Notes & Queries 1850.01.26
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NOTES AND QUERIES:
A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
* * * * *
"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.
* * * * *
SATURDAY, JANUARY 26. 1850.
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition, 4d.
* * * * *
Domingo Lomelyn, Jester to Henry VIII., By Edward F. Rimbault
Marlowe and the Old Taming of a Shrew
Churchwardens' Accounts of St. Margaret's, Westminster, by Rev. M. Walcott
Notes on Cunningham's London, by E.F. Rimbault
Old Painted Glass
Aelfric's Colloquy, by S.W. Singer
Memorial of Duke of Monmouth's Last Days
Catherine Pegge, by Lord Braybrooke
William Basse and his Poems, by J.P. Collier
Minor Queries:--Christmas Hymn--Passage in Pope--Circulation
of the Blood--Meaning of Pallace--Oliver
Cromwell--Savegard and Russells--Pandoxare--Lord
Bacon's Psalms--Festival of St. Michael, &c.--Luther
and Erasmus--Lay of the Phoenix--Agricola--Liturgy
Version of Psalms
MISCELLANIES--including ANSWERS TO MINOR QUERIES:--
Sir W. Rider--Sonnet--Pilgrimage of Princes, &c.--Seal
of Killigrew--Lacedaemonian Black Broth--Epigram--Bigotry--Gowghe's
Dore of Holy Scripture--Reinerius
of Muffins--By Hook or by Crook--El
Notes on Books, Sales, catalogues, &c.
Books and Odd Volumes wanted
Notices to Correspondents
* * * * *
DOMINGO LOMELYN, JESTER TO HENRY VIII.
Shakespeare, in the _Second Part of Henry IV._ act v. sc. 3 makes
Silence sing the following scrap:--
"Do me right,
And dub me knight:
And Nash, in his _Summer's Last Will and Testament_, 1600 (reprinted in
the last edition of Dodsley's _Old Plays_, vol. xi. p. 47.) has
"Monsieur Mingo for quaffing doth surpass,
In cup, in can, or glass;
God Bacchus, do me right,
And dub me knight,
T. Warton, in a note in vol. xvii. of the _Variorum_ Shakespeare, says,
"_Samingo_, that is _San Domingo_, as some of the commentators have
observed. But what is the meaning and propriety of the name here, has
not yet been shown. Justice Silence is here introduced as in the midst
of his cups; and I remember a black-letter ballad, in which either a
_San Domingo_ or a _Signior Domingo_, is celebrated for his miraculous
feats in drinking. Silence, in the abundance of his festivity, touches
upon some old song, in which this convivial _saint_, or _signior_, was
the burden. Perhaps, too, the pronounciation in here suited to the
character." I must own that I cannot see what San Domingo has to do with
a drinking song. May it not be an allusion to a ballad or song on
_Domingo_, one of King Henry the Eighth's jesters?
That was wont to wyn
Moche money of the kynge,
At the cardys and haserdynge."
Skelton's _Why come ye not to Courte_, ed. Dyce, ii. p. 63.
None of the commentators have noticed this, but I think my suggestion
carries with it some weight.
In the _Privy Purse Expenses of King Henry the Eighth_ (published by Sir
H. Nichols, in 1827), are many entries concerning this _Domingo_, most
of which relate to payments of money that he had won from the king at
cards and dice. He was evidently, as Sir Harris Nichols observes, one of
King Henry's "diverting vagabonds," and seems to have accompanied his
majesty wherever he went, for we find that he was with him at Calais in
1532. In all these entries he is only mentioned as Domingo; his surname,
and the fact of his being a Lombard, we learn from Skelton's poem,
The following story, told of _Domingo_, occurs in Mr. (afterwards Sir
John) Harington's _Treatise on Playe_, 1597, printed in the _Nugae
Antiquae_, edit. Park, vol. i. p.222.:--
"The other tale I wold tell of a willinge and wise loss I have
hearde dyversly tolde. Some tell it of Kyng Phillip and a favoryte
of his; some of our worthy King Henry VIII. and _Domingo_; and I
may call it a tale; becawse perhappes it is but a tale, but thus
they tell it:--The kinge, 55 eldest hand, set up all restes, and
discarded flush; _Domingo_ or _Dundego_ (call him how you will),
helde it upon 49, or som such game; when all restes were up and
they had discarded, the kinge threw his 55 on the boord open, with
great lafter, supposing the game (as it was) in a manner
sewer. _Domingo_ was at his last carde incownterd flush, as the
standers by saw, and tolde the day after; but seeing the king so
mery, would not for a reste at primero, put him owt of that
pleasawnt conceyt, and put up his cardes quietly, yielding it
Park was not acquainted with any particulars of this _Domingo Lomelyn_,
for he says, in a note, "Query, jester to the king?"
The first epigram in Samuel Rowland's entertaining tract, _The Letting
of Humours Blood in the Head-waine_, &c. 1600, is upon "Monsieur
Domingo;" but whether it relates to King Henry's jester is a matter of
EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.
* * * * *
MARLOWE AND THE OLD "TAMING OF A SHREW."
Having only just observed an announcement of a new edition of the works
of Marlowe, I take the earliest opportunity of calling the attention of
the editor to a circumstance which it is important that he should know,
and the knowledge of which,--should it have escaped his notice, as it
has that of all other writers on the subject,--I trust may not be too
late for his present purpose. Without farther preface, I will introduce
the subject, by asking Mr. Dyce to compare two passages which I shall
shortly point out; and, having done so, I think he will agree with me in
the opinion that the internal evidence, relating to our old dramatic
literature, cannot have been very much studied, while such a discovery
as he will then make still remained to be made. The first passage is
from the so-called _old "Taming of a Shrew"_ (six old plays, 1779, p.
161.), and runs as follows:--
"Now that the gloomy shadow of the night,
Longing to view Orion's drisling looks,
Leaps from th' Antarctic world unto the sky,
And dims the welkin with her pitchy breath;"
the second is from _Doctor Faustus_ (Marlowe's Works, vol. ii. p. 127.),
which, however, I shall save myself the trouble of transcribing; as,
with the exception of "look" for "looks," in the second line, and "his"
for "her," in the fourth, the two passages will be found identical.
Being, some years ago, engaged, in connection with the first of these
plays, in the pursuit of a very different object,--in which I cannot say
that I altogether failed, and the result of which I may take an
opportunity of communicating,--I made a note of the above; and at the
same time followed it up by a general examination of the style of
Marlowe. And, to make a long matter short, I may say that in this
examination, besides meeting with a dozen instances of the identity of
the writer of passages in the _Taming of a Shrew_ and of passages in
Marlowe's two plays, _Doctor Faustus_ and _Tamburlaine_, I found such
general resemblance in style as left no doubt upon my mind that, if one
of these plays be his acknowledged work, as indisputable will be his
claim to the other two. I was not aware at that time of the evidence, in
Henslow's _Diary_, of Marlowe's authorship of _Tamburlaine_; but, so far
from considering it inferior, I was inclined to place it, in some
important respects, at the very head of his plays.
I will not take up your space now with the parallel passages which I
noted; but, should you wish it, and be able to make room for them, I
will furnish you with a list. It is, of course, obvious that the one I
have quoted proves nothing by itself; accumulated instances, in
connection with the general question of style, alone become important. I
will conclude, by giving a list which I have made out of Marlowe's
plays, in favour of which I conceive there to be either internal or
Tamburlaine the Great (two parts).
Jew of Malta.
Edward the Second.
Massacre of Paris.
Taming of a Shrew.
Dido, Queen of Carthage (with Nash)."
St. John's Wood, Jan. 12. 1850
[We trust our correspondent will favour us with the further
communications he proposes on this very interesting point.]
* * * * *
Mr. Editor,--I never thought of asking my Low-Norman fellow-rustics
whether the ladybird had a name and a legend in the best preserved of
the northern Romance dialects: on the score of a long absence
(eight-and-twenty years), might not a veteran wanderer plead
forgiveness? Depend upon it, Sir, nevertheless, that should any
reminiscences exist among my chosen friends, the stout-hearted and
industrious tenants of a soil where every croft and paddock is the leaf
of a chronicle, it will be communicated without delay. There is more
than usual attractiveness in the astronomical German titles of this tiny
"red chafer," or _rother kaefer_, SONNEN KAEFER and VNSER FRAWEN
KVHLEIN, the Sun-chafer, and our Lady's little cow. (_Isis_ or _Io?_)
With regard to its provincial English name, _Barnabee_, the correct
interpretation might be found in _Barn-bie_, the burning, or fire-fly, a
compound word of Low-Dutch origin.
