him to
supper, and this Master Conrad is the good carver in Lady
Margaret's service. From Mechlin we traveled through the
small town of Vilvorde and came to Brussels on Monday at
midday; I gave the messenger 3 stivers; I dined with my
lords at Brussels; also once with Herr Bannisis, and I gave
him a "Passion" on copper. I gave the Margrave Hansen of
Brussels the letter of recommendation which my lord of
Bamberg wrote for me, and I made him a present of a
"Passion," engraved on copper for a remembrance.

I have also dined once more with my lords of Nuremberg. I
saw in the town hall at Brussels, in the golden chamber,
four paintings which the great Master Rogier did; and behind
the King's palace in Brussels, the fountains, labyrinth,
zoological garden. Anything more beautiful and pleasing to
me, more like a paradise, I have never seen.

Erasmus is the name of the little man [Editor's note: not
Erasmus of Rotterdam, but a clerk of Bannisis] who wrote out
my supplication at Jacob Bannisis' house. At Brussels there
is a very splendid town hall, large and covered with
beautiful stonework, with a noble open tower. I have made a
portrait of Master Conrad of Brussels by candlelight; he is
my host. At the same time I drew Doctor Lamparter's son in
charcoal, and also the hostess.

Also I have seen the things which they have brought to the
King out of the new land of gold: a sun all of gold, a whole
fathom broad, and a moon, too, of silver, of the same size,
also two rooms full of armour, and the people there with all
manner of wondrous weapons, harness, darts, wonderful
shields, extraordinary clothing, beds, and all kinds of
wonderful things for human use, much finer to look at than
prodigies. These things are all so precious that they are
valued at 100,000 gulden, and all the days of my life I have
seen nothing that reaches my heart so much as these, for
among them I have seen wonderfully artistic things and have
admired the subtle ingenuity of men in foreign lands;
indeed, I don't know how to express what I there found.

I also saw many other beautiful things at Brussels, and
especially a great fish bone there, as vast as if it had
been built up of square stones; it was a fathom long, very
thick, weighs up to 1 cwt. (15 centner), and it has the form
as is here drawn; it stood behind on the fish's head.

I have also been in the Lord of Nassau's house, which is so
magnificently built and so beautifully decorated. I have
again dined twice with my lords. Lady Margaret sent after me
to Brussels and promised that she would speak in my behalf
to King Charles, and has shown herself quite exceptionally
kind to me: I sent her my engraved "Passion" and such
another to her treasurer, Jan Marnix by name, and I made his
portrait in charcoal. I paid 2 stivers for a buffalo ring,
and also 2 stivers for opening St. Luke's picture. When I
was in Herr von Nassau's house I saw in the chapel the fine
painting that Master Hugo has made, and I also saw two large
beautiful halls, and all the treasures in various parts of
the house, and the large bed in which fifty men can lie. And
I also saw the great stone which the storm cast down in the
field close to Herr von Nassau. This house lies high, and
there is a most beautiful view at which one cannot but
wonder. And I think that in all German lands there is not
the like of it.

Master Bernhard, the painter, invited me to dinner, and had
prepared a meal so costly that I do not think 10 florins
will pay for it. Three friends invited themselves to it to
give me good company, to wit, Lady Margaret's treasurer,
whose portrait I made, and the King's steward, de Metenye,
and the town treasurer, Van Busleyden; I gave him a
"Passion" engraved on copper, and he gave me in return a
black Spanish bag worth 3 florins. And I also gave a
"Passion" engraved on copper to Erasmus of Rotterdam;
likewise one to Erasmus, the secretary of Bannisis. The man
at Antwerp who gave me the "Child's Head" is called Lorenz
Sterk. I took the portrait in charcoal of Master Bernhard,
Lady Margaret's painter. I have taken Erasmus of Rotterdam's
portrait once more. I gave Lorenz Sterk a sitting "St.
Jerome" and the "Melancholy," and I made a portrait of my
hostess's godmother. Six people whose portraits I painted at
Brussels gave me nothing. I paid 3 stivers for two buffalo
horns and 1 stiver for two Eulenspiegels.

So then on the Sunday after St. Giles', I traveled with Herr
Tomasin to Mechlin and took leave of Herr Hans Ebner, and he
would take nothing for my expenses while I was with him
seven days; I paid 1 stiver on behalf of Hans Geuder; I gave
1 stiver as a tip to the host's servant; and at Mechlin I
took supper with the Lady Nieuwekerke; and early on Monday I
traveled from Mechlin to Antwerp.

AT ANTWERP (September 3 - October 4, 1520)

I breakfasted with the Portuguese factor, who gave me three
porcelain dishes, and Rodrigo gave me some Calicut feathers.
I spent 1 florin and paid my messenger 2 stivers. I bought
Susanna a mantle for 2 florins, 10 stivers. My wife paid 4
florins Rhenish for a washtub, a bellows, a basin, a pair of
slippers, wood for cooking, stockings, a cage for the
parrot, 2 jugs, and for tips; she spent, moreover, for
eating, drinking, and various necessaries, 21 stivers.

Now on Monday after St. Giles' I am back again at Jobst
Planckfelter's, and have dined with him as many times as are
drawn here-IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII. I gave Nicolas, Tomasin's
man, 1 stiver; I paid 5 stivers for the little frame, and 1
stiver more. My host gave me an Indian cocoanut and an old
Turkish whip; then I have dined IIIIIIIIIIIII more with
Tomasin. The two lords of Rogendorf have invited me; I have
dined once with them and made a large drawing of their coat
of arms on wood, for engraving. I gave away 1 stiver; my
wife changed a florin for 24 stivers; I gave 2 stivers as a
tip. I have dined once in Focker's house with the young
Jacob Rehlinger, and I have also dined once more with him.
My wife has changed a florin for 24 stivers for expenses. I
gave to Wilhelm Hauenhut, the servant of my lord Duke
Frederick, the Platzgraf, an engraved "Jerome," and the two
new half-sheets, the "Mary" and the "Anthony." I gave Herr
Jacob Bannisis a good painting of a "Veronica" face, a
"Eustace," a "Melancholy," and a sitting "Jerome," a "St.
Anthony," the two new "Marys," and the new "Peasants." And I
have given his secretary, Erasmus, who wrote my
supplication, a sitting "Jerome," a "Melancholy," an
"Anthony," the two new "Marys," and the "Peasants," and I
have given him also two small "Marys," and all together what
I have given is worth 7 florins, and I have given Master
Marc, the goldsmith, a "Passion" on copper, and he gave me 3
florins in payment; besides this I have received 3 florins,
20 stivers, for prints. To the glazier Honigen, I have given
four little engravings. I have dined with Herr Bannisis III.
I paid 4 stivers for carbon and black chalk; I have given 1
florin, 8 stivers for wood, and spent 3 stivers more. I have
dined with the lords of Nuremberg IIIIIIIIII. Master
Dietrich, the glass painter, sent me the red colour which is
found in the new bricks at Antwerp. I made charcoal portrait
of Jacob von Lubeck; he gave my wife a Philip's florin. I
have again changed a Philip's florin for expenses.

I presented to Lady Margaret a seated "Jerome" engraved on
copper. I sold a woodcut "Passion" for 12 stivers, besides
an "Adam and Eve" for 4 stivers. Felix, the captain and lute-
player, bought a whole set of copper-engravings and a
woodcut "Passion" and an engraved "Passion," two half-sheets
and two quarter-sheets, for 8 gold florins; so I gave him
another set of engravings. I have taken Herr Bannisis's
portrait in charcoal. Rodrigo gave me another parrot, and I
gave his boy 2 stivers for a tip. I gave Johann von den
Winckel, the trumpeter, a small woodcut "Passion," "St.
Jerome in his Cell," and a "Melancholy." I paid 6 stivers
for a pair of gloves. I paid 3 stivers for a bamboo rod, and
George Schlaudersbath gave me another which cost 6 stivers.

I have dined once with Wolff Haller, who is employed by the
Fuggers, when he had invited my lords of Nuremberg. I have
received for works of art, 2 Philip's florins, and 6
stivers. I have again dined once with my wife; I gave 1
stiver to Hans Denes' boy for a tip. I have taken 100
stivers for works of art.

I made a charcoal portrait of Master Jacob, Lord Rogendorf's
painter, and I have drawn for Lord Rogendorf his arms on
wood, for which he gave me seven ells of velvet.

I dined once more with the Portuguese; I took the portrait
of Master John Prost of Bruges, and he gave me 1 florin; it
was done in charcoal; 23 stivers for a fur coat of rabbit-
skin. I sent Hans Schwarz 2 golden florins for my picture in
a letter sent through the Antwerp Fuggers to Augsburg, I
gave 31 stivers for a red woolen shirt. I dined once more
with Rogendorf. I gave 2 stivers for the colour which is
found in the bricks; and I paid 9 stivers for an ox horn. I
made a charcoal portrait of a Spaniard. I have dined once
with my wife. I gave 2 stivers for a dozen little pipes; I
gave 3 stivers for two little maplewood bowls, two such
Felix gave my wife, and Master Jacob, the painter from
Lubeck, has given my wife another; dined once with
Rogendorf. I paid 1 stiver for the printed "Entry into
Antwerp," showing how the King was received with a splendid
triumph; the gates were beautifully decorated, and there
were plays, much rejoicing, and beautiful maidens in
tableaux vivants, whose like I have seldom seen. Changed 1
florin for expenses.

