Notes & Queries 1849.12.15
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NOTES AND QUERIES:
A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS,
ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.
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"When Found, make a note of."--Captain Cuttle.
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SATURDAY, DECEMBER 15, 1849.
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.
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NOTES:--Marriage Contract of Mary Queen of Scots
Bill of Fare of 1626, by Rev. L.B. Larking
Moneta Sanctae Helenae, by T. Hudson Turner
Translations of Gray's Elegy
On Authors and Books, No. 2, by Bolton Corney
Minor Notes:--Quotations from Pope--Angels' Visits
--Extract from Register of North Runcton--The Norman
Crusader--Lady Jane of Westmoreland
Notes in answer to Queries:--Lobster in Medal of
Answers to Minor Queries:--Ancient Motto--Political
Maxim--Annus Trabeationis--Betterton's Duties of
a Player--Betterton's Essay--Incumbents of Church
Livings--Mare de Saham--Reinerius--Whelps--
Cowley or Cowleas
QUERIES:--Berkeley's Theory of Vision
Dr. Johnson and Professor de Morgan
Caracciolli's Life of Lord Clive
Suppressed Passages in Cartwright's Poems
MINOR QUERIES:--Christencat--Hexameter Verses in the
Notes on Books, Catalogues, Sales, &c.
Books and Odd Volumes wanted
Notices to Correspondents
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MARRIAGE CONTRACT OF MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS AND THE EARL OF BOTHWELL.
[Among the curious documents which have been produced from time to
time before the House of Lords in support of peerage claims, there
have been few of greater historical interest than the one which we
now reprint from the Fourth Part of the Evidence taken before the
Committee of Privileges on the Claim of W. Constable Maxwell,
Esquire, to the title of Lord Herries of Terregles. It is a copy of
the Contract of Marriage between Queen Mary and the Earl of
Bothwell, which, although it is said to have been printed by
Carmichael, in his _Various Tracts relating to the Peerage of
Scotland, extracted from the Public Records_, has not been referred
to by Robertson, or other historians of Scotland, not even by the
most recent of them, Mr. Tytler.
Mr. Tytler tells us that on the 12th of May, 1567, Bothwell was
created Duke of Orkney, "the Queen with her own hands placing the
coronet on his head," and that the marriage took place on the 15th
of May, at four o'clock in the morning in the presence-chamber at
Holyrood; and that on the following morning a paper, with this
ominous verse, was fixed on the palace gate:--
"Mense malas Maio nubere vulgus ait."
The Contract, which is dated on the fourteenth of May, is preserved
in the Register of Deeds in the Court of Session (Vol. IX. p. 86.),
and as the copy produced before the House is authenticated--and
consequently it may be presumed a more strictly accurate one than
that which Carmichael has given--it seems well deserving of being
transferred to our columns, and so made more available to the
purposes of the historian, than it has been found to be in
Carmichael's _Tract_, or is likely to be when buried in a
Parliamentary Blue Book.]
* * * * *
"Decimo quarto Maij anno domini ts. lxvij,
"Sederunt dni sessionis clericus regri.
"In pns of ye lordis of counsale comperit personale ane ry't excellent
ry't heicht and michte princes Marie be ye grace of God queene of
Scottis douieier of France on that ane pairt and ane ry't noble and
potent prince James duk of Orkney erl Bothule lord Hales crychtoun and
Liddisdeall great admiral of the realm of Scotland on y't vy'r p't and
gaif in yis contract and appointnament following subscriuit w't y'r
handis and desyrit ye samen to be insert in ye bukis of counsale to haif
ye strenth force and effect of y'r act and decreit thereupoun the q'lk
desyre ye saidis lordis thocht reasonable and y'rfor hes decernit and
decernis ye said contract and appointnament to be insert and registret
in ye said bukis to haif ye strenth force and effect of y'r act and
decreit in tyme to cum et ad perpetuam rei memoriam and hes interponit
and interponis y'r autoritie y'rto and ordenis y'r autentik extract of
the samen to be deliuerit to the foirsaid partiis and the principale to
remane apud registrum Off ye q'lk contract ye tennor followis At
Edinburgh ye xiiii. day of May the year of God I'mv'c thrie score sevin
yeris it is appointit aggreit contractit and finale concordit betwix ye
r't excellent ry't heich and mychte princess Marie be ye grace of God
queen of Scottis douarrier of France on that ane pairt and ye ry't noble
and potent prince James duke of Orkney erle Bothul lord Hales creychtoun
and Liddisdeall great admiral of yis realm of Scotland on y't vy'r p't
in manner forme and effect as efter follow is that is to say fforsamekle
as her majestie considering w't herself how almyete God hes not onlie
placit and constitut hir hienes to reigne over this realme and during
hir liftyme to governe ye peple and inhabitants y'r of hir native
subjects bot als that of hir royall persoun succession my't be producit
to enioy and possess yis kingdome and dominionis y'r of quhen God sall
call hir hienes to his mercie out of yis mortale life and how grecousle
it hes plesit him alredy to respect her hienes and yis hir realm in
geving vnto hir maistie of her mest deir and onlie sone ye prince baith
her hienes self and hir heill subjects are detbond to render vnto God
immortale prayss and thankis and now hir maistie being destitute of ane
husband levand solditerie in ye estate of wedoheid and yet young and of
flurisshing aige apt and able to procreat and bring furth ma childreyn
hes been pressit and humble requirit to yield vnto sum mariege quhilk
petitioun hir grece weying and teking in gud pairt bot cheifle regarding
ye preservatioun and continewance of hir posteritie hes condescendit y'r
to and mature deliberatioun being had towert psonage ye maist p't of hir
nobilite by way of adviss hes humblie preyit hir maistie and thocht
bettir that she seuld sefar humble hirself as to accept ane of hir awin
borne subiectis in y't state and place that war accustomet w't ye
manneris lawis and consuctud of yis cuntre rether yan ony foreyne prince
and hir maistie preferrand their aduyse and preyeris with ye welfeir of
hir relm to the avansment and promotion qlk hir hienes in pticuler
mycht heve be foreyn marriage hes in that point likwis inclinit to ye
suit of hir said nobilitie and yai bemand ye said noble prince now duke
of Orkney for ye speciall personage hir maistie well aduisit hes allowit
yair motioun and nominatioun and gratiouslie accedit y'r vnto having
recent memorie of the notable and worthie actis and gude service done
and performit by him to hir ma'tje als weill sen hir returning and
arivall in this realme as of befoir in hir hienes minoritie and dureing
the tyme of governament of umq'll hir dearest moder of gude memorie in
the forth setting of her ma'ties authoritie agains all impugnaris and
ganestanders y'r of quhais magnanimitie couraige and constant trewth
towert her ma'tie in preservation of hir awn person from mony evident
and greit dangers and in conducting of heich and profitable purposes
tending to her hienes avancement and establissing of this countre to hir
profite and universall obedience hes sa fer movit her and procurit hir
favour and affectioun that abuist the common and accustomat gude grace
and benevolence quhilk princesses usis to bestow on noblemen thair
subjectis weill deserving hir ma'tie wil be content to resaue and tak to
hir husband the said noble prince for satisfaction of the hearts of hir
nobilitie and people and to the effect that hir ma'tie may be the mair
able to govern and rewill this realme in tyme to cum dureing hir liftyme
and that issue and succession at Goddis plesure may be producit of hir
maist noble persoun quhilkis being sa dear and tender to hit said
dearest son efter hir ma'ties deceas may befoir all oyris serve ayd and
comfort him Quhairfore the said excellent and michtie princesse and
queene and the said noble and potent prince James duke of Orknay sall
God willing solemnizat and compleit the band of metrimony aither of them
with vther in face of haly kirk w't all gudly diligence and als hir
ma'tie in respect of the same metrimony and of the succession at Goddis
plesure to be procreat betwix thame and producit of hir body sall in her
nixt parliament grant ane ratificatioun w't aviss of hir thrie estates
quhilk hir ma'tie sall obtene of the infeftment maid be hir to the said
noble prince then erll Boithuill and his airis maill to be gottin of his
body quhilkis failzeing to hir hienes and hir crown to returne off all &
haill the erldome landis and ilis of Orknay and lordship of Zetland with
the holmes skeireis guylandis outbrekkis castells towrs fortalices
manner places milns multures woddis cunninghares ffishings as weill in
ffresh watters as salt havynis portis raidis outsettis parts pendicles
tennentis tennendries service of frie tennents advocation donation and
richt of patronage of kirkis benefices & chaplanries of the samyn lyand
w'tin the sherifdom of Orknay and ffowdry of Zetland respective with the
toll and customs within the saidis boundis togidder with the offices of
sherifship of Orknay and ffowdry of Zetland and office of justiciarie
w'tin all the boundis als weill of Orknay as Zetland with all
priviledges fies liberties and dewities perteining and belanging y'rto
and all thair pertinentis erectit in ane haill and frie dukrie to be
callit the dukrie of Orknay for evir and gif neid be sall mak him new
infeftment thairvpoun in competent and dew form quhilk hir ma'tie
promittis in verbo principis and in caiss as God forbid thair beis na
airis maill procreat betwix hir ma'tie and the said prince he obleiss
his other airis maill to be gotten of his body to renunce the halding of
blenchferme contenit in the said infeftment tackand alwyis and ressavand
new infeftment of the saidis landis erlldome lordships ilis toll customs
and offices abovewryten and all thair pertinents erectit in an dukrie as
said is quhilk name and titill it sall alwyis retene notwithstanding the
alteratioun of the halding his saidis airis maill to be gotten of his
body payand zeirlie thairfore to our said soverane ladies successoris
y'r comptrollaris in y'r name and soume of twa thousand pundis money of
this realme lykas the samyn wes sett in the tyme of the kingis grace her
gracious ffader of maist worthie memorie Mairowir the said noble and
potent prince and duke obleiss him that he sall no wayis dispone nor
putt away ony of his lands heretages possessiones and offices present
nor quhilkis he sall happen to obtene and conquies heireftir dureing the
mariage fre the airis maill to be gottin betwix him & her m'tie bot yai
to succeid to the same als weil as to the said dukrie of Orknay.
