Michael Strogoff
Jules Verne

Part 5 out of 7

listening to him, but each time that the burden came from the lips
of the young singer, she resumed her dance, dinning in his ears
with her daire, and deafening him with the clashing of her cymbals.
Then, after the last chorus, the remainder surrounded the Tsigane
in the windings of their dance.

At that moment a shower of gold fell from the hands of the Emir and
his train, and from the hands of his officers of all ranks; to the noise
which the pieces made as they struck the cymbals of the dancers,
being added the last murmurs of the doutares and tambourines.

"Lavish as robbers," said Alcide in the ear of his companion.
And in fact it was the result of plunder which was falling;
for, with the Tartar tomans and sequins, rained also Russian
ducats and roubles.

Then silence followed for an instant, and the voice of the executioner,
who laid his hand on Michael's shoulder, once more pronounced the words,
which this repetition rendered more and more sinister:

"Look while you may"

But this time Alcide observed that the executioner no longer held
the saber bare in his hand.

Meanwhile the sun had sunk behind the horizon. A semi-obscurity began
to envelop the plain. The mass of cedars and pines became blacker
and blacker, and the waters of the Tom, totally obscured in the distance,
mingled with the approaching shadows.

But at that instant several hundreds of slaves, bearing lighted
torches, entered the square. Led by Sangarre, Tsiganes and
Persians reappeared before the Emir's throne, and showed off,
by the contrast, their dances of styles so different.
The instruments of the Tartar orchestra sounded forth in harmony
still more savage, accompanied by the guttural cries of the singers.
The kites, which had fallen to the ground, once more winged
their way into the sky, each bearing a parti-colored lantern,
and under a fresher breeze their harps vibrated with intenser
sound in the midst of the aerial illumination.

Then a squadron of Tartars, in their brilliant uniforms,
mingled in the dances, whose wild fury was increasing rapidly,
and then began a performance which produced a very strange effect.
Soldiers came on the ground, armed with bare sabers and
long pistols, and, as they executed dances, they made the air
re-echo with the sudden detonations of their firearms,
which immediately set going the rumbling of the tambourines,
and grumblings of the daires, and the gnashing of doutares.

Their arms, covered with a colored powder of some metallic ingredient,
after the Chinese fashion, threw long jets--red, green, and blue--
so that the groups of dancers seemed to be in the midst of fireworks.
In some respects, this performance recalled the military dance
of the ancients, in the midst of naked swords; but this Tartar dance
was rendered yet more fantastic by the colored fire, which wound,
serpent-like, above the dancers, whose dresses seemed to be embroidered
with fiery hems. It was like a kaleidoscope of sparks, whose infinite
combinations varied at each movement of the dancers.

Though it may be thought that a Parisian reporter would be perfectly
hardened to any scenic effect, which our modern ideas have carried so far,
yet Alcide Jolivet could not restrain a slight movement of the head,
which at home, between the Boulevard Montmartre and La Madeleine would
have said--"Very fair, very fair."

Then, suddenly, at a signal, all the lights of the fantasia
were extinguished, the dances ceased, and the performers disappeared.
The ceremony was over, and the torches alone lighted up the plateau,
which a few instants before had been so brilliantly illuminated.

On a sign from the Emir, Michael was led into the middle of the square.

"Blount," said Alcide to his companion, "are you going to see
the end of all this?"

"No, that I am not," replied Blount.

"The readers of the Daily Telegraph are, I hope, not very eager
for the details of an execution a la mode Tartare?"

"No more than your cousin!"

"Poor fellow!" added Alcide, as he watched Michael. "That valiant
soldier should have fallen on the field of battle!"

"Can we do nothing to save him?" said Blount.


The reporters recalled Michael's generous conduct towards them;
they knew now through what trials he must have passed,
ever obedient to his duty; and in the midst of these Tartars,
to whom pity is unknown, they could do nothing for him.
Having little desire to be present at the torture reserved
for the unfortunate man, they returned to the town.
An hour later, they were on the road to Irkutsk, for it was among
the Russians that they intended to follow what Alcide called,
by anticipation, "the campaign of revenge."

Meantime, Michael was standing ready, his eyes returning the Emir's
haughty glance, while his countenance assumed an expression of intense
scorn whenever he cast his looks on Ivan Ogareff. He was prepared to die,
yet not a single sign of weakness escaped him.

The spectators, waiting around the square, as well as Feofar-Khan's
body-guard, to whom this execution was only one of the attractions,
were eagerly expecting it. Then, their curiosity satisfied,
they would rush off to enjoy the pleasures of intoxication.

The Emir made a sign. Michael was thrust forward by his
guards to the foot of the terrace, and Feofar said to him,
"You came to see our goings out and comings in, Russian spy.
You have seen for the last time. In an instant your eyes
will be forever shut to the day."

Michael's fate was to be not death, but blindness;
loss of sight, more terrible perhaps than loss of life.
The unhappy man was condemned to be blinded.

However, on hearing the Emir's sentence Michael's heart did not
grow faint. He remained unmoved, his eyes wide open, as though
he wished to concentrate his whole life into one last look.
To entreat pity from these savage men would be useless, besides,
it would be unworthy of him. He did not even think of it.
His thoughts were condensed on his mission, which had apparently
so completely failed; on his mother, on Nadia, whom he should never
more see! But he let no sign appear of the emotion he felt.
Then, a feeling of vengeance to be accomplished came over him.
"Ivan," said he, in a stern voice, "Ivan the Traitor, the last
menace of my eyes shall be for you!"

Ivan Ogareff shrugged his shoulders.

But Michael was not to be looking at Ivan when his eyes were put out.
Marfa Strogoff stood before him.

"My mother!" cried he. "Yes! yes! my last glance shall be
for you, and not for this wretch! Stay there, before me!
Now I see once more your well-beloved face! Now shall my eyes
close as they rest upon it . . . !"

The old woman, without uttering a word, advanced.

"Take that woman away!" said Ivan.

Two soldiers were about to seize her, but she stepped back and remained
standing a few paces from Michael.

The executioner appeared. This time, he held his saber
bare in his hand, and this saber he had just drawn from
the chafing-dish, where he had brought it to a white heat.
Michael was going to be blinded in the Tartar fashion,
with a hot blade passed before his eyes!

Michael did not attempt to resist. Nothing existed before
his eyes but his mother, whom his eyes seemed to devour.
All his life was in that last look.

Marfa Strogoff, her eyes open wide, her arms extended towards
where he stood, was gazing at him. The incandescent blade passed
before Michael's eyes.

A despairing cry was heard. His aged mother fell senseless
to the ground. Michael Strogoff was blind.

His orders executed, the Emir retired with his train.
There remained in the square only Ivan Ogareff and the torch bearers.
Did the wretch intend to insult his victim yet further,
and yet to give him a parting blow?

Ivan Ogareff slowly approached Michael, who, feeling him coming,
drew himself up. Ivan drew from his pocket the Imperial letter,
he opened it, and with supreme irony he held it up before
the sightless eyes of the Czar's courier, saying, "Read, now,
Michael Strogoff, read, and go and repeat at Irkutsk what you have read.
The true Courier of the Czar is Ivan Ogareff."

This said, the traitor thrust the letter into his breast.
Then, without looking round he left the square, followed
by the torch-bearers.

Michael was left alone, at a few paces from his mother, lying lifeless,
perhaps dead. He heard in the distance cries and songs, the varied
noises of a wild debauch. Tomsk, illuminated, glittered and gleamed.

Michael listened. The square was silent and deserted. He went,
groping his way, towards the place where his mother had fallen.
He found her with his hand, he bent over her, he put his face
close to hers, he listened for the beating of her heart.
Then he murmured a few words.

Did Marfa still live, and did she hear her son's words?
Whether she did so or not, she made not the slightest movement.
Michael kissed her forehead and her white locks. He then
raised himself, and, groping with his foot, trying to stretch
out his hand to guide himself, he walked by degrees to the edge
of the square.

Suddenly Nadia appeared. She walked straight to her companion.
A knife in her hand cut the cords which bound Michael's arms.
The blind man knew not who had freed him, for Nadia had not
spoken a word.

But this done: "Brother!" said she.

"Nadia!" murmured Michael, "Nadia!"

"Come, brother," replied Nadia, "use my eyes whilst yours sleep.
I will lead you to Irkutsk."


HALF an hour afterwards, Michael and Nadia had left Tomsk.

Many others of the prisoners were that night able to escape
from the Tartars, for officers and soldiers, all more or
less intoxicated, had unconsciously relaxed the vigilant guard
which they had hitherto maintained. Nadia, after having
been carried off with the other prisoners, had been able
to escape and return to the square, at the moment when Michael
was led before the Emir. There, mingling with the crowd,
she had witnessed the terrible scene. Not a cry escaped her
when the scorching blade passed before her companion's eyes.
She kept, by her strength of will, mute and motionless.
A providential inspiration bade her restrain herself and retain
her liberty that she might lead Marfa's son to that goal which
he had sworn to reach. Her heart for an instant ceased to beat
when the aged Siberian woman fell senseless to the ground,
but one thought restored her to her former energy.
"I will be the blind man's dog," said she.

On Ogareff's departure, Nadia had concealed herself in the shade.
She had waited till the crowd left the square. Michael, abandoned as
a wretched being from whom nothing was to be feared, was alone.
She saw him draw himself towards his mother, bend over her,
kiss her forehead, then rise and grope his way in flight.

A few instants later, she and he, hand in hand, had descended
the steep slope, when, after having followed the high banks
of the Tom to the furthest extremity of the town, they happily
found a breach in the inclosure.