I have seen the bones of the great giant at Antwerp; his leg
above his knee is five and a half feet long, and beyond
measure heavy; so were his shoulder blades--a single one is
broader than a strong man's back--and his other limbs. The
man was eighteen feet high, and reigned at Antwerp and did
great wonders, as is set out in an old book which belongs to
the town magistrates.

Raphael of Urbino's effects have been all dispersed after
his death, but one of his disciples, Tommaso of Bologna by
name, a good painter, desired to see me, so he came to me
and gave me a gold ring, an antique with a well-cut stone
worth 5 florins, but I have been already offered twice as
much for it; in return I gave him my best engravings, worth
6 florins. I bought a piece of calico for 3 stivers, I gave
the messenger 1 stiver, and spent 3 stivers in company.

I presented to Lady Margaret, the Emperor's sister [Editor's
note: Actually, she was his aunt], a whole set of all my
works, and have drawn her two pictures on parchment with the
greatest pains and care; all this I have put at 30 florins,
and I have had to draw the design of the house for her
physician, the doctor, according to which he intends to
build one, and for drawing that I would not willingly take
less than 10 florins. I have given the servant 1 stiver, and
I paid 1 stiver for brick colour; I have given Herr Nicolas
Ziegler a "Christ lying dead," worth 3 florins. To the
Portuguese factor I gave a painting of a "Child's Head,"
worth 1 florin. I have given 10 stivers for a buffalo horn;
I gave 1 gold florin for an elk's hoof. I have done Master
Adrian's portrait in charcoal. I gave 2 stivers for the
"Condemnation" and the "Dialogue," 3 stivers to the
messenger; to Master Adrian I have given 2 florins' worth of
works of art; bought a piece of red chalk for 1 stiver. I
have done Herr Wolff von Rogendorf in silverpoint. Gave away
3 stivers; did the portrait of a noble lady at Tomasin's
house. I have given to Nicolas a "Jerome in the Cell," and
two new "Marys." On Monday after St. Michael's Day, 1520, I
gave to Tommaso of Bologna a whole set of prints to send for
me to Rome to another painter, who will send me Raphael's
work in return. I dined once with my wife; gave 3 stivers
for the little tract. The Bolognese has painted my portrait,
which he will take with him back to Rome. I bought an elk's
foot for 20 stivers, besides I paid 2 gold florins, 4
stivers, for Herr Hans Ebner's little panel; dined out;
changed a crown for expenses; dined out. Am taking 11
florins for my expenses to Aachen; have received 2 florins,
4 stivers, from Ebner; paid 9 stivers for wood; gave Meyding
20 stivers for sending my box.

I have taken the portrait of a lady of Bruges, who has given
me I Philip's florin. I gave away 3 stivers as a tip; paid 2
stivers for fir cones and I for stone colour; paid 13
stivers to the furrier, 1 stiver for leather; bought two
mussels for 2 stivers. In John Gabriel's house I have taken
the portrait of an Italian lord, who gave me 2 gold florins.
Bought a portmanteau for 2 florins, 4 stivers.


On Thursday after St. Michael's Day, I journeyed from
Antwerp to Aachen, and I took 1 gulden and I noble with me;
and after passing through Maestricht we came to Gulpen, and
from there to Aix on Sunday; there I have spent up till now,
with the fare and all, 3 florins. At Aachen I saw the well-
proportioned pillars with their good capitals of green and
red porphyry and granite which Carolus [Charlemagne] had
brought from Rome and set up there. These are made truly
according to Vitruvius's writings. At Aachen I bought an ox
horn for 1 gold florin. I have taken the portraits of Herr
Hans Ebner and George Schlaudersbach, and Hans Ebner's a
second time. I paid 2 stivers for a fine whetstone, also 5
stivers for a bath and drinking in company; changed 1 florin
for expenses. I gave the town servant who took me up into
the hall 2 white pf.; spent 5 white pf. With companions,
drinking and bathing; I have lost 7 stivers at play with
Herr Hans Ebner at the Mirror. I have made a charcoal
portrait of the young Christopher Groland, also of my host,
Peter von Enden. I spent 3 stivers in company, and gave the
messenger 1 stiver. I have taken the portraits of Paul
Topier and Martin Pfinzing in my sketch-book.

I have seen the arm of the Emperor Henry, the shirt and
girdle of Our Lady, and other holy relics. I have sketched
the Church of Our Lady with its surroundings. I took Sturm's
portrait. Made the portrait in charcoal of Peter von Enden's
brother-in-law. Have given 10 white pf. for a large ox horn;
gave 2 white pf. for a tip, and I have changed 1 florin for
expenses. I have lost 3 white pf. at play, also 2 stivers;
gave 2 white pf. to the messenger. 1 have given Tomasin's
daughter the painted "Trinity," it is worth 4 florins; paid
1 stiver for washing. I took the portrait in charcoal of the
Kopffrngrin's sister at Aachen, and another in silverpoint.
Spent 3 white pf. for a bath; paid 8 white pf. for a buffalo
horn; 2 white pf. for a girdle: paid I Philip's florin for a
scarlet shawl; 6 pf. for paper; changed 1 florin for
expenses; paid 2 white pf. for washing.

On the 23rd day of October King Charles was crowned at
Aachen; there I saw all manner of lordly splendour, the like
of which those who live in our parts have never seen--all,
as it has been described.

I gave Mathes works of art worth 2 florins, and presented
Stephen, Lady Margaret's chamberlain, with 3 prints. Paid 1
florin, 10 white pf. for a cedarwood rosary; gave 1 stiver
to little Hans in the stable, and 1 stiver to the child in
the house; lost 2% stivers at play; spent 2 stivers, gave 2
stivers to the barber. I have again changed 1 florin; I gave
away 7 white pf. in the house on leaving.


And I traveled from Aachen to Julich, and thence to...; paid
4 stivers for two eye-glasses. I played away 2 stivers in an
embossed silver medal of the king. I have given 8 white pf.
for two ox horns. On the Friday before St. Simon and St.
Jude I left Aachen and traveled to Duren, where I visited
the church where St. Anne's head is. Thence we traveled and
came on Sunday, which was St. Simon and St. Jude's Day, to
Cologne. I had lodging, food, and drink at Brussels with my
lords of Nuremberg, and they would take nothing from me for
it, and at Aachen likewise I ate with them three weeks and
they brought me to Cologne, and would take nothing for it.

I have bought a tract of Luther's for 5 white pf. besides 1
white pf. for the "Condemnation of Luther," the pious man,
besides 1 white pf. for a Paternoster, and 2 white pf. for a
girdle, I white pf. for one pound of candles; changed 1
florin for expenses. I had to give Herr Leonhard Groland my
great ox horn, and to Hans Ebner I had to give my large
rosary of cedarwood. Paid 6 white pf. for a pair of shoes; I
gave 2 white pf. for a little skull; 1 white pf. I gave for
beer and bread; 1 white pf. for a "pertele" [braid]. I have
given 4 white pf. to two messengers; I have given 2 white
pf. to Nicolas's daughter for lace, also 1 white pf. to a
messenger. I gave prints worth 2 florins to Herr Ziegler
Linhard; paid the barber 2 white pf. paid 3 white pf. and
then 2 white pf. for opening the picture which Master
Stephan made at Cologne; I gave the messenger 1 white pf.,
and spent 2 white pf. drinking in company. I made the
portrait of Gottschalk's sister: 1 paid I white pf. for a
little tract.

At Cologne, on Sunday evening after All Saints' Day in the
year 1520, I saw the nobles dance and banquet in the Emperor
Charles's dancing saloon: it was splendidly arranged. I have
drawn for Staiber his coat of arms on wood. I gave a
"Melancholy" to a young count at Cologne, and a new "Mary"
to Duke Frederick. I have made Nicolas Hailer's portrait in
charcoal; paid 2 white pf. to the door porter. I have given
3 white pf. for two little tracts, also 10 white pf. for a
cow horn. At Cologne I went to St. Ursula's Church and to
her grave, and saw the holy maiden and the other great
relics. Fernberger's portrait I took in charcoal; changed 1
florin for expenses. I gave Nicolas's wife 8 white pf. when
she invited me as a guest. I bought two prints for 1 stiver.
Herr Hans Ebner and Herr Nicolas Groland would take nothing
from me for eight days at Brussels, three weeks at Aachen,
and fourteen days at Cologne. I made the nun's portrait, and
gave 7 white pf. to the nun. I made her a present of three
half-sheet engravings on copper.

