Notes & Queries, No. 22., Saturday, March 30, 1850

Produced by Jon Ingram, Internet Library of Early Journals, William
Flis, and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.



"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

NO. 22., SATURDAY, MARCH 30. 1850. [Price Threepence. Stamped
Edition, 4d.]


NOTES:-- Pages
The Taming of the Shrew, by Samuel Hickson
Proverbial Sayings and their Origins
William Basse and his Poems
Folk Lore:--Something else about Salting. Norfolk Weather Proverb,
Irish Medical Charms. Death-bed Superstitions
Note on Herodotus by Dean Swift
Herrick's Hesperides, by J.M. Gutch

Rev. Dr. Thomlinson 350
Minor Queries:--"A" or "An"--The Lucky have whole Days--Line quoted
by De Quincey--Bishop Jewel's Papers--Allusion in Friar Brackley's
Sermon--Quem Deus Vult perdere--Snow of Chicksand Priory--The
Bristol Riots--A living Dog better than a dead Lion--American
Bittern--Inquisition in Mexico--Masters of St. Cross--Etymology of
"Dalston"--"Brown Study"--Coal-Brandy--Swot

The Dodo, by S.W. Singer
Watching the Sepulchre, by Rev. Dr. Rock, and E.V.
Poem by Sir E. Dyer
Robert Crowley, by Rev. Dr. Maitland
Replies to Minor Queries:--John Ross Mackay--Shipster--Gourders--
Rococo--God tempers the Wind--Guildhalls--Treatise of Equivocation--
Judas Bell--Grummet

Duke of Monmouth--To Philautus--Junius--Arabic Numerals

Books and Odd Volumes wanted
Notices to Correspondents


In two former communications on a subject incidental to that to which
I now beg leave to call your attention, I hinted at a result far more
important than the discovery of the author of the _Taming of a Shrew_.
That result I lay before your readers, in stating that I think I can
show grounds for the assertion that the _Taming of the Shrew_, by
Shakspeare, is the _original_ play; and that the _Taming of a Shrew_,
by Marlowe or what other writer soever, is a _later_ work, and an
_imitation_. I must first, however, state, that having seen Mr. Dyce's
edition of Marlowe, I find that this writer's claim to the latter
work had already been advanced by an American gentleman, in a work so
obvious for reference as Knight's _Library Edition of Shakspeare_. I
was pretty well acquainted with the contents of Mr. Knight's _first_
edition; and knowing that the subsequent work of Mr. Collier contained
nothing bearing upon the point, I did not think of referring to an
edition published, as I understood, rather for the variation of form
than on account of the accumulation of new matter. Mr. Dyce appears to
consider the passages cited as instances of imitation, and not proofs
of the identity of the writer. His opinion is certainly entitled to
great respect: yet it may, nevertheless, be remarked, first that the
instance given, supposing Marlowe not to be the author, would be cases
of theft rather than imitation, and which, done on so large a scale,
would scarcely be confined to the works of one writer; and, secondly,
that in original passages there are instances of an independence and
vigour of thought equal to the best things that Marlowe ever wrote--a
circumstance not to be reconciled with the former supposition. The
following passage exhibits a freedom of thought more characteristic of
this writer's reputation than are most of his known works:--

"And custom-free, you marchants shall commerce
And interchange the profits of your land,
Sending you gold for brasse, silver for lead,
Casses of silke for packes of wol and cloth,
To bind this friendship and confirme this league."

_Six Old Plays_, p. 204.