The road to Irkutsk was the only one which penetrated towards the east.
It could not be mistaken. It was possible that on the morrow,
after some hours of carousal, the scouts of the Emir, once more
scattering over the steppes, might cut off all communication.
It was of the greatest importance therefore to get in advance of them.
How could Nadia bear the fatigues of that night, from the l6th
to the 17th of August? How could she have found strength for so long
a stage? How could her feet, bleeding under that forced march,
have carried her thither? It is almost incomprehensible.
But it is none the less true that on the next morning, twelve hours
after their departure from Tomsk, Michael and she reached the town
of Semilowskoe, after a journey of thirty-five miles.

Michael had not uttered a single word. It was not Nadia who held
his hand, it was he who held that of his companion during the whole
of that night; but, thanks to that trembling little hand which guided him,
he had walked at his ordinary pace.

Semilowskoe was almost entirely abandoned. The inhabitants had fled.
Not more than two or three houses were still occupied.
All that the town contained, useful or precious, had been carried off
in wagons. However, Nadia was obliged to make a halt of a few hours.
They both required food and rest.

The young girl led her companion to the extremity of the town.
There they found an empty house, the door wide open.
An old rickety wooden bench stood in the middle of the room,
near the high stove which is to be found in all Siberian houses.
They silently seated themselves.

Nadia gazed in her companion's face as she had never before gazed.
There was more than gratitude, more than pity, in that look.
Could Michael have seen her, he would have read in that sweet
desolate gaze a world of devotion and tenderness.

The eyelids of the blind man, made red by the heated blade,
fell half over his eyes. The pupils seemed to be singularly enlarged.
The rich blue of the iris was darker than formerly. The eyelashes
and eyebrows were partly burnt, but in appearance, at least,
the old penetrating look appeared to have undergone no change.
If he could no longer see, if his blindness was complete,
it was because the sensibility of the retina and optic nerve
was radically destroyed by the fierce heat of the steel.

Then Michael stretched out his hands.

"Are you there, Nadia?" he asked.

"Yes," replied the young girl; "I am close to you, and I will not go
away from you, Michael."

At his name, pronounced by Nadia for the first time, a thrill passed
through Michael's frame. He perceived that his companion knew all,
who he was.

"Nadia," replied he, "we must separate!"

"We separate? How so, Michael?"

"I must not be an obstacle to your journey! Your father is waiting
for you at Irkutsk! You must rejoin your father!"

"My father would curse me, Michael, were I to abandon you now,
after all you have done for me!"

"Nadia, Nadia," replied Michael, "you should think only of your father!"

"Michael," replied Nadia, "you have more need of me than my father.
Do you mean to give up going to Irkutsk?"

"Never!" cried Michael, in a tone which plainly showed that none
of his energy was gone.

"But you have not the letter!"

"That letter of which Ivan Ogareff robbed me! Well! I shall
manage without it, Nadia! They have treated me as a spy!
I will act as a spy! I will go and repeat at Irkutsk all I
have seen, all I have heard; I swear it by Heaven above!
The traitor shall meet me one day face to face! But I must
arrive at Irkutsk before him."

"And yet you speak of our separating, Michael?"

"Nadia, they have taken everything from me!"

"I have some roubles still, and my eyes! I can see for you, Michael;
and I will lead you thither, where you could not go alone!"

"And how shall we go?"

"On foot."

"And how shall we live?"

"By begging."

"Let us start, Nadia."

"Come, Michael."

The two young people no longer kept the names "brother" and "sister."
In their common misfortune, they felt still closer united.
They left the house after an hour's repose. Nadia had procured
in the town some morsels of "tchornekhleb," a sort of barley bread,
and a little mead, called "meod" in Russia. This had cost
her nothing, for she had already begun her plan of begging.
The bread and mead had in some degree appeased Michael's hunger
and thirst. Nadia gave him the lion's share of this scanty meal.
He ate the pieces of bread his companion gave him, drank from
the gourd she held to his lips.

"Are you eating, Nadia?" he asked several times.

"Yes, Michael," invariably replied the young girl, who contented
herself with what her companion left.

Michael and Nadia quitted Semilowskoe, and once more set
out on the laborious road to Irkutsk. The girl bore up
in a marvelous way against fatigue. Had Michael seen her,
perhaps he would not have had the courage to go on.
But Nadia never complained, and Michael, hearing no sigh,
walked at a speed he was unable to repress. And why?
Did he still expect to keep before the Tartars? He was on foot,
without money; he was blind, and if Nadia, his only guide,
were to be separated from him, he could only lie down
by the side of the road and there perish miserably.
But if, on the other hand, by energetic perseverance he could
reach Krasnoiarsk, all was perhaps not lost, since the governor,
to whom he would make himself known, would not hesitate to give
him the means of reaching Irkutsk.

Michael walked on, speaking little, absorbed in his own thoughts.
He held Nadia's hand. The two were in incessant communication. It seemed
to them that they had no need of words to exchange their thoughts.
From time to time Michael said, "Speak to me, Nadia."

"Why should I, Michael? We are thinking together!" the young
girl would reply, and contrived that her voice should not betray
her extreme fatigue.

But sometimes, as if her heart had ceased to beat for an instant,
her limbs tottered, her steps flagged, her arms fell to her sides,
she dropped behind. Michael then stopped, he fixed his eyes on the poor
girl, as though he would try to pierce the gloom which surrounded him;
his breast heaved; then, supporting his companion more than before,
he started on afresh.

However, amidst these continual miseries, a fortunate circumstance
on that day occurred which it appeared likely would considerably ease
their fatigue. They had been walking from Semilowskoe for two hours
when Michael stopped.

"Is there no one on the road?"

"Not a single soul," replied Nadia.

"Do you not hear some noise behind us? If they are Tartars we must hide.
Keep a good look-out!"

"Wait, Michael!" replied Nadia, going back a few steps to where the road
turned to the right.

Michael Strogoff waited alone for a minute, listening attentively.

Nadia returned almost immediately and said, "It is a cart.
A young man is leading it."

"Is he alone?"


Michael hesitated an instant. Should he hide? or should he,
on the contrary, try to find a place in the vehicle, if not
for himself, at least for her? For himself, he would be quite
content to lay one hand on the cart, to push it if necessary,
for his legs showed no sign of failing him; but he felt sure
that Nadia, compelled to walk ever since they crossed the Obi,
that is, for eight days, must be almost exhausted. He waited.

The cart was soon at the corner of the road. It was a very
dilapidated vehicle, known in the country as a kibitka, just capable
of holding three persons. Usually the kibitka is drawn by three horses,
but this had but one, a beast with long hair and a very long tail.
It was of the Mongol breed, known for strength and courage.

A young man was leading it, with a dog beside him.
Nadia saw at once that the young man was Russian; his face
was phlegmatic, but pleasant, and at once inspired confidence.
He did not appear to be in the slightest hurry; he was not
walking fast that he might spare his horse, and, to look at him,
it would not have been believed that he was following a road
which might at any instant be swarming with Tartars.

Nadia, holding Michael by the hand, made way for the vehicle.
The kibitka stopped, and the driver smilingly looked at the young girl.

"And where are you going to in this fashion?" he asked,
opening wide his great honest eyes.

At the sound of his voice, Michael said to himself that he had heard
it before. And it was satisfactory to him to recognize the man
for his brow at once cleared.

"Well, where are you going?" repeated the young man, addressing himself
more directly to Michael.

"We are going to Irkutsk," he replied.

"Oh! little father, you do not know that there are still versts
and versts between you and Irkutsk?"

"I know it."

"And you are going on foot?"

"On foot."

"You, well! but the young lady?"

"She is my sister," said Michael, who judged it prudent to give
again this name to Nadia.

"Yes, your sister, little father! But, believe me, she will never be
able to get to Irkutsk!"

"Friend," returned Michael, approaching him, "the Tartars have
robbed us of everything, and I have not a copeck to offer you;
but if you will take my sister with you, I will follow your cart on foot;
I will run when necessary, I will not delay you an hour!"

"Brother," exclaimed Nadia, "I will not! I will not!
Sir, my brother is blind!"

"Blind!" repeated the young man, much moved.

"The Tartars have burnt out his eyes!" replied Nadia, extending her hands,
as if imploring pity.

"Burnt out his eyes! Oh! poor little father! I am going
to Krasnoiarsk. Well, why should not you and your sister mount
in the kibitka? By sitting a little close, it will hold us
all three. Besides, my dog will not refuse to go on foot;
only I don't go fast, I spare my horse."

"Friend, what is your name?" asked Michael.

"My name is Nicholas Pigassof."

"It is a name that I will never forget," said Michael.

"Well, jump up, little blind father. Your sister will be
beside you, in the bottom of the cart; I sit in front to drive.
There is plenty of good birch bark and straw in the bottom;
it's like a nest. Serko, make room!"

The dog jumped down without more telling. He was an animal of the
Siberian race, gray hair, of medium size, with an honest big head,
just made to pat, and he, moreover, appeared to be much attached
to his master.

In a moment more, Michael and Nadia were seated in the kibitka.
Michael held out his hands as if to feel for those of Pigassof. "You wish
to shake my hands!" said Nicholas. "There they are, little father!
shake them as long as it will give you any pleasure."

The kibitka moved on; the horse, which Nicholas never touched with
the whip, ambled along. Though Michael did not gain any in speed,
at least some fatigue was spared to Nadia.