We have a small black beetle, common enough in summer, called PAN,
nearly hemispherical: you must recollect that the _a_ is as broad as you
can afford to make it, and the final _n_ is nasal. Children never
forgot, whenever they caught this beetle, to place it in the palm
of their left hand, when it was invoked as follows:--
"PAN, PAN, mourtre me ten sang,
Et j'te dourai de bouan vin blianc!"
which means, being interpreted,
"PAN, PAN, show me thy blood,
And I will give thee good white wine!"
As he uttered the charm, the juvenile pontiff spat on poor Thammuz, till
a torrent of blood, or what seemed such, "ran purple" over the urchin's
Paul-Ernest Jablonski's numerous readers need not be told that the said
beetle is an Egyptian emblem of the everlasting and universal soul, and
that its temple is the equinoctial circle, the upper hemisphere.
As a solar emblem, it offers an instructive object of inquiry to the
judicious gleaners of the old world's fascinating nursery traditions.
Sicilian Diodorus tells us that the earth's lover, Attis (or Adonis),
after his resuscitation, acquired the divine title of PAPAN. To
hazard the inoffensive query, why one of our commonest great beetles is
still allowed to figure under so distinguished a name, will therefore
reflect no discredit upon a cautious student of nearly threescore years.
The very Welsh talked, in William Baxter's time, of "Heaven, as
_bugarth_ PAPAN," the sun's ox-stall or resting-place; and here you
likewise find his beetle-majesty, in a Low-Norman collection of insular
"Sus l'bord piasottaient, cote-a-cote,
Les equerbots et leas PAPANS,
Et ratte et rat laissaient leux crotte
Sus les vieilles casses et meme dedans."
By the help of Horapollo, Chiflet's gnostic gems, and other repertories
of the same class, one might, peradventure, make a tolerable case in
favour of the mythological identity of the legend of Ladybird--that is,
the _sun-chafer_, or _barn-bie_, the _fire-fly_, "whose house is burnt,
and whose bairns are ten," of course the first ten days of the Egyptian
year--with the mystical stories of the said black or dark blue lords
of radiance, _Pan_ and _Papan_.
The Egyptians revere the beetle as a living and breathing image of the
sun, quoth Porphyry. That will account for this restless delver's
extraordinary talismanic renown. I think the lady-bird is "the speckled
beetle" which was flung in hot water to avert storms. Pignorius gives
us the figure of the beetle, crowned with the sun, and encircled with
the serpent of eternity; while another, an onyx in the collection of
Abraham Gorlaeus, threatens to gnaw at a thunderbolt.
Reuven's book on the Egyptian Museum, which I have not seen, notices an
invocation to "the winged beetle, the monarch ([Greek: tyrannos]) of
mid-heaven," concluding with a devout wish that some poor creature "may
be dashed to pieces."
Can any of your readers inform me what is meant by "the blood of the
St. Martin's, Guernsey, Jan. 9. 1850.
* * * * *
EXTRACTS FROM CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNTS OF ST. MARGARET'S,
WESTMINSTER--WEIGHT OF BELLS IN ANCIENT TIMES--HISTORY OF A
I send you a few Notes, collected out of the Churchwardens' Accounts of
St. Margaret's, Westminster.
1stly. Some regarding the weight of bells in ancient days:--
"1526. The first bell weith ccccc lb.
The second bell weith ccccccxxj lb.
The third bell weith ixCvj lb.
The fourthe bell weith M.x lb.
The fyfthe belonging to our grete Lady
Bretherhed MvjCxiiij lb.
The sume of all the weight MMMMVIIC Li lb.
"1592. The broken Tennor waied xvjCxxj lb.
The new tennor ys. xiijC di
The greatest bell ys xxjC and di at lvjs. the C.
The iiij bell ys xvijC and di and xiiij lb.
The xiiij bell taken awaie was xiijC di.
The ij bell carried awaie was viijCiij qters.
The new bell viijC di.
Som totall of the bells, yron, tymber, and
workmanshipp lxxvl. vs. vd."
This appears to have been a sorry bargain, for
soon after occur sad complaints of these bells,
"very falsly and deceytfully made by Valentyne
Trever." Perhaps your correspondent "CEPHAS"
may explain the following entry:--
"1846. Item, paid for makying of a newe clapper to
Judas bell xd."
2ndly. Some entries, which make up a little
history of a rood-loft:--
"1460. Item, sol' pro le skoryng de la belles sup' le
Rode lofte iiijd.
"1480. Item, paide for a doore in the rode lofte to
save and kepe the people from the Orgayns
Item, paide to a carpynter for makyng of the
Crucyfix and the beme He standeth upon xls.
Item, paide for kervying of Mary and John
and the makyng newe xxxiij_s_. iiij_d_.
Item, for gilding of the same Mary and John
and the Crosse and iiij'or Evangelysts
vj_l_. vj_s_. viij_d_.
"1530. Item, payd to a labourer for helpying up the
Roode Loft into the stepull viij_d_.
"1534. Payd for a present for Mr. Alford and Mr.
Herytage for ther good wyll for tymber for
the newe Rode lofte ij_s_. ij_d_."
The fickle tyrant Henry VIII. dies; a more consistent
reign happily ensues.
"1548. Item, for the takying downe of the Roode, the
Tabernacle, and the Images iij_s_. vj_d_.
Also payd to Thomas Stokedale for xxxv ells
of clothe for the frunte of the Rode Lofte
whereas the x Commandements be wrytten,
price of the ell vj_d_. xxiij_s_. iiij_d_.
Also payd to hym that dyd wryght the said
x Commaundements and for ther drynking
Queen Mary succeeds the boy-king Edward VI.,
and restores the Ritual of her Church.
"1566. Item, payed for the Roode, Mary and John x_l_.
"1557. Item, for peyntyng the Roode, Mary and John
For makyng xvij candilsticks for the roode-light
Upon the accession of Queen Elizabeth once more,
and this time for ever, the rood was destroyed,
and the loft, though "reformed," did not long
"1559. Payde to John Rialle for his iij dayse work
to take downe the Roode, Mary and John
For clevying and sawyng of the Roode, Mary
and John xij_d_.
"1560. Rec'd for the beame the Roode stood on, for
boords and other tymber parcell of the
Roode loft xlij_s_.
For the rest of the stuf belongying to the
Roode lofte ix_l_.
For the great clothe that hong before the
Item, paide to joyners and labowrers abowt
the takying downe and new reformyng of the
Roode Loft, &c. xxxvij_l_. x_s_. ij_d_.
Item, paide for boordes, glew, nayles, and
other neccessaries belonging to the saide
loft xiiij_l_. xiij_s_. ix_d_.
Item, paide to a paynter for payntyng the
"1562. For bearinge stones for the muringe up of the
dore of the late rood lofte viij_d_."
The rapacious Puritans, of course, did not suffer
any portion of the church-goods to escape their
sacrilegious and itching palms, if convertible into
money, so we read--
"1645. Received of Arthur Condall in part of 5li for
the screen and Organ-loft 1_s_."
MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.
S.M.W., Dec. 22. 1849.
* * * * *
NOTES UPON CUNNINGHAM'S HANDBOOK FOR LONDON.
_The Bagnio in Long Acre._--Mr. Cunningham mentions the Queen's Bagnio
in Long Acre. Query, was this the same as the Duke of York's Bagnio? S.
Haworth published, in a small 12mo. volume, without date, "A Description
of the Duke of York's Bagnio, in Long Acre, and of the Mineral Bath and
new Spaw thereunto belonging."
_Tavistock Street, Covent Garden._--Richard Leveridge, the celebrated
singer, after his retirement from the stage, kept a tavern in this
street. Here he brought out "A Collection of Songs, with the Music, by
Mr. Leveridge. In two volumes. London, Engrav'd and Printed for the
Author in Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, 1727." The frontispiece was
designed and engraved by Hogarth.
_Duke Street, Westminster._--Miss Hawkins, in her _Anecdotes_, p. 186.,
speaking of Lady Lucy Meyrick, says, "On quitting her husband's family,
she came to reside in Duke Street, Westminster, and lived in that house
which had been _Prior's_, and which _exactly faces Charles Street_."
_Richmond Buildings, Soho._--Horne Tooke resided here in 1775. He
afterwards removed to Frith Street.
_Clare Market_, originally called _New Market_, was established about
the year 1660, by Lord Clare.