A short account of the process by which I came to a conclusion which,
if established, must overthrow so many ingenious theories, will not,
I trust, be uninteresting to your readers. In the relationship between
these two plays there always seemed to be something which needed
explanation. It was the only instance among the works of Shakspeare in
which a direct copy, even to matters of detail, appeared to have been
made; and, in spite of all attempts to gloss over and palliate, it
was impossible to deny that an unblushing act of mere piracy seemed
to have been committed, of which I never could bring myself to believe
that Shakspeare had been guilty. The readiness to impute this act to
him was to me but an instance of the unworthy manner in which he had
almost universally been treated; and, without at the time having any
suspicion of what I now take to be the fact, {346} I determined, if
possible, to find it out. The first question I put to myself was, Had
Shakspeare himself any concern in the older play? A second glance
at the work sufficed for an answer in the negative. I next asked
myself on what authority we called it an "older" play. The answer I
found myself obliged to give was, greatly to my own surprise, On no
authority whatever! But there was still a difficulty in conceiving
how, with Shakspeare's work before him, so unscrupulous an imitator
should have made so poor an imitation. I should not have felt this
difficulty had I then recollected that the play in question was not
published; but, as the case stood, I carefully examined the two plays
together, especially those passages which were identical, or nearly
so, in both, and noted, in these cases, the minutest variations. The
result was, that I satisfied myself that the original conception was
invariably to be found in Shakspeare's play. I have confirmed this
result in a variety of ways, which your space will not allow me to
enter upon; therefore, reserving such circumstances for the present
as require to be enforced by argument, I will content myself with
pointing out certain passages that bear out my view. I must first,
however, remind your readers that while some plays, from their
worthlessness, were never printed, some were withheld from the press
on account of their very value; and of this latter class were the
works of Shakspeare. The late publication of his works created the
impression, not yet quite worn out, of his being a later writer than
many of his contemporaries, solely because their printed works are
dated earlier by twenty or thirty years. But for the obstinate effects
of this impression, it is difficult to conceive how any one could miss
the original invention of Shakspeare in the induction, and such scenes
as that between Grumio and the tailor; the humour of which shines,
even in the feeble reflection of the imitation, in striking contrast
with those comic(?) scenes which are the undisputed invention of the
author of the _Taming of a Shrew_.

The first passage I take is from Act IV. Sc. 3.

"_Grumio_. Thou hast fac'd many _things_?

"_Tailor_. I have.

"_Gru._ Face not me: thou hast brav'd many men; brave not me.
I will neither be fac'd nor brav'd."

In this passage there is a play upon the terms "fac'd" and "brav'd."
In the tailor's sense, "things" may be "fac'd" and "men" may be
"brav'd;" and, by means of this play, the tailor is entrapped into an
answer. The imitator, having probably seen the play represented, has
carried away the words, but by transposing them, and with the change
of one expression--"men" for "things"--has lost the spirit: there is
a pun no longer. He might have played upon "brav'd," but there he
does not wait for the tailor's answer; and "fac'd," as he has it, can
be understood but in one sense, and the tailor's admission becomes
meaningless. The passage is as follows:--

"_Saudre_. Dost thou hear, tailor? thou hast brav'd many men;
brave not me. Th'ast fac'd many men.

"_Tailor_. Well, Sir?

"_Saudre_. Face not me; I'll neither be fac'd nor brav'd at
thy hands, I can tell thee."--p. 198.

A little before, in the same scene, Grumio says, "Master, if ever I
said loose-bodied gown, sew me in the skirts of it, and beat me to
death with a bottom of brown thread." I am almost tempted to ask if
passages such as this be not evidence sufficient. In the _Taming of
a Shrew_, with the variation of "sew me in a _seam_" for "sew me in
_the skirts of it_," the passage is also to be found; but who can
doubt the whole of this scene to be by Shakspeare, rather than by the
author of such scenes, intended to be comic, as one referred to in my
last communication (No. 15. p. 227., numbered 7.), and shown to be
identical with one in _Doctor Faustus_? I will just remark, too, that
the best appreciation of the spirit of the passage, which, one would
think, should point out the author, is shown in the expression, "sew
me in the _skirts of it_," which has meaning, whereas the variation
has none. A little earlier, still in the same scene, the following bit
of dialogue occurs:--

"_Kath._ I'll have no bigger; this doth fit the time,
And gentlewomen wear such caps as these.

"_Pet._ When you are gentle, you shall have one too,
and not till then."

Katharine's use of the term "gentlewomen" suggests here Petruchio's
"gentle." In the other play the reply is evidently imitated, but with
the absence of the suggestive cue:--

"For I will home again unto my father's house.

"_Ferando_. I, when y'are meeke and gentle, but not before."--p. 194.

Petruchio, having dispatched the tailor and haberbasher, proceeds--

"Well, come my Kate: we will unto your father's,
Even in these honest mean habiliments;
Our purses shall be proud, our garments poor;"--p. 198.

throughout continuing to urge the vanity of outward appearance, in
reference to the "ruffs and cuffs, and farthingales and things,"
which he had promised her, and with which the phrase "honest mean
habiliments" is used in contrast. The sufficiency _to the mind_ of

"For 'tis the mind that makes the body rich,"

is the very pith and purpose of the speech. Commencing in nearly the
same words, the imitator entirely mistakes this, in stating the object
of clothing to be to "shrowd us from the winter's rage;" which is,
nevertheless, true enough, though completely beside the purpose. In
Act II. Sc. 1., Petruchio says,-- {347}

"Say that she frown; I'll say she looks as clear
As morning roses newly wash'd with dew."