Furthermair it is concludit and accordit be hir ma'tie that all
signateurs tres and wrytingis to be subscrivit be hir ma'tie in tyme to
cum eftir the completing and solemnization of the said mariage other of
gifts dispositiones graces privileges or vtheris sic thingis
quhatsumevir sal be alsua subscrivit be the said noble prince and duke
for his interesse in signe and taken of his consent and assent y'rto as
her ma'ties husband. Likas it is alsua aggreit and accordit be the said
noble prince and duke that na signateurs tres nor writingis othir of
giftis dispositions graces priviledges or others sic thingis concerning
the affairs of the realme sall be subscrivit be him onlie and w'tout hir
ma'ties aviss and subscription and giff ony sic thing happin the samyn
to be of nane availl. And for observing keiping and fulfilling of the
premisses and every poynt and article y'r of the said noble and michte
princesse and the said noble prince and duke hes bundin and obleissit
thame faithfullie to otheris and ar content and consentis that this
present contract be actit and registrat in the buiks of counsale and
session ad perpetuam rei memoriam and for acting and registring hereof
in the samyn buiks her ma'tie ordains hir advocattis and the said noble
prince & duke hes maid and constitute m'rs David Borthuik Alex'r Skeyn
his prors con't'lie and sea'tie promittand de rato. In witness of the
quhilk thing hir ma'tie and the said noble prince and duke hes
subscrivit this present contract with thair hands day yeir and place
foirsaids befoir thir witnesses ane maist reverend ffader in God Johnne
archbishop of Sant Andrews commendator of paisly & George erll of
Huntlie lord Gordon and Badzeneth chencelar of Scotland &c. Dauid erll
of Craufurd lord Lindsay Andro erll of Rothes lord Leslie Alexander
bishop of Galloway commendator of Inchaffray John bishop of Ross Johnne
lord fflemyng Johnne lord Hereiss W'm Maitland of Lethington youngar
secretar to our soverane ladie sir Johne Bellanden of Auchnoule kny't
justice clerk and M'r Robert Crichton of Elioh advocat to hir hienes
with oy's diverss."
(Signed) MARIE Rx.
JAMES DUKE OF ORKNAY.
* * * * *
BILL OF FARE OF 1626.
If an _actual_ bill of fare in a gentleman's house, anno 1626, be worth
your acceptance, as a pendant to the one _prescribed_ in your fourth
number, you are welcome to the following extract from the account book
of Sir Edward Dering, Knt. and Bart.:--
"A Dinner att London, made when my Lady Richardson, my sister E
Ashbornham, and Kate Ashb,--my brother John Ashb, my cosen Walldron and
her sister, and S'r John Skeffington, were with me att Aldersgate
streete, December 23, 1626. My sister Fr Ashb and cosen Mary Hill did
fayle of coming.
Wine 3s. 10d.
a joll of brawne 5s.
pickled oystres a barrell 1s. 6d.
Rabbets a couple--larkes a dozen--plovers 3 and
snikes 4 7s.
Carrowaye and comfites 6d.
a Banquet and 2 dozen and a half of glass plates to
sett it out in 1l. 3s.
Half a doe--which in y'e fee and charge of bringing
itt out of Northampton 8s.
a warden py that the cooke made--we finding y'e
wardens 2s. 4d.
ffor a venison pasty, we finding y'e venison 4s.
ffor 2 minct pyes 2s. 6d.
a breast of veale 2s. 4d.
a legg of mutton 2s.
Sum totall expended 3l. 10s. 3d.
The dinner was at y'e first course--
a peece of Brawne.
a boiled ducke in white broathe.
a boiled haunch of powdered venison.
2 minct pyes.
a boyled legge of mutton.
a venison pasty.
a roast ducke.
a powdered goose roasted.
a breast of veale.
a cold Capon py.
a couple of rabbitts.
pickled oysters--2 dishes.
a cold warden py.
a joull of Sturgeon.
Apples and Carrawayes.
wardens bakt and cold.
A Cake and
A banquett ready in y'e next room.
Mem'd--we had out of y'e country y'e goose, y'e duckes, y'e capon
py, y'e Cake and wardens, and y'e venison; but that is allways p'd
for, though given."
The above seems to have been a family dinner. Sir Edward married, for
his second wife, a daughter of Sir Ashbornham, as appears by the
"1. January 1624/5, beeing Saturday, at sixe of y'e clocke att
night, atte Whitehall, in y'e Duke of Buckingham's lodgings, I
married Anne Ashbornham, third da of Sir Ashbornham, late of
In another entry we have--
"... Dec. 1626, being thursday, Elizabeth Lady Ashbornham widor of
S'r Jno Ashbornham, was married in S't Giles his Church in y'e
feildes, nere London, to S'r Thomas Richardson, K't, then Lo.
cheife Justice of y'e common pleas."
The day of the month is torn out. It would almost seem as if this was
the wedding dinner, on the occasion of the marriage of the Chief Justice
with Lady Dering's mother; at all events the reunion of the family in
London was caused by that event.
Banquet was the name given to a dessert, and it was usually set out in
The large baking pear is still called warden in many counties.
Appended to the above is a bill of the items of the "banquet," with the
cost of hire for the glass plates; but it is so hopelessly illegible
that I will not venture to give it. Many of the items, as far as I can
read them, are not to be found in "the books," and are quite new to me.
Having had no small experience in deciphering hopeless scribblings, I
think I may pronounce this to be better left alone than given in its
present confused state.
LAMBERT B. LARKING
* * * * *
MONETA SANCTAE HELENAE.
As a subscriber to your valuable publication, allow me to suggest that
it might, from time to time, be open to contributions explaining obscure
passages or words, which often occur in the works of mediaeval writers,
and more especially in early English records. So far as English usages
and customs are concerned, the Glossary of Du Cange is of comparatively
little value to the English student; many terms, indeed, being wrongly
interpreted in all editions of that work. Take, for example, the word
"tricesima," the explanation of which is truly ridiculous; under
"berefellarii," the commentary is positively comic; and many other
instances might be cited. At the same time, it would be presumptuous to
speak otherwise than in terms of the highest respect and admiration of
Du Cange and his labours. The errors to which I allude were the natural
consequences of a foreigner's imperfect knowledge of English law and
English customs; still it is to be lamented that they should have
remained uncorrected in the later editions of the Glossary; and I take
it to be our duty to collect and publish, where feasible, materials for
an English dictionary of mediaeval Latin. It is in your power materially
to advance such a work, and under that impression I venture to send the
In the Wardrobe Account of the 55th year of Henry the Third, it is
stated that among the valuables in the charge of the keeper of the royal
wardrobe, there was a silken purse, containing "_monetam Sancte
Helene_." It is well known that, during the middle ages, many and
various objects were supposed to possess talismanic virtues. Of this
class were the coins attributed to the mother of Constantine, the
authenticity of which is questioned by Du Cange, in his treatise "_de
Inferioris aevi numismatibus_." He observes, also, that the same name was
given, vulgarly, to almost all the coins of the Byzantine emperors, not
only to those bearing the effigies of St. Helena, but indeed to all
marked with a cross, which were commonly worn suspended from the neck as
phylacteries; "hence," he subjoins, "we find that these coins are
generally perforated." It was quite in accordance with the superstitious
character of Henry the Third that coins of St. Helena should be
preserved in his wardrobe, among numerous other amulets and relics. But
what was the peculiar virtue attributed to such coins? Du Cange, in the
same treatise, says, on the authority of "Bosius," that they were a
remedy against the "_comitialem morbum_," or epilepsy. The said
"Bosius," or rather "Bozius," wrote a ponderous work, "_de Signis
Ecclesiae Dei_" (a copy of which, by the by, is not to be seen in the
library of the British Museum, although there are two editions of it in
the Bodleian), in which he discourseth as follows:--"Monetae adhuc
aliquot exstant, quae in honorem Helenae Augustae, et inventae crucis, cum
hujusmodi imaginibus excusae antiquitus fuerunt. Illis est praesens
remedium adversus morbum comitialem: et qui hodie vivit Turcarum Rex
Amurathes, quamvis a nobis alienus, vim sanctam illarum expertus solet
eas gestare; e morbo namque hujusmodi interdum laborat. Nummi quoque
Sancti Ludovici Francorum regis mirifice valent adversus nonnullos
morbos."--Lib. xv. sig. 68.