My Confirmation from the Emperor came to my lords of
Nuremberg the Monday after St. Martin's, the year 1520,
after great trouble and labour. I gave Nicolas's daughter 7
white pf. on departing, 1 florin to his wife, and again 1
ort to his daughter on leaving; and I started away from
Cologne. Before that, Staiber invited me once as his guest,
and so did my cousin Nicolas once, and old Wolfgang once,
and once besides I dined as his guest. I have given
Nicolas's man a "Eustace" on leaving, and his little
daughter another ort, as they took much trouble for me. I
have given 1 florin for a little ivory skull, and I white
pf. for a turned box, also 7 white pf. for a pair of shoes,
and I gave Nicolas's man a "Nemesis" on leaving.


I started off early by boat from Cologne on Wednesday after
St. Martin's, and went as far as . . . Paid 6 white pf. for
a pair of shoes. I gave 4 white pf. to the messenger. From
Cologne I traveled by the Rhine to Zons, from Zons to Neuss,
and from thence to Stain where we stayed the day, and I
spent 6 white pf. Thence we came to Dusseldorf, a little
town, where I spent 2 white pf.; from thence to
Kaiserswerth; from thence to Duisburg, another little town,
and we passed two castles, Angerort and Rurort; thence we
went to Orsoy, a little town; from thence we went to
Rheinberg, another little town, where I lay overnight, and
spent 6 white pf.; from there I traveled to the following
towns, Burg Wesel, Rees, and from there to Emmerich. We came
next to Thomas, and from there to Nymwegen; there we stayed
over the night and spent 4 white pf.; from Nymwegen I
traveled to Tiel, and from there to Herzogenbusch. At
Emmerich I stopped and spent 3 white pf. on a very good
meal. There I took the portrait of a goldsmith's apprentice,
Peter Federmacher of Antwerp, and of a woman. The reason of
our staying was that a great storm of wind overtook us. I
spent besides 5 white pf., and I changed 1 florin for
expenses; also I took the host's portrait, and we did not
get to Nymwegen until Sunday; I gave the boatmen 20 white
pf. Nymwegen is a beautiful city, and has a fine church and
a well-situated castle; from there we traveled to Tiel,
where we left the Rhine and continued on the Maas to
Heerewarden, where the two towers stand; there we lay over
night, and during this day I spent 7 stivers. From there we
started early on Tuesday for Bommel on the Maas; there a
great storm of wind overtook us and we hired some peasant
horses and rode without saddles as far as Herzogenbusch, and
I paid 1 florin for the journey by boat and horse.
Herzogenbusch is a beautiful city, and has an extremely
beautiful church and a strong fortress; there I spent 10
stivers, although Arnold settled for the repast. The
goldsmiths came to me and showed me great honour. From there
we traveled on Our Lady's Day early and came through the
large and beautiful village of Oosterwyck. We breakfasted at
Tilborch and spent 4 white pf.; from there we came to
Baarle, lay the night there, and spent 3 stivers, and my
companions got into an argument with the innkeeper, so we
went on in the night to Hoogstraten; there we stopped two
hours and went by St. Leonhard Kirchen to Harscht. We
breakfasted there and spent 4 stivers.

SECOND STAY AT ANTWERP (November 22-December 3, 1520)

From there we journeyed to Antwerp and gave the driver 15
stivers. This was on Thursday after Our Lady's Assumption
[by error for Presentation]; and I gave an engraving of the
"Passion" to John, Jobst Schwager's man, and I made a
portrait of Nicolas Sopalis, and on the Thursday after Our
Lady's Assumption [Presentation], 1520, I was once more back
in Jobst Planckfelt's house; I have eaten with him IIII
times. My wife-II-changed 1 florin for expenses, besides a
crown; and the seven weeks that I have been away my wife and
maid have spent 7 crowns and bought another 4 florins' worth
of things. I spent 4 stivers in company. I have dined with
Tomasin IIIIII times. On St. Martin's Day my wife had her
purse cut off in Our Lady's Church at Antwerp; there were 2
florins in it, and the purse itself, besides what was in it,
was worth another florin, and some keys were in it, too. On
the eve before St. Catherine's I paid Jobst Planckfelt, my
host, 10 gold crowns for my reckoning. I dined two times
with the Portuguese. Rodrigo gave me six Indian nuts, so I
gave his boy 2 stivers for a tip. I paid 19 stivers for
parchment; changed 2 crowns for expenses.

I sold two "Adam and Eves," one "Sea Monster," one "Jerome,"
one "Knight," one "Nemesis," one "St. Eustace," one whole
sheet, besides seventeen etched pieces, eight quarter-
sheets, and ten wood-cuts, seven of the bad woodcuts, two
books, and ten small wood "Passions," the whole for 8
florins. Also I exchanged three large books for one ounce
[ell of?] camlet. I changed a Philip's florin for expenses
and my wife likewise changed a florin.

At Zierikzee in Zeeland a whale has been washed ashore by a
great tide and storm; it is much more than a hundred fathoms
long; no one in Zeeland has ever seen one even one-third as
long, and the fish cannot get off the land. The people would
be glad to see it gone, for they fear the great stink, for
it is so big they say it could not be cut in pieces and the
oil got out of it in half a year.

Stephen Capello has given me a cedarwood rosary, in return
for which I was to take and have taken his portrait. I paid
4 stivers for furnace brown and a pair of snuffers; I gave 3
stivers for paper; made a portrait of Felix, kneeling, in
his book in pen and ink, and Felix gave me one hundred
oysters. I gave Herr Lazarus, the great man, an engraved
"Jerome" and three large books. Rodrigo sent me some wine
and oysters. I paid 7 white pf. for black chalk. I have had
to dinner Tomasin, Gerhard, Tomasin's daughter, her husband,
the glass painter Hennick, Jobst and his wife, and Felix,
which cost 2 florins. Tomasin made me a gift of four ells of
gray damask for a doublet. I have changed a Philip's florin
for expenses.

VISIT TO ZEELAND (December 3-14, 1520)

On St. Barbara's Eve I traveled from Antwerp to Bergen-op-
Zoom; I paid 2 stivers for the horse, and I spent 1 florin 6
stivers here. At Bergen I bought my wife a thin
Netherlandish head cloth, which cost 1 florin, 7 stivers,
besides 6 stivers for three pairs of shoes, 1 stiver for
eyeglasses, and 6 stivers for an ivory button; gave 2
stivers for a tip. I have drawn the portraits in charcoal of
Jan de Has, his wife, and two daughters; and the maid and
the old woman in silverpoint, in my sketch-book. I saw the
Van Bergen house, which is a very large and beautiful
building. Bergen is a pleasant place in summer, and two
great fairs are held there yearly.

On Our Lady's Eve I started with my companions for Zeeland,
and Sebastian Imhof lent me five florins; and the first
night we lay at anchor in the sea; it was very cold and we
had neither food nor drink. On Saturday we came to Goes, and
there I drew a girl in the costume of the place. Thence we
traveled to Arnemuiden, and I paid 15 stivers for expenses.
We went by a sunken place, where we saw the tops of the
roofs standing up above the water, and we went by the island
of Wolfersdyk, and passed the little town Kortgene on
another island lying near. Zeeland has seven islands, and
Arnemuiden, where I lay the night, is the biggest. From
there I traveled to Middelburg. There in the abbey Jan de
Mabuse has made a great picture, not so good in the drawing
as in the colouring. From there I went to the Veere, where
ships from all lands lie. It is a very fine little town.

But at Arnemuiden, where I landed, there happened to me a
great misfortune. As we were coming to land and getting out
our rope, just as we were getting on shore, a great ship ran
into us so hard that in the crush I let everyone get out
before me, so that no one but myself, George Kotzler, two
old women, the sailor, and a little boy were left in the
ship. When now the other ship knocked against us and I with
those mentioned was on the ship and could not get out, the
strong rope broke, and at the same moment a violent storm of
wind arose which forcibly drove back our ship. So we all
called for help, but no one would risk himself, and the wind
carried us back out to sea. Then the skipper tore his hair
and cried aloud, for all his men had landed and the ship was
unmanned. It was a matter of fear and danger, for there was
a great wind and no more than six persons in the ship, so I
spoke to the skipper that he should take heart and have hope
in God, and should take thought for what was to be done. He
said that if he could pull up the small sail, he would try
if we could come again to land. So we all helped one another
and pulled it half-way up with difficulty, and went on again
towards the land. And when those on the land who had already
given us up saw how we helped ourselves, they too came to
our aid, and we got to land.

Middelburg is a good town; it has a very beautiful town hall
with a fine tower. There is much art shown in all things
here. There are very rich and beautiful stalls in the abbey,
and a splendid gallery of stone and a beautiful parish
church. The town is excellent for sketching. Zeeland is
beautiful and wonderful to see on account of the water, for
it stands higher than the land.

I have made a portrait of my host at Arnemuiden. Master
Hugo, Alexander Imhof, and the Hirschvogel's servant
Frederick gave me each of them an Indian nut that they had
won at play, and the host gave me a sprouting bulb.