Here is perfect consistency: the clearness of the "morning _roses_,"
arising from their being "wash'd with dew;" at all events, the quality
being heightened by the circumstance. In a passage of the so-called
"older" play, the duke is addressed by Kate as "fair, lovely lady,"

"As glorious as the morning wash'd with dew."--p. 203

As the morning does not derive its glory from the circumstance of
its being "wash'd with dew," and as it is not a peculiarly apposite
comparison, I conclude that here, too, as in other instances, the
sound alone has caught the ear of the imitator.

In Act V. Sc. 2., Katharine says,--

"Then vail your stomachs; for it is no boot;
And place your hand below your husband's foot;
In token of which duty, if he please,
My hand is ready: may it do him ease."

Though Shakspeare was, in general, a most correct and careful writer,
that he sometimes wrote hastily it would be vain to deny. In the third
line of the foregoing extract, the meaning clearly is, "as which
token of duty;" and it is the performance of this "token of duty"
which Katharine hopes may "do him ease." The imitator, as usual, has
caught something of the words of the original which he has laboured
to reproduce at a most unusual sacrifice of grammar and sense; the
following passage appearing to represent that the wives, by laying
their hands under their husbands' feet--no reference being made to
the act as a token of duty--in some unexplained manner, "might procure
them ease."

"Laying our hands under their feet to tread,
If that by that we might procure their ease,
And, for a precedent, I'll first begin
And lay my hand under my husband's feet."--p. 213.

One more instance, and I have done. Shakspeare has imparted a
dashing humorous character to this play, exemplified, among other
peculiarities, by such rhyming of following words as--

"Haply to _wive_ and _thrive_ as least I may."

"We will have _rings_ and _things_ and fine array."

"With _ruffs_, and _cuffs_, and farthingales and things."

I quote these to show that the habit was Shakspeare's. In Act I. Sc.
1. occurs the passage--"that would thoroughly woo her, wed her, and
bed her, and rid the house of her." The sequence here is perfectly
natural: but observe the change: in Ferando's first interview with
Kate, he says,--

"My mind, sweet Kate, doth say I am the man
Must wed and bed _and marrie_ bonnie Kate."--p. 172.

In the last scene, Petruchio says,--

"Come, Kate, we'll to bed:
We three are married, but you two are sped."

Ferando has it thus:--

"'Tis Kate and I am wed, and you are sped:
And so, farewell, for we will to our bed."--p. 214.

Is it not evident that Shakespeare chose the word "sped" as a rhyme to
"bed," and that the imitator, in endeavouring to recollect the jingle,
has not only spoiled the rhyme, but missed the fact that all "three"
were "married," notwithstanding that "two" were "sped"?

It is not in the nature of such things that instances should be
either numerous or very glaring; but it will be perceived that in all
of the foregoing, the purpose, and sometimes even the meaning, is
intelligible only in the form in which we find it in Shakespeare. I
have not urged all that I might, even in this branch of the question;
but respect for your space makes me pause. In conclusion, I will
merely state, that I have no doubt myself of the author of the _Taming
of a Shrew_ having been Marlowe; and that, if in some scenes it appear
to fall short of what we might have expected from such a writer,
such inferiority arises from the fact of its being an imitation, and
probably required at a short notice. At the same time, though I do
not believe Shakspeare's play to contain a line of any other writer,
I think it extremely probable that we have it only in a revised form,
and that, consequently, the play which Marlow imitated might not
necessarily have been that fund of life and humour that we find it


St. John's Wood, March 19. 1850.

* * * * *


"[Greek: 'On oi Theoi philousin apothnaeskei neos]."

Brunck, _Poetae Gnomici_, p. 231., quoted by Gibbon, _Decl. and Fall_
(Milman. Lond. 1838. 8vo.), xii. 355. (_note_ 65.)

"Quem Jupiter vult perdere, prius dementat."

These words are Barnes's translation of the following fragment of
Euripides, which is the 25th in Barnes' ed. (see _Gent.'s Mag._, July,
1847, p. 19, _note_):--

"[Greek: 'Otan de Daimon andri porsynae kaka,
Ton noun exlapse proton]."