This mention of the sultan Amurath carrying these coins about his person
as a precaution against a disease to which he was subject, and indeed
the whole passage shows a belief in their efficacy was still prevalent
in the sixteenth century, when Bozius wrote. It only remains to add,
that Du Cange, in his Glossary, does not enumerate the "money of St.
Helena" under the word "moneta;" nor does he allude to the coins of St.
Louis, which, according to Bozius, were endowed with similar properties.
Having sent you a "Note," permit me to make two or three "Queries." 1.
What is the earliest known instance of the use of a beaver hat in
England? 2. What is the precise meaning of the term "pisan," so often
used, in old records, for some part of defensive armour, particularly in
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries? It does not bear any relation
to the fabrics of Pisa.
T. HUDSON TURNER.
* * * * *
TRANSLATIONS OF GRAY'S ELEGY.
Sir,--My best apology for troubling you with such a lengthened Query is,
that it will serve, to some extent, as a Note. Will any of your
correspondents inform me of any additions to the following list of
translations of Gray's _Elegy?_ It may possibly be more incomplete than
I am aware of, as it is drawn up, with two exceptions, from copies in my
own library only.
1. By Professor Cooke, printed with his edition of Aristotle's
_Poetics_, Cantab. 1775. It begins:--
[Greek: "Nux pelei, oud an agros pura kaietai, oud ana komas."]
2. By Dr. Norbury. 4to. Eton. 1793:--
[Greek: "Atgellei kodon barus aeelion katadunta."]
3. By Dr. Sparke, Bishop of Ely. 4to. Lond. 1794:--
[Greek: "Kodon aematos oichomenoio baruktupos aechei."]
4. By Dr. Coote. 4to. Lond. 1794:--
[Greek: "Kodon daeta, phaous tekmor apiontos, epaechei."]
5. By Stephen Weston. 4to. London, 1794:--
[Greek: "Aematos oichomenoio boai chalkos baruaechaes."]
6. By Edward Tew. 4to. Lond. 1795:--
[Greek: "Tael' aechei kodon neon aematos anomenoio."]
There is also a Greek version of the epitaph only, by J. Plumptre,
printed with his Greek version of Pope's _Messiah._ 4to. 1795. In a
biographical notice of Dr. Sparke, it is stated that he was among the
thirteen candidates when the competition took place for the best
translation of Gray's _Elegy_ into Greek. Query, what was this
competition, and were any of the other versions published?
1. By Lloyd. Query, when and where originally published? My copy,
which is among some collections of the late Mr. Haselwood, appears
to have been cut out of a Dublin edition. It begins:--
"Audistin! quam lenta sonans campana per agros."
2. By Signor Gio. Costa. 12mo. In Eblana, 1776:--
"AEs triste ingeminat cedentis signa diei."
3. By Gilbert Wakefield, in his "Poemata partim scripta, partim
reddita." Cambridge, 1776:--
"Vesper adest, lugubre sonat Campanula; tardis."
4. By C.A. et W.H.R. [C. Anstey and W.H. Roberts.] 4to. London,
"Ingeminat signum occiduae Campana diei."
5. The last-mentioned version originally appeared anonymously in a
somewhat different form (4to. Cantab. 1762), the first line
"Audin' ut occiduae signum Campana diei."
6. An anonymous version, "by a member of the University of
Cambridge," printed with the French translation of M. Guedon de
Berchere, mentioned below. I have no copy, and do not know the
7. By S.N.E. 4to. London, 1824. Query, the name of the author. It
may perhaps appear on the title-page, which is wanting in my
"Triste sonans, lente tinnit campana per agros."
8. By the Rev. J.H. Macauley, in the "Arundines Cami:"--
"Funebris insonuit moriturae naenia lucis."
1. By Cesarotti. 8vo. In Padova, 1772:--
"Parte languido il giorno: odine il segno."
2. By Crocchi. Query, when and where originally published? My copy
is from the same source as the Latin version by Lloyd:--
"Il Bronzo vespertin con flebil rombo."
3. By Gennari, printed on the same pages with the Latin version by
"Nunzio del di che parte intorno suona."
4. By Giannini. 2nd ed. 4to. London, 1782:--
"Piange la squilla 'l giorno, che si muore."
5. By Torelli. 8vo. Cambridge, 1782:--
"Segna la squilla il di che gia vien manco."
The Latin version by Costa, and the Italian by Cesarotti and Torelli,
were reprinted by Bodoni in 1793, in 4to., as a supplement to his
edition of Gray.
1. By Mons. P. Guedon de Berchere. I have no copy, and do not know
the opening line. Perhaps you will oblige me by inserting it in
your list of books wanted to purchase. It is entitled "Elegie
composee dans un Cimetiere de Campagne." 8vo. Hookham, &c. 1778.
2. By L.D. 8vo. Chatham, 1806. Query, what name is represented by
"le Rappel a marque le jour en son declin."
3. Prose version. Anonymous. 8vo. A Paris. An vi.:--
"La Cloche du couvre-feu tinte le clas du jour qui expire."
A translation appeared in the _Kaleidoscope_, a weekly paper
published in Liverpool, in May, 1823. It was communicated by a
correspondent who had obtained a copy from the writer in Germany:--
"Des Dorfes Glocke schallt den Moor entlang."
I must frankly avow that I have no present object in seeking information
beyond the gratification of curiosity; but I would venture to throw out
a hint that an edition of this _Elegy_, exhibiting all the known
translations, arranged in double columns, might be made a noble monument
to the memory of Gray. The plan would involve the necessity for a folio
size, affording scope for pictorial illustration, on a scale capable of
doing justice to "the most finished poem in the English language."
* * * * *
ON AUTHORS AND BOOKS, NO. 2
To revive the memory of estimable authors, or of estimable books, is a
pursuit to which a man of leisure may devote himself under the certainty
that he can neither want materials to proceed with, not miss the reward
It is by the extensive circulation of biographical dictionaries, and the
re-productive agency of the press, that the fame of authors and their
works is chiefly perpetuated. General biographers, however, relying too
much on the intelligence and tact of their precursors, are frequently
the dupes of tradition; and the press, like other descriptions of
machinery, requires a _double_ motive-power.
A remedy happily presents itself. As it appears, a short note is
sufficient to raise inquiry; and inquiry may lead to new fact, or
advance critical equity. It may rescue a meritorious author from
oblivion, and restore him to his true position on the roll of fame.
It is near a century and a half since Ant. Wood printed a notice of the
reverend Thomas Powell, and more than a century since the inquisitive
Oldys devoted eighteen pages to an abstract of his _Human
industry_;--yet we search in vain for the name of Powell in the
dictionaries of Aikin, Watkins, Chalmers, Gorton, &c.--It is even
omitted in the _Cambrian biography_ of his countryman William Owen,
An exact transcript of the title of the work, and of the manuscript
notes which enrich my own copy of it, may therefore be acceptable:--
"Humane industry; or, a history of most manual arts, deducing the
original, progress, and improvement of them. Furnished with variety
of instances and examples, shewing forth the excellency of humane
wit. [_Anonymous._] London, for Henry Herringman, 1661." 8.
[_On the title._] "E libris rarioribus Joannis Brand, Coll. Line.
[_On a fly-leaf._] "This book is ascribed by Wood to Dr. Tho'm.
Powell, canon of St. David's, who was, says he, 'an able
philosopher, a curious critic, and well versed in various
languages.' See an abstract of this scarce book in Oldys's _British
librarian_, p. 42."
"N.B.--The above is the hand-writing of the Rev'd. M'r. Granger,
author of the _biographical history._--I bought it of Mr. Prince,
at Oxford, who purchased his books." [John Brand.]
I have now only to consign the learned Powell to future biographers, and
to recommend the volume as one which deserves a place in every choice
collection of English books.
* * * * *
_Quotations from Pope._
D***N**R. (p. 38.), gives, as an instance of misquotation, a passage
from Pope, as it appeared in the _Times_, and adds a correction of it.
As my _memory_ suggested a version different from both that of the
_Times_, and the correction of your correspondent, I turned to Pope
(Bowles edition, 1806), and found the passage there, precisely as it is
given from the _Times_. Has your correspondent any authority for his
reading? No various reading of the lines is given by Bowles.
While on the subject of Pope, I will make a note (as I have not seen it
noticed by his commentators), that the well-known line,
"The proper study of mankind is man,"
is literally from Charron (_De la Sagesse_, I. i. ch. 1.)--
"La vraye science et le vray etude de l'homme c'est
[We may add, that in the Aldine edition of Pope, which was produced
under the editorial superintendence of the Rev. A. Dyce, the lines
are given as quoted from the _Times_, and without any various
reading. See vol. ii. p. 55.]
Campbell's famous line,
"Like angels visits, few and far between,"
has been clearly shown by a correspondent in another paper, to be all
but copied from Blair:--
----"like an ill-used ghost
Not to return;--or if it did, its visits
_Like those of angels, short and far between._"
But the same phrase, though put differently, occurs in a religious poem
of Norris of Bemerton, who died in 1711:--
"But those who soonest take their flight,
Are the most exquisite and strong,
_Like angels visits, short_ and bright,
Mortality's too weak to bear them long."