"The city and my lord had a great lawsuit, which lasted many years,
to the great expence of the city; but from the inequity of the
times the city and my lord agreed, and gave it up to the lord; and
now it is become one of the greatest markets in the adjacent parts;
and from the success of this noble lord, they have got several
charters for the erecting of several others since the year 1660; as
that of St. James, by the Earl of St. Alban's; Bloomsbury, by the
Earl of Southampton; Brook Market, by the Lord Brook; Hungerford
Market; Newport Market; besides the Hay Market, New Charingcross,
and that at Petty France at Westminster, with their Mayfair in the
fields behind Piccadilly."--_Harl. MS_. 5900.
_London House Yard._--Here was formerly the town house of the Bishop of
London, which, being consumed in the great fire, the house in Aldersgate
Street, formerly called _Petre House_, was rented for the town residence
of the bishop, since which it obtained the title of _London House_.
EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.
* * * * *
OLD PAINTED GLASS
For poor ignorant people like myself pray insert the following, as
perhaps some of your heraldic correspondents may afford some information
for the benefit of your very humble servant,
Newington, June 17. 1751.
_To take an account of what Coats of Arms or other Paintings are in the
windows of the House Mercer lives of Mr. Filmer._
Painted Glass in y' windows at Mr. Merser House is
As foloweth 5 Coote of armse in 3 windowse in y'
Kichen 2 Surkelor Coots of armse 6 Lians traveling
6 flours of Luse all Rede & a Holfe Surkel a top
With 2 flours of luce y' Glass painted Rede
Blew yoler & of a Green Shaye.
In y' Hall one ouel Pease of Painted Glass
In Chakers of yoler & Green & blew 10 yong
Two Pikse of Armse on Each Side
W.B. there was in this Rote on y'
Glass Lyfford but there is only now _ford_
y' 3 fust Leters ar Broken & Lost oute
One Pecs of y' Painted Glass in y' frount
Chamber window as foloweth
In a Surkel 6 flours of Luse 6 Red Lyans
Traveling 4 Rede Roses 2 Purpul Roses
With a Croune a tope with 2 flours of Luse &
A Crass and Beedse all Round y' Crowne.
In y' same window one more Cootse of arms
In a Surkel Devidet is as foloweth 3 yoler
Lyans _passant_ Set in a Silver Coler 6 flours of
blew Sete in Green, y' Seoch Coote of arms on
Each Side y' thisel & Crown & y' 3 flours coming
out of the thistle
y' Croun yoler & y' flours y'e thisal of a silver Coler
3 _Leopards_ Hedse Silver & Set in Silver
2 Roses of a purpul Couler one on Each Side
2 Spred Eaguls one on Each Side
& 2 Wingse of a Goos in y' midel of y' arms
of a Goold culer & a vessel like a decanter between
A croun a toupe with 2 flours of Luse on
Each side of y'e Croun on Crass in y'e middel & 2
Crasses on Each Side with white Beadse
all Round y'e Crounde a toupe.
* * * * *
The singular error which Messrs. Lye and Thorpe have fallen in the
passage pointed out by Mr. Hampson in Aelfric's very interesting
_Colloquy_, is the more remarkable as Aelfric himself afforded a
complete illustration of the passage, in his _Glossary_, where we have
"BULGA, _hydig-faet_." It is possible, therefore, that _higdifatu_ is a
mere error of the scribe. Now Du Cange, v. _Bulga_, cites this very
passage from Aelfric's _Glossary_, and adds, "i.e. _vas ex corio
confectum_," but his whole article is worth consulting. That the Latin
word in the _Colloquy_ should be _Cassidilia_ is quite clear. Thus in an
old MS. English Gloss on the Bible (penes me), the passage in Tobit,
viii. 2., "Protulit de _Cassidili_ suo," is rendered, "brouzt forth of
his _Scrippe_." Coverdale has it, "take out of his _bagge_," and Luther,
"langte aus seinem _Suecklein_," which word is exchanged for _buedel_ in
the Saxon version. In two old Teutonic Glosses on the Bible published by
Graff (_Diutiska, ii. 178.), we have the following variations:--
_de cassidi_ burssa, _de sacello t. sacciperio_ kiula
_de cassili_ burissa, _de sacello t. sacciperio_ kiulla.
Another Gloss in Graff's 1st vol. p. 192., on the word _Cadus_, may
perhaps throw some light on the subject. The philological student need
not be reminded of the wide application of the word _vas_, Lat., _fazz_,
O.G., and _faet_. A.S.; but for my own part, I conclude that the
shoewright intended to designate by _higdifatu_ all sorts of _leathern
budgets_. Every Anglo-Saxon student must be so sensible of the great
obligation he is under to our distinguished scholar Mr. Thorpe, that I
trust it will not be deemed invidious or ungracious to point out another
passage in this _Colloquy_ which seems to have hitherto baffled him, but
which it appears to me may be elucidated.
To the question, "Hwilce fixas gefehst thu?" the fisherman answers,
"Aelas aud hacodas, mynas, aud aelputan, sceotan aud lampredan, aud swa
hwylce swa on waetere swymath, _sprote_."
Mr. Thorpe, in the 1st edition of his _Analecta_, says, "What is
intended to be meant by this word [_sprote_], as well as by _salu_ [the
correspondent word in the Latin], I am at a loss to conjecture." In his
second edition, Mr. Thorpe repeats, "I am unable to explain _salu_
otherwise than by supposing it may be an error for _salice_. In his
_Glossary_ he has "spro't, ii. 2.? sprout, rod?" with a reference to his
note. I must confess I cannot see how the substitution of _salice_ for
_salu_ would make the passage more intelligible, and the explanation of
_spro'te_ in the _Glossary_ does not help us. The sense required appears
to me to be, _quickly, swiftly,_ and this will, I think, be found to be
the meaning of _sprote_. In the Moeso-Gothic Gospels the word _sprauto_
occurs several times and always in the sense of _cito, subito_; and
though we have hitherto, I believe, no other example in Anglo-Saxon of
this adverbial use of the word, we are warranted, I think, in
concluding, from the analogy of a cognate language, that it did exist.
In regard to the evidently corrupt Latin word _salu_, I have
nothing better to offer than the forlorn conjecture that, in monkish
Latin, "_saltu't_" may have been contractedly written for _saltuatim_."
Dr. Leo, in his _Angelsachsiche Sprachproben_, has reprinted the
_Colloquy_, but without the Latin, and, among many other capricious
deviations from Mr. Thorpe's text, in the answer of the shoewright has
printed _hygefata_! but does not notice the word in his _Glossary_. Herr
Leo has entirely omitted the word _sprote_.
Jan. 14. 1850.
* * * * *
[NASO has, in compliance with our request, furnished us with a
facsimile of the heading of his early number of _The Times_, which
is as follows:--"THE (here an engraving of the King's Arms) TIMES,
OR DAILY UNIVERSAL REGISTER, PRINTED LOGOGRAPHICALLY, WEDNESDAY,
MARCH 12. 1788," and informs us that it was printed "By R. Nutkins,
at the Logographic Press, Printing-House Square, near Apothecaries'
Hall, Blackfriars," and the height to which the Mr. Walter of that
day had brought his invention, by the same energy by which his
successor has raised THE TIMES to its present position, is shown by
the following note from a kind and most able correspondent.]
A much more remarkable specimen of Logographic Printing than the number
of the _Times_ newspaper mentioned by NASO, No. 9., p. 136., is an
edition of Anderson's _History of Commerce_, with a continuation, in 4
vols. 4to., printed by that method in 1787-1789, "at the Logographic
Press, by J. Walter, Printing-House Square, Blackfriars." The work,
which makes in all not much short of 4000 pages, is very well printed in
all respects; and the following interesting note on the subject of
Logographic Printing is attached to the preface heading the
Continuation, or fourth volume.
"Mr. Walter cannot here omit suggesting to the Public a few observations
on his improved mode of printing LOGOGRAPHICALLY. In all projects for
the general benefit, the individual who conceives that the trade in
which he is engaged diminishes in its emoluments from any improvement
which another may produce in it, is too much disposed to become its
enemy; and, perhaps, the interest of individuals never exerted itself
with more inveteracy than has been experienced by Mr. Walter from many
concerned in the trade into which he had entered.