This, or a similar passage, may have been employed proverbially in
the time of Sophocles. See l. 632. et seq. of the _Antigone_ (ed.
Johnson. Londini. 1758. 8vo.); on which passage there is the following

"[Greek: Meta sophias gar upo tinos aoidimou kleinon epos pephantai,
'Otan d' o daimon andri porsynae kaka,
Ton noun exlapse proton o bouleuetai.]" {348}

Respecting the lines referred to in the Chorus, Dr. Donaldson makes
the following remarks, in his critical edition of the _Antigone_,
published in 1848:--

"The parallel passages for this adage are fully given by
Ruhnken on Velleius Paterculus, ii. 57. (265, 256.), and by
Wyttenbach on Plutarch, _De Audiendis Poetis_, p. 17. B. (pp.
190, 191.)"

* * * * *

"Music hath charms to soothe a savage breast,
To soften rocks, or bend a knotted oak."

Congreve's _Mourning Bride_, act i. sc. i. l. 1.

* * * * *

"L'appetit vient en mangeant."

Rabelais, _Gargantua_, Liv. i. chap. 5. (vol. i. p. 136, ed. Variorum.
Paris, 1823. 8vo.)

This proverb had been previously used by Amyot, and probably also
by Jerome le (or de) Hangest, who was a Doctor of the Sorbonne, and
adversary of Luther, and who died in 1538.--Ibid. p. 136 (_note_ 49.).

* * * * *

I know not how old may be "to put the cart before the horse." Rabelais
(i. 227.) has--

"Il mettoyt la charrette devant les beufz."

* * * * *

"If the sky falls, we shall catch larks."

Rabelais (i. 229, 230.):--

"Si les nues tomboyent, esperoyt prendre alouettes."

* * * * *

"Good nature and good sense must ever join;
To err is human, to forgive divine."

Pope's _Essay on Criticism_, pp. 524, 525.

* * * * *

"Nay, fly to altars, there they'll talk you dead;
For fools rush in where angels fear to tread."

Ib. pp. 624, 625.

* * * * *

The Emperor Alexander of Russia is said to have declared himself
"un accident heureux." The expression occurs in Mad. de Stael's
_Allemagne_, Sec. xvi.:--

"Mais quand dans un etat social le bonbeur lui-meme n'est,
pour ainsi dire, _qu'un accident heureux_ ... le patriotisme a
peu de perseverance."

* * * * *

Gibbon, _Decl. and Fall_ (Lond. 1838. 8vo.), i. 134.:--

"His (T. Antoninus Pius') reign is marked by the rare
advantage of furnishing very few materials for history;
which is indeed little more than the register of the crimes,
follies, and misfortunes of mankind."

Gibbon's first volume was published in 1776, and Voltaire's _Ingenii_
in 1767. In the latter we find--

"En effet, l'historie n'est que le tableau des crimes
et des malheurs."--_Oeuvres de Voltaire_ (ed. Beuchot.
Paris, 1884. 8vo.), tom. xxxiii. p. 427.

* * * * *

Gibbon, vol. ix. p. 94.:--

"In every deed of mischief, he (Andronicus Comnenus) had a
heart to resolve, a head to contrive, and a hand to execute."

Cf. Voltaire, "Siecle de Louis XV." (_Oeuvres_, xxi. p. 67.):--

"Il (le Chevalier de Belle-Isle) etait capable de tout
imaginer, de tout arranger, et de tout faire."

* * * * *

"Guerre aux chateaux, paix a la chaumiere,"

ascribed to Condorcet, in _Edin. Rev._ April, 1800. p. 240. (_note_*)

By Thiers (_Hist. de la Rev. Franc._ Par. 1846. 8vo. ii. 283.), these
words are attributed to Cambon; while, in Lamartine's _Hist. des
Girondins_ (Par. 1847. 8vo.), Merlin is represented to have exclaimed
in the Assembly, "Declarez la guerre aux rois et la paix aux nations."

* * * * *

Macaulay's _Hist. of England_ (1st ed.), ii. 476:--

"But the iron stoicism of William never gave way: and he
stood among his weeping friends calm and austere, as if he
had been about to leave them only for a short visit to his
hunting-grounds at Loo."