_Extract from Parish Register of North Runcton, Norfolk_.
Sir,--As a pendant to the extracts from the register of East Peckham,
Kent, in your third number, I send the following, which I copied some
time ago from one of the register books of the parish of North Runcton,
Norfolk, and which may prove interesting to some of your readers.
"Jun. 12. 1660.
"Reader,--Lest whatever pseudography (as there is much thereof)
occurring to thy intentionall or accidentall view of the following
pages in this book should prove offensive to thee, I thought good
to give thee an account of what hath occasioned the same, viz. In
the woful days of the late usurper, the registring of births, not
baptisms, was injoyned and required, to give a liberty to all the
adversaries of Pedobaptisme, &c., and, besides some circumstances,
too unhandsome for the calling and person of a minister, were then
allso annexed to him that was to keep a register of all, &c.; and
so it came to passe, that persons of no learning, for many places,
were chosen by y'e parish, and ministers declined the office.
_The Norman Crusader_.
"The Norman Crusader," in the horse-armoury in the Tower of London, or a
part of it, came from Green's Museum. He obtained the hauberk from Tong
Castle. At the dispersion of the Museum, the hauberk was purchased by
Bullock, of Liverpool (afterwards of the Egyptian Hall), in whose
catalogue for 1808 it appears as a _standing_ figure, holding a brown
bill in the right hand, and resting the left upon a heater shield.
Bullock at this time added the chauses.--In 1810, the "London Museum"
was opened at the "Egyptian Temple" (Hall), the figure as before; but,
in the catalogue for 1813, we have the man _and horse_ standing in front
of the gallery, and named "The Norman Crusader."
At the "decline and fall" of Bullock's Museum, Mr. Gwennap purchased the
Crusader for, it is said, 200 guineas; and after being put in thorough
repair, it was placed in the "Aplotheca," Brook Street, Mr. Gwennap,
jun. adding the sword.
During its repair, it was discovered that the armour was not originally
made for a horse, but for an elephant; and, on inquiry, it appeared that
Bullock had purchased it, together with other curiosities, of a sailor,
had taken it to pieces, and formed the armour for the horse.
At the sale of Gwennap's collection, "The Norman Crusader" was knocked
down by Geo. Robins to a Mr. Bentley, for 30_l_., and he being unable to
_polish_ it, as he had intended, sold it to the authorities at the Tower
for one hundred guineas, where it is exhibited as "The Norman Crusader."
_Lady Jane of Westmoreland._
Sir,--On page 206. of Mr. Collier's second volume of _Extracts from the
Registers of the Stationers' Company,_ the following entry
occurs:--"1585-6. Cold and uncoth blowes, of the lady Jane of
Westmorland." And on page 211., "A songe of Lady Jane of Westmorland."
Mr. Collier considers these entries to refer to the same production.
The name of Lady Jane of Westmoreland does not occur in Park's edition
of _Royal and Noble Authors_; but it would clearly be entitled to a
place there, if we can ascertain who she was.
I have little doubt she was Jane, daughter of Thomas Manvers, first Earl
of Rutland, and first wife of Henry Nevill, fifth Earl of Westmoreland,
by whom she was mother of Charles, Earl of Westmoreland, one of the
chiefs of the northern rebellion.
Collins, under the title "Rutland," states that _Anne_, daughter of
Thomas, first Earl of Rutland, married Henry, Earl of Westmoreland; but
under the title "Abergavenny" he states that the same Henry, Earl of
Westmoreland, married _Jane_, daughter of Thomas, first Earl of Rutland.
The last statement I presume to be the correct one.
I can find no other person, at the period in question, to whom the title
of Lady Jane of Westmoreland could have been attributed; and her sister
Frances, who also married a Henry Nevill (fourth Lord Abergavenny of
that name), is known to have been an authoress. An account of her will
be found in the first volume of the _Royal and Noble Authors_, by Park.
Lady Frances Abergavenny (whose work is entered on page 52. of Mr.
Collier's second volume), had an only daughter, who married Sir Thomas
Fane, and from this marriage the present Earl of Westmoreland is
* * * * *
NOTES IN ANSWER TO QUERIES.
_The Lobster in the Medal of the Pretender._
Your correspondent, Mr. B. NIGHTINGALE, desires an answer to his Query
(in your No. 4), Why is the figure of _a Lobster_ introduced into the
impression upon the rare medal struck 20th June, 1688, in contempt or
ridicule of Prince James Edward, the newly-born son of King James II.?
A reference to the two following works will, perhaps, supply the
1st. In Philemon Holland's translation of Pliny's _Natural History_ (a
great authority at the time) this passage occurs in book ix. cap. 30.:--
"Lobsters, so long as they are secure of any fear and danger, go
directly straight, letting down their hornes at length along their
sides; ... but if they be in any fear, up go their hornes
straight--and then they creep byas and go sidelong."
And in the next chapter (31.):--
"Crabs" (which were often confounded with lobsters) "when they will
be afraid, will recule backward, as fast as they went forward."
2nd. In the celebrated work of Sebastian Brandt, entitled _Stultifera
Naxis_ (which went through many editions after its first appearance in
1494), is an engraving of a fool, wearing cap and bells, seated astride
on the back of a lobster, with a broken reed in his hand, and a pigeon
flying past him as he stares vacantly at it with open mouth. The
following lines are attached:--
"Qui pretium poseit quod non meruisse videtur,
Atque super fragilem ponit sua brachia cannam
Illius in dorso Cancrorum semita stabit;
Devolet inque suum rictum satis assa Columba."
It appears, then, to me, that the design of the medallist was to hold up
to the exceration of the English people the machinations of Father
Petre, who (together with Sunderland) guided the councils of the king at
the juncture. The Jesuits, like the crustaceous fish above-mentioned,
were alleged to accomplish their dark and crooked designs by creeping
and sedulously working their way straight forward through the mud, until
some real danger presented itself, and then _reculing_ with equal
At this time, too, the bigoted and superstitious adherents of James had
been offering their vows at every shrine, and even making pilgrimages,
to induce Heaven to grant a male heir to the throne, and thus exclude
the Protestant daughters of the king. The premature and unexpected
event, therefore, of the birth of a son, was pronounced by James's
friends to have been predestined by the special grace of the Most High.
All this, I apprehend, was intended to be typified by the figure of the
_Jesuit Petre riding upon a Lobster_.
JOS. BROOKS YATES
_Straw Necklaces--Method of keeping Notes, &c._
Sir,--As I see this matter is not yet explained, I venture a suggestion.
Wheat straw was an emblem of peace among heathen nations; in it the
first-fruits brought by Abaris the Hyperborean to Delos were wrapped;
and when commerce, or rather trade by barter, had rendered transmission
from hand to hand practicable, wheat straw was still used. With the
worship of Diana the offering of wheat straw passed over to Thrace,
where it was a recognition of that goddess as the patron of chastity. In
Judea the wheat harvest was later than that of barley, the Jews
therefore offered a sheaf of the latter grain as first-fruits; it is,
however, extraordinary that Moses orders barley-meal as the offering for
jealousy (Numbers, v 15.), though the price of barley was but half that
of wheat. It seems as if there were the same connection between this
peace-offering and that of the first-fruits with the Jews, that we see
between the offering to Diana and the first-fruits of the Hyperboreans;
both may have been derived from Egypt, in the learning of which, we are
told, Moses was skilled. The straw necklace or chaplet of Erasmus'
pilgrim might be worn to secure him from molestation in travelling, or
it may refer to the patroness of Walsingham, the Virgin Mary.
I dare say many persons have thought with me, that a poet's promise of a
"belt of straw" to his love, was not a very complimentary one; one
possible meaning never struck me till this moment: it may be a
compliment unconsciously drawn from a heathen source, and perpetuated,
like so many of our old-world customs, among a class of people the least
likely to understand the meaning.
Another corroboration of Macaulay's Young Levite may be found in _The
Tatler_, No. 255, sixty years later than Burton.
I beg to suggest a method of keeping "Notes," which I have found useful.
I have a blank book for each quarter of the world, paged alphabetically;
I enter my notes and queries according to the subject for which they are
most likely to be required; if relating to mere geography or history,
under the name of place or person. I also keep a list (with dates) of
all the books I read, with a note of any use to be made of them; I also
keep a list of all books to be read, and the reasons for reading them. I
tried various ways of keeping my notes, and found no classification so
easy for reference as the plan I have mentioned; it may not, however,
suffice to those whose reading is much more extensive than mine; I
mention it as a _working_ plan.
* * * * *
ANSWERS TO MINOR QUERIES
Sir,--In your Sixth Number, p. 93, J.E.M. wishes to know whence the
motto, "Si quis amicum absentum rodere delectat," &c. is taken.
Allow me to refer your correspondent to Horace, Sat. I. iv. 81 sqq.
"Absentem qui rodit amicum,
Qui non defendit, alio culpante,
* * * * *
hic niger est, hanc tu, Romane, caveto."
The inscription would seem to be but an adaptation of Horace's maxim.