Such was the exhaustion of the young girl, that, rocked by
the monotonous movement of the kibitka, she soon fell into
a sleep, its soundness proving her complete prostration.
Michael and Nicholas laid her on the straw as comfortably as possible.
The compassionate young man was greatly moved, and if a tear
did not escape from Michael's eyes, it was because the red-hot
iron had dried up the last!

"She is very pretty," said Nicholas.

"Yes," replied Michael.

"They try to be strong, little father, they are brave,
but they are weak after all, these dear little things!
Have you come from far."

"Very far."

"Poor young people! It must have hurt you very much when they
burnt your eyes!"

"Very much," answered Michael, turning towards Nicholas as if
he could see him.

"Did you not weep?"


"I should have wept too. To think that one could never
again see those one loves. But they can see you, however;
that's perhaps some consolation!"

"Yes, perhaps. Tell me, my friend," continued Michael,
"have you never seen me anywhere before?"

"You, little father? No, never."

"The sound of your voice is not unknown to me."

"Why!" returned Nicholas, smiling, "he knows the sound of my voice!
Perhaps you ask me that to find out where I come from.
I come from Kolyvan."

"From Kolyvan?" repeated Michael. "Then it was there I met you;
you were in the telegraph office?"

"That may be," replied Nicholas. "I was stationed there.
I was the clerk in charge of the messages."

"And you stayed at your post up to the last moment?"

"Why, it's at that moment one ought to be there!"

"It was the day when an Englishman and a Frenchman were disputing,
roubles in hand, for the place at your wicket, and the Englishman
telegraphed some poetry."

"That is possible, but I do not remember it."

"What! you do not remember it?"

"I never read the dispatches I send. My duty being to forget them,
the shortest way is not to know them."

This reply showed Nicholas Pigassof's character.
In the meanwhile the kibitka pursued its way, at a pace which Michael
longed to render more rapid. But Nicholas and his horse were
accustomed to a pace which neither of them would like to alter.
The horse went for two hours and rested one--so on, day and night.
During the halts the horse grazed, the travelers ate in company
with the faithful Serko. The kibitka was provisioned for at
least twenty persons, and Nicholas generously placed his
supplies at the disposal of his two guests, whom he believed
to be brother and sister.

After a day's rest, Nadia recovered some strength.
Nicholas took the best possible care of her.
The journey was being made under tolerable circumstances,
slowly certainly, but surely. It sometimes happened that during
the night, Nicholas, although driving, fell asleep, and snored
with a clearness which showed the calmness of his conscience.
Perhaps then, by looking close, Michael's hand might have been seen
feeling for the reins, and giving the horse a more rapid pace,
to the great astonishment of Serko, who, however, said nothing.
The trot was exchanged for the amble as soon as Nicholas awoke,
but the kibitka had not the less gained some versts.

Thus they passed the river Ichirnsk, the villages
of Ichisnokoe, Berikylokoe, Kuskoe, the river Marunsk, the village
of the same name, Bogostowskoe, and, lastly, the Ichoula, a little
stream which divides Western from Eastern Siberia. The road
now lay sometimes across wide moors, which extended as far
as the eye could reach, sometimes through thick forests of firs,
of which they thought they should never get to the end.
Everywhere was a desert; the villages were almost entirely abandoned.
The peasants had fled beyond the Yenisei, hoping that this wide
river would perhaps stop the Tartars.

On the 22d of August, the kibitka entered the town of Atchinsk,
two hundred and fifty miles from Tomsk. Eighty miles still lay
between them and Krasnoiarsk.

No incident had marked the journey. For the six days during which they
had been together, Nicholas, Michael, and Nadia had remained the same,
the one in his unchange-able calm, the other two, uneasy, and thinking
of the time when their companion would leave them.

Michael saw the country through which they traveled with the eyes
of Nicholas and the young girl. In turns, they each described to him
the scenes they passed. He knew whether he was in a forest or on a plain,
whether a hut was on the steppe, or whether any Siberian was in sight.
Nicholas was never silent, he loved to talk, and, from his peculiar
way of viewing things, his friends were amused by his conversation.
One day, Michael asked him what sort of weather it was.

"Fine enough, little father," he answered, "but soon we shall feel
the first winter frosts. Perhaps the Tartars will go into winter
quarters during the bad season."

Michael Strogoff shook his head with a doubtful air.

"You do not think so, little father?" resumed Nicholas. "You think
that they will march on to Irkutsk?"

"I fear so," replied Michael.

"Yes . . . you are right; they have with them a bad man,
who will not let them loiter on the way. You have heard speak
of Ivan Ogareff?"


"You know that it is not right to betray one's country!"

"No . . . it is not right . . ." answered Michael, who wished
to remain unmoved.

"Little father," continued Nicholas, "it seems to me that you
are not half indignant enough when Ivan Ogareff is spoken of.
Your Russian heart ought to leap when his name is uttered."

"Believe me, my friend, I hate him more than you can ever
hate him," said Michael.

"It is not possible," replied Nicholas; "no, it is not possible!
When I think of Ivan Ogareff, of the harm which he is doing
to our sacred Russia, I get into such a rage that if I could
get hold of him--"

"If you could get hold of him, friend?"

"I think I should kill him."

"And I, I am sure of it," returned Michael quietly.


AT nightfall, on the 25th of August, the kibitka came in sight
of Krasnoiarsk. The journey from Tomsk had taken eight days.
If it had not been accomplished as rapidly as it might,
it was because Nicholas had slept little. Consequently, it was
impossible to increase his horse's pace, though in other hands,
the journey would not have taken sixty hours.

Happily, there was no longer any fear of Tartars. Not a scout
had appeared on the road over which the kibitka had just traveled.
This was strange enough, and evidently some serious cause
had prevented the Emir's troops from marching without delay
upon Irkutsk. Something had occurred. A new Russian corps,
hastily raised in the government of Yeniseisk, had marched to Tomsk
to endeavor to retake the town. But, being too weak to withstand
the Emir's troops, now concentrated there, they had been forced
to effect a retreat. Feofar-Khan, including his own soldiers,
and those of the Khanats of Khokhand and Koun-douze, had now
under his command two hundred and fifty thousand men, to which
the Russian government could not as yet oppose a sufficient force.
The invasion could not, therefore, be immediately stopped,
and the whole Tartar army might at once march upon Irkutsk. The battle
of Tomsk was on the 22nd of August, though this Michael did not know,
but it explained why the vanguard of the Emir's army had not
appeared at Krasnoiarsk by the 25th.

However, though Michael Strogoff could not know the events
which had occurred since his departure, he at least knew that
he was several days in advance of the Tartars, and that he need
not despair of reaching before them the town of Irkutsk,
still six hundred miles distant.

Besides, at Krasnoiarsk, of which the population is about twelve
thousand souls, he depended upon obtaining some means of transport.
Since Nicholas Pigassof was to stop in that town, it would be
necessary to replace him by a guide, and to change the kibitka
for another more rapid vehicle. Michael, after having addressed
himself to the governor of the town, and established his identity
and quality as Courier of the Czar--which would be easy--
doubted not that he would be enabled to get to Irkutsk in the shortest
possible time. He would thank the good Nicholas Pigassof,
and set out immediately with Nadia, for he did not wish
to leave her until he had placed her in her father's arms.
Though Nicholas had resolved to stop at Krasnoiarsk, it was
only as he said, "on condition of finding employment there."
In fact, this model clerk, after having stayed to the last
minute at his post in Kolyvan, was endeavoring to place
himself again at the disposal of the government.
"Why should I receive a salary which I have not earned?"
he would say.

In the event of his services not being required at Krasnoiarsk,
which it was expected would be still in telegraphic communication
with Irkutsk, he proposed to go to Oudinsk, or even to the capital
of Siberia itself. In the latter case, he would continue to travel
with the brother and sister; and where would they find a surer guide,
or a more devoted friend?

The kibitka was now only half a verst from Krasnoiarsk. The numerous
wooden crosses which are erected at the approaches to the town, could be
seen to the right and left of the road. It was seven in the evening;
the outline of the churches and of the houses built on the high
bank of the Yenisei were clearly defined against the evening sky,
and the waters of the river reflected them in the twilight.

"Where are we, sister?" asked Michael.

"Half a verst from the first houses," replied Nadia.

"Can the town be asleep?" observed Michael. "Not a sound
strikes my ear."

"And I cannot see the slightest light, nor even smoke mounting
into the air," added Nadia.

"What a queer town!" said Nicholas. "They make no noise in it,
and go to bed uncommonly early!"

A presentiment of impending misfortune passed across Michael's heart.
He had not said to Nadia that he had placed all his hopes on Krasnoiarsk,
where he expected to find the means of safely finishing his journey.
He much feared that his anticipations would again be disappointed.

But Nadia had guessed his thoughts, although she could not understand why
her companion should be so anxious to reach Irkutsk, now that the Imperial
letter was gone. She one day said something of the sort to him.
"I have sworn to go to Irkutsk," he replied.

But to accomplish his mission, it was necessary that at
Krasnoiarsk he should find some more rapid mode of locomotion.
"Well, friend," said he to Nicholas, "why are we not going on?"

"Because I am afraid of waking up the inhabitants of the town
with the noise of my carriage!" And with a light fleck of the whip,
Nicholas put his horse in motion.

Ten minutes after they entered the High Street. Krasnoiarsk was deserted;
there was no longer an Athenian in this "Northern Athens,"
as Madame de Bourboulon has called it. Not one of their
dashing equipages swept through the wide, clean streets.
Not a pedestrian enlivened the footpaths raised at the bases
of the magnificent wooden houses, of monumental aspect!
Not a Siberian belle, dressed in the last French fashion,
promenaded the beautiful park, cleared in a forest of birch trees,
which stretches away to the banks of the Yenisei! The great bell
of the cathedral was dumb; the chimes of the churches were silent.
Here was complete desolation. There was no longer a living being
in this town, lately so lively!