Early on Monday morning we went back to the ship and set out
for the Veere and for Zierikzee; I wanted to get sight of
the great fish, but the tide had carried it off again. I
paid 2 florins for fare and expenses and 2 florins for a
rug, 4 stivers for a fig-cheese and 3 stivers for carriage,
and I lost 6 stivers at play. When we came back to Bergen I
gave 10 stivers for an ivory comb.

I have taken Schnabhan's portrait, and I have also taken the
portrait of my host's son-in-law, Klautz. Gave 2 florins
less 5 stivers for a piece of tin; also 2 florins for a bad
piece of tin. I have also taken the portrait of little
Bernard of Brussels, George Kotzler, and the Frenchman from
Kamrick; each of them gave me 1 florin at Bergen. Jan de
Has' son-in-law gave me 1 Horn florin for his portrait, and
Kerpen of Cologne also gave me a florin, and besides this I
bought two bed-covers for 4 florins less 10 stivers. I have
made the portrait of Nicolas, the jeweler. These are the
number of times that I have dined at Bergen since I came
from Zeeland: IIIIIIIII and once for 4 stivers. I paid the
driver 3 stivers and spent 8 stivers, and came back to
Antwerp, to Jobst Planckfelt's, on Friday after St. Lucy's,
1520, and I have dined this number of times with him: IIII.
It is paid, and my wife: IIII, and that is paid.

AT ANTWERP (December, 1520 - April, 1521)

In return for the three books which I gave him, Herr Lazarus
of Ravensburg has given me a big fish scale, five snail
shells, four silver medals, five copper ones, two little
dried fishes and a white coral, four reed arrows and another
white coral. I changed 1 florin for expenses, and like-wise
1 crown. I have dined alone so many times: IIIIIIIII. The
factor of Portugal has given me a brown velvet bag and a box
of good electuary; I gave his boy 3 stivers for wages. I
gave 1 Horn florin for two little panels, but they gave me
back 6 stivers. I bought a little monkey for 4 gulden, and
gave 14 stivers for five fish. I paid Jobst 10 stivers for
three dinners; I gave 2 stivers for two tracts; and 2
stivers to the messenger. I gave Lazarus of Ravensburg a
portrait head on panel which cost 6 stivers, and besides
that I have given him eight sheets of the large copper
engravings, eight of the half-sheets, an engraved "Passion,"
and other engravings and woodcuts, all together worth more
than 4 florins. I changed a Philip's florin for expenses,
and besides that a gold florin for expenses. I gave 6
stivers for a panel, and did the portrait of the servant of
the Portuguese on it in charcoal, and I gave him all that
for a New Year's present and 2 stivers for a tip. Changed 1
florin for expenses and gave Bernhard Stecher a whole set of
prints. I bought 31 stivers' worth of wood. I have made the
portraits of Gerhard Bombelli and Sebastian the procurator's
daughter. I have changed 1 florin for expenses. Have spent 3
stivers besides 3 more for a meal. I have given Herr Wolff
of Rogendorf a "Passion" on copper and one in woodcut.
Gerhard Bombelli has given me a printed Turkish cloth, and
Herr Wolff of Rogendorf gave me seven Brabant ells of
velvet, so I gave his man 1 Philip's florin for a tip. Spent
3 stivers on a meal; gave 4 stivers for tips. I have drawn
the new factor's portrait in charcoal. Gave 6 stivers for a
panel. Have dined with the Portuguese IIIIIII times, with
the treasurer 1, with Tomasin IIIIIIIIII times. Gave 4
stivers for tips. With Lazarus of Ravensburg 1, Wolff of
Rogendorf 1, Bernhard Stecher 1, Utz Hanolt Meyting 1,
Caspar Lewenter 1. I gave 3 stivers to the man whose
portrait I drew; gave the boy 2 stivers. I have given 4
florins for flax. Have taken 4 florins for prints; have
changed 1 crown for expenses. Paid the furrier 4 stivers and
again 2 stivers. Lost 4 stivers at play; spent 6 stivers. I
have changed 1 noble for expenses; gave 18 stivers for
raisins and three pairs of knives. I paid 2 florins for some
meals at Jobst's. Have lost 4 stivers at play, and gave 6
stivers to the furrier. Have given Master Jacob two engraved
"St. Jeromes." Lost 2 stivers at play: changed 1 crown for
expenses; lost 1 stiver at play. Have given to Tomasin's
three maids three pairs of knives, which cost 5 stivers.
Have taken 29 stivers for prints. Rodrigo gave me a muskball
just as it had been cut from the musk deer, also a 1/4 lb.
of persin [a dark red paint?] and a box full of quince
electuary and a big box of sugar, so I gave his boy 5
stivers for a tip.

Lost 2 stivers at play. I have done the portrait of Jobst's
wife in charcoal. I have got 4 florins, 5 stivers for three
small canvases. Changed 2 florins in succession for
expenses. Lost 2 stivers at play. My wife gave me 1 florin
for the child, and 4 stivers in the child's bed. I have
changed 1 crown for expenses; spent 4 stivers, lost 2
stivers at play, and gave 4 stivers to the messenger.
Changed 1 florin for expenses.

I gave Master Dietrich, the glass painter, an "Apocalypse"
and the six "Knots." Paid 40 stivers for flax. Lost 8
stivers at play. I have given the little Portuguese factor,
Signor Francisco, my small canvas with the small child, that
is worth 10 florins. I have given Dr. Loffen at Antwerp the
four books and an engraved "Jerome," and the same to Jobst
Planckfelt. I have done the arms of Staiber and another. I
have made a portrait of Tomasin's son and daughter in
silverpoint; also I have painted a small panel in oil of the
Duke. Have got 3 stivers for engravings. Rodrigo, the
Portuguese secretary, has given me two Calicut cloths, one
of them is silk, and he has given me an ornamented cap and a
green jug with myrobalans, and a branch of cedar tree, worth
10 florins altogether. And I gave the boy for a tip 5
stivers and 2 stivers for a brush.

I have made a drawing for a mask for the Fugger's people for
masquerade, and they have given me an angel. I have changed
1 florin for expenses. Gave 8 stivers for two little powder
horns. Lost 3 stivers at play. Changed an angel for
expenses. I have drawn two sheets full of beautiful little
masks for Tomasin. I have painted a good "Veronica" face in
oils; it is worth 12 florins. I gave it to Francisco, the
Portuguese factor. Since then I have painted Santa Veronica
in oils; it is better than the former, and I gave it to
Factor Brandan of Portugal. Francisco gave the maid 1
Philip's florin for a tip, and afterwards, because of the
"Veronica," 1 florin more, but the Factor Brandan gave her 1
florin. I paid Peter 8 stivers for two cases. I changed an
angel for expenses.

On Carnival Sunday early, the goldsmiths invited me to
dinner, with my wife. In their assembly were many notable
men. They prepared a very grand meal, and did me the
greatest honour. In the evening the old bailiff of the town
invited me and gave me a splendid meal, and did me great
honour. Thither came many strange maskers.

I have drawn the portrait of Florent Nepotis, Lady
Margaret's organist, in charcoal. On Monday night Herr Lopez
invited me to the great banquet on Shrove Tuesday, which
lasted till two o'clock, and was very grand. Herr Lorenz
Sterk has given me a Spanish fur. And to the above-mentioned
feast came many very splendid masks, especially Tomasin

I have won 2 florins at play. Have changed an angel for
expenses: paid 14 stivers for a basket of raisins. I have
made the portrait in charcoal of Bernhard von Castell, from
whom I won the money. Tomasin's brother Gerhardt has given
me four Brabant ells of the best black satin, and has given
me three big boxes of candied citron, so I gave the maid 3
stivers for a tip. Paid 13 stivers for wood, and 2 stivers
for pine kernels. I drew the procurator's daughter very
carefully in silver-point.

Have changed 1 angel for expenses. I have drawn the portrait
in black chalk of the good marble worker, Master Johann, who
looks like Christopher Kohler; he has studied in Italy, and
comes from Metz. I have changed 1 Horn florin for expenses.
I have given 3 florins to Jan Turck for Italian works of
art; I gave him 12 ducats' worth of works of art for one
ounce of good ultramarine. I have sold a small woodcut of
the "Passion" for florins. I sold two reams and four books
of Schauflein's prints for 3 florins. Have given 3 florins
for two ivory salt-cellars from Calicut. Have taken 2
florins for prints; have changed 1 florin for expenses.
Rudiger von Gelern gave me a snail shell, together with
coins of gold and silver, with an ort. I gave him in return
the three large books and an engraved "Knight;" have taken
11 stivers for prints. I gave 2 Philip's florins for "SS.
Peter and Paul," which I shall present to Herr Kohler's
wife. Rodrigo has given me two boxes of quince Electuary and
all kinds of sweetmeats, and I gave 5 stivers for a tip,
Paid 16 stivers for boxes.