_Political Maxim--when first used._
The political maxim, or phrase, inquired after by C. is Burke's. It
occurs in his celebrated _Thoughts on the Cause of the present
Discontent_, published in 1770, in the course of his defence of party, a
few pages from the end. A short extract will show the connection in
which it is introduced:--
"No man, who is not inflamed by vain-glory into enthusiasm, can
flatter himself that his single, unsupported, desultory,
unsystematic endeavours are of power to defeat the subtle designs
and united cabals of ambitious citizens. When bad men combine, the
good must associate; else they will fall, one by one, an unpitied
sacrifice, in a contemptible struggle."
I have some suspicion that the maxim may be found, with probably a
slight variation of expression, repeated in one of Burke's later tracts.
But this is certainly its first appearance.
Old Brompton, Dec. 8. 1849.
Sir Harris Nicholas, in his _Chronology of History_, p. 4, gives "annus
Trabeationis" as one way in which the year of our Lord is designated in
ancient documents. Would any of your readers favour me with the meaning
of the word Trabeatio?
[Our correspondent will find, on referring to Mr. Hampson's useful
work, _Medii AEvi Kalendarium_, vol. ii. s. v. Annus Trabentionis,
"According to Du Cange, this is the year of the crucifixion--'Annus
Trabeationis Christi (annus quo Christus _trabi_ affixus est);' but
according to _L'Art de verifier les Dates_, it is the same as the
year of the Incarnation." Mr. Hampson adds, "the import of the word
is the year of the Crucifixion, and cannot well be reconciled with
that of the Incarnation." But, upon referring to Du Cange, s. v.
_Trabeatio_, our correspondent will find that Du Cange regards it
as the year of the Incarnation--"_Trabeatio_ autem, non a _trabe_,
qua Crux intelligi posset, sed a _trabea_ togae species,
deducitur"--quoting, as his authority for this interpretation, a
sermon of St. Fulgentius on St. Stephen, in which he says, "Heri
enim Rex noster _Trabea carnis_ indutus."]
_Betterton's Duties of a Player._
Sir,--Betterton's _Instructions on the Art of Playing and Public
Speaking_, queried in your 5th Number, were published by the well-known
dramatic critic, Charles Gildon, and form a portion of his _Life of
Betterton_. As this work is little known, I shall quote the title at
length:--"The Life of Mr. Thomas Betterton, the late eminent Tragedian,
wherein the Action and Utterance of the Stage, Bar, and Pulpit, are
distinctly considered; with the judgment of the late ingenious Monsieur
de St. Evremond, upon the Italian and French Music and Operas, in a
Letter to the Duke of Buckingham. To which is added, The Amorous Widow,
or the Wanton Wife, a Comedy, written by Mr. Betterton, now first
printed from the Original Copy. _London, Printed for Robert Gosling, at
the Miter, near the Inner Temple Gate in Fleet Street_, 1710. 8vo."
Gildon was intimately acquainted with Betterton, and he gives an
interesting account of a visit paid to that great actor, the year before
his death, at his country house at Reading. It was on this occasion that
Gildon came into the possession of Betterton's manuscripts. Thirty-one
years after the publication of Betterton's Life, Curll, the notorious
bookseller, put forth a mutilated copy of the _Instructions on Playing_,
in a work bearing the following title:--"The History of the English
Stage, from the Restauration to the Present Time, Including the Lives,
Character, and Amours, of the most Eminent Actors and Actresses; with
Instructions for Public Speaking, wherein the Action and Utterance of
the Bar, Stage, and Pulpit, are distinctly considered. By Thomas
Betterton. _London, Printed for E. Curll, at Pope's Head in Rose-Street,
Covent Garden_, 1741. 8vo." From this title it would appear (as indeed
Curll wished it) that Betterton was the author of the entire work; but
he is only accountable for the brief _Instructions for Public Speaking_,
which, as before stated, were pillaged from Gildon.
Reverting to Colley Cibber's _Lives_, I beg to point out a curious and
rare tract in connection with them, entitled, "A Brief Supplement to
Colley Cibber, Esq.; his Lives of the Late Famous Actors and Actresses.
By Anthony (vulgo Tony) Aston. Printed for the Author. 8vo. pp. 24." The
copy now before me, which was Isaac Reed's, sold at his sale for 2_l_.
5_s_. It is reprinted in a literary journal called _The Cabinet_, and in
Bell-chambers' excellent edition of Cibber's _Apology_.
Whilst on the subject of the stage, I should be glad if any of your
correspondents could inform me what has become of "Dick Leveridge's
History of the Stage and Actors in his own Time?" Leveridge himself
informed Oldys that he had compiled such a work, and Oldys, with his
usual care, noted the fact in one of his numerous memorandum books. I
have been long engaged in a history of _The Life and Times of Henry
Purcell_, and the said MS., if it could be recovered, would, without
doubt, enlighten us much upon the subject of Purcell's career as a
EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.
The "best piece" of Betterton, for which T.J.L. inquires (p. 68.), is
contained in his Life, printed by Gosling, 1710; in fact, this is merely
a vehicle to introduce the treatise, the Life filling only from p. 5. to
11, and thus concluding:--"He was bury'd with great decency in
"The year before his death, (he) being at his country house in
Reading, my friend and I travelled that way.... One day, after
dinner, we retired to his garden, and fell into the discourse of
acting." Thus is introduced his _Essay_, &c., continuing to p.
174, where it abruptly ends thus:--"After this discourse, we took
our leaves of Mr. Betterton, and returned to London. I was pleased
with his story," &c.
My copy is dedicated to Richard Steele, Esq., by Charles Gildon, and has
prefixed to it the beautiful portrait of Betterton, engraved by Vander
Gucht, from Kneller's picture, and, at its close (but separately paged),
"The Amorous Widow or the Wanton Wife, now first printed from the
original copy," 1710. E.
_Incumbents of Church Livings._
A correspondent in Number 4, writes to inquire for information relative
to the "names and birthplaces of incumbents of church livings prior to
1680, and the patrons of them."
It may slightly help his investigations to know that there is a Latin
MS. in the British Museum, numbered Additional MSS. 12,483, with the
title "Ecclesiastical Visitation of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight,
held in March and April 1543, by Nicholas Harpisfelde, Official of the
Archdeacon of Winchester," folio, containing the names of the incumbents
and churchwardens of the livings in those counties.
Westminster, December 1849.
_Mars de Saham--Portum Pusillum._
The first appears to be Soham, in Cambridgeshire; described in _Liber
Eliensis_ as "terra de Saham, quae est ad stagnum juxta Ely." Does "mare"
stand for "stagnum," "palus," "mariscus," or our English "mere?" Can
Portum Pusillum be Littleport, in the same country?
_Reinerius--Inquisition in France._
Sir,--Faber, in his work on the Waldenses, quotes _Reinerius_, _in
Biblio. Patrum_. I have in vain looked in modern biographical
dictionaries for any account of Reinerius, so am constrained to inquire
of some of your readers, who and what he was, or to beg the favour of a
reference to some accessible account of him. I think Faber says he was
an inquisitor; and this is the extent of the information which I have
been able to collect respecting him.
I wish also to inquire whether his work on Heretics (his only work, I
presume) has been published in any other and more accessible form than
that in which it was referred to by Faber; and, particularly, whether it
has ever been translated into English.
I have often wished to know whether the tribunal of the Inquisition was
ever established elsewhere in France than at Toulouse. Can any of your
correspondents enlighten me on the point, and give me references in
[The work of Reinerius Saccho was first published by the Jesuit
Gretser in 1613, and has since been reprinted in the different
editions of the _Bibliotheca Patrum_. It has never been translated
The following extracts from the _Travels of Sir William Brereton_ may
answer the inquiry respecting the ships called "Whelps":--
"Waterford, 25 July, 1635. About six hour I went aboard one of the
kings ships, called the ninth _whelp_, which is in the king's books
215 ton and tonnage in kings books. She carries sixteen pieces of
ordinance, two brass rakers, six iron demiculverin drakes, four
iron whole culverin drakes, and four iron demicannon drakes. They
are called drakes. They are taper-bored in the camber, and are
tempered with extraordinary metal to carry that shot; these are
narrower where the powder is put in, and wider where the shot is
put in, and with this kind of ordinance his majesty is much
affected. This ship is manned with sixty men."--p. 164.
"1627. This 26th of February, attending the officers of the navy at
Sir Sackville Crowes house by Charing Cross, Sir John Pennington
came thither to acquaint them with a warrant from the Lord Duke (of
Buckingham) directed to him and myself, for present bargaining with
the yard keepers of the river for the building of ten small
vessels, for the enterprise of Rochel, of some 120 tons a piece,
with one deck and quarter only, to row as well as sail. The 28th of
the same month we concluded our bargains with the general yard
keepers, and drew convenants between us, and delivered to them
accordingly. In this business I was employed till the latter end of
July that the ships set sail to Portsmouth. My son John was placed
captain in the sixth _whelp_, built by my kinsman Peter Pett.
Having liberty from my lord Duke to make choice from among them
all, I chose that pinnace before the rest, supposing she would have
proved the best, which fell out afterwards cleane contrary. The 4th
September my son John took leave of me in the evening, and went on
board his ship, whom I never saw after, being unfortunately cast
away in the return from Rochel.