"... non aliter tamen
Dimovit obstantes propinquos,
Et populum reditus morantem,
Quam si clientum longa negotia
Dijudicata lite relinqueret,
Tendens Venafranos in agros,
Aut Lacedaemonium Tarentum."

Hor. _Od._ iii. v. 50-56.

* * * * *

"De meretrice puta quod sit sua filia puta,
Nam sequitur leviter filia matris iter."

These lines are said by Menage (_Menagiana_, Amstm. 1713. 18mo., iii.
12mo.) to exist in a Commentary "In composita verborum Joannis de


* * * * *


Your correspondent, the Rev. T. Corser, in his note on William Basse,
says, that he has been informed that there are, in Winchester College
Library, in a 4to. volume, some poems of that writer. I have the
pleasure of assuring him that his information is correct, and that
they are the "Three Pastoral Elegies" mentioned by Ritson. The
title-page runs thus:--

"Three Pastoral Elegies of Anander, Anetor, and Muridella, by
William Bas. Printed by V.S. for J.B., and are to be sold
at his shop in Fleet Street, at the sign of the Great Turk's
Head, 1602."

Then follows a dedication, "To the Honourable {349} and Virtuous
Lady, the Lady Tasburgh;" from which dedication it appears that
these Pastoral Elegies were among the early efforts of his Muse. The
author, after making excuses for not having repaid her Ladyship's
encouragement earlier, says,--

"Finding my abilitie too little to make the meanest
satisfaction of so great a principall as is due to so many
favourable curtesies, I am bold to tende your Ladyship this
unworthy interest, wherewithal I will put in good securitie,
that as soone as time shall relieve the necessitie of my young
invention, I will disburse my Muse to the uttermost mite of
my power, to make some more acceptable composition with your
bounty. In the mean space, living without hope to be ever
sufficient inough to yeeld your worthinesse the smallest
halfe of your due, I doe only desire to leave your ladyship
in assurance--

"That when increase of age and learning sets
My mind in wealthi'r state than now it is,
I'll pay a greater portion of my debts,
Or mortgage you a better Muse than this;
Till then, no kinde forbearance is amisse,
While, though I owe more than I can make good,
This is inough, to shew how faine I woo'd,

Your Ladyship's in all humblenes


The first Pastoral consists of thirty-seven stanzas; the second
of seventy-two; the third of forty-eight; each stanza of eight
ten-syllable verses, of which the first six rhyme alternately; the
last two are a couplet. There is a short argument, in verse, prefixed
to each poem. That of the first runs thus:--

"Anander lets Anetor wot
His love, his lady, and his lot."

of the second,--

"Anetor seeing, seemes to tell
The beauty of faire Muridell,
And in the end, he lets hir know
Anander's plaint, his love, his woe."

of the third,--

"Anander sick of love's disdaine
Doth change himself into a swaine;
While dos the youthful shepherd show him
His Muridellaes answer to him."

This notice of these elegies cannot fail to be highly interesting to
your correspondent on Basse and his works, and others of your readers
who feel an interest in recovering the lost works of our early poets.


Winchester, March 16. 1850.

* * * * *


_Something else about "Salting."_--On the first occasion, after birth,
of any children being taken into a neighbour's house, the mistress
of the house always presents the babe with an egg, a little flour,
and some salt; and the nurse, to ensure good luck, gives the child
a taste of the pudding, which is forthwith compounded out of these
ingredients. This little "mystery" has occurred too often to be merely
accidental; indeed, all my poorer neighbours are familiarly acquainted
with the custom; and they tell me that money is often given in
addition at the houses of the rich.

What is the derivation of _cum grano salis_ as a hint of caution? Can
it come from the M.D.'s prescription; or is it the grain of Attic salt
or wit for which allowance has to be made in every well-told story?


Ecclesfield Vicarage, March 16, 1850.


"First comes David, then comes Chad,
And then comes Winneral as though he was mad,
White or black,
Or old house thack."

The first two lines of this weather proverb may be found in Hone's
_Every-Day Book_, and in Denham's _Proverbs and Popular Sayings
relating to the Seasons_ (edited for the Percy Society): but St.
Winwaloe, whose anniversary falls on the 3rd of March, is there called
"Winnold," and not, as in our bit of genuine Norfolk, _Winneral_.
Those versions also want the explanation, that at this time there will
be either snow, rain, or wind; which latter is intended by the "old
house thack," or thatch.