Lazarus of Ravensburg gave me a sugar loaf, so I gave his
boy 1 stiver. Paid 6 stivers for wood. Have eaten once with
the Frenchman; twice with the Hirschvogel's Fritz, and once
with Master Peter, the secretary, when Erasmus of Rotterdam
also dined with us. I paid 1 stiver to be allowed to go up
the tower at Antwerp, which is said to be higher than that
at Strasburg. From thence I saw the whole town on all sides,
which was very pleasant. Paid 1 stiver for a bath. Have
changed 1 angel for expenses. The Factor Brandon of Portugal
has given me two large beautiful white sugar loaves, a
dishful of sweetmeats, two green pots of preserves, and four
ells of black satin, so I gave the servant 10 stivers for a

Paid the messenger 3 stivers. I have drawn twice in the more
in silverpoint the beautiful maiden for Gerhardt. Again
changed an angel for expenses; took 4 florins for prints;
paid 10 stivers for Rodrigo's case. Dined with the
treasurer, Herr Lorenz Sterk, who gave me an ivory whistle
and a very beautiful piece of porcelain, and I have given
him a whole set of prints. I also gave a whole set to Herr
Adrian, the Antwerp town orator. Also I changed a Philip's
florin for expenses. I presented a sitting "St. Nicolas" to
the largest and richest guild of merchants at Antwerp, for
which they have made me a present of 3 Philip's florins. I
gave Peter Egidius the old frame of the "St. Jerome" besides
4 gulden for a frame for the treasurer's likeness. Paid 11
stivers for wood. Again changed a Philip's florin for
expenses. Gave 4 stivers for a bore. Gave 3 stivers for
three canes. I have handed over my bale to Jacob and Andreas
Hessler to take to Nuremberg, and I am to pay them 2 florins
per cwt., Nuremberg weight, and they are to take it to Herr
Hans Imhof, the elder, and I have paid 2 florins on it.
Moreover I have done it up in a packing case. This was in
the year 1521, on the Saturday before Judicz.

Also on the Saturday before Judicz, Rodrigo gave me six
large Indian cocoanuts, a very fine piece of coral, and two
large Portuguese florins, one of which weighs 10 ducats, and
I gave the boy 15 stivers for a tip. I have bought a lode-
stone for 16 stivers. I have changed an angel for expenses.
Paid 6 stivers for packing. Sent Master Hugo at Brussels an
engraved "Passion" and some other prints for his little
porphyry stone. I have made for Tomasin a design drawn and
tinted in half-colours, from which he means to have his
house painted. I painted "Jerome" in oils with care and gave
it to Rodrigo of Portugal, who gave Susanna a ducat for a
tip. Have changed a Philip's florin for expenses and gave 10
stivers to my Father Confessor. Gave 4 stivers for the
little tortoise. I have dined with Herr Gilbert, who gave me
a Calicut target made of a fish skin, and two gloves as they
use them for fighting. I have given Peter 2 stivers. Gave 10
stivers for the fish fins, and 3 stivers for a tip. I have
made a very good portrait in hard chalk of Cornelius, the
secretary of Antwerp.

I have given 3 florins, 16 stivers, for the five silk
girdles which I mean to give away, besides 20 stivers for an
edging [lace?]. These six edgings I have sent as presents to
the wives of Kasperi Nutzel, Franz Imhof, Straub, the two
Spenglers, Loffelholz, besides a good pair of gloves to
each. To Pirkheimer I have sent a large cap, a very handsome
buffalo horn inkstand, a silver [medal of the] Emperor, a
pound of pistachios, and three sugar canes. To Kasper
Ntitzel I have sent a great elk's foot, ten large fir cones
with pine kernels. To Jacob Muffel I have sent a scarlet
breast cloth of one ell; to Hans Imhof's child an
embroidered scarlet cap and pine kernels; to Kramer's wife
four ells of taffeta, worth 4 florins. To Lochinger's wife
one ell of taffeta, of 1 florin's worth; to the two
Spenglers, each a bag and three fine horns; to Herr
Hieronimus Holzschuher, a very large horn.

Have eaten twice with the factor; dined with Master Adrian,
the secretary of the town council of Antwerp, who gave me
the small painted panel made by Master Joachim [de Patinir]:
it is of "Lot and his Daughters." Have taken 12 florins for
prints, also I have sold some of Hans Baldung Grun's works
for 1 florin. Rudiger von Gelern has given me a piece of
sandalwood; I gave his boy a stiver. I have painted the
portrait of Bernhard of Brussels in oils; he gave me 8
florins for it, and gave my wife a crown, and Susanna a
florin worth 24 stivers. I have given 3 stivers for the
Swiss jug, and 2 stivers for the ship, also 3 stivers for
the case and 4 stivers to the Father Confessor. I have
changed an angel for expenses; have taken 4 florins, 10
stivers for works of art: paid 3 stivers for salve; gave 12
1/2 stivers for wood; changed 1 florin for expenses; have
given 1 florin for 14 pieces of French wood. I gave Ambrozio
Hochstutter a "Life of Our Lady," and he gave me a model of
his ship. Rodrigo gave my wife a little ring which is worth
more than 5 florins. Have changed 1 florin for expenses.

I have done the portrait of Factor Brandon's secretary in
charcoal; I have done the portrait of his Moorish woman in
silverpoint, and I have done Rodrigo's portrait on a large
sheet of paper with the brush, in black and white. I have
given 16 florins for a piece of camlet measuring twenty-four
ells, and it cost 1 stiver to bring home. Have paid 2
stivers for gloves. I have done Lucas of Dantzic's portrait
in charcoal. He gave me 1 florin for it, and a piece of

VISIT TO BRUGES AND GHENT (April 6-11, 1521)

On the Saturday after Easter, with Hans Luber and Master Jan
Prevost, a good painter born at Bruges, I set out from
Antwerp towards Bruges by way of the Scheldt and came to
Beveren, a large village. From there to Vracene, also a big
village; thence we passed through some villages and came to
a fine large village, where the rich farmers live, and there
we breakfasted. Thence we journeyed towards St. Paul's, the
rich abbey, and went through Caudenborn, a fine village;
thence through the large village of Kalve, and thence to
Ertvelde; there we lay the night and started early on Sunday
morning and came from Ertvelde to a small town. From that we
went to Ecloo, which is a mighty large village; it is
plastered, and has a square; there we breakfasted. Thence we
went to Maldegem, and then through other villages, and came
to Bruges--which is a fine noble town. I paid 21 stivers for
fare and other expenses. And arriving at Bruges, Jan Prevost
took me into his house to lodge, and the same night prepared
a costly meal, and asked much company to meet me.

The next day Marx, the goldsmith, invited me, and gave me a
costly meal and asked many to meet me; afterwards they took
me to see the Emperor's house, which is large and splendid.
There I saw the chapel which Roger painted, and some
pictures by a great old artist. I gave the man who showed
them to us 1 stiver; afterwards I bought two ivory combs for
30 stivers. Thence they took me to St. James's and let me
see the splendid paintings of Roger and Hugo, who are both
great masters. Afterwards I saw the alabaster Madonna in Our
Lady's Church that Michelangelo of Rome made; afterwards
they took me to many churches and let me see all the fine
paintings, of which there is abundance there, and when I had
seen the Jan [Van Eyck] and all the other things, we came at
last to the Painters' Chapel, in which there are good
things. Then they prepared a banquet for me, and I went
thence with them to their guildhall; there were many
honourable men gathered together, goldsmiths, painters, and
merchants, and they made me sup with them, and they gave me
presents and sought my acquaintance and did me great honour;
and the two brothers Jacob and Peter Mostaert, the town
councilors, gave me twelve cans of wine, and the whole
assembly, more than sixty persons, accompanied me home with
many torches. I also saw in their shooting gallery the great
fish tub from which they eat, which is 19 feet long, 7 high,
and 7 broad.

Early on Tuesday we departed, but before that, I did Jan
Prevost's portrait in silverpoint, and gave his wife 10
stivers at parting. And so we traveled to Ursel; there we
breakfasted. On the way there are three villages. Then we
traveled towards Ghent, again through three villages, and I
paid 4 stivers for the journey, and 4 stivers for expenses;
and on my arrival at Ghent, there came to me the dean of the
painters and brought with him the first masters in painting;
they showed me great honour, received me most courteously,
and commended to me their good-will and service, and supped
with me. On Wednesday early they took me to the tower of St.
John's, whence I looked all over the great and wonderful
town, where I had just been treated as a great person.
Afterwards I saw the Jan [Van Eyck's] picture, which is a
very splendid, deeply studied painting, and especially the
"Eve," the "Mary," and "God the Father" were extremely good.

Then I saw the lions and drew one of them in silverpoint;
also I saw on the bridge, where men are beheaded, two
pictures which were made as a sign that there a son had
beheaded his father. Ghent is beautiful and a wonderful
town; four great waters flow through it. I gave 3 stivers as
a tip to the sacristan and the lions' keeper. I saw many
other remarkable things in Ghent, and the painters with
their dean did not forget me, but ate with me morning and
evening, and paid for everything, and were very friendly. I
gave away 3 stivers at the inn on leaving. Then early on
Thursday I set out from Ghent and came through various
villages to the inn called "The Swan," where we breakfasted;
thence we passed through a beautiful village and came to
Antwerp, and I paid 8 stivers for the fare.