The last telegram sent from the Czar's cabinet, before the rupture
of the wire, had ordered the governor, the garrison, the inhabitants,
whoever they might be, to leave Krasnoiarsk, to carry with them
any articles of value, or which might be of use to the Tartars,
and to take refuge at Irkutsk. The same injunction was given to all
the villages of the province. It was the intention of the Muscovite
government to lay the country desert before the invaders.
No one thought for an instant of disputing these orders.
They were executed, and this was the reason why not a single human
being remained in Krasnoiarsk.

Michael Strogoff, Nadia, and Nicholas passed silently through
the streets of the town. They felt half-stupefied. They
themselves made the only sound to be heard in this dead city.
Michael allowed nothing of what he felt to appear,
but he inwardly raged against the bad luck which pursued him,
his hopes being again disappointed.

"Alack, alack!" cried Nicholas, "I shall never get any employment
in this desert!"

"Friend," said Nadia, "you must go on with us."

"I must indeed!" replied Nicholas. "The wire is no doubt
still working between Oudinsk and Irkutsk, and there--
Shall we start, little father?"

"Let us wait till to-morrow," answered Michael.

"You are right," said Nicholas. "We have the Yenisei to cross,
and need light to see our way there!"

"To see!" murmured Nadia, thinking of her blind companion.

Nicholas heard her, and turning to Michael, "Forgive me, little father,"
said he. "Alas! night and day, it is true, are all the same to you!"

"Do not reproach yourself, friend," replied Michael, pressing his
hand over his eyes. "With you for a guide I can still act.
Take a few hours' repose. Nadia must rest too. To-morrow we
will recommence our journey!"

Michael and his friends had not to search long for a place of rest.
The first house, the door of which they pushed open, was empty,
as well as all the others. Nothing could be found within but a
few heaps of leaves. For want of better fodder the horse had
to content himself with this scanty nourishment. The provisions
of the kibitka were not yet exhausted, so each had a share.
Then, after having knelt before a small picture of the Panaghia,
hung on the wall, and still lighted up by a flickering lamp,
Nicholas and the young girl slept, whilst Michael, over whom
sleep had no influence, watched.

Before daybreak the next morning, the 26th of August, the horse
was drawing the kibitka through the forests of birch trees
towards the banks of the Yenisei. Michael was in much anxiety.
How was he to cross the river, if, as was probable, all boats
had been destroyed to retard the Tartars' march? He knew
the Yenisei, its width was considerable, its currents strong.
Ordinarily by means of boats specially built for the conveyance
of travelers, carriages, and horses, the passage of the Yenisei
takes about three hours, and then it is with extreme difficulty
that the boats reach the opposite bank. Now, in the absence
of any ferry, how was the kibitka to get from one bank
to the other?

Day was breaking when the kibitka reached the left bank,
where one of the wide alleys of the park ended.
They were about a hundred feet above the Yenisei, and could
therefore survey the whole of its wide course.

"Do you see a boat?" asked Michael, casting his eyes eagerly
about from one side to the other, mechanically, no doubt,
as if he could really see.

"It is scarcely light yet, brother," replied Nadia. "The fog
is still thick, and we cannot see the water."

"But I hear it roaring," said Michael.

Indeed, from the fog issued a dull roaring sound.
The waters being high rushed down with tumultuous violence.
All three waited until the misty curtain should rise.
The sun would not be long in dispersing the vapors.

"Well?" asked Michael.

"The fog is beginning to roll away, brother," replied Nadia,
"and it will soon be clear."

"Then you do not see the surface of the water yet?"

"Not yet."

"Have patience, little father," said Nicholas. "All this
will soon disappear. Look! here comes the breeze!
It is driving away the fog. The trees on the opposite
hills are already appearing. It is sweeping, flying away.
The kindly rays of the sun have condensed all that mass of mist.
Ah! how beautiful it is, my poor fellow, and how unfortunate
that you cannot see such a lovely sight!"

"Do you see a boat?" asked Michael.

"I see nothing of the sort," answered Nicholas.

"Look well, friend, on this and the opposite bank, as far as your eye
can reach. A raft, even a canoe?"

Nicholas and Nadia, grasping the bushes on the edge of the cliff,
bent over the water. The view they thus obtained was extensive.
At this place the Yenisei is not less than a mile in width, and forms
two arms, of unequal size, through which the waters flow swiftly.
Between these arms lie several islands, covered with alders,
willows, and poplars, looking like verdant ships, anchored in
the river. Beyond rise the high hills of the Eastern shore,
crowned with forests, whose tops were then empurpled with light.
The Yenisei stretched on either side as far as the eye could reach.
The beautiful panorama lay before them for a distance of fifty versts.

But not a boat was to be seen. All had been taken away or destroyed,
according to order. Unless the Tartars should bring with them materials
for building a bridge of boats, their march towards Irkutsk would
certainly be stopped for some time by this barrier, the Yenisei.

"I remember," said Michael, "that higher up, on the outskirts
of Krasnoiarsk, there is a little quay. There the boats touch.
Friend, let us go up the river, and see if some boat has not been
forgotten on the bank."

Nadia seized Michael's hand and started off at a rapid pace in
the direction indicated. If only a boat or a barge large enough
to hold the kibitka could be found, or even one that would carry
just themselves, Michael would not hesitate to attempt the passage!
Twenty minutes after, all three had reached the little quay,
with houses on each side quite down to the water's edge.
It was like a village standing beyond the town of Krasnoiarsk.

But not a boat was on the shore, not a barge at the little wharf,
nothing even of which a raft could be made large enough to carry
three people. Michael questioned Nicholas, who made the discouraging
reply that the crossing appeared to him absolutely impracticable.

"We shall cross!" answered Michael.

The search was continued. They examined the houses on the shore,
abandoned like all the rest of Krasnoiarsk. They had merely to push open
the doors and enter. The cottages were evidently those of poor people,
and quite empty. Nicholas visited one, Nadia entered another,
and even Michael went here and there and felt about, hoping to light
upon some article that might be useful.

Nicholas and the girl had each fruitlessly rummaged these cottages
and were about to give up the search, when they heard themselves called.
Both ran to the bank and saw Michael standing on the threshold of a door.

"Come!" he exclaimed. Nicholas and Nadia went towards him and followed
him into the cottage.

"What are these?" asked Michael, touching several objects piled
up in a corner.

"They are leathern bottles," answered Nicholas.

"Are they full?"

"Yes, full of koumyss. We have found them very opportunely
to renew our provisions!"

"Koumyss" is a drink made of mare's or camel's milk, and is
very sustaining, and even intoxicating; so that Nicholas and his
companions could not but congratulate themselves on the discovery.

"Save one," said Michael, "but empty the others."

"Directly, little father."

"These will help us to cross the Yenisei."

"And the raft?"

"Will be the kibitka itself, which is light enough to float.
Besides, we will sustain it, as well as the horse, with these bottles."

"Well thought of, little father," exclaimed Nicholas, "and by God's help
we will get safely over . . . though perhaps not in a straight line,
for the current is very rapid!"

"What does that matter?" replied Michael. "Let us get across first,
and we shall soon find out the road to Irkutsk on the other side
of the river."

"To work, then," said Nicholas, beginning to empty the bottles.

One full of koumyss was reserved, and the rest, with the air carefully
fastened in, were used to form a floating apparatus. Two bottles
were fastened to the horse's sides to support it in the water.
Two others were attached to the shafts to keep them on a level
with the body of the machine, thus transformed into a raft.
This work was soon finished.

"You will not be afraid, Nadia?" asked Michael.

"No, brother," answered the girl.

"And you, friend?"

"I?" cried Nicholas. "I am now going to have one of my dreams realized--
that of sailing in a cart."

At the spot where they were now standing, the bank sloped,
and was suitable for the launching of the kibitka.
The horse drew it into the water, and they were soon both floating.
As to Serko, he was swimming bravely.

The three passengers, seated in the vehicle, had with due
precaution taken off their shoes and stockings; but, thanks to
the bottles, the water did not even come over their ankles.
Michael held the reins, and, according to Nicholas's directions,
guided the animal obliquely, but cautiously, so as not to exhaust
him by struggling against the current. So long as the kibitka
went with the current all was easy, and in a few minutes it
had passed the quays of Krasnoiarsk. It drifted northwards,
and it was soon evident that it would only reach the opposite
bank far below the town. But that mattered little.
The crossing would have been made without great difficulty,
even on this imperfect apparatus, had the current been regular;
but, unfortunately, there were whirlpools in numbers,
and soon the kibitka, notwithstanding all Michael's efforts,
was irresistibly drawn into one of these.

There the danger was great. The kibitka no longer drifted,
but spun rapidly round, inclining towards the center of the eddy,
like a rider in a circus. The horse could scarcely keep his
head above water, and ran a great risk of being suffocated.
Serko had been obliged to take refuge in the carriage.

Michael knew what was happening. He felt himself drawn round
in a gradually narrowing line, from which they could not get free.
How he longed to see, to be better able to avoid this peril,
but that was no longer possible. Nadia was silent, her hands
clinging to the sides of the cart, which was inclining more
and more towards the center of depression.

And Nicholas, did he not understand the gravity of the situation?
Was it with him phlegm or contempt of danger, courage or indifference?
Was his life valueless in his eyes, and, according to the Eastern
expression, "an hotel for five days," which, whether one is willing
or not, must be left the sixth? At any rate, the smile on his rosy
face never faded for an instant.