"The invention which he brought forward, promised to be of essential
service to the public, by expediting the process and lessening the
expense of printing. Dr. Franklin sanctioned it with his approbation,
and Sir Joseph Banks encouraged him with the most decided and animated
opinion of the great advantages which would arise to literature from the
LOGOGRAPHIC PRESS. Nevertheless Mr. Walter was left to struggle with the
interest of some, and the prejudice of others, and, though he was
honoured by the protection of several persons of high rank, it happened
in his predicament, as it generally happens in predicaments of a similar
nature, that his foes were more active than his friends, and he still
continued to struggle with every difficulty that could arise from a very
determined opposition to, and the most illiberal misrepresentations of,
the LOGOGRAPHIC IMPROVEMENT.
"Mr. Walter has, however, at length triumphed over the falsehood and
malignity of his opponents; LOGOGRAPHIC PRINTING, after having produced
such a work as this, which he now presents to the public, with many
excellent publications that he has already printed, can no longer be
considered as an idle speculation: on the contrary, it is proved to be a
practical improvement, that promises, under a due encouragement, to
produce a great national benefit. To advance it to the perfection of
which it is capable, Mr. Walter engages to employ his utmost exertions,
and he takes the liberty of expressing his confidence, that he shall not
be disappointed in the enjoyment of that public favour which now
promises to reward his labours."
Old Brompton, Jan. 3. 1850.
[We may mention another work printed in this manner--an edition of
_Robinson Crusoe_, in 3 vols. 8vo. 1790--_"printed at the
Logographic Press, and sold by J. Walter, No. 169. Piccadilly,
opposite Old Bond Street."_]
* * * * *
MEMORIALS OF THE DUKE OF MONMOUTH'S LAST DAYS.
At a recent meeting of the Royal Irish Academy in Dublin, Dr. Anster
exhibited a manuscript volume of 157 pages, which he declared to be the
identical "album filled with songs, recipes, prayers, and charms," found
in the Duke of Monmouth's pocket when he was seized. It was purchased at
a book-stall in Paris in 1827 by an Irish divinity student, was given by
him to a priest in the county of Kerry, and, on the priest's death,
became the property of the present possessor. Respecting in its identity
and history, from its removal from the rebel duke's pocket down to its
production at the Royal Irish Academy, Dr. Anster showed that after
Monmouth was beheaded--which he was on Tower Hill, by the too-celebrated
John Ketch, on the 15th July, 1685--the articles found on his person
were given to the king. At James's deposition, three years afterwards,
all his manuscripts, including those that had belonged to Monmouth, were
carried into France, where they remained till the Revolution in that
country a century afterwards. Dr. Anster, in exhibiting the book,
showed that the remains of silver clasps had been destroyed, and a part
of the leather of the covers at each side torn away, seemingly for the
purpose of removing some name on a coat of arms with which it had been
once marked; and this he accounted for by the belief that at the period
of the French Revolution the persons in whose custody they were, being
fearful of the suspicions likely to arise from their possession of books
with royal arms on them, tore off the covers, and sent the books to St.
Omer's. The after-fate of the larger books was, that they were burned;
some small ones, we are distinctly told, were saved from this fate, but
seem to have been disregarded, and all trace of them lost. The Abbe
Waters--a collateral descendant of Lucy Waters, the Duke of Monmouth's
mother--was the person with whom George IV. negotiated for the Stuart
papers, and from whom the volumes which have since appeared as Clark's
_Life of James the Second_ were obtained; and it is from the Abbe Waters
we have the account of the destruction of King James's autograph papers.
Dr. Anster showed, written on the inner cover of this volume, the words,
"Baron Watiers" or "Watrers."
As to the identity of the book, Dr. Anster quoted several passages from
contemporary authors to test their account of the contents of the
"album" with those of the book he was describing. In the _Harleian
Miscellany_, vol. vi. p.323., it is stated in Sir John Reresby's
memoirs, that "out of his [Monmouth's] pocket were taken books, in his
own handwriting, containing charms or spells to open the doors of a
prison, to obviate the danger of being wounded in battle, together with
songs and prayers." Barillon describes the book in what is nearly a
translation of this--"Il y avoit des secrets de magie et d'enchantment,
avec des chansons des recettes pour des maladies et des prieres." Again,
in a note by Lord Dartmouth to the modern editions of _Burnet's Own
Times_, we have the following statement:--
"My uncle Colonel William Legge, who went in the coach with him
[Monmouth] to London as a guard, with orders to stab him if there
were any disorders on the road, showed me several charms that were
tied about him when he was taken, and his table-book, which was
full of astrological figures that nobody could understand; but he
told my uncle that they had been given to him some years before in
Scotland, and he now found they were but foolish conceits."
The actual contents of the manuscript volume show a great resemblance to
these descriptions. The most curious passages which it contains are the
duke's memorandums of his journey on two visits to the Prince of Orange,
in the year previous to his last rash adventure. His movements up to the
14th of March, 1684-85, are given. The entries do not seem to be of much
moment; but they may accidentally confirm or disprove some disputed
points of history. There is an entry without a date, describing the
stages of a journey in England, commencing with London and Hampstead: it
ends with Toddington. This forms a strong link in the chain of identity;
for Toddington is a place remarkable in the history of the duke. Near it
was the residence of Lady Henrietta Maria Wentworth, baroness (in her
own right) of Nettlestead, only daughter and heir of Thomas Lord
Wentworth, grandchild and heir of the Earl of Cleveland. Five years
before the execution, her mother observed that, despite the duke being a
married man, her daughter had, while at court, attracted his admiration,
and she hurried her away to Toddington. In 1683, after the failure of
the Rye-House Plot, Monmouth was banished from the royal presence, and
it was to Toddington he retired. When, on retracting the confession he
had made on the occasion, he was banished the kingdom, the companion of
his exile was Lady Henrietta Wentworth.
"I dwell on this," said Dr. Anster, "because the accidental mention of
Toddington seems to authenticate the book: the name of Lady Henrietta
Wentworth does not occur in it, and the persons in whose hands the book
has been since it was purchased in Paris do not seem to have noticed the
name of Toddington, or to have known that it had any peculiar relation
to the duke's history. It occurs twice in the book--once in the
itinerary, and again in a trifling and unmetrical song, which is
probably the duke's own composition; written probably on the eve of his
flight with his romantic but guilty companion to Holland:--
"'With joy we leave thee,
False world, and do forgive
All thy false treachery.
For now we'll happy live.
We'll to our bowers,
And there spend our hours;
Happy there we'll be,
We no strifes can see;
No quarrelling for crowns,
Nor fear the great one's frowns;
Nor slavery of state,
Nor changes in our fate.
From plots this place is free,
There we'll ever be;
We'll sit and bless our stars
That from the noise of wars
Did this glorious place give
(Or did us Toddington give)
That thus we happy live.'"
In Macaulay's history we find that the latest act of the duke on the
scaffold, before submitting to the stroke of the executioner, was to
call his servant, and put into the man's hand a toothpick-case, the last
token of ill-starred love. "Give it," he said, "_to that person!_" After
the description of Monmouth's burial occurs the following affecting
"Yet a few months and the quiet village of Toddington, in
Bedfordshire, witnessed a yet sadder funeral. Near that village
stood an ancient and stately hall, the seat of the Wentworths. The
transept of the parish church had long been their burial-place. To
that burial-place, in the spring which followed the death of
Monmouth, was borne the coffin of the young Baroness Wentworth of
Nettlestead. Her family reared a sumptuous mausoleum over her
remains; but a less costly memorial of her was long contemplated
with far deeper interest: her name, carved by the hand of him she
loved too well, was, a few years ago, still discernible on a tree
in the adjoining park."
In further proof of identity, Dr. Anster pointed out several charms and
recipes which the manuscript volume contains. The conjurations are in
general for the purpose of learning the results of sickness in any
particular case, and of determining whether friends will be in certain
circumstances faithful. There are also incantations for the use of
several maladies, and one to make gray hair grow black. No "charms
against being wounded in battle," such are Sir John Reresby mentions,
are to be found in the volume; but there are some prayers against
violent death, which have the appearance of having been transcribed from
some devotional book. There is evidently a mistake in supposing that
this book contains any charm for breaking open prison doors, and it is
likely that Sir John Reresby was misled in this way:--There is in p. 7.
a charm in French to procure repose of body and mind, and deliverance
from pains; and the word for "pains" is written in a contracted form; it
might as well stand for prisons; but, examining the context, it is
plainly the former word which is meant.
The rest of the entries consist of extracts from old recipe-books, mixed
in the oddest way with abridgements of English history, and the most
trifling memorandums, chiefly of a private and personal kind.
Altogether, this commonplace work is highly indicative of the weakness,
vanity, and superstition which stood forward so prominently in the
character of the rash but unfortunate Duke of Monmouth.