AT ANTWERP (April 11-May 17, 1521)

I have taken 4 florins for works of art; changed one florin
for expenses. Have taken the portrait of Hans Lieber of Ulm
in charcoal; he wished to pay me 1 florin, but I would not
take it. Gave 7 stivers for wood and 1 stiver for bringing
it; changed 1 florin for expenses. In the third week after
Easter a violent fever came upon me with great weakness,
nausea, and headache; and before, when I was in Zeeland, a
strange illness overcame me such as I never heard of from
anyone, and this illness I have still. I paid 6 stivers for
a case. The monk has bound two books for me for the prints
which I gave him. I have given 10 florins, 8 stivers for a
piece of arras for two mantles for my mother-in-law and my
wife. I gave the doctor 8 stivers, and 3 stivers to the
apothecary, also changed 1 florin for expenses and spent 3
stivers in company. Paid the doctor 10 stivers; again paid
the doctor 6 stivers.

During my illness Rodrigo sent me many sweetmeats; I gave
the boy 4 stivers for a tip. I have drawn Master Joachim
[Patinir] in silverpoint, and made him besides another
likeness in silverpoint. Again changed a crown for expenses,
and again 1 florin for expenses. Paid the doctor 6 stivers,
and 7 stivers at the apothecary's; changed 1 florin for
expenses. For packing the third bale, which I sent from
Antwerp to Nuremberg by a carrier called Hans Staber, I paid
13 stivers, and I paid the carrier 1 florin for it, and I
agreed with him to take it from Antwerp to Nuremberg for 1
florin, I ort, per cwt., and this bale is to be taken to
Herr Hans Imhof, the elder. I have paid the doctor, the
apothecary, and the barber 14 stivers. I gave Master Jacob,
the surgeon, 4 florins' worth of prints. I have made a
portrait in charcoal of Thomas Polonius of Rome.

My camlet cloak came to twenty-one Brabant ells, which are
three finger-breadths longer than the Nuremberg ells. I have
also bought four black Spanish skins, which cost 3 stivers
each, and they come to 34, that makes 10 florins, 2 stivers;
I paid the skinner [furrier] 1 florin to make them up, then
there were two ells of velvet for trimming, 5 florins; also
for silk cord and thread, 34 stivers; then the tailor's
wage, 30 stivers; the camlet which is in the cloak cost 14
1/2 florins, and the boy 5 stivers for a tip.

Cross Sunday after Easter; from this I start a fresh
account. Again paid the doctor 6 stivers; I have gained 53
stivers for works of art, and have taken them for expenses.
On Sunday before Holy Cross Week, Master Joachim [Patinir],
the good landscape painter, asked me to his wedding, and
showed me all honour; there I saw two beautiful plays, the
first was especially pious and devout. I again paid the
doctor 6 stivers, and have changed 1 florin for expenses.

On Sunday after Our Lord's Ascension, Master Dietrich, the
glass painter of Antwerp, invited me and asked many other
people to meet me, and especially among them Alexander, the
goldsmith, a rich, stately man, and we had a splendid
dinner, and they did me great honour. I have done in
charcoal the portrait of Master Marx, the goldsmith, who
lives at Bruges. I bought a broad cap for 36 stivers. I paid
Paul Geiger 1 florin to take my little chest to Nuremberg,
and 4 stivers for the letter. I have taken the portrait of
Ambrosius Hochstatter in charcoal, and I dined with him: I
have dined at least six times with Tomasin. I bought some
wooden dishes and platters for 3 stivers. I have given the
apothecary 12 stivers. I have given two books of the "Life
of Our Lady," one to the foreign surgeon, the other to
Marx's house servant; I also paid the doctor 8 stivers, and
gave 4 stivers for cleaning an old cap. Lost 4 stivers at
play; have given 2 florins for a new cap. I have changed the
old cap because it was clumsy, and have given 6 stivers more
for another.

Painted a portrait of the duke in oils: have made a very
fine and careful portrait in oils of the treasurer, Lorenz
Sterk; it was worth 25 florins. I presented it to him, and
in return he gave me 20 florins, and to Susanna 1 florin for
a tip. Likewise I painted the portrait of Jobst, my host,
very well and carefully in oils; he has now given me [the
portrait I did of him before?] and I have done his wife
again and painted her portrait in oils.

On the Friday before Whitsuntide, 1521, tidings came to me
at Antwerp that Martin Luther had been so treacherously
taken prisoner, for he trusted the Emperor Charles's herald,
who had been granted to him with the Imperial safe conduct,
but as soon as the herald had brought him near Eisenach, to
an unfriendly place, he said that he would not need him any
more and rode away. Immediately there appeared ten knights,
who treacherously carried off the pious man, who had been
betrayed; a man enlightened by the Holy Ghost, a follower of
Christ and of the true Christian faith, and whether he lives
yet or whether they have put him to death, I know not. If he
has suffered, it is for the sake of Christian truth and
because he has fought with the un-Christlike papacy, which
strives with its heavy load of human laws against the
redemption of Christ; and if so, it is that we may be again
robbed and stripped of the fruit of our blood and sweat,
that the same may be shamelessly and scandalously squandered
while poor and sick men must therefore die of hunger. And
this is above all most grievous to me, that God perhaps will
let us remain yet under their false, blind doctrine,
invented and set forth by the men whom they call "Fathers,"
through whom the Word of God is in many places falsely
expounded or not taught at all.

[Editor's note: This form of abduction was the usual idea at
the time. But Luther was really taken by the order of
Frederick the Wise in order to protect him].

O God of Heaven, have pity on us, O Lord Jesus Christ, pray
for Thy people. Deliver us in due time, uphold in us the
right and true Christian Faith. Gather together Thy far
scattered sheep by Thy voice, in the Scripture called Thy
godly Word. Help us that we may know this Thy voice and may
follow no other deceiving call of human error, that we may
not, Lord Jesus Christ, fall away from Thee. Call together
again the sheep of Thy pasture, who are still in part found
in the Roman Church, and with them, too, the Indians,
Muscovites, Russians, and Greeks, who have been thus cut off
by the oppression and pride of the pope and by false
appearance of holiness.

O God, redeem thy poor folk constrained by heavy ban and
edict which it no wise willingly obeys, whereby it is bound
continually to sin against its conscience if it disobeys
them. O God, never hast Thou so heavily burdened a people
under human laws as us poor ones beneath the Roman chair,
who daily long to be free Christians ransomed by Thy blood.

O Highest Heavenly Father, pour into our hearts through Thy
Son Jesus Christ such a light, that we may know thereby
which messenger we are to obey, so that with good conscience
we may lay aside the burdens of others, and may serve Thee,
Eternal Heavenly Father, with free and joyful heart.

And if we lose this man, who has written more clearly than
anyone in a hundred and forty years, and to whom Thou hast
given such an evangelic spirit, we pray Thee, O Heavenly
Father, that Thou give again Thy spirit to another, that he
may gather together anew from all parts the holy Christian
Church, that we may all live again in a pure and Christian
manner, so that from our good works all unbelievers, with
Turks, heathens, and Calicuts, may turn themselves to us and
embrace the Christian faith.

But, Lord, Thou willest, ere Thou judgest, that as Thy Son
Jesus Christ was constrained to die by the hands of the
priests and rise from the dead and after to ascend to
heaven, that so too, in like manner, it should be with Thy
follower, Martin Luther, whose life the pope compasses, with
money, treacherously towards God, him, Thou wilt quicken
again. And as Thou, Lord, ordainedst that Jerusalem should
be destroyed, so wilt Thou also destroy this self-assumed
authority of the Roman chair. O lord, give us thereafter the
new beautified Jerusalem, which descends from heaven,
whereof the Apocalypse writes, the holy pure gospel which is
not darkened by human doctrine.

Whoever reads Martin Luther's books may see how clear and
transparent his doctrine is, for he teaches the Holy Gospel.
Wherefore his writings are to be held in the greatest
honour, and not to be burned; unless, indeed, his opponents,
who always fight against the truth, were also cast into the
fire with all their opinions, they who would make gods out
of men, but then only if there were printed new Lutheran

"O God, if Luther be dead, who will henceforth expound the
Holy Gospel so clearly to us! Ah, God, what might he not
have written for us in the next ten or twenty years!" Oh,
all ye pious Christian men, help me to lament this God-
inspired man and pray to Him that He will send us another
enlightened man.

Oh, Erasmus of Rotterdam, where wilt thou stay? Dost thou
see how the unjust tyranny of worldly power and the might of
darkness prevail? Hear, thou knight of Christ, ride on
beside the Lord Jesus; guard the truth, win the martyr's
crown! Thou art already only a little old man, and I have
heard thee say that thou givest thyself but two years more
in which thou mayest avail to accomplish something. Lay out
the same now well for the gospel and the true Christian
Faith and make thyself heard, so shall the gates of hell,
the Roman Chair, as Christ says, in no wise prevail against
thee: and if here, like thy Master Christ, thou were to
suffer shame at the hands of the liars of this time and
therefore were to die a little sooner, the sooner wouldst
thou come from death into life and be glorified through
Christ. For if thou drinkest out of the cup whereof He
drank, with Him thou shalt reign, and judge with justice
those who have dealt unrighteously.