_Medical Charms used in Ireland--Charm for Toothache_.--It is a
singular fact, that the charm for toothache stated (No. 19. p. 293.)
to be prevalent in the south-eastern counties of England, is also used
by the lower orders in the county of Kilkenny, and perhaps other parts
of Ireland. I have often heard the charm: it commences, "Peter sat
upon a stone; Jesus said, 'What aileth thee, Peter?'" and so on, as
in the English form.

_To cure Warts_, the following charm is used:--A wedding-ring is
procured, and the wart touched or pricked with a gooseberry thorn
through the ring.

_To cure Epilepsy_, take three drops of sow's milk.

_To cure Blisters_ in a cow's mouth, cut the blisters; then slit the
upper part of the tail, insert a clove of garlic, and tie a piece of
_red cloth_ round the wound.

_To cure the Murrain in Cows_.--This disease is supposed to be
caused by the cow having been stung about the mouth while feeding, in
consequence of contact with some of the larger larvae of the moth (as
of the Death's-head Sphynx, &c.), which have a soft fleshy horn on
their tails, erroneously believed to be a sting. If a farmer is so
lucky as to procure one of these rare larvae, he is to bore a hole in
an _ash tree_, and plug up the unlucky caterpillar alive in it. The
leaves of that ash tree will, from thenceforth, be a specific against
the disease.

The universal prevalence of the superstition concerning the ash is
extremely curious.


Kilkenny. {350}

_Death-bed Superstition_.--See _Guy Mannering_, ch. xxvii. and note
upon it:--

"The popular idea that the protracted struggle between life
and death is painfully prolonged by keeping the door of the
apartment shut, was received as certain by the superstitious
eld of Scotland."

In my country (West Gloucestershire) they throw open the windows at
the moment of death.

The notion of the escape of the soul through an opening is probably
only in part the origin of this superstition. It will not account for
opening _all_ the locks in the house. There is, I conceive, a notion
of analogy and association.

"Nexosque et solveret artus," says Virgil, at the death of Dido. They
thought the soul, or the life, was tied up, and that the unloosing
of any knot might help to get rid of the principle, as one may call
it. For the same superstition prevailed in Scotland as to marriage
(Dalyell, p. 302.). Witches cast knots on a cord; and in a parish in
Perthshire both parties, just before marriage, had every knot or tie
about them loosened, though they immediately proceeded, in private,
severally to tie them up again. And as to the period of childbirth,
see the grand and interesting ballad in Walter Scott's _Border Poems_,
vol. ii. p. 27., "Willye's Lady."


* * * * *


The inclosed unpublished note of Dean Swift will, I hope, be deemed
worthy of a place in your columns. It was written by him in his
Herodotus, which is now in the library of Winchester College,
having been presented to it in 1766, by John Smyth de Burgh, Earl
of Clanricarde. The genuineness of the handwriting is attested by a
certificate of George Faulkner, who, it appears, was well qualified
to decide upon it. The edition is Jungerman's, folio, printed by Paul
Stephens, in 1718.


"_Judicium de Herodoto post longum tempus relicto_:--

"Ctesias mendacissimus Herodotum mendaciorum arguit, exceptis
paucissimis (ut mea fert sententia) omnimodo excusandum.
Caeterum diverticulis abundans, hic pater Historicorum, filum
narrationis ad taedium abrumpit; unde oritur (ut par est)
legentibus confusio, et exinde oblivio. Quin et forsan ipsae
narrationes circumstantiis nimium pro re scatent. Quod ad
caetera, hunc scriptorem inter apprime laudandos censeo, neque
Graecis, neque barbaris plus aequo faventem, aut iniquum: in
orationibus fere brevem, simplicem, nec nimis frequentem:
Neque absunt dogmata, e quibus eruditus lector prudentiam,
tam moralem, quam civilem, haurire poterit.

"Julii 6: 1720. J. SWIFT"

"I do hereby certify that the above is the handwriting of the
late Dr. Jonathan Swift, D.S.P.D., from whom I have had many
letters and printed several pieces from his original MS.

"Dublin, Aug. 21. 1762. GEORGE FAULKNER."

* * * * *


There can be few among your subscribers who are unacquainted with
the sweet lyric effusion of Herrick "to the Virgins, to make much
of Time," beginning--

"Gather you rose-buds while ye may,
Old Time is still a-flying;
And this same flower, that smiles to-day,
To-morrow will be dying."