* * * * *
Mr. Cunningham was mistaken in supposing that I had overlooked Catherine
Pegge, for I was well aware that she could not have been Pepys's "pretty
Lady." She must, in fact, have attained her fortieth year, and there is
no record of her being on the stage; whereas Margaret Hughes had, when
Pepys saluted her, recently joined the Theatre Royal, and she is
expressly styled "Peg Hughes" by Tom Browne, in one of his "Letters from
the Dead to the Living." Having disposed of this question, I am tempted
to add that Morant does not confirm the statement that Catherine Pegge
married Sir Edward Green, for he says that
"Sir Edward Greene, created a Baronet, 26 July, 1660, was seated at
Little Sampford in Essex; he had 3 wives, the first was Jeronyma,
daughter and coheir of William Everard, of Linsted, Esq., and by
her he had 6 daughters; by Mary, daughter of ---- Tasborough, he
had a son; and by the third lady ----, daughter of ---- Simonds, he
had a daughter. He was the last of the Greenes that enjoyed this
estate, having lost it by gaming."--Morant's _Essex_, vol. ii. p.
This account of the Greene family is stated in a note to have been taken
from a fine pedigree on vellum, penes T. Wotton, Gent.
If Catherine Pegge was one the three ladies mentioned above, she must
have changed her name previously to her marriage, in hopes of concealing
her former history; but the circumstance of the baronetcy being
conferred upon Sir Edward is very suspicious. Probably some of your
correspondents can settle the question.
Audley End, Jan. 19. 1850.
* * * * *
WILLIAM BASSE, AND HIS POEMS.
Can any of your readers inform me where a perfect or imperfect copy is
to be found of a poem, of which I possess only a single half sheet,
under the following title:--
"_Great Brittaines Sunnes-set, bewailed with a Shower of Teares_.
By William Basse. At Oxford, Printed by Joseph Barnes. 1613"?
It is one of the many poems published on the death of Prince Henry; and
although I have been in search of it, or of a fragment of it, for more
than twenty years, I have never been able to obtain tidings of more than
of that small portion in my possession; nor am I aware of the mention of
it in any bibliographical authority. I have not at hand Sir H. Nicolas's
edition of Walton's _Angler_, in which Basse is spoken of, but I
remember looking at that beautiful and costly work a long time ago, and,
as far as I recollect, not finding in it anything to my purpose. I
observe that a William Basse (or _Bas_, as the name is there spelt)
printed in 1602, 4to., a tract called _Sword and Buckler, or Serving
Man's Defence_; but I know no more of it than that it was sold in
Stevens's sale; and among the MSS. of the late Mr. Heber was a volume
of poems called _Polyhymnia_, apparently prepared for the press, and
dedicated by William Basse to Lady Lindsey, which contained an "Elegie
on a rare Singing Bull-finch," dated 19th June, 1648; so that he was
still living nearly half a century after he had printed his earliest
The production that Izaac Walton refers to must be the ballad preserved
in the Pepys Collection at Cambridge, under the heading "Maister
Basse his Careere, or the new Hunting of the Hare. To a new Court tune;"
"Long ere the morne expects the returne."
It was "Printed at London by E.A.," i.e. Edward Allde, without date; and
it may have been duly noticed by the last editor of _The Complete
Angler_. However, neither this nor Heber's MS. throw any new light upon
the small tract (in 8vo., and of perhaps not more than two sheets) with
the title of which I commenced, and regarding which I request
information. It is a poem in eight-line stanzas, and it is dedicated, at
the back of the title-page, "To his honourable Master, Sir Richard
Wenman, Knight," without another word addressed to his patron.
My fragment of four leaves, or half an 8vo. sheet, contains stanzas (one
on each page), numbered 5, 6, 7, 8. 13, 14.; and the earliest of them is
"To you I therefore weepe: To you alone
I shew the image of your teares, in mine;
That mine (by shewing your teares) may be show'n
To be like yours, so faithfull so divine:
Such as more make the publique woe their owne,
Then their woe publique, such as not confine
Themselves to times, nor yet forms from examples borrow:
Where losse is infinit, there boundlesse is the sorrow."
I have preserved even the printer's punctuation, for the sake of more
perfect identification, if any of your readers are acquainted with the
existence of a copy of the production, or of any portion of it. The
above stanza, being numbered "5," of course it was preceded by four
others, of which I can give no account. Another stanza, from this
literary and bibliographical rarity, may not be unacceptable; it is the
"Here then run forth thou River of my woes
In cease lesse currents of complaining verse:
Here weepe (young Muse) while elder pens compose
More solemne Rites unto his sacread Hearse.
And, as when happy earth did, here, enclose
His heavn'ly minde, his Fame then Heav'n did pierce.
Now He in Heav'n doth rest, now let his Fame earth fill;
So, both him then posses'd: so both possesse him still."
Therefore, although Basse had written his _Sword and Buckler_ in 1602
(if it were the same man), he still called his Muse "young" in 1613. I
cannot call to mind any precedent for the form of stanza adopted by him,
consisting, as it does, of six ten-syllable lines, rhyming alternately,
followed by a twelve-syllable couplet. None of the other stanzas contain
personal matter; the grief of the author of _Great Britain's Sun's-set_
seems as artificial as might be expected; and his tears were probably
brought to the surface by the usual pecuniary force-pump.
I have some notion that William Basse was a musical composer, as well as
a writer of verses; but here, again, I am at fault, and particularly
request the aid of Dr. Rimbault, who has paid special attention to such
matters, and who has just published a learned and valuable work on the
music of the ballads in Percy's _Reliques_. If the volume were not so
indisputably excellent in its kind, there are reasons, connected with
its dedication, which might make me hesitate in giving it even a just
tribute of praise.
J. PAYNE COLLIER.
Kensington, Jan. 21. 1850.
* * * * *
_Christmas Hymn_.--Can any of your readers inform me who was the author
of the well-known Christmas Hymn, "Hark the Herald Angels sing," which
is so often found (of course without the slightest shadow of authority),
at the end of our Prayer-Books? In the collection of poems entitled
_Christmas Tyde_, published by Pickering, the initials "J.C.W." are
appended to it; the same in Bickersteth's _Hymn Book_. In the last
number of the _Christian Remembrancer_, it is incorrectly attributed to
Doddridge, who was the author of the other Christmas Hymn, "High let us
swell our tuneful notes," frequently appended to Tate and Brady; as well
as of the Sacramental Hymn, "My God and is Thy table spread?" If the
author of this hymn cannot be determined, it would be interesting to
know its probable date, and the time when this and the other
unauthorised additions were made to our Prayer-Book. The case of
Doddridge's hymn is more remarkable, as being the composition of a
_On a Passage in Pope_.--"P.C.S.S.," who is old-fashioned enough to
admire and to study Pope, would feel greatly obliged if any of your
correspondents could help him to the interpretation of the following
lines, in the "Imitation" of Horace's _Epistle to Augustus_:--
"The Hero William, and the Martyr Charles,
One knighted Blackmore, and one pensioned Quarles,
Which made old Ben, and sturdy Dennis swear,
_No Lord's Annointed, but a Russian bear!_"
The passage in Horace, of which this purports to be an "Imitation," is
"Boeotum in crasso jurares aeere natum,"
and it is clear enough that Pope meant to represent kings Charles and
William as so devoid of the taste which should guide royal patronage,
that, in selecting such objects of their favour as Blackmore and
Quarles, they showed themselves to be as uncouth and unpolished as the
animal to which he likens them. But the principal motive of this inquiry
is to ascertain whether there exist in their writings any record
of the indignation supposed to have been expressed by Jonson and Dennis
at the favour shown by majesty to their less worthy rivals.
_Discovery of the Circulation of the Blood_.--There is a passage in
Longinus (ch. xxii.), familiar perhaps to some of the readers of the
"NOTES AND QUERIES," which indicates that the fact of the circulation of
the blood was well established in the days of Plato. The father of
critics, to exemplify, and illustrate the use and value of _trope_ in
writing, has garbled from the Timaeus, a number of sentences descriptive
of the anatomy of the human body, where the circulation of the blood is
pointed at in terms singularly graphic. The exact extent of professional
knowledge arrived at in the time of the great philosopher is by no means
clearly defined: he speaks of the fact, however, not with a view to
prove what was contested or chimerical, but avails himself of it to
figure out the surpassing wisdom of the gods in constructing the human
frame. Perhaps some of the readers of the "NOTES," who are more
thoroughly conversant with the subject, may think it worth while to
inquire how much was known on that subject before Harvey wrote his
_Exercitationes Anatomiae_. The _Prooemium_ of that author seems hardly
sufficient to satisfy the desire of every reader, who has looked with
some care to the passage in Longinus to which I have taken the liberty
of calling public attention.