Oh, Erasmus, hold to this, that God may be thy praise, even
as it is written of David, for verily thou mayest overthrow
Goliath. For God stands by the Holy Christian Church, as He
only upholds the Romish Church according to His Godly will
[text here corrupt]. May He help us to everlasting
happiness, Who is God the Father, the Son, and the Holy
Ghost, one God, Amen.

Oh, ye Christian men, pray God for help, for His judgment
draws near and His justice shall appear. Then shall we
behold the innocent blood which the pope, priests, bishops,
and monks have shed, judged and condemned.

Apocalypse: "These are the slain who lie beneath the altar
of God and cry for vengeance, to whom the voice of God
answers, Await the full number of the innocent slain, then
will I judge."

Again changed 1 florin for expenses, and gave the doctor 8
stivers; dined twice with Rodrigo; dined with the rich
canon; changed 1 florin for expenses. I had Master Conrad,
the sculptor of Mechlin, as a guest on Whitsunday; paid 18
stivers for Italian prints: again 6 stivers to the doctor.
For Master Joachim I have drawn four "St. Christophers" on
gray paper, heightened with white.

On the last day of Whitsuntide I was at Antwerp at the great
yearly horsefair; there I saw a great number of beautiful
stallions ridden, and two stallions in particular were sold
for 700 florins. I have taken 1 florin, 3 ort, for prints
and used the money for expenses; 4 stivers to the doctor, 3
stivers for two little books. I have dined thrice with
Tomasin. I have designed three dagger grips for him, and he
gave me a small alabaster bowl. I have taken the portrait in
charcoal of an English nobleman, who gave me 1 florin which
I changed for expenses. Master Gerhardt, the miniature
painter, has a daughter about eighteen years old, called
Susanna, who has illuminated a little page with a Saviour,
for which I gave her 1 florin. It is very wonderful that a
woman's picture should be so good. Have lost 6 stivers at
play. I saw the great procession at Antwerp on Holy Trinity
Day. Master Conrad has given me a beautiful pair of knives,
and so I gave his little old man a "Life of Our Lady" in
return. I have taken the portrait in charcoal of Johann, the
Brussels goldsmith, likewise his wife's. I have received 2
florins for prints, also Master Johann, the Brussels
goldsmith, paid me 3 Philip's florins for what I did for
him, namely, the drawing for the seal and the two portraits.

I have given the "Veronica" which I painted in oils, and the
"Adam and Eve" that Franz did to Johann, the goldsmith, in
return for a jacinth and an agate with a Lucrecia engraved
in it. Each of us valued his portion at 14 florins. Further,
I gave him a whole set of engravings for a ring and six
stones; each valued his portion at 7 florins. Gave 14
stivers for two pairs of gloves; gave 2 stivers for two
small boxes; changed 2 Philip's florins for expenses. I drew
three "Bearing of the Cross" and two "Mount of Olives" on
five half-sheets. I have taken three portraits in black and
white on gray paper; also I drew in black and white on gray
paper, two Netherlandish costumes. For the Englishman I have
painted his arms in colours, for which he gave me 1 florin.
Besides this, one way and another, I have done many drawings
and other things to serve people, and for the greater part
of my work I have received nothing. Andreas of Cracow paid
me 1 Philip's florin for a shield and a child's head.
Changed 1 florin for expenses. Have given 2 stivers for
sweeping brushes. At Antwerp I saw the great procession on
Corpus Christi Day, which was very splendid. Gave in the 4
stivers for a tip and 6 stivers to the doctor; changed 1
florin for expenses; 1 stiver for a box. Have dined five
times with Tomasin; paid 10 stivers to the apothecary and to
his wife 14 stivers for the clyster, and 15 stivers to him
for the prescription. Again changed 2 Philip's florins for
expenses; 6 stivers again to the doctor, and once more 10
stivers for a clyster to the apothecary's wife, and 4
stivers to the apothecary. I gave the monk who confessed my
wife 8 stivers. I have given 8 florins for a whole piece of
arras, and again for fourteen ells of fine arras, 8 florins:
the apothecary 32 stivers for medicines; to the messenger I
have given 3 stivers and the tailor 4 stivers. I have dined
once with Hans Fehler, and thrice with Tomasin. Gave 10
stivers for packing.

On the Wednesday after Corpus Christi in the year 1521, I
gave over my great bale at Antwerp to be sent to Nuremberg,
to the carrier, by name Kunz Metz of Schlaudersdorf, and I
am to pay him for carrying it to Nuremberg 1 1/2 florins for
every cwt., and I paid him 1 gulden on account, and he is to
hand it over to Herr Hans Imhof, the elder. I have done the
portrait of young Jacob Rehlinger at Antwerp; have dined
three times with Tomasin.

On the eighth day after Corpus Christi I went with my wife
to Mechlin to Lady Margaret; took 5 florins with me for
expenses; my wife changed 1 florin for expenses. At Mechlin
I lodged with Master Heinrich, the painter, at the sign of
the Golden Head. The painters and sculptors made me their
guest at my inn, and did me great honour in their gathering;
and I visited the Poppenreuter's, the gun-maker's house, and
found wonderful things there. And I have been to Lady
Margaret's, and I let her see my Kaiser, and would have
presented it to her, but she disliked it so much that I took
it away again. And on Friday Lady Margaret showed me all her
beautiful things, and among them I saw about forty small
pictures in oils, the like of which for cleanness and
excellence I have never seen. And there I saw other good
works by Jan [Van Eyck] and Jacopo [de' Barbari]. I asked my
lady for Jacopo's little book, but she said she had promised
it to her painter; then I saw many other costly things and a
fine library. Master Hans Poppenreuter invited me as his
guest. I have had Master Conrad twice, and his wife once, as
my guests, also the chamberlain Stephen and his wife, both
as guests. 27 stivers and 2 stivers for fare. I have taken
in charcoal the portrait of Stephen, the chamberlain, and
Master Conrad, the carver, and on Saturday I came back from
Mechlin to Antwerp. My trunk started on the Saturday after
Corpus Christi week. Changed 1 florin for expenses, gave the
messenger 3 stivers. Dined twice with the Augustines; dined
with Alexander Imhof; paid 6 stivers at the apothecary's;
dined again with the Augustines.

I have drawn in charcoal Master Jacob, and had a little
panel made for it, which cost 6 stivers, and gave it to him.
I have done the portrait of Bernhard Stecher and his wife,
and gave him a whole set of prints, and I took his wife's
portrait again, and gave 6 stivers for making the little
panel, all of which I gave him, and he in return gave me 10

Master Lucas, who engraves in copper, invited me as his
guest. He is a little man, born at Leyden, in Holland, and
was at Antwerp. I have eaten with Master Bernhard Stecher.
Gave 1 1/2 stivers to the messenger; have taken 1 florin, 1
ort, for prints. I have drawn Master Lucas von Leyden in
silverpoint. I have lost 1 florin; paid the doctor 6 stivers
and again 6 stivers. I gave the steward of the Augustines'
Convent at Antwerp a "Life of Our Lady," and 4 stivers to
his man, I have given Master Jacob a copper "Passion" and a
wood "Passion," and five other pieces, and 4 stivers to his
man; have changed 4 florins for expenses; gave 2 Philip's
florins for fourteen fish skins; made portraits in black
chalk of Art Braun and his wife. I gave the goldsmith who
valued the ring for me 1 florin's worth of prints; of the
three rings which I took in exchange for prints, the two
smaller are valued at 13 crowns, but the sapphire at 25
crowns; that makes 54 florins, 8 stivers; and what, amongst
other things, the above Frenchman took was thirty-six large
books, which makes 9 florins. Have given 2 stivers for a
screw knife. The man with the three rings has overreached me
by a half. I understood nothing in the matter. I gave 18
stivers for a red cap for my godchild; lost 12 stivers at
play; drank 2 stivers, bought three fine small rubies for 11
gold florins, 1 2 stivers; changed 1 florin for expenses.
Dined again with the Augustines; dined twice with Tomasin. I
gave 6 stivers for thirteen porpoise-bristle brushes, and 3
stivers for six bristle brushes.