The kibitka was thus in the whirlpool, and the horse was
nearly exhausted, when, all at once, Michael, throwing off
such of his garments as might impede him, jumped into the water;
then, seizing with a strong hand the bridle of the terrified horse,
he gave him such an impulse that he managed to struggle out
of the circle, and getting again into the current, the kibitka
drifted along anew.

"Hurrah!" exclaimed Nicholas.

Two hours after leaving the wharf, the kibitka had crossed the widest
arm of the river, and had landed on an island more than six versts
below the starting point.

There the horse drew the cart onto the bank, and an hour's rest
was given to the courageous animal; then the island having been
crossed under the shade of its magnificent birches, the kibitka
found itself on the shore of the smaller arm of the Yenisei.

This passage was much easier; no whirlpools broke the course
of the river in this second bed; but the current was so rapid
that the kibitka only reached the opposite side five versts below.
They had drifted eleven versts in all.

These great Siberian rivers across which no bridges have
as yet been thrown, are serious obstacles to the facility
of communication. All had been more or less unfortunate
to Michael Strogoff. On the Irtych, the boat which carried
him and Nadia had been attacked by Tartars. On the Obi,
after his horse had been struck by a bullet, he had only by
a miracle escaped from the horsemen who were pursuing him.
In fact, this passage of the Yenisei had been performed
the least disastrously.

"That would not have been so amusing," exclaimed Nicholas,
rubbing his hands, as they disembarked on the right bank of the river,
"if it had not been so difficult."

"That which has only been difficult to us, friend,"
answered Michael Strogoff, "will, perhaps, be impossible
to the Tartars."


MICHAEL STROGOFF might at last hope that the road to Irkutsk
was clear. He had distanced the Tartars, now detained at Tomsk,
and when the Emir's soldiers should arrive at Krasnoiarsk they
would find only a deserted town. There being no communication
between the two banks of the Yenisei, a delay of some days
would be caused until a bridge of boats could be established,
and to accomplish this would be a difficult undertaking.
For the first time since the encounter with Ivan Ogareff at Omsk,
the courier of the Czar felt less uneasy, and began to hope
that no fresh obstacle would delay his progress.

The road was good, for that part of it which extends
between Krasnoiarsk and Irkutsk is considered the best
in the whole journey; fewer jolts for travelers, large trees
to shade them from the heat of the sun, sometimes forests
of pines or cedars covering an extent of a hundred versts.
It was no longer the wide steppe with limitless horizon;
but the rich country was empty. Everywhere they came upon
deserted villages. The Siberian peasantry had vanished.
It was a desert, but a desert by order of the Czar.

The weather was fine, but the air, which cooled during the night,
took some time to get warm again. Indeed it was now near September,
and in this high region the days were sensibly shortening.
Autumn here lasts but a very little while, although this part of
Siberian territory is not situated above the fifty-fifth parallel,
that of Edinburgh and Copenhagen. However, winter succeeds summer
almost unexpectedly. These winters of Asiatic Russia may be said
to be precocious, considering that during them the thermometer falls
until the mercury is frozen nearly 42 degrees below zero, and that 20
degrees below zero is considered an unsupportable temperature.

The weather favored our travelers. It was neither stormy nor rainy.
The health of Nadia and Michael was good, and since leaving Tomsk they
had gradually recovered from their past fatigues.

As to Nicholas Pigassof, he had never been better in his life.
To him this journey was a trip, an agreeable excursion in which
he employed his enforced holiday.

"Decidedly," said he, "this is pleasanter than sitting twelve hours a day,
perched on a stool, working the manip-ulator!"

Michael had managed to get Nicholas to make his horse quicken his pace.
To obtain this result, he had confided to Nicholas that Nadia
and he were on their way to join their father, exiled at Irkutsk,
and that they were very anxious to get there. Certainly, it would
not do to overwork the horse, for very probably they would not be
able to exchange him for another; but by giving him frequent rests--
every ten miles, for instance--forty miles in twenty-four hours
could easily be accomplished. Besides, the animal was strong,
and of a race calculated to endure great fatigue. He was in no want
of rich pasturage along the road, the grass being thick and abundant.
Therefore, it was possible to demand an increase of work from him.

Nicholas gave in to all these reasons. He was much moved at the situation
of these two young people, going to share their father's exile.
Nothing had ever appeared so touching to him. With what a smile he said
to Nadia: "Divine goodness! what joy will Mr. Korpanoff feel, when his
eyes behold you, when his arms open to receive you! If I go to Irkutsk--
and that appears very probable now--will you permit me to be present at
that interview! You will, will you not?" Then, striking his forehead:
"But, I forgot, what grief too when he sees that his poor son is blind!
Ah! everything is mingled in this world!"

However, the result of all this was the kibitka went faster,
and, according to Michael's calculations, now made almost eight
miles an hour.

After crossing the little river Biriousa, the kibitka reached Biriousensk
on the morning of the 4th of September. There, very fortunately,
for Nicholas saw that his provisions were becoming exhausted,
he found in an oven a dozen "pogatchas," a kind of cake prepared
with sheep's fat and a large supply of plain boiled rice.
This increase was very opportune, for something would soon have
been needed to replace the koumyss with which the kibitka had been
stored at Krasnoiarsk.

After a halt, the journey was continued in the afternoon.
The distance to Irkutsk was not now much over three hundred miles.
There was not a sign of the Tartar vanguard. Michael Strogoff had
some grounds for hoping that his journey would not be again delayed,
and that in eight days, or at most ten, he would be in the presence
of the Grand Duke.

On leaving Biriousinsk, a hare ran across the road, in front
of the kibitka. "Ah!" exclaimed Nicholas.

"What is the matter, friend?" asked Michael quickly, like a blind
man whom the least sound arouses.

"Did you not see?" said Nicholas, whose bright face had become
suddenly clouded. Then he added, "Ah! no! you could not see,
and it's lucky for you, little father!"

"But I saw nothing," said Nadia.

"So much the better! So much the better! But I--I saw!"

"What was it then?" asked Michael.

"A hare crossing our road!" answered Nicholas.

In Russia, when a hare crosses the path, the popular belief is that it
is the sign of approaching evil. Nicholas, superstitious like the greater
number of Russians, stopped the kibitka.

Michael understood his companion's hesitation, without sharing
his credulity, and endeavored to reassure him, "There is nothing
to fear, friend," said he.

"Nothing for you, nor for her, I know, little father," answered Nicholas,
"but for me!"

"It is my fate," he continued. And he put his horse in
motion again. However, in spite of these forebodings the day
passed without any accident.

At twelve o'clock the next day, the 6th of September, the kibitka
halted in the village of Alsalevok, which was as deserted
as the surrounding country. There, on a doorstep, Nadia found
two of those strong-bladed knives used by Siberian hunters.
She gave one to Michael, who concealed it among his clothes,
and kept the other herself.

Nicholas had not recovered his usual spirits. The ill-omen had
affected him more than could have been believed, and he who formerly
was never half an hour without speaking, now fell into long
reveries from which Nadia found it difficult to arouse him.
The kibitka rolled swiftly along the road. Yes, swiftly!
Nicholas no longer thought of being so careful of his horse,
and was as anxious to arrive at his journey's end as Michael himself.
Notwithstanding his fatalism, and though resigned,
he would not believe himself in safety until within the walls
of Irkutsk. Many Russians would have thought as he did,
and more than one would have turned his horse and gone back again,
after a hare had crossed his path.

Some observations made by him, the justice of which was proved by Nadia
transmitting them to Michael, made them fear that their trials were not
yet over. Though the land from Krasnoiarsk had been respected in its
natural productions, its forests now bore trace of fire and steel;
and it was evident that some large body of men had passed that way.

Twenty miles before Nijni-Oudinsk, the indications of recent
devastation could not be mistaken, and it was impossible to attribute
them to others than the Tartars. It was not only that the fields
were trampled by horse's feet, and that trees were cut down.
The few houses scattered along the road were not only empty,
some had been partly demolished, others half burnt down.
The marks of bullets could be seen on their walls.

Michael's anxiety may be imagined. He could no longer doubt
that a party of Tartars had recently passed that way, and yet
it was impossible that they could be the Emir's soldiers,
for they could not have passed without being seen.
But then, who were these new invaders, and by what out-of-the-way
path across the steppe had they been able to join the highroad
to Irkutsk? With what new enemies was the Czar's courier
now to meet?

He did not communicate his apprehensions either to Nicholas or Nadia,
not wishing to make them uneasy. Besides, he had resolved
to continue his way, as long as no insurmountable obstacle
stopped him. Later, he would see what it was best to do.
During the ensuing day, the recent passage of a large
body of foot and horse became more and more apparent.
Smoke was seen above the horizon. The kibitka advanced cautiously.
Several houses in deserted villages still burned, and could not
have been set on fire more than four and twenty hours before.

At last, during the day, on the 8th of September,
the kibitka stopped suddenly. The horse refused to advance.
Serko barked furiously.

"What is the matter?" asked Michael.

"A corpse!" replied Nicholas, who had leapt out of the kibitka.
The body was that of a moujik, horribly mutilated, and already cold.
Nicholas crossed himself. Then, aided by Michael, he carried
the body to the side of the road. He would have liked to give it
decent burial, that the wild beasts of the steppe might not feast
on the miserable remains, but Michael could not allow him the time.

"Come, friend, come!" he exclaimed, "we must not delay,
even for an hour!" And the kibitka was driven on.