"1628. In this interim I received certain intelligence of the great
loss of my son John, his ship and all his company, who foundered in
the sea about the Seames in a great storm, about the beginning of
November; not one man saved to bring the doleful news, nor no ship
near them to deliver the certainty but a small pinnace belonging to
the fleet that was within ken of her, and saw her shoot nine pieces
of ordinance hoping of succour."--_Journal of Phineas Pett. MSS. in
Brit. Mus._ 9298.
"At the return of this fleet (from Rochel) two of the _whelps_ were
cast away, and three ships more, and some five ships who had some
of those great stones, that were brought to build Pauls, for
ballast and for other uses within them, which could promise no good
success, for I never heard of any thing that prospered which being
once designed for the honour of God was alienated from that
use."--Howel's _Letters_, sect. v. lett. 9.
The name _whelp_ was probably given them facetiously in reference to
their designation as barks.
_Cowley or Cowleas_.
Your correspondent W. asks the etymon of "Cowley;"--probably "Cow leas,"
or Cow pasture. In ancient records it is written "Couelee." I have
before me a survey or "extent" of the Hospitalers' lands in England,
including those formerly belonging to the Templars. In this record, as
in most that I have seen, it is written, "Templecouelee," and it is
entered as a limb of the commandry of Saunford or Sandford.
_Cowley or Coverley--Statistics of Roman Catholic
Church--Whelps--Discovery of America_.
I can answer pretty confidently the query II. in Number 4, p. 59,
about the etymon of _Cowley_, for I have, on a farm of my own, two
denominations of land, called _Ox-ley_ and _Cow-ley_, and I believe that
both these names are common all through England. Like _Horseley, Ashley,
Oakley_ and a thousand other _leas_ or _leys_ distinguished from each
other by some local characteristic. _Coverley_ was probably not
_Cowley_, but, like _Woodley_, _Orchardleigh_, &c., derived from its
In answer to the query as to the statistics of the Roman Catholic
Church, p. 61. Number 4, I think I may say there is no such _general_
work, though the _Propaganda_ of Rome was said to register something of
that sort. The information is only to be picked up from various and (as
far as I know) all imperfect publications. The least so that I can just
now refer to is the _Statistics of the Roman Catholic Church of
Ireland_, in Thom's _Dublin Almanack_--a very curious and useful
In reply to the inquiry as to a _priest's wife_, p. 77 Number 5, I
would suggest that married persons may have separated, and retired each
into the celibacy of a convent, yet might join, when necessary, in a
legal conveyance; but I should examine closely the word deciphered
To J.J., who inquires about "_Whelps_," and refers to Howell's
_Letters_, sect. 5 p. 9, I beg leave to suggest more precision in his
future references. The passage is in one (viz. the viii.) of the 42
letters of the 5th section; but in the last and best edition (Lond.
1754) it is p. 204. I note this to inculcate the necessity of accurate
references and mention of the edition quoted. As to the query itself, I
can answer that the "_whelps_" were a class, perhaps I might say a
_litter_, of light men-of-war of the fifth rate, which were so called,
perhaps, after one named the "_Lion's Whelp_," in Queen Elizabeth's
navy, and distinguished by numbers, as "_1st Whelp_," "_2nd Whelp_," and
so on to at least "_10th Whelp_," which is to be found in a list of the
navy in 1651. She was of 180 tons, and carried 18 guns and 60 men. It
seems not easy to account for this class of vessels having been rated so
high as 5th rates, but I suppose they were a favourite and favoured
In reference to the discovery of America by Madoc, pp. 7 12 25 57,
it may amuse your readers to be informed that Seneca shadows forth such
"Venient annis saecula seris
Quibus Oceanus vincula rerum
Laxet, et ingens pateat tellus,
Ichthysque novos deteget orbes;
Nec sit terris ultima Thule."
_Medea_, act ii, ad finem, v. 375.
"A vaticination," says the commentator, "of the Spanish discovery of
America." It is certainly a curious passage.
* * * * *
BERKELEY'S THEORY OF VISION VINDICATED.
In Mr. Dugald Stewart's _Dissertation on the Progress of Metaphysical
Philosophy_ he says of Lord Shaftesbury's work entitled
"It seemed to have the power of changing the temper of its critics.
It provoked the amiable Berkeley to a harshness equally unwonted
and unwarranted; while it softened the rugged Warburton so far as
to dispose the fierce, yet not altogether ungenerous, polemic to
price an enemy in the very heat of conflict."
To this passage is appended the following note:--
"Berkeley's _Minute Philosopher_, Dialogue 3; but especially his
_Theory of Vision Vindicated_, London, 1733 (not republished in the
quarto edition of his works), where this most excellent man sinks
for a moment to the level of a railing polemic."
Can you or any of your readers do me the favour to inform me whether the
tract here referred to has been included in any subsequent edition of
the Bishop's works, and, if not, where it is to be met with?
* * * * *
DR. JOHNSON AND PROFESSOR DE MORGAN.
Mr. Editor,--Although your cleverly conceived publication may be
considered as more applicable to men of letters than to men of figures,
yet I doubt not you will entertain the subject I am about to propound:
because, in the first place, "whole generations of men of letters" are
implicated in the criticism; and, in the next place, because however
great, as a man of figures, the critic may be, the man of letters
criticised was assuredly greater.
Professor de Morgan has discovered a flaw in the great Johnson! and, in
obedience to your epigraph, "_when found make a note of it_," he _has_
made a note of it at the foot of page 7, of _The Companion to the
Almanac for 1850_,--eccola:--
"The following will show that a palpable absurdity will pass before
the eyes of _generations of men of letters_ without notice. In
Boswell's _Life of Johnson_ (chapter viii. of the edition with
chapters), there is given a conversation between Dr. Adams and
Johnson, in which the latter asserts that he could finish his
Dictionary in three years.
"ADAMS. 'But the French Academy, which consists of forty members,
took forty years to compile their Dictionary.'--JOHNSON. 'Sir, thus
it is. This is the proportion. Let me see: forty times forty is
sixteen hundred, so is the proportion of an Englishman to a
No one of the numerous editors of Boswell has _made a note upon
this_, although many things as slight have been commented upon: it
was certainly not Johnson's mistake, for he was a clear-headed
arithmetician. How many of our readers will stare and wonder what
we are talking about, and what the mistake is!"
Certes, I for one, plead guilty to staring, and wondering what the
Professor is talking about.
I cannot for a moment imagine it possible, that he could base such a
criticism, so announced, upon no better foundation than that mere verbal
transposition of the words Englishman and Frenchman.
The inversion deceives no person, and it is almost more appropriate to
the colloquial jocularity of the great Lexicographer's bombast than if
the enunciation had been more strictly according to rule. Besides, the
correctness of the expression, even as it stand, is capable of defence.
Let the third and fourth terms be understood as referring to _time_
instead of to _power_, and the proportion becomes "as three to sixteen
hundred, so is" (the time required by) "an Englishman to" (that required
for the same work by) "a Frenchman."
Or, if natives be referred to in the plural,--then, as three to sixteen
hundred, so are
Englishmen to Frenchmen;
that is, such is the number of each required for the same amount of
But I repeat that I cannot conceive a criticism so trifling and
questionable can have been the true aim of professor de Morgan's note,
and as I am unable to discover any other flaw in the Doctor's
proportion, according to the premises, _my query_, Mr. Editor, has for
its object to learn
_"What the mistake is?"_
* * * * *
CARACCIOLI'S LIFE OF LORD CLIVE.
Sir,--Can you, or any of your readers, give me any information relating
to Caraccioli's _Life of Lord Clive_? It is a book in four bulky octavo
volumes, without date published, I believe, at different periods, about
the year 1780--perhaps some years later. It enjoys the distinction of
being about the worst book that was ever published. It bears, on its
title-page, the name of "Charles Caraccioli, Gent." A writer in the
_Calcutta Review_, incidentally alluding to the book, says that "it is
said to have been written by a member of one of the councils over which
Clive presided; but the writer, being obviously better acquainted with
his lordship's personal doings in Europe than in Asia, the work savours
strongly of home-manufacture, and has all the appearance of being the
joint composition of a discarded valet and a bookseller's hack." The
last hypothesis appears very probable. Internal evidence is greatly in
its favour. Can any of your readers tell me who was "Charles Caraccioli,
Gent.,"--when the atrocity which bears his name was published,--or any
thing about the man or his book? Probably some notice of it may be found
in the _Monthly Review_, the _Gentleman's Magazine_, or some other
periodical of the last century. The writer, indeed, speaks of his first
volume having been reviewed with "unprecedented" severity. Perhaps you
can help me to the dates of some notices of this book. The work I
believe to be scarce. The copy in my possession is the only complete one
I have seen; but I once stumbled upon an odd volume at a book-stall. It
is such a book as Lord Clive's family would have done well in buying up;
and it is not improbable that an attempt was made to suppress it. The
success of your journal is greatly dependent upon the brevity of your
correspondents; so no more, even in commendation of its design, from
Covent Garden, Dec. 5. 1849.
* * * * *
ON SOME SUPPRESSED PASSAGES IN W. CARTWRIGHT'S POEMS.