The following "Answer" appeared in a publication not so well known
as the _Hesperides_. I have therefore made a note of it from _Cantos,
Songs, and Stanzas_, &c., 3rd ed. printed in Aberdeen, by John Forbes,

"I gather, where I hope to gain,
I know swift Time doth fly;
Those fading buds methinks are vain,
To-morrow that may die.

"The higher Phoebus goes on high,
The lower is his fall;
But length of days gives me more light,
Freedom to know my thrall.

"Then why do ye think I lose my time,
Because I do not marrie;
Vain fantasies make not my prime,
Nor can make me miscarrie."



* * * * *



Mr. G. Bouchier Richardson, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who is at present
engaged in compiling the life and correspondence of Robert Thomlinson,
D.D., Rector of Whickham, co. Dur.; Lecturer of St. Nicholas,
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and founder of the Thomlinson Library there;
Prebendary of St. Paul's; and Vice-Principal of Edmund Hall, Oxon., is
very anxious for the communication of any matter illustrative of the
life of the Doctor, his family and ancestry; which, it is presumed,
is derivable from the family of that name long seated at Howden, in

* * * * *


_"A" or "An," before Words, beginning with a Vowel._--Your readers are
much indebted to Dr. Kennedy for his late exposure of the erroneous,
though common, use of the phrase "mutual friend," and I am convinced
that there are many similar solecisms which only require to be
denounced to ensure their disuse. I am anxious to ask the opinion
of Dr. K., and others of your subscribers, on another point in the
English language, namely, the principles which should guide our use of
"A" or "An" before a word beginning with a vowel, as the practice does
not appear to be uniform in this respect. The {351} minister of my
parish invariably says in his sermon, "Such an one," which, I confess,
to my ear is grating enough. I conclude he would defend himself by
the rule that where the succeeding word, as "one," begins with a
vowel, "An," and not "A," should be used; but this appears to me not
altogether satisfactory, as, though "one" is spelt as beginning with
a vowel, it is _pronounced_ as if beginning with a consonant thus,
"won." The rule of adding or omitting the final "n," according as the
following word commences with a vowel or a consonant, was meant, I
conceive, entirely for elegance in _speaking_, to avoid the jar on
the ear which would otherwise be occasioned, and has no reference
to _writing_, or the appearance on paper of the words. I consider,
therefore, that an exception must be made to the rule of using "An"
before words beginning with a vowel in cases where the words are
pronounced as if beginning with a consonant, as "one," "use," and its
derivatives, "ubiquity," "unanimity," and some others which will no
doubt occur to your readers. I should be glad to be informed if my
opinion is correct; and I will only further observe, that the same
remarks are applicable towards words beginning with "_h_." _An horse_
sounds as bad as _a hour_; and it is obvious that in these cases
employment of "A" or "An" is dictated by the consideration whether the
aspirate is _sounded_ or is _quiescent_, and has no reference to the
spelling of the word.


_The Lucky have whole Days._--I, like your correspondent "P.S." (No.
15., p. 231.), am anxious to ascertain the authorship of the lines to
which he refers.

They stand in my Common-place Book as follows, which I consider to be
a more correct version than that given by "P.S.":--

"Fate's dark recesses we can never find,
But Fortune, at some hours, to all is kind:
The lucky have whole days, which still they choose;
The unlucky have but hours, and those they lose."


_Line quoted by De Quincey._--"S.P.S." inquires who is the author of
the following line, quoted by De Quincey in the _Confessions of an
English Opium Eater_:--

"Battlements that on their restless fronts bore stars."

_Bishop Jewel's Papers._--It is generally understood that the papers
left by Bishop Jewel were bequeathed to his friend Dr. Garbrand, who
published some of them. The rest, it has been stated, passed from Dr.
G. into the possession of New College, Oxford. Are any of these still
preserved in the library of that college? or, if not, can any trace
be found of the persons into whose hands they subsequently came, or
of the circumstances under which they were lost to New College?


_Allusion in Friar Brackley's Sermon_.--In Fenn's _Paston Letters_,
XCVIII. (vol. iii., p. 393., or vol. i., p. 113. Bohn), entitled "An
ancient Whitsunday Sermon, preached by Friar Brackley (whose hand it
is). At the Friers Minors Church in Norwich" occurs the following:--

"Semiplenum gaudium est quando quis in praesenti gaudet et tunc
cogitans de futuris dolet; ut in quodam libro Graeco, &c."