Besides, if Nicholas had wished to render the last duties
to all the dead bodies they were now to meet with on
the Siberian highroad, he would have had enough to do!
As they approached Nijni-Oudinsk, they were found by twenties,
stretched on the ground.

It was, however, necessary to follow this road until it was manifestly
impossible to do so longer without falling into the hands of
the invaders. The road they were following could not be abandoned,
and yet the signs of devastation and ruin increased at every village
they passed through. The blood of the victims was not yet dry.
As to gaining information about what had occurred, that was impossible.
There was not a living being left to tell the tale.

About four o'clock in the afternoon of this day, Nicholas caught sight
of the tall steeples of the churches of Nijni-Oudinsk. Thick vapors,
which could not have been clouds, were floating around them.

Nicholas and Nadia looked, and communicated the result of their
observations to Michael. They must make up their minds what to do.
If the town was abandoned, they could pass through without risk,
but if, by some inexplicable maneuver, the Tartars occupied it,
they must at every cost avoid the place.

"Advance cautiously," said Michael Strogoff, "but advance!"

A verst was soon traversed.

"Those are not clouds, that is smoke!" exclaimed Nadia. "Brother, they
are burning the town!"

It was, indeed, only too plain. Flashes of light appeared in the midst
of the vapor. It became thicker and thicker as it mounted upwards.
But were they Tartars who had done this? They might be Russians,
obeying the orders of the Grand Duke. Had the government of the Czar
determined that from Krasnoiarsk, from the Yenisei, not a town,
not a village should offer a refuge to the Emir's soldiers?
What was Michael to do?

He was undecided. However, having weighed the pros and cons,
he thought that whatever might be the difficulties of a journey
across the steppe without a beaten path, he ought not to risk
capture a second time by the Tartars. He was just proposing to
Nicholas to leave the road, when a shot was heard on their right.
A ball whistled, and the horse of the kibitka fell dead,
shot through the head.

A dozen horsemen dashed forward, and the kibitka was surrounded.
Before they knew where they were, Michael, Nadia, and Nicholas
were prisoners, and were being dragged rapidly towards Nijni-Oudinsk.

Michael, in this second attack, had lost none of his presence of mind.
Being unable to see his enemies, he had not thought of defending himself.
Even had he possessed the use of his eyes, he would not have
attempted it. The consequences would have been his death and that
of his companions. But, though he could not see, he could listen
and understand what was said.

From their language he found that these soldiers were Tartars,
and from their words, that they preceded the invading army.

In short, what Michael learnt from the talk at the present moment,
as well as from the scraps of conversation he overheard later,
was this. These men were not under the direct orders of the Emir,
who was now detained beyond the Yenisei. They made part of a third
column chiefly composed of Tartars from the khanats of Khokland
and Koondooz, with which Feofar's army was to affect a junction
in the neighborhood of Irkutsk.

By Ogareff's advice, in order to assure the success of the invasion
in the Eastern provinces, this column had skirted the base
of the Altai Mountains. Pillaging and ravaging, it had reached
the upper course of the Yenisei. There, guessing what had been
done at Krasnoiarsk by order of the Czar, and to facilitate
the passage of the river to the Emir's troops, this column
had launched a flotilla of boats, which would enable Feofar
to cross and résumé the road to Irkutsk. Having done this,
it had descended the valley of the Yenisei and struck the road on
a level with Alsalevsk. From this little town began the frightful
course of ruin which forms the chief part of Tartar warfare.
Nijni-Oudinsk had shared the common fate, and the Tartars,
to the number of fifty thousand, had now quitted it to take up
a position before Irkutsk. Before long, they would be reinforced
by the Emir's troops.

Such was the state of affairs at this date, most serious for this
isolated part of Eastern Siberia, and for the comparatively few
defenders of its capital.

It can be imagined with what thoughts Michael's mind was now occupied!
Who could have been astonished had he, in his present situation,
lost all hope and all courage? Nothing of the sort, however; his lips
muttered no other words than these: "I will get there!"

Half an hour after the attack of the Tartar horsemen,
Michael Strogoff, Nadia, and Nicholas entered Nijni-Oudinsk. The
faithful dog followed them, though at a distance.
They could not stay in the town, as it was in flames,
and about to be left by the last of the marauders.
The prisoners were therefore thrown on horses and hurried away;
Nicholas resigned as usual, Nadia, her faith in Michael unshaken,
and Michael himself, apparently indifferent, but ready to seize
any opportunity of escaping.

The Tartars were not long in perceiving that one of their
prisoners was blind, and their natural barbarity led them to make
game of their unfortunate victim. They were traveling fast.
Michael's horse, having no one to guide him, often started aside,
and so made confusion among the ranks. This drew on his rider
such abuse and brutality as wrung Nadia's heart, and filled Nicholas
with indignation. But what could they do? They could not speak
the Tartar language, and their assistance was mercilessly refused.
Soon it occurred to these men, in a refinement of cruelty,
to exchange the horse Michael was riding for one which was blind.
The motive of the change was explained by a remark which
Michael overheard, "Perhaps that Russian can see, after all!"

Michael was placed on this horse, and the reins ironically put
into his hand. Then, by dint of lashing, throwing stones,
and shouting, the animal was urged into a gallop.
The horse, not being guided by his rider, blind as himself,
sometimes ran into a tree, sometimes went quite off the road--
in consequence, collisions and falls, which might have
been extremely dangerous.

Michael did not complain. Not a murmur escaped him.
When his horse fell, he waited until it got up.
It was, indeed, soon assisted up, and the cruel fun continued.
At sight of this wicked treatment, Nicholas could not
contain himself; he endeavored to go to his friend's aid.
He was prevented, and treated brutally.

This game would have been prolonged, to the Tartars'
great amusement, had not a serious accident put an end to it.
On the 10th of September the blind horse ran away, and made
straight for a pit, some thirty or forty feet deep, at the side
of the road.

Nicholas tried to go after him. He was held back.
The horse, having no guide, fell with his rider to the bottom.
Nicholas and Nadia uttered a piercing cry! They believed
that their unfortunate companion had been killed.

However, when they went to his assistance, it was found that Michael,
having been able to throw himself out of the saddle, was unhurt,
but the miserable horse had two legs broken, and was quite useless.
He was left there to die without being put out of his suffering,
and Michael, fastened to a Tartar's saddle, was obliged to follow
the detachment on foot.

Even now, not a protest, not a complaint! He marched with
a rapid step, scarcely drawn by the cord which tied him.
He was still "the Man of Iron," of whom General Kissoff had
spoken to the Czar!

The next day, the 11th of September, the detachment passed
through the village of Chibarlinskoe. Here an incident
occurred which had serious consequences. It was nightfall.
The Tartar horsemen, having halted, were more or less intoxicated.
They were about to start. Nadia, who till then, by a miracle,
had been respectfully treated by the soldiers, was insulted
by one of them.

Michael could not see the insult, nor the insulter, but Nicholas
saw for him. Then, quietly, without thinking, without perhaps
knowing what he was doing, Nicholas walked straight up to the man,
and, before the latter could make the least movement to stop him,
had seized a pistol from his holster and discharged it full
at his breast.

The officer in command of the detachment hastened up on hearing
the report. The soldiers would have cut the unfortunate Nicholas
to pieces, but at a sign from their officer, he was bound instead,
placed across a horse, and the detachment galloped off.

The rope which fastened Michael, gnawed through by him,
broke by the sudden start of the horse, and the half-tipsy rider
galloped on without perceiving that his prisoner had escaped.

Michael and Nadia found themselves alone on the road.


MICHAEL STROGOFF and Nadia were once more as free as they had been
in the journey from Perm to the banks of the Irtych. But how
the conditions under which they traveled were altered!
Then, a comfortable tarantass, fresh horses, well-kept post-horses
assured the rapidity of their journey. Now they were on foot;
it was utterly impossible to procure any other means of locomotion,
they were without resources, not knowing how to obtain even food,
and they had still nearly three hundred miles to go!
Moreover, Michael could now only see with Nadia's eyes.

As to the friend whom chance had given them, they had just
lost him, and fearful might be his fate. Michael had thrown
himself down under the brushwood at the side of the road.
Nadia stood beside him, waiting for the word from him to
continue the march.

It was ten o'clock. The sun had more than three hours before
disappeared below the horizon. There was not a house in sight.
The last of the Tartars was lost in the distance.
Michael and Nadia were quite alone.

"What will they do with our friend?" exclaimed the girl.
"Poor Nicholas! Our meeting will have been fatal to him!"
Michael made no response.

"Michael," continued Nadia, "do you not know that he defended you
when you were the Tartars' sport; that he risked his life for me?"

Michael was still silent. Motionless, his face buried in his hands;
of what was he thinking? Perhaps, although he did not answer,
he heard Nadia speak.

Yes! he heard her, for when the young girl added, "Where shall
I lead you, Michael?"

"To Irkutsk!" he replied.

"By the highroad?"

"Yes, Nadia."

Michael was still the same man who had sworn, whatever happened,
to accomplish his object. To follow the highroad, was certainly to go
the shortest way. If the vanguard of Feofar-Khan's troops appeared,
it would then be time to strike across the country.

Nadia took Michael's hand, and they started.

The next morning, the 13th of September, twenty versts further,
they made a short halt in the village of Joulounov-skoe. It was
burnt and deserted. All night Nadia had tried to see if the body
of Nicholas had not been left on the road, but it was in vain
that she looked among the ruins, and searched among the dead.
Was he reserved for some cruel torture at Irkutsk?

Nadia, exhausted with hunger, was fortunate enough to find in one
of the houses a quantity of dried meat and "soukharis," pieces
of bread, which, dried by evaporation, preserve their nutritive
qualities for an indefinite time.