As I want my doubts cleared up on a literary point of some importance, I
thought I could not do better than state them in your "NOTES AND
I have before me a copy of the not by any means rare volume, called
_Comedies, Tragi-Comedies, with other Poems, by Mr. William Cartwright_,
8vo. 1651, with the portrait by Lombart. Though the book may be called a
common one, I apprehend that my copy of it is in an uncommon state, for
I find in it certain leaves as they were originally printed, and certain
other leaves as they were afterwards substituted. The fact must have
been that after the volume was published by H. Moseley, the bookseller,
it was called in again, and particular passages suppressed and excluded.
These passages are three in number, and occur respectively on pp. 301,
302, and 305; and the two first occur in a poem headed "On the Queen's
Return from the Low Countries," an event which occurred only shortly
before the death of Cartwright, which took place on 23d Dec. 1643.
This poem consists, in my perfect copy, of eight stanzas, but two
stanzas are expunged on the cancelled leaf, viz. the second and the
fifth; the second runs as follows:--
"When greater tempests, than on sea before,
Receiv'd her on the shore,
When she was shot at _for the king's own good_,
By legions hir'd to bloud;
How bravely did she do, how bravely bear!
And shew'd, though they durst rage, she durst not fear."
The queen landed at Burlington on 22nd Feb. 1642, so that Cartwright may
have written what precedes; but how could he have written what follows,
the fifth stanza of the poem, which mentions an event that did not occur
until six or seven years afterwards?
"Look on her enemies, on their Godly lies,
Their holy perjuries,
Their curs'd encrease of much ill gotten wealth,
By rapine or by stealth,
Their crafty friendship knit in equall guilt,
And the Crown-Martyr's bloud so lately spilt."
Hence arises my first question--if Cartwright were not the author of
this poem, who was? Although Izaac Walton, Jasper Mayne, James Howell,
Sir John Birkenhead, and a host of other versifyers, introduce the
volume with "laudatory lays," we are not to suppose that they meant to
vouch for the genuineness of every production therein inserted and
imputed to Cartwright. Was the whole poem "On the Queen's Return"
foisted in, or only the two stanzas above quoted, which were excluded
when the book was called in?
The next poem on which I have any remark to make immediately succeeds
that "on the Queen's Return," and is entitled "Upon the Death of the
Right Valiant Sir Bevill Grenvill, Knight," who, we know from Lord
Clarendon, was killed at Lansdown on 5th July, 1643, only five months
before the death of Cartwright, who is supposed to have celebrated his
fall. This production is incomplete, and the subsequent twelve lines on
p. 305, are omitted in the ordinary copies of Cartwright's _Comedies,
Tragi-Comedies, with other Poems_:--
"You now that boast the spirit, and its sway,
Shew us his second, and wee'l give the day:
We know your politique axiom, _Lurk, or fly_;
Ye cannot conquer, 'cause you dare not dye:
And though you thank God that you lost none there,
'Cause they were such who _liv'd_ not when they were;
Yet your great Generall (who doth rise and fall,
As his successes do, whom you dare call,
As Fame unto you doth reports dispence,
Either a---- or his Excellence)
Howe'r he reigns now by unheard-of laws,
Could wish his fate together with his cause."
It is clear to me, that these lines could not have been written in 1643,
soon after the death of Sir B. Grenvill; and, supposing any part of the
poem to have come from the pen of Cartwright, they must have been
interpolated after the elevation of Cromwell to supreme power.
I have thrown out these points for information, and it is probable that
some of your readers will be able to afford it: if able, I conclude they
will be willing.
It may be an error to fancy that the copy of Cartwright now in my hands,
containing the cancelled and uncancelled leaves, is a rarity; but
although in my time I have inspected at least thirty copies of his
_Comedies, Tragi-Comedies, with other Poems_, I certainly never met with
one before with this peculiarity. On this matter, also, I hope for
Do the stanzas "on the Queen's Return" and the lines on the Death of Sir
B. Grenvill exist in any of the various collections of State Poems?
* * * * *
In Day's edition of Tyndale's Works, Lond. 1573, at p. 476, Tyndale
"Had he" [Sir Thomas More] "not come begging for the clergy from
purgatory, with his _supplication of souls_--nor the poor soul and
proctor been there with his bloody bishop Christen catte, so far
conjured into his own Utopia."
I take the word to be _Christencat_; but its two parts are so divided by
the position of _Christen_ at the end of one line, and _catte_ at the
beginning of the next as to prevent it from being certain that they form
one word. But I would gladly learn from any of your correspondents,
whether the name of Christencat, or Christian-cat, is that of any bishop
personified in the _Old Moralities_, or known to have been the satirical
sobriquet for any bishop of Henry VIII's time. The text would suggest
the expectation of its occurring either in More's _Utopia_, or in his
_Supplication of Souls_, but I cannot find it in either of them.
* * * * *
_Hexameter Verses in the Scriptures._
Sir,--I shall feel obliged to any of your readers who will refer me to
an hexameter line in the authorised English version of the _Old
The following are two examples in the _New Testament._
_ U U | _ _ | _ _ | _ _ | _ U U|_ _ ||
Art thou he | that should | come or | do we | look for a|nother. ||
_ _ | _ _ | _ _ | _ _ | _ U U| _ _ ||
Husbands | love your | wives and | be not | bitter a|gainst them. ||
NOTES ON BOOKS--CATALOGUES, SALES, ETC.
The extraordinary collection of the works of Daniel Defoe formed by Mr.
Walter Wilson, his biographer, which at his sale realised the sum of
50_l_., and which had been rendered still further complete by the
addition of upwards of forty pieces by the recent possessor, when sold
by Messrs. Puttick and Simpson, on Wednesday, the 5th instant, produced
no less than 71_l_. Mr. Toovey was the purchaser.
The Shakspeare Society have just issued a very interesting volume, the
nature of which is well described by its ample title-page:--
"Inigo Jones. A Life of the Architect, by Peter Cunningham, Esq.
Remarks on some of his Sketches for Masques and Dramas, by J.R.
Planche, Esq.; and Five Court Masques. Edited from the original
MSS. of Ben Jonson, John Marston, etc., by John Payne Collier,
Esq.; accompanied by Facsimiles of Drawings by Inigo Jones; and by
a Portrait from a Painting by Vandyck."
Many particulars in the memoir are new in the biography of the great
architect. Mr. Planche's too brief _Remarks on the Costume_ make us join
with Mr. Collier in regretting that he did not extend to all the plates
"the resources of his attainments and talents;" while the five masques
and the general preface, contributed by Mr. Collier, form by no means
the least valuable portion of a volume which cannot fail to give
satisfaction to all the members of the society by which it is issued.
Mr. Kerslake, of Bristol, has just issued a small Catalogue of Books
bought at Brockley Hall, and some which formerly belonged to Browne
Willis, which contains some interesting articles, such as No. 222,
M'Cormick's Memoirs of Burke, with numerous MS. notes throughout by J.
Horne Tooke; the first edition of Wit's Recreation, 1640, with a MS.
note by Sir F. Freeling:--"I have never seen another perfect copy of the
first edition." That in Longman's _Bib. Ang. Poetica_, wanted
frontispiece and 4 leaves, and was priced 7_l_. 7_s_.
Messrs. Puttick and Simpson, who have during the present week been
selling the curious Dramatic Library, printed and manuscript, and the
theatrical portraits of the late Mr. James Winston, will commence, on
Monday, the sale of Mr. Mitchell's Collection of Autograph Letters. The
most interesting portion of these are eight-and-forty unpublished
letters by Garrick, among which is one written to his brother Peter,
commenced on the day on which he made his appearance on the London
boards and finished on the following. In it he communicates his change
of occupation to his brother, premising that since he had been in
business he had "run out four hundred pounds, and found trade not
increasing," and had now begun to think of some way of redeeming his
fortune. "_My mind (as you know) has always been inclined to the stage_;
nay, so strongly so, that all my illness and lowness of spirits was
owing to my want of resolution to tell you my thoughts when here....
Though I know you will be displeased with me, yet I hope when you shall
find that I may have the genius of an actor without the vices, you will
think less severe of me, and not be ashamed to own me for a brother." He
makes an offer as to the transfer of his business, stock, &c. "_Last
night I played Richard the Third to the surprise of every body_; and as
I shall make very near 300_l_. per annum of it, and as it is really what
I doat upon, I am resolved to pursue it." In a postscript, he adds, "I
have a farce (_The Lying Valet_), coming out at Drury-lane." And his
progress in his new profession is shown in another letter, addressed
also to his brother Peter, on the 19th of April following, in which,
after mentioning some affairs of business connected with their wine
trade, he says:
"The favour I have met with from the greatest men has made me far
from repenting of my choice. I am very intimate with Mr. Glover,
who will bring out a Tragedy next winter on my account. I have
supp'd with the great Mr. Murray, Counsellor, and shall with Mr.
Pope by his introduction. I supp'd with Mr. Littleton, the prince's
favourite, last Thursday night, and met with the highest civility
and complaisance; he told me he never knew what acting was till I
appeared, and said I was only born to act what Shakspeare writ....
I believe nobody as an Actor was ever more caressed, and my
character as a private man makes 'em more desirous of my company
(all this _entre nous_ as one brother to another). I am not fixed
for next year, but shall certainly be at the other end of the town.
I am offered 500 guineas and a clear benefit, or part of the
The whole collection forms, indeed, a curious and new contribution
towards the biography of that distinguished actor.