_The Meaning of "Pallace_."--A lease granted by the corporation of
Totness in Devon, in the year 1703, demises premises by this
description: "All that cellar and the chambers over the same, and the
little _pallace_ and landing-place adjoining to the river Dart." Can
your readers give an explanation of the term "pallace?"
_Did Oliver Cromwell write "The New Star of the North?_"--Perhaps some
of your numerous correspondents, who have perused a curious letter of
Count de Tessins, in Clements' _Bibliotheque Curieuse_, tome ix. page
331., can inform me what credit, or if any, is due to the Count's
conjecture, that Oliver Cromwell was the author of the book entitled
_The New Star of the North, shining upon the victorious King of Sweden_,
&c. 4to. London, 1632.
_Meaning of Savegard and Russells_.--In the will of Elizabeth
Coddington, lady of the manor of Ixworth, 1571, mention is made of "the
red _russells_ quilt," of "a felde bed," and of "my cloke and _savegard
of freseadon_." I shall be obliged by any description of the garment
known as the _savegard_, and of the _russells quilt_.
_Pandoxare_.--Having met with an old volume containing the entire
household expenses, as well as in some degree a diary, kept by a country
gentleman during the reigns of James II., William and Mary, and Anne, I
observed that he has made use of a species of hieroglyphics, to
facilitate his reference to his book, as it contained all the entries of
all kinds, in chronological order. For instance, where mention is made
of money spent on behalf of one person in his house, he puts at the side
of the page a clay pipe, rudely drawn; an entry of the payment of wages
to another servant has a jug of ale; another a quill pen; another a
couple of brooms, as the housemaid; a fiddle for the dancing master for
his daughter; payment made to the sexton or parish-clerk has a
representation of the village church by its side, and the window-tax a
small lattice-window; and on the days that they brewed, a small barrel
is drawn by the side of the date. And the chief object of my letter is
with respect to this last; a barrel is often drawn, and by its side the
words, _primo relinitus_, and the date, naturally meaning the day it was
tapped; and then shortly after comes another barrel, and to it is
written the word _Pandox_., or sometimes in full _Pandoxavimus_; in some
places at the end of the year there is a list to this effect:--
and at the top of the list the figure of a barrel.
I should be glad if any of the readers of your paper could tell me the
meaning of the word _Pandoxare?_ Whatever it was, it took place about
once a month.
[Ducange explains _Pandoxare_ "Cauponum exercere, agere; cerevisiam
venum exponere atque adeo conficere."]
_Lord Bacon's Metrical Version of the Psalms_.--In old Izaak Walton's
_Life of George Herbert_, I find the following passage:--
"He (_i.e._ Lord Bacon) thought him so worthy of his friendship,
that having translated many of the Prophet David's Psalms into
English verse, he made George Herbert his patron by a public
dedication of them to him, as the best judge of divine poetry."
Can any one of your numerous readers inform me if these "Metricals" are
known?--if so it will greatly oblige
_Festival of St. Michael and All Angels_.--Can any of your readers
inform me why double second lessons are appointed in the Book of
Common Prayer for the Festival of St. Michael and All Angels? First,
among the "lessons proper for Holy-days," we have, at Matins, Acts xii.
to v. 20.; and at Evensong, Jude, v.6 to v.16.: and then in the
Calendar, coming in ordinary course, we have, at Morning Prayer, Mark.
ii.; and at evening, 1 Cor. xiv. In every other case, where the second
lessons are proper, there are none appointed in the Calendar in ordinary
_Wood-cut Likeness of Luther and Erasmus_.--Perhaps you will permit me
to inquire what are the earliest wood-cut likenesses of Luther and
Erasmus. Am I right in supposing that the image of the great Reformer is
found for the first time on the verse of the title-page of his treatise
_De Captivitate Babylonica Ecclesiae_, 4to., s.l.v.a.; and that the
wished-for representation of Erasmus may be seen in the small octavo
volume, entitled _Bellaria Epistolarum Erasmi Rot. et Ambrosii Pelargi
vicissim missarum_, Colon. 1539? Some of your readers will doubtless be
acquainted with what seems to be a very accurate and complete
performance, the _Vita D. Martini Lutheri Nummis atque Inconibus
illustrata_, studio M. Christiani Juncker, 8vo., Francof. 1699. In this
work (p.129.) there is an impression of a medal on which was exhibited
the _Imago ad vivam effigiem expressa_ of Erasmus, anno 1531.
_Anglo-Saxon "Lay of the Phoenix_."--Has any edition of the _Lay of the
Phoenix_ been published, besides the English version in the
_Archaeologia_, vol. 30, and that which bears the date, "Copenhagen,
Grundtvig, 1840, 8vo"? Can any light be thrown on the doubts respecting
the era of the author of this lay? And is there any published edition of
the hexameter poem by Lactantius, which is said by Stephens to have
suggested the first idea of this beautiful Anglo-Saxon poem?
_C. Agricola, Propugnaculum Anti-Pistorianum_.--Could any of your
readers direct me to an accessible library which possess a copy of
Christian Agricola's _Propugnaculum Anti-Pistorianum_, or otherwise give
me any account of that treatise?
_The Liturgy Version of the Psalms_.--In Beloe's _Anecdotes of
Literature_ (edition 1807), vol. i. p. 181. and vol. ii. p.316. are
notices of _The Bishops' Bible_, where mention is made of one edition of
it containing two different versions of the Psalms. The two statements,
however, differ, making it doubtful of what is intended; the first
speaking of one edition and the second of another.
Vol. i. p. 181. says--
"The first edition of this Bible was published in 1568. In this the
new translation of the Psalms was inserted alone. In the second
edition the translation of the Great Bible was added in opposite
columns, and in a different character."
Vol. ii. p. 316.:--
"Bishops' Bible, first edition, 1568. There is also a double
translation of the Psalms, one from what is called the Great Bible,
the other entirely a new one."
Will any of your correspondents be so obliging as to state what is the
additional version--new or other--there alluded to, other than the
present Liturgy version?
* * * * *
_Sir William Rider_.--"P.C.S.S." is happy to be able to answer one of
the questions of "H.F." (at p. 186. No. 12.), by referring him to the
_Extracts from the Parish Registers of St. Olave's_, which were
published in vol. ii. of the _Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica_.
At p. 316., of that volume, he will find the following entry, which
pretty nearly determines the date of Sir William Rider's death:--"1611,
November 19. Sir William Rider diing at Leyton, had his funeralle
solemnized in our Church, the hearss being brought from Clothworkers'
Hall." In a note to the above entry a further reference is made to
Lyson's _Environs_, vol. iv. pp. 160, 161. 165.
_Written on the opening of the Session_, 1847.
"For him was lever han at his beddes hed
Twenty bokes clothed in black or red,
Of Aristotle, and his philosophie,
Than robes riche, or fidel, or sautrie."
"Me, poor man! my library
Was dukedom large enough."--SHAKSPEARE.
Farewell, my trusty leathern-coated friends!
'Tis fitting, for a while, that we should part;
For I, as duty points, must shape my ends,
Obey what reason bids, and not my heart.
What though 'tis mine to listen in that Hall
Where England's peers, "grave, rev'rend, potent," sit,
To hear the classic words of STANLEY fall,
BROUGHAM'S biting sarcasm, LYNDHURST'S polished wit,
The measur'd sentence of THE GREAT CALM DUKE--
It is not mine to commune with the men.
Not so when I unfold some favorite book,
CHAUCER and I grow boon companions then;
And SHAKSPEARE, deigning at my hearth to sit,
Charms me with mingled love, philosophy, and wit.
WILLIAM J. THOMS.
_Pilgrimages of Princes--Bernard Calver--Passage from Hudibras_.--In
reply to Mr. Beauchamp's query, No. 11. p. 173., _The Pilgrimage
of Princes, penned out of Greek and Latine Authors, London_, 1586, 4to.,
was written by Ludowic Lloyd. See Watt's _Bibliotheca Brit_., vol. iii.
No. 11., p. 167. Mr. Stevens will find some account of "Bernard Calver,"
in Granger's _Letters_, 8vo., but I have not the book to refer to.
No. 12., p. 177. Menage observes, in speaking of Monsieur Perier's abuse
of Horace for running away from the battle of Philippi, "Relieta non
bene parmula," "Mais je le pardonne, parce qu'il ne sait peut-etre pas
que les Grecs ont dit en faveur des _Fuiars_."