Michael and the girl loaded themselves with as much as they could carry.
They had thus a supply of food for several days, and as to water,
there would be no want of that in a district rendered fertile
by the numerous little affluents of the Angara.

They continued their journey. Michael walked with a firm step,
and only slackened his pace for his companion's sake.
Nadia, not wishing to retard him, obliged herself to walk.
Happily, he could not see to what a miserable state fatigue
had reduced her.

However, Michael guessed it. "You are quite done up, poor child,"
he said sometimes.

"No," she would reply.

"When you can no longer walk, I will carry you."

"Yes, Michael."

During this day they came to the little river Oka, but it was fordable,
and they had no difficulty in crossing. The sky was cloudy
and the temperature moderate. There was some fear that the rain
might come on, which would much have increased their misery.
A few showers fell, but they did not last.

They went on as before, hand in hand, speaking little,
Nadia looking about on every side; twice a day they halted.
Six hours of the night were given to sleep. In a few huts Nadia
again found a little mutton; but, contrary to Michael's hopes,
there was not a single beast of burden in the country;
horses, camels--all had been either killed or carried off.
They must still continue to plod on across this weary
steppe on foot.

The third Tartar column, on its way to Irkutsk, had left plain traces:
here a dead horse, there an abandoned cart. The bodies of unfortunate
Siberians lay along the road, principally at the entrances to villages.
Nadia, overcoming her repugnance, looked at all these corpses!

The chief danger lay, not before, but behind.
The advance guard of the Emir's army, commanded by Ivan Ogareff,
might at any moment appear. The boats sent down the lower
Yenisei must by this time have reached Krasnoiarsk and been
made use of. The road was therefore open to the invaders.
No Russian force could be opposed to them between Krasnoiarsk
and Lake Baikal, Michael therefore expected before long
the appearance of the Tartar scouts.

At each halt, Nadia climbed some hill and looked anxiously
to the Westward, but as yet no cloud of dust had signaled
the approach of a troop of horse.

Then the march was resumed; and when Michael felt that he was
dragging poor Nadia forward too rapidly, he went at a slower pace.
They spoke little, and only of Nicholas. The young girl recalled
all that this companion of a few days had done for them.

In answering, Michael tried to give Nadia some hope of which he did
not feel a spark himself, for he well knew that the unfortunate fellow
would not escape death.

One day Michael said to the girl, "You never speak to me
of my mother, Nadia."

His mother! Nadia had never wished to do so. Why renew his grief?
Was not the old Siberian dead? Had not her son given the last kiss
to her corpse stretched on the plain of Tomsk?

"Speak to me of her, Nadia," said Michael. "Speak--you will please me."

And then Nadia did what she had not done before. She told all
that had passed between Marfa and herself since their meeting
at Omsk, where they had seen each other for the first time.
She said how an inexplicable instinct had led her towards the old
prisoner without knowing who she was, and what encouragement she
had received in return. At that time Michael Strogoff had been
to her but Nicholas Korpanoff.

"Whom I ought always to have been," replied Michael, his brow darkening.

Then later he added, "I have broken my oath, Nadia. I had sworn
not to see my mother!"

"But you did not try to see her, Michael," replied Nadia. "Chance alone
brought you into her presence."

"I had sworn, whatever might happen, not to betray myself."

"Michael, Michael! at sight of the lash raised upon Marfa,
could you refrain? No! No oath could prevent a son from
succoring his mother!"

"I have broken my oath, Nadia," returned Michael. "May God
and the Father pardon me!"

"Michael," resumed the girl, "I have a question to ask you.
Do not answer it if you think you ought not. Nothing from you
would vex me!"

"Speak, Nadia."

"Why, now that the Czar's letter has been taken from you,
are you so anxious to reach Irkutsk?"

Michael tightly pressed his companion's hand, but he did not answer.

"Did you know the contents of that letter before you left Moscow?"

"No, I did not know."

"Must I think, Michael, that the wish alone to place me in my father's
hands draws you toward Irkutsk?"

"No, Nadia," replied Michael, gravely. "I should deceive you if I allowed
you to believe that it was so. I go where duty orders me to go. As to
taking you to Irkutsk, is it not you, Nadia, who are now taking me there?
Do I not see with your eyes; and is it not your hand that guides me?
Have you not repaid a hundred-fold the help which I was able to give you
at first? I do not know if fate will cease to go against us; but the day
on which you thank me for having placed you in your father's hands,
I in my turn will thank you for having led me to Irkutsk."

"Poor Michael!" answered Nadia, with emotion. "Do not speak so.
That does not answer me. Michael, why, now, are you in such haste
to reach Irkutsk?"

"Because I must be there before Ivan Ogareff," exclaimed Michael.

"Even now?"

"Even now, and I will be there, too!"

In uttering these words, Michael did not speak solely through hatred
to the traitor. Nadia understood that her companion had not told,
or could not tell, her all.

On the 15th of September, three days later, the two reached
the village of Kouitounskoe. The young girl suffered dreadfully.
Her aching feet could scarcely support her; but she fought,
she struggled, against her weariness, and her only thought was this:
"Since he cannot see me, I will go on till I drop."

There were no obstacles on this part of the journey, no danger
either since the departure of the Tartars, only much fatigue.
For three days it continued thus. It was plain that the
third invading column was advancing rapidly in the East;
that could be seen by the ruins which they left after them--
the cold cinders and the already decomposing corpses.

There was nothing to be seen in the West; the Emir's
advance-guard had not yet appeared. Michael began to consider
the various reasons which might have caused this delay.
Was a sufficient force of Russians directly menacing Tomsk
or Krasnoiarsk? Did the third column, isolated from the others,
run a risk of being cut off? If this was the case, it would
be easy for the Grand Duke to defend Irkutsk, and any time
gained against an invasion was a step towards repulsing it.
Michael sometimes let his thoughts run on these hopes,
but he soon saw their improbability, and felt that the preservation
of the Grand Duke depended alone on him.

Nadia dragged herself along. Whatever might be her
moral energy, her physical strength would soon fail her.
Michael knew it only too well. If he had not been blind,
Nadia would have said to him, "Go, Michael, leave me in some hut!
Reach Irkutsk! Accomplish your mission! See my father!
Tell him where I am! Tell him that I wait for him, and you
both will know where to find me! Start! I am not afraid!
I will hide myself from the Tartars! I will take care of myself
for him, for you! Go, Michael! I can go no farther!"

Many times Nadia was obliged to stop. Michael then took her
in his strong arms and, having no longer to think of her fatigue,
walked more rapidly and with his indefatigable step.

On the 18th of September, at ten in the evening, Kimilteiskoe was
at last entered. From the top of a hill, Nadia saw in the horizon
a long light line. It was the Dinka River. A few lightning flashes
were reflected in the water; summer lightning, without thunder.
Nadia led her companion through the ruined village.
The cinders were quite cold. The last of the Tartars had passed
through at least five or six days before.

Beyond the village, Nadia sank down on a stone bench.
"Shall we make a halt?" asked Michael.

"It is night, Michael," answered Nadia. "Do you not want to rest
a few hours?"

"I would rather have crossed the Dinka," replied Michael, "I should
like to put that between us and the Emir's advance-guard. But you
can scarcely drag yourself along, my poor Nadia!"

"Come, Michael," returned Nadia, seizing her companion's hand
and drawing him forward.

Two or three versts further the Dinka flowed across the Irkutsk road.
The young girl wished to attempt this last effort asked by her companion.
She found her way by the light from the flashes. They were then crossing
a boundless desert, in the midst of which was lost the little river.
Not a tree nor a hillock broke the flatness. Not a breath disturbed
the atmosphere, whose calmness would allow the slightest sound to travel
an immense distance.

Suddenly, Michael and Nadia stopped, as if their feet had been
fast to the ground. The barking of a dog came across the steppe.
"Do you hear?" said Nadia.

Then a mournful cry succeeded it--a despairing cry, like the last appeal
of a human being about to die.

"Nicholas! Nicholas!" cried the girl, with a foreboding of evil.
Michael, who was listening, shook his head.

"Come, Michael, come," said Nadia. And she who just now was
dragging herself with difficulty along, suddenly recovered strength,
under violent excitement.

"We have left the road," said Michael, feeling that he was treading
no longer on powdery soil but on short grass.

"Yes, we must!" returned Nadia. "It was there, on the right,
from which the cry came!"

In a few minutes they were not more than half a verst from the river.
A second bark was heard, but, although more feeble, it was
certainly nearer. Nadia stopped.

"Yes!" said Michael. "It is Serko barking! . . . He has
followed his master!"

"Nicholas!" called the girl. Her cry was unanswered.

Michael listened. Nadia gazed over the plain illumined
now and again with electric light, but she saw nothing.
And yet a voice was again raised, this time murmuring in a
plaintive tone, "Michael!"

Then a dog, all bloody, bounded up to Nadia.

It was Serko! Nicholas could not be far off! He alone
could have murmured the name of Michael! Where was he?
Nadia had no strength to call again. Michael, crawling on
the ground, felt about with his hands.

Suddenly Serko uttered a fresh bark and darted towards a gigantic bird
which had swooped down. It was a vulture. When Serko ran towards it,
it rose, but returning struck at the dog. The latter leapt up at it.
A blow from the formidable beak alighted on his head, and this time
Serko fell back lifeless on the ground.

At the same moment a cry of horror escaped Nadia. "There . . . there!"
she exclaimed.

A head issued from the ground! She had stumbled against it
in the darkness.