* * * * *
BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES
WANTED TO PURCHASE.
(_In continuation of Lists in Nos. 5. and 6._)
ELEGIE COMPOSEE DANS UN CIMETIERE DE CAMPAGNE. 8vo. 1778.
LIVES OF ALCHYMISTICAL PHILOSOPHERS, ETC. 8vo. London, 1815.
FLAMMA SINE FUMO, or POEMS WITHOUT FICTIONS, by R.W. 12mo. 1662.
HOOKER'S CHILDBIRTH, or WOMAN'S LECTURE. 4to. Bl. lett. 1590.
GREENE'S NEVER TOO LATE, ETC. 4to. 1590.
THE CELESTIAL BEDS, a Poem. 1781.
WANSTEAD GARDENS, a Poem. 1712.
SHAKSPEARE'S WORKS. Vols. IV. and XIV. of Malone's Edition. 8vo. Dublin.
LARCHER'S NOTES ON HERODOTUS. Cooley's Edition. Vol. I. 8vo. 1844
MURRAY'S HISTORY OF EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. Vol. II. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1822.
JUGEMENS DES SAVANS SUR LES MAITRES DE L'ELOQUENCE. Vols. I. and II.
12mo. Paris, 1719. Vellum.
TACITUS. Vol. IV. 4to. Edinburgh, 1796.
HERODOTUS. Vol. I. 12mo. Glasgow, Foulis, 1761.
*.* Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to
be sent to Mr. BELL, publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet
* * * * *
NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS
AUCTOR.--_We quite agree with our Correspondent that such contributions
as that of_ BETA _in No. 5, entitled "Prison Discipline and Execution
of Justice," illustrate the manners and customs of the olden times far
better than a whole volume of dissertations; and we gladly adopt his
suggestion of inviting similar communications._
W.--_We are happy to be enabled to inform our Correspondent that the
Index to the Quarterly Review,_ Vols. LX. to LXXX. _is to be published
W.H.--_The transcript kindly forwarded appears to be part of a copy of
one of the Anonymous MS. Journals used by Sir Simonds D'Ewes in the
compilation of his_ Journals of all the Parliaments of Elizabeth. Lond.
Folio. 1682. _It is all substantially in D'Ewes, and generally speaking
it is there verbatim._
_Many Notes, Queries, and Answers to Queries, which are in type, are
unavoidably postponed until our next Number._
_A neat Case for holding the Numbers of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES" _is now
ready, price 1s. 6d., and may be had_ by Order, _of all Booksellers and
* * * * *
Preparing for Publication, handsomely printed in 8vo.
A SERIES OF EDITIONS OF THE GREEK AND LATIN CLASSICS,
To be issued under the general title of
Edited by various hands, under the direction of GEORGE LONG, Esq., M.A.,
late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, Classical Lecturer of
Brighton College; and the Rev. ARTHUR JOHN MACLEANE, M.A., Trinity
College, Cambridge, and Principal of Brighton College.
Early in the ensuing year will be commenced a Series of the Greek and
Roman Authors, carefully edited with English Notes, on a uniform plan.
The series will be especially adapted to the wants of students in the
higher forms of public schools and at the universities, and will
embrace, in the first instance, those works which are usually read in
the course of a classical education.
The works will be edited by various hands; and, to secure uniformity and
consistency in execution, the series will be under the united management
of Mr. Long and Mr. Macleane.
The first volume will be ready early in 1850. The subsequent volumes
will be published at intervals, as regularly as may be found
practicable, at the rate of four or five volumes in the year.
The following works are undertaken by the gentlemen whose names are set
HOMER: Illiad, - Rev. Benjamin Hall Kennedy. D.D.,
Odyssey late Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge;
Head Master of Shrewsbury
HESIOD - Edward Law Lushington, Esq., M.A.,
late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge;
Professor of Greek in the
University of Glasgow.
HERODOTUS - Rev. J.W. Blakesley, M.A., late Fellow
ARISTOTLE: and Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge.
THUCYDIDES - George Long, Esq., M.A., late Fellow of
XENOPHON: Trinity College, Cambridge.
PLATO: Republic, - Rev. W.H. Thompson, M.A., Fellow and
and Selections Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge.
LIVY - Dr. William Smith, Editor of the Dictionary
of Greek and Roman Antiquities,
and of the Greek and Roman
Biography and Mythology.
TACITUS - Wm. B. Donne, Esq.
VIRGIL - Rev. Charles Merivale, M.A.. late Fellow
LUCAN and Tutor of St. John's College, Cambridge.
CICERO: Orations - George Long, Esq.
SALLUST - W. Ramsay, Esq., M.A., Trinity College,
JUVENAL Cambridge: Professor of Humanity in
and PERSIUS the University of Glasgow.
HORACE - Rev. Arthur John Macleane, M.A., Trinity
College, Cambridge; Principal of
The undermentioned volumes are already in progress,
and are expected to appear during 1850-1:--
HERODOTUS, Three Volumes.
ILIAD, One Volume.
HORACE, Two Volumes.
CICERO, Orations, Vol. I.
PLATO, Dialogues, Vol. I.
TACITUS, Vol. I.
Each work will be sold separately; but, as the Publishers expect that
they will be enabled to extend the series until it shall approximate
to a complete collection of the Greek and Latin Classics, and as they
have reason to think that such a collection would be found an
acceptable addition to all public and private Libraries, they
hope to receive the names of persons who are willing to give
encouragement to the scheme, as Subscribers to the entire Series.
WHITTAKER & Co. Ave Maria Lane; and GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.
Vols. I. and II. 8vo. Price 28s. cloth.
THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND; from the time of the Conquest
By EDWARD FOSS, F.S.A.
"It supplies what was much wanted--a regular and progressive
account of English legal institutions. The result is, a correction
of many errors, an addition of much new information, and a better
general view of our strictly legal history than any other jurist,
historian, or biographer, had heretofore attempted to
LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, and LONGMANS.
* * * * *
BOOK-BUYERS. There are some very cheap and good library books, purchased
during the last month, in Part VII. for 1849 (out to-day) of JOHN
RUSSELL SMITH'S Catalogue. It may be had gratis on application, or sent
by post on receipt of a postage label. 4, Old Compton Street, Soho,
* * * * *
Published by GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.
Now ready, folded in a folio case, price 30s.
A CHROMO-LITHOGRAPHIC DRAWING OF THE PAINTED CEILING IN THE NAVE OF
PETERBOROUGH CATHEDRAL, coloured as in the original, by G. STRICKLAND.
This curious relic of Ecclesiastical Decoration of The Twelfth Century
is considered to be the finest specimen of its character and period in
Great Britain; it is in a high state of preservation and no
representation of it exists. The Drawing is six feet long, and its
details all bear the same relative proportions as the original.
On a large sheet, price 7s. 6d. plain, 15s. richly coloured; in case,
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A CHART OF ANCIENT ARMOUR FROM THE ELEVENTH TO THE SEVENTEENTH
CENTURIES: containing Eighteen Figures, with a Description and a Sketch
of the Progress of European Armour. By JOHN HEWITT.
"A graphic outline of the subject of military costume during the
period of its greatest interest to the English antiquary. The author
has made a judicious selection of examples, chiefly from the rich
series of monumental effigies; and, in the brief text which
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subject which, not many years since, was attainable only through
the medium of costly publications"--_Archaeological Journal._
Publishing in Parts, impl. 4to. price 3s., tinted, 4s.
RELIQUES OF ANCIENT ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. From Drawings by JOHN
JOHNSTON, Architect, F.S.A. Lithographed by ALFRED NEWMAN.
This work is intended to embrace a series of examples of Ecclesiastical,
Collegiate, and Domestic Architecture. It will be completed in twenty
monthly parts, at 3s. plain, 4s. tinted. 12 Parts are now published.
Published by GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street, (_continued_).
Royal 4to. cloth, Vol I., price 3l. 13s. 6d.
GOTHIC ORNAMENTS; being a Series of Examples of Enriched Details and
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The particular object of this work is "to exhibit such a number of
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The first volume consists of 104 Plates--nineteen of which are highly
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Two vols. fcap. 8vo., with 240 Figures of Apparatus, price 9s.
THE HISTORY and ART of WARMING and VENTILATING ROOMS and BUILDINGS. With
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In the Third Essay a minute description is given of the Roman Hypocaust.
"The whole of the work seems to be arranged skilfully, and drawn up
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"Expedients of all time and nations collected with research,
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8vo., price 16s.
ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE TRAGEDIES of AESCHYLUS and SOPHOCLES, from the
Greek, Latin, and English Poets, with an Introductory Essay by J.F.
BOYES, M.A., St. John's College, Oxford.
A few Copies of the ILLUSTRATIONS of AESCHYLUS may still be had
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"Mr. Boyes has collected these illustrations more for the purpose
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which had delighted their young hearts and charmed their youthful
fancy. To use the language of Cicero, he has rendered those studies
which nurtured boyhood delightful to age"--_Athenaeum_
"This is one of the most pleasing classical works that we have
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quick perception, accurate memory, and well-formed
* * * * *
Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8 New Street Square, at No. 5, New
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published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186, Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186 Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, December 15. 1849.
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