"[Greek: Aner o pheugon kai palin machesetai]"
_Menagiana_, vol. i. p. 248. Amst. 1713.
Perhaps Erasmus translated this "_apophthegme_." Audley End, Jan. 19.
_Seal of Killigrew, Master of the Revels_.--In the Museum at Sudbury, in
the county of Suffolk, is, or was when I made a note of it about three
years since, a silver seal with a crystal handle, which is said to have
belonged to Killigrew, King Charles's celebrated Master of the Revels.
The arms are, argent, an eagle displayed with two heads within a bordure
sable bezanty. _Crest_. A demi-lion sable, charged with three bezants.
_Lacedaemonian Black Broth_.--Your correspondent "W." in No. 11., is
amusing as well as instructive; but it does not yet appear that we must
reject the notion of coffee as an ingredient of the Lacedaemonian black
broth upon the score of _colour_ or _taste_.
That it _was_ an ingredient has only as yet been mooted as a
Pollux, to whom your correspondent refers us, says that [Greek: zomos
melas] was a Lacedaemonian food; and that it was called [Greek:
aimatia], translated in Scott and Liddell's _Lexicon_, "_blood-broth_."
These lexicographers add, "The Spartan black broth was made with blood,"
and refer to Manso's _Sparta_, a German work, which I have not the
advantage of consulting.
Gesner, in his _Thesaurus_, upon the word "jus," quotes the known
passage of Cicero, _Tusc. Disp_. v. 34., and thinks the "jus nigrum" was
probably the [Greek: aimatia], and made with an admixture of blood, as
the "botuli," the _black_ puddings of modern time, were.
Coffee would not be of much lighter colour than blood. A decoction of
senna, though of a red-brown, is sometimes administered in medicine
under the common name of a "_black_ dose."
As regards the _colour_, then, whether blood or coffee were the
ingredient, the mess would be sufficiently dark to be called "_black_."
In respect of _taste_, it is well known, from the story told by Cicero
in the passage above referred to, that the Lacedaemonian black broth was
_disagreeable_, at least to Dionysius, and the Lacedaemonians, who
observed to him that he wanted that best of sauces, hunger, convey a
confession that their broth was not easily relished.
The same story is told with a little variation by Stobaeus, _Serm_.
xxix., and Plutarch, _Institut. Lacon_., 2. The latter writer says, that
the Syracusan, having tasted the Spartan broth, "spat it out in
disgust," [Greek: dyscheranunta apoptusai].
It would not have been unlike the Lacedaemonians purposely to have
established a disagreeable viand in their system of public feeding. Men
that used iron money to prevent the accumulation of wealth, and, as
youths, had volunteered to be scourged, scratched, beat about, and
kicked about, to inure them to pain, were just the persons to affect a
nauseous food to discipline the appetite.
_Lacedaemonian Black Broth_.--I should be glad to know in what passages
of ancient authors the Lacedaemonian black broth is mentioned, and
whether it is alluded to in such terms as to indicate the nature of the
food. It has occurred to me that it is much more probable that it was
the same _black broth_ which is now cooked in Greece, where I have eaten
of it and found it very good, although it looked as if a bottle of ink
had been poured into the mess.
The dish is composed of small cuttle-fish (with their ink-bags) boiled
with rice or other vegetables. Edinburgh, Jan. 13. 1850.
ON A LADY WHO WAS PAINTED. (_From the Latin._)
It sounds like a paradox--and yet 'tis true,
You're like your picture, though it's not like you.
_Bigotry._--The word Bigotry pervades almost all the languages of
Europe, but its etymology has not been satisfactory to Noah Webster. The
application of it is generally intelligible enough; being directed
against those who pertinaciously adhere to their own system of religious
faith. But as early as the tenth century it appears, that the use of the
word Bigot originated in a circumstance, or incident, unconnected with
religious views. An old chronicle, published by Duchesne in the 3rd vol.
of his _Hist. Francorum Scriptores_, states that Rollo, on receiving
Normandy from the King of France, or at least of that part of it, was
called upon to kiss the foot of the king, a ceremony, it seems, in use
not at the Vatican only; but he refused "unless the king would raise his
foot to his mouth." When the counts in attendance admonished him to
comply with this usual form of accepting so valuable a fief, he still
declined, exclaiming in pure Anglo-Saxon, "Not He, By God,"--_Ne
se bigoth_; "quod interpetatur," says the chronicler, "non [ille] per
Deum." The king and his peers, deriding him, called him afterwards
Bigoth, or Bigot, instead of Rollo. "Unde Normanni," adds the writer,
who brings his history down to the year 1137, "adhuc Bigothi dicuntur."
This will account for the prepositive article "Le" prefixed to the
Norman Bigods, the descendants of those who followed William the
Conqueror into England, such as Hugh Le Bigod, &c. Among other
innovations in France, the word Bigotisme has been introduced, of which
Boiste gives an example as combined with Philosophisme:--"Le Bigotisme
n'est, comme le Philosophisme, qu'un Egoisme systematique. Le
Philosophisme et le Bigotisme se traitent comme les chiens et les loups;
cependant leurs especes se rapprochent, et produisent des monstres."
_Gowghe's Dore of Holy Scripture_.--If your correspondent "F.M." (No. 9.
p.139.) has not received a reply to his third query, I beg to submit
that he will find the perusers of Gowghe's work to be the individuals
mentioned in different portions of Foxe's _Acts and Monuments_, vol. v.
edit. 8vo. pp. 414.449. 482.; the less intelligible names, "Doctor
Barons, Master Ceton," being intended for Dr. Barnes and Alexander
Seton. Anyhow, this reference may, it is hoped, lead to a fuller
discovery of the parties intended.
_Reinerius Saccho_.--Your correspondent "D." (No. 7. p.106.) will find
some account of Reinerius Saccho, if the source is accessible, in Quetif
and Echard's _Scriptores Ord. Praedicatt_. tom. i. 154.
_Discurs Modest_.--Your correspondent "A.T." (No.9. p.142) may be
informed that there can be no reasonable doubt, that the _original_
authority, for _Rem transubstantiationis patres ne attigisse quidem_, is
William Watson in his _Quodlibet_, ii. 4. p.31.; that the _Discurs.
Modest. de Jesuitis_ borrowed it from him; that Andrews _most probably_
derived it from the borrower; and that the date of the _Discurs_. &c.
must, therefore, be between 1602 and 1610. Probably there may be a copy
in the Lambeth Library; there is none in the Bodleian, British Museum,
or Sion College, and Placcius affords no reference. The _author_ may
never have been known.
_Defoe's Tour through Great Britain_.--I am much obliged to your
correspondent "D.S.Y" for the suggestion that the _Tour through Great
Britain, by a Gentleman_, from which I sent you some extracts relating
to the Ironworks of Sussex, is from the pen of Daniel Defoe. On
referring to the list of his writings, given in vol. xx. of C. Talboy's
edition of Defoe's Works, I find this idea is correct. Chalmers notices
three editions of the work, in 1724, 1725, and 1727, (numbered in his
list "154," "156," "163,") and remarks that "all the subsequent editions
vary considerably from the original" of 1724. He states that "this work
is frequently confounded with 'John Macky's Journey through England, in
familiar Letters from a Gentleman here to his Friend abroad,' 1722." I
may take this opportunity of mentioning that, in the first volume of
Defoe's work, there are some very interesting particulars of the
skirmish at Reading, between the troops of the Prince of Orange and the
Irish forces of James II., and the panic known as the "Irish night,"
which deserve to be consulted by Mr. Macaulay, for the next edition of
his History. The whole work will well repay a perusal, and what is there
of Defoe's writing which will not?
_Muffins_.--The correspondent who, in No. 11., p. 173., inquires the
origin of the word "Muffin," is referred to Urquhart's _Pillars of
Hercules_, vol. ii. p. 143., just published, where he will find a large
excursus on this subject. The word, he avers, is _Phoenician_: from
_maphula_, one of those kinds of bread named as such by Athenaeus. "It
was a _cake_," says Athenaeus, "baked on a hearth or griddle." He
derives this by taking away the final vowel, and then changing _l_ for
_n_; thus: "maphula," "maphul," "mufun!!!"