Nadia fell on her knees beside it. Nicholas buried up to his neck,
according to the atrocious Tartar custom, had been left in the steppe
to die of thirst, and perhaps by the teeth of wolves or the beaks
of birds of prey!

Frightful torture for the victim imprisoned in the ground--
the earth pressed down so that he cannot move, his arms
bound to his body like those of a corpse in its coffin!
The miserable wretch, living in the mold of clay from which he is
powerless to break out, can only long for the death which is
so slow in coming!

There the Tartars had buried their prisoner three days before!
For three days, Nicholas waited for the help which now came too late!
The vultures had caught sight of the head on a level with the ground,
and for some hours the dog had been defending his master against
these ferocious birds!

Michael dug at the ground with his knife to release his friend!
The eyes of Nicholas, which till then had been closed, opened.

He recognized Michael and Nadia. "Farewell, my friends!" he murmured.
"I am glad to have seen you again! Pray for me!"

Michael continued to dig, though the ground, having been tightly
rammed down, was as hard as stone, and he managed at last to get
out the body of the unhappy man. He listened if his heart was still
beating. . . . It was still!

He wished to bury him, that he might not be left exposed;
and the hole into which Nicholas had been placed when living,
was enlarged, so that he might be laid in it--dead! The faithful
Serko was laid by his master.

At that moment, a noise was heard on the road, about half
a verst distant. Michael Strogoff listened. It was evidently
a detachment of horse advancing towards the Dinka. "Nadia, Nadia!"
he said in a low voice.

Nadia, who was kneeling in prayer, arose. "Look, look!" said he.

"The Tartars!" she whispered.

It was indeed the Emir's advance-guard, passing rapidly along
the road to Irkutsk.

"They shall not prevent me from burying him!" said Michael. And he
continued his work.

Soon, the body of Nicholas, the hands crossed on the breast,
was laid in the grave. Michael and Nadia, kneeling, prayed a last
time for the poor fellow, inoffensive and good, who had paid
for his devotion towards them with his life.

"And now," said Michael, as he threw in the earth, "the wolves
of the steppe will not devour him."

Then he shook his fist at the troop of horsemen who were passing.
"Forward, Nadia!" he said.

Michael could not follow the road, now occupied by the Tartars. He must
cross the steppe and turn to Irkutsk. He had not now to trouble himself
about crossing the Dinka. Nadia could not move, but she could see
for him. He took her in his arms and went on towards the southwest
of the province.

A hundred and forty miles still remained to be traversed.
How was the distance to be performed? Should they not succumb
to such fatigue? On what were they to live on the way?
By what superhuman energy were they to pass the slopes of
the Sayansk Mountains? Neither he nor Nadia could answer this!

And yet, twelve days after, on the 2d of October, at six o'clock
in the evening, a wide sheet of water lay at Michael Strogoff's feet.
It was Lake Baikal.


LAKE BAIKAL is situated seventeen hundred feet above the level of
the sea. Its length is about six hundred miles, its breadth seventy.
Its depth is not known. Madame de Bourboulon states that,
according to the boatmen, it likes to be spoken of as "Madam Sea." If it
is called "Sir Lake," it immediately lashes itself into fury.
However, it is reported and believed by the Siberians that a Russian
is never drowned in it.

This immense basin of fresh water, fed by more than three
hundred rivers, is surrounded by magnificent volcanic mountains.
It has no other outlet than the Angara, which after passing
Irkutsk throws itself into the Yenisei, a little above the town
of Yeniseisk. As to the mountains which encase it, they form
a branch of the Toungouzes, and are derived from the vast system
of the Altai.

In this territory, subject to peculiar climatical conditions,
the autumn appears to be absorbed in the precocious winter.
It was now the beginning of October. The sun set at five o'clock in
the evening, and during the long nights the temperature fell to zero.
The first snows, which would last till summer, already whitened
the summits of the neighboring hills. During the Siberian winter
this inland sea is frozen over to a thickness of several feet,
and is crossed by the sleighs of caravans.

Either because there are people who are so wanting in politeness
as to call it "Sir Lake," or for some more meteorological reason,
Lake Baikal is subject to violent tempests. Its waves, short like those
of all inland seas, are much feared by the rafts, prahms, and steamboats,
which furrow it during the summer.

It was the southwest point of the lake which Michael had
now reached, carrying Nadia, whose whole life, so to speak,
was concentrated in her eyes. But what could these two expect,
in this wild region, if it was not to die of exhaustion and famine?
And yet, what remained of the long journey of four thousand miles
for the Czar's courier to reach his end? Nothing but forty
miles on the shore of the lake up to the mouth of the Angara,
and sixty miles from the mouth of the Angara to Irkutsk;
in all, a hundred miles, or three days' journey for a strong man,
even on foot.

Could Michael Strogoff still be that man?

Heaven, no doubt, did not wish to put him to this trial.
The fatality which had hitherto pursued his steps seemed for a time
to spare him. This end of the Baikal, this part of the steppe,
which he believed to be a desert, which it usually is, was not so now.
About fifty people were collected at the angle formed by the end
of the lake.

Nadia immediately caught sight of this group, when Michael,
carrying her in his arms, issued from the mountain pass.
The girl feared for a moment that it was a Tartar detachment,
sent to beat the shores of the Baikal, in which case flight would
have been impossible to them both. But Nadia was soon reassured.

"Russians!" she exclaimed. And with this last effort, her eyes
closed and her head fell on Michael's breast.

But they had been seen, and some of these Russians, running to them,
led the blind man and the girl to a little point at which was
moored a raft.

The raft was just going to start. These Russians were fugitives
of different conditions, whom the same interest had united
at Lake Baikal. Driven back by the Tartar scouts, they hoped
to obtain a refuge at Irkutsk, but not being able to get there
by land, the invaders having occupied both banks of the Angara,
they hoped to reach it by descending the river which flows
through the town.

Their plan made Michael's heart leap; a last chance was before him,
but he had strength to conceal this, wishing to keep his incognito
more strictly than ever.

The fugitives' plan was very simple. A current in the lake runs
along by the upper bank to the mouth of the Angara; this current
they hoped to utilize, and with its assistance to reach the outlet
of Lake Baikal. From this point to Irkutsk, the rapid waters of
the river would bear them along at a rate of eight miles an hour.
In a day and a half they might hope to be in sight of the town.

No kind of boat was to be found; they had been obliged to make one;
a raft, or rather a float of wood, similar to those which usually
are drifted down Siberian rivers, was constructed. A forest of firs,
growing on the bank, had supplied the necessary materials; the trunks,
fastened together with osiers, made a platform on which a hundred
people could have easily found room.

On board this raft Michael and Nadia were taken. The girl had returned
to herself; some food was given to her as well as to her companion.
Then, lying on a bed of leaves, she soon fell into a deep sleep.

To those who questioned him, Michael Strogoff said nothing
of what had taken place at Tomsk. He gave himself out as an
inhabitant of Krasnoiarsk, who had not been able to get to Irkutsk
before the Emir's troops arrived on the left bank of the Dinka,
and he added that, very probably, the bulk of the Tartar forces
had taken up a position before the Siberian capital.

There was not a moment to be lost; besides, the cold was becoming more
and more severe. During the night the temperature fell below zero;
ice was already forming on the surface of the Baikal. Although the raft
managed to pass easily over the lake, it might not be so easy between
the banks of the Angara, should pieces of ice be found to block
up its course.

At eight in the evening the moorings were cast off, and the raft
drifted in the current along the shore. It was steered by means
of long poles, under the management of several muscular moujiks.
An old Baikal boatman took command of the raft.
He was a man of sixty-five, browned by the sun, and lake breezes.
A thick white beard flowed over his chest; a fur cap covered
his head; his aspect was grave and austere. His large
great-coat, fastened in at the waist, reached down to his heels.
This taciturn old fellow was seated in the stern, and issued
his commands by gestures. Besides, the chief work consisted
in keeping the raft in the current, which ran along the shore,
without drifting out into the open.

It has been already said that Russians of all conditions had found
a place on the raft. Indeed, to the poor moujiks, the women,
old men, and children, were joined two or three pilgrims,
surprised on their journey by the invasion; a few monks, and a priest.
The pilgrims carried a staff, a gourd hung at the belt, and they
chanted psalms in a plaintive voice: one came from the Ukraine,
another from the Yellow sea, and a third from the Finland provinces.
This last, who was an aged man, carried at his waist a little
padlocked collecting-box, as if it had been hung at a church door.
Of all that he collected during his long and fatiguing pilgrimage,
nothing was for himself; he did not even possess the key of the box,
which would only be opened on his return.

The monks came from the North of the Empire. Three months before
they had left the town of Archangel. They had visited the sacred
islands near the coast of Carelia, the convent of Solovetsk,
the convent of Troitsa, those of Saint Antony and Saint Theodosia,
at Kiev, that of Kazan, as well as the church of the Old Believers,
and they were now on their way to Irkutsk, wearing the robe,
the cowl, and the clothes of serge.

As to the papa, or priest, he was a plain village pastor, one of the six
hundred thousand popular pastors which the Russian Empire contains.
He was clothed as miserably as the moujiks, not being above
them in social position; in fact, laboring like a peasant
on his plot of ground; baptis-ing, marrying, burying. He had
been able to protect his wife and children from the brutality
of the Tartars by sending them away into the Northern provinces.
He himself had stayed in his parish up to the last moment;
then he was obliged to fly, and, the Irkutsk road being stopped,
had come to Lake Baikal.

These priests, grouped in the forward part of the raft,
prayed at regular intervals, raising their voices in the


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