I have made a careful portrait in black chalk on a royal
sheet of the great Anthony Hainault, and I have done careful
portraits in black chalk of Braun and his wife on royal
sheets, and I have done another one of him in silverpoint;
he has given me an angel. Changed 1 florin for expenses,
paid 1 florin for a pair of shoes; gave 6 stivers for an
inkstand. I gave 12 stivers for a case for packing; 21
stivers for one dozen ladies' gloves; 6 stivers for a bag; 3
stivers for three bristle brushes; changed 1 florin for
expenses; gave 1 stiver for a piece of fine red leather.
Anthony Hainault, whose portrait I did, has given me 3
Philip's florins, and Bernhard Stecher has made me a present
of a tortoise shell; I have done the portrait of his wife's
niece; dined once with her husband and he gave me 2 Philip's
florins; gave 1 stiver for a tip. I have given Anthony
Hainault two books; received 13 stivers for prints. I have
given Master Joachim the Hans Grun woodcut. I have changed 3
Philip's florins for expenses; dined twice with Bernhard
Stecher; again twice with Tomasin. I have given Jobst's wife
four woodcuts; gave Friedrich, Jobst's man, two large books;
gave glazier Hennick's son two books. Rodrigo gave me one of
the parrots which they bring from Malacca, and I gave his
man 3 stivers for a tip. Again dined twice with Tomasin;
have given 2 stivers for a little cage, 3 stivers for one
pair of socks, and 4 stivers for eight little boards. I gave
Peter two whole sheet engravings and one sheet of woodcut.
Again dined twice with Tomasin; changed 1 florin for
expenses. I gave Master Art, the glass painter, a "Life of
Our Lady," and I gave Master Jean, the French sculptor, a
whole set of prints; he gave my wife six little glasses with
rose water; they are very finely made.

Bought a packing-case for 7 stivers; changed 1 florin for
expenses; have given 7 stivers for a cut [leather] bag.
Cornelius, the secretary, has given me Luther's "Babylonian
Captivity:" in return I gave him my three big books. I gave
Peter Puz, the monk, one florin's worth of prints; to the
glass painter, Hennick, I gave two large books; gave 4
stivers for a piece of glazed calico; changed 1 Philip's
florin for expenses. I gave 8 florins' worth of my prints
for a whole set of Lucas's engravings; again changed 1
Philip's florin for expenses. I gave 8 stivers for a bag and
7 stivers for half a dozen Netherlandish cards, and 3
stivers for a small yellow post-horn. I paid 24 stivers for
meat, 12 stivers for coarse cloth, and again 3 stivers for
coarse cloth. Have eaten twice with Tomasin. I gave 1 stiver
to Peter; gave 7 stivers for a present and 3 stivers for
sacking. Rodrigo has presented me with six ells of coarse
black cloth for a cape; it cost a crown an ell. Changed 2
florins for expenses; gave the tailor's man 2 stivers for a
tip. I have reckoned up with Jobst and I owe him 31 florins,
which I paid him. Therein were charged and deducted two
portrait heads which I painted in oils, for which he gave me
five pounds of borax, Netherlandish weight.

In all my doings, spendings, sales, and other dealings in
the Netherlands, in all my affairs with high and low, I have
suffered loss, and Lady Margaret in particular gave me
nothing for what I gave her and did for her. This settlement
with Jobst was made on SS. Peter and Paul's Day. I gave
Rodrigo's man 7 stivers for a tip. I have given Master
Hennick an engraved "Passion;" he gave me some burning
pastilles. I had to pay the tailor 25 stivers for making up
the cape. I have engaged a carrier to take me from Antwerp
to Cologne. I am to pay him 13 light florins, each of 24
stivers, and am to pay besides the expenses for a man and a
boy. Jacob Rehlinger has given me 1 ducat for his charcoal
portrait. Gerhard has given me two little pots with capers
and olives, for which I gave 4 stivers as a tip. Gave
Rodrigo's man 1 stiver. I have given my portrait of the
Emperor in exchange for a white English cloth which Jacob,
Tomasin's son-in-law, gave me.

Alexander Imhof has lent me a full hundred gold florins, on
the Eve of Our Lady's Crossing the Mountains, 1521. For this
I have given him my sealed signature, which he will have
presented to me at Nuremberg, when I will pay him back with
thanks, gave 6 stivers for a pair of shoes; paid the
apothecary 11 stivers, paid 3 stivers for cord. In Tomasin's
kitchen I gave away a Philip's florin in leaving gifts, and
I gave his maiden daughter a gold florin on leaving. I have
dined thrice with him. I gave Jobst's wife a florin and 1
florin in the kitchen for leaving gifts, also I gave 2
stivers to the packers. Tomasin has given me a small jar
full of the best theriac [an antidote for poison]. Changed 3
florins for expenses; gave the house servant 10 stivers on
leaving; gave Peter 1 stiver; gave 2 stivers for a tip. I
gave 3 stivers to Master Jacob's man; 4 stivers for sacking;
gave Peter 1 stiver; gave the messenger 3 stivers.

On Our Lady's Visitation, when I was just leaving Antwerp,
the King of Denmark sent for me to come to him at once, to
do his portrait; this I did in charcoal, and I did the
portrait, too, of his servant Anthony, and I had to dine
with the King, who showed himself very gracious to me.

I have entrusted my bale to Leonhard Tucher and given over
to him my white cloth. The carrier with whom I bargained,
did not take me; I fell out with him. Gerhard has given me
some Italian seeds. I gave the new carrier to take home the
great turtle shell, the fish shield, the long pipe, the long
shield, the fish fins, and the two little casks of lemons
and capers, on Our Lady's Visitation Day, 1521.

Next day we set out for Brussels on the King of Denmark's
business, and I engaged a driver, to whom I gave 2 florins.
I presented to the King of Denmark the best pieces of all my
prints, they are worth 5 florins. Changed 2 florins for
expenses; paid 1 stiver for a dish and basket. I saw, too,
how the people of Antwerp wondered very much when they saw
the King of Denmark, that he was such a manly, handsome man,
and that he had come hither with only two companions through
his enemies' country. I saw, too, how the Emperor rode forth
from Brussels to meet him and received him honourably and
with great pomp. Then I saw the noble costly banquet that
the Emperor and Lady Margaret held next day.

Paid 2 stivers for a pair of gloves. Herr Anthony paid me 12
Horn florins, of which I gave 2 Horn florins to the painter
for the little panel to paint the portrait on, and 2 Horn
florins for having colours rubbed for me; the other 8 Horn
florins I took for expenses.

On the Sunday before St. Margaret's Day, the King of Denmark
gave a great banquet to the Emperor, Lady Margaret, and the
Queen of Spain [Editor's note: probably Eleanora of
Portugal, not the Spanish Queen], and invited me, and I
dined there also. Paid 12 stivers for the King's frame, and
I painted the King in oils--he has given me 30 florins.
[Editor's note: this painting no longer exists].

I gave 2 stivers to the young man called Bartholomew, who
rubbed the colours for me; I bought a little glass jar which
once belonged to the King for 2 stivers. Paid 2 stivers for
a tip; gave 2 stivers for the engraved goblets. I have given
Master Jan's boy four half-sheets, and to the master-
painter's boy an "Apocalypse" and four half-sheets. Thomas
of Bologna has given me one or two Italian prints; I have
also bought one for 1 stiver. Master Jobst, the tailor,
invited me and I supped with him. I have paid for the hire
of a room at Brussels for eight days, 32 stivers. I have
given an engraved "Passion" to the wife of Master Jan, the
goldsmith, with whom I dined three times. I gave another
"Life of Our Lady" to Bartholomew, the painter's apprentice;
I have dined with Herr Nicolas Ziegler, and gave 1 stiver to
Master Jan's servant. Because of being unable to get a
carriage, I have stayed on two days in Brussels; paid 1
stiver for a pair of socks.

On Friday morning early I started from Brussels, and I am to
pay the driver 10 florins. I paid my hostess 5 stivers more
for the single night. From there we rode through two
villages and came to Louvain; breakfasted, and spent 13
stivers. Thence we journeyed through three villages and came
to Thienen, which is a little town, and lay the night there,
and I spent 9 stivers. From there, early on St. Margaret's
Day, we traveled through two villages and came to a town
which called St. Truyen, where they are building a large,
well-designed church tower, quite new. From thence we went
on past some poor houses and came to a little town,
Tongeren; there we had our morning meal, and spent all
together, 6 stivers. From thence we went through a village
and some poor houses and came to Maestricht, where I lay the
night, and spent 12 stivers, and 2 blanke besides, for watch
money. Thence we journeyed early on Sunday to Aachen, where
we ate and spent all together 14 stivers. Thence we traveled
to Altenburg, taking six hours, because the driver did not
know the way and went wrong; there we stayed for the night
and spent 6 stivers. On Monday early we traveled through
Julich, a town, and came to Bergheim, where we ate and
drank, and spent 3 stivers. Thence we journeyed through
three more villages and came to Cologne.



The original edition of this text was translated into
English by Rudolf Tombo, Ph.D., and published by The
Merrymount Press, Boston, 1913, as part of volume VI of The
Humanist's Library, edited by Lewis Einstein. It has also
been republished, unabridged, by Dover Publications, Inc.,
in 1995.

The text itself is copyright-free. This digitized version
of the text was prepared by John Mamoun in December, 2000
and is copyright, but liberal permission is granted to
freely copy/distribute/modify it for non-commercial
purposes/contexts and/or for non-commercial academic use.


Back to Full Books