In this strange book there are fifty other etymologies as remarkable as
this. The author plainly offers them in hard earnest. This is something
_By Hook or Crook_.--"As in the phrase 'to get by hook or crook;' in the
sense of, to get by any expedient, to stick at nothing to obtain the
end; not to be over nice in obtaining your ends--_By hucke o'er krooke_;
e.g. _by bending the knees, and by bowing low_, or as we now say, by
bowing and scraping, by crouching and cringing."--Bellenden Ker's
_Essay on the Archaeology our Popular Phrases and Nursery Rhymes_, vol.
i. p. 21. ed. 1837.
I wish your correspondent, "J.R.F.," had given a reference to the book
or charter from which he copied his note.
Has Mr. B. Ker's work ever been reviewed?
[Mr. Ker's book was certainly reviewed in _Fraser's Magazine_ at
the time of its appearance, and probably in other literary
_By Hook or By Crook_.--I have met with it somewhere, but have lost my
note, that Hooke and Crooke were two judges, who in their day decided
most unconscientiously whenever the interests of the crown were
affected, and it used to be said that the king could get anything by
Hooke or by Crooke. Query, is _this_ the origin of the phrase?
If I cannot give _my_ authority, perhaps "J.R.F." may be able to give
_his_, for deriving it from "_Forest Customs_?"
_El Buscapie_.--A very full and able disquisition on the subject of MR.
SINGER's query (No. 11., p. 171.), respecting _El Buscapie_, will be
found in the appendix to a work which is just published, viz. Ticknor's
_History of Spanish Literature_, vol. iii. Appendix D. 371. _et seq_.
That writer, whose opinion is entitled to credit as that of a consummate
student of Spanish letters, and who gives good reasons for his
conclusions in this instance, pronounces against the authenticity of the
poor little pamphlet recently put forth as belonging to Cervantes.
Those who take an interest in Spanish literature will find this book of
Ticknor's a most valuable contribution to their knowledge of its whole
compass, and worth "making a note of."
_Richard of Cirencester, &c.--Bishop Barlow_.--Your correspondent
"S.A.A." (No. 6., p. 93), who is desirous of further information
respecting Richard of Cirencester, will, I am sure, peruse with much
interest and gratification a dissertation on that writer by K. Wex,
which first appeared in the _Rheinisches Museum fuer Philologie_ for
1846, and was shortly after translated and inserted in the _Gentleman's
Magazine_, with valuable notes by the translator.--Respecting the
writers of notes on the margin of books, few notes of the kind, I
apprehend, deserve better to be collected and published than those by
the very learned Bishop Barlow, Provost of Queen's College from the year
1657 to 1677, and who left the chief part of his library to that
society. The rest of his books, being such as were not in the Bodleian,
he bequeathed to that library, of which he was for some years the
librarian. The _Biographia Britannica_ represents him to have been "an
universal lover and favourer of learned men, of what country or
_Rev. J. Edwards on Metal for Telescopes_.--"T.J." informs the
correspondent who inquired (No. 11, p. 174.) respecting this valuable
paper, that it was printed in the _Nautical Almanac_ for 1787. E.B.
PRICE adds, "_A Treatise on Optical Instruments_, published about twenty
years ago by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, contains
much useful and general information upon this subject; and it is stated
in that work that Mr. Edward's treatise, which is now very scarce, is
republishing in the _Technological Repository_." While "G.B.S."
furnishes the information that the treatise in question may be procured
from Mr. Murray, of Albemarle Street.
_Ordination Pledges_.--In reply to the inquiry of "CLERICUS" (No. 10.,
p. 156.) for manuals containing a complete list of Ordination Pledges,
may be mentioned Johnson's _Clergyman's Vade Mecum_, 2 vols. 12mo., and
William's _Laws relating to the Clergy, being a Practical Guide to the
Clerical Profession on the Legal and Canonical Discharge of their
various Duties_, 8vo. The author of this useful work, which appears not
to have been seen by Lowndes, says, in his advertisement, "The works
which are already extant on Ecclesiastical Law, being either too diffuse
or too concise for ready reference and practical use, the compiler of
this volume has endeavored to remedy this defect by the publication of
the following compendium."
* * * * *
NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.
The Percy Society have just issued _A New and Mery Enterlude called the
Triall of Treasure_, from the edition printed at London by Thomas
Purfoote, 1567, edited by Mr. Halliwell. The other works issued by the
Society since May last (when the year's subscription became due) have
been _A Poem_ (satirical) _of The Times of Edward II_., edited by the
Rev. C. Hardwick, from a MS. at St. Peter's College, Cambridge, of which
a less perfect copy from an Edinburgh MS. was printed by Mr. Wright, in
the volume of _Political Songs_, edited by him for the Camden Society;
_Notices of Fugitive Tracts and Chap-Books, printed at Aldermary
Churchyard, Bow Churchyard, &c._ by Mr. Halliwell; _The Man in the
Moone, or The English Fortune Teller_, edited by the same gentleman,
from the unique copy printed in 1609, now in the Bodleian; and lastly,
_The Religious Poems of William de Shoreham, Vicar of Chart-Sutton in
Kent, in the Reign of Edward II_., edited by Mr. Wright, from a
It is doubtful whether Mr. Shaw's skill as an artist, fidelity as a
copyist, or taste in the selection of his subjects, entitle him to the
higher praise. We leave to those who are familiar with his _Dresses and
Decorations of the Middle Ages_, and other admirable productions, the
settlement of this point. He has just published the first number of a
new work, _The Decorative Arts of the Middle Ages_, the object of which
is to exhibit the peculiar features and general characteristics of
decorative art, from the Byzantine or early Christian period to the
decline of that termed the _Renaissance_. This beautiful work--for
beautiful it is--is extremely well timed, as it appears at a moment when
our manufacturers who desire to display their skill at the great
exhibition of 1851, must be most anxious to see "the principles by which
our ancestors controlled their genius in producing articles of taste and
beauty, from the precious metals, from enamels, from glass, from
embroidery, and from the various other textures and materials on
which they delighted to lavish their skill and ingenuity (both for the
various services of the Church, and also as accessories to the luxuries
of the wealthy of all classes)." The present number contains: 1. "An
exquisite Cup, designed by Holbein for Queen Jane Seymour;" 2. "Stained
Glass of the 13th Century, from the Cathedral of Chartres;" 3. "An
exquisite Specimen of Embroidery (of the date of 1554), from a picture
of Queen Mary belonging to the Society of Antiquaries;" and, 4.
"Iron-work from the Tomb of Eleanor of Castile." It will be seen, from
this enumeration of them, how varied and well selected are the subjects
of this new work of Mr. Shaw, and how well they are adapted to answer
the end which he has in view.
Messrs. Leigh Sotheby & Co. will sell on Thursday next, and the two
following days, "The valuable and select library of William Ashby Ashby,
Esq., of Queenby Hall, Leicestershire," consisting of standard works in
English history, and the best editions of Latin, Italian, and French
Classics, &c. all in the choicest old morroco, russia, and other
We have received the following Catalogues:--
"Number I., for 1850, of John Miller's Catalogue of Books, Old and New,
on Sale at 43. Chandos Street, Trafalgar Square."
"John Petheram's Catalogue of Old and New Books on Sale, for Cash only,
at 94. High Holborn (Part cvii., No. I. for 1850)."
"Catalogue d'une Collection extraordinaire d'un choix de beaux Livres
Gothiques Romans de Chevalerie, Elzevirs, Novellieri, Manuscrits d'une
superbe condition, recueillis pendant dix annees et tous relies par
Bauzonnet, Niedree, Duru, Cape, en vente chez M. Gancia, 73. King's Road,
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[Footnote 1: Pantheon AEgypt. tom. 1. p. 63.]
[Footnote 2: Diodor. Sic. Biblioth. p. 134.]
[Footnote 3: Rimes Guernesiaises, p. 4.]
[Footnote 4: Or the dog-days. Each sign has three Decans, or captains of
[Footnote 5: Porphyr. apud Euseb. Praep. iii. 4.]
[Footnote 6: Plin. Nat. Hist. lib. 37. cap. 10.]
[Footnote 7: Chiflet, p. 133. A genuine _cockroach_, and a formidable
one. I think the English word of Spanish origin.]
[Footnote 8: Corrections in the original.]
[Footnote 9: We are indebted to the last number of _Chambers' Edinburgh
Journal_ for this interesting supplement to the various particulars
respecting the capture of the Duke of Monmouth which have already
appeared in our columns. It there forms the conclusion of an article on
the last days of this unfortunate nobleman, founded on the
communications which have been made to the "NOTES AND QUERIES," and
kindly adduced to show the utility of our paper.]
* * * * *
Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8., New Street Square, at No. 5 New
Street Square, in the Parish of St Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186 Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, January 26, 1850.
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