"Quidam Rex Graeciae, &c.; here ye may see but half a joy; who
should joy in this world if he remembered him of the pains of
the other world?"

What is the Greek Book, and who is the king of Greece alluded to?


_Selden's Titles of Honour_.--Does any gentleman possess a MS. Index
to Selden's _Titles of Honour_? Such, if printed, would be a boon; for
it is a dreadful book to wade through for what one wants to find.


_Colonel Hyde Seymour_.--In a book dated 1720, is written "Borrow the
Book of Col. Hyde Seymour." I am anxious to know who the said Colonel
was, his birth, &c.?


_Quem Deus vult perdere, &c._--Prescot, in his _History of the
Conquest of Peru_ (vol. ii., p. 404., 8vo. ed.), says, while remarking
on the conduct of Gonzalo Pisaro, that it may be accounted for by "the
insanity," as the Roman, or rather Grecian proverb calls it, "with
which the gods afflict men when they design to ruin them." He quotes
the Greek proverb from a fragment of Euripides, in his note:--

"[Greek: Otan de Daimon andri parsunei kaka
Ton noun eblapse proton.]"

I wish to know whether the Roman proverb, _Quem vult perdere Deus
prius dementat_, is merely a translation of this, or whether it is to
be found in a Latin author? If the latter, in what author? Is it in


_Southwell's Supplication_.--Can any one inform me where I can see a
copy of _Robert Southwell's Supplication to Queen Elizabeth_, which
was printed, according to Watts, in 1593? or can any one, who has seen
it, inform me what is the style and character of it?


_Gesta Grayorum_.--In Nichol's _Progresses of Queen Elizabeth_, vol.
iii., p. 262., a tract is inserted, entitled "Gesta Grayorum; or,
History of the High and Mighty Prince Henry, Prince of Purpoole, &c.,
who lived and died in A.D. 1594." The original is said to have been
printed in 1688, by Mr. Henry Keepe. Is any copy of it to be had or


_Snow of Chicksand Priory_.--"A.J.S.P." desires information respecting
the immediate descendants of R. Snow, Esq., to whom the site of {352}
Chicksand Priory, Bedfordshire, was granted, 1539: it was alienated
by his family, about 1600, to Sir John Osborn, Knt., whose descendants
now possess it. In Berry's _Pedigrees of Surrey Families_, p. 83., I
find an Edward Snowe of Chicksand mentioned as having married Emma,
second daughter of William Byne, Esq., of Wakehurst, Sussex. What was
his relationship to R. Snow, mentioned above? The arms of this family
are, Per fesse nebulee azure, and argent three antelopes' heads,
erased counterchanged, armed or.

_The Bristol Riots_.--"J.B.M." asks our Bristol readers what
compilation may be relied on as an accurate description of the Bristol
riots of 1831? and whether _The Bristol Riots, their Causes, Progress,
and Consequences, by a Citizen_, is generally received as an accurate

1, Union Place, Lisson Grove.

_A Living Dog better that a Dead Lion_.--Can any of your readers
inform me with whom the proverb originated: "_A living dog is better
than a dead lion?_" F. Domin. Bannez (or Bannes), in his defence of
Cardinal Cajetan, after his death, against the attacks of Cardinal
Catharinus and Melchior Canus (_Comment. in prim. par. S. Thom._ p.
450. ed. Duaci, 1614), says--

"Certe potest dici de istis, quod de Graecis insultantibus
Hectori jam mortuo dixit Homerus, quod _leoni mortuo etiam
lepores insultant_."

Query? Is this, or any like expression, to be found in Homer? If so,
I should feel much obliged to any of your correspondents who would
favour me with the reference.


_Author of "Literary Leisure_."--Can any of your readers inform me of
the name of the author of _Literary Leisure_, published by Miller,
Old Bond Street, 1802, in 2 volumes? It purports to have come out in
weekly parts, of which the first is dated Sept. 26. 1799. It contains
many interesting papers in prose and verse: it is dedicated to the
Editors of the _Monthly Review_. The motto in the title-page is--

"Saiva res est: philosophatur quoque jam;
Quod erat ei nomen? Thesaurochrysonicochrysides."--Plautus.

Is the work noticed in the _Monthly Review_, about that time?


_The Meaning of "Complexion."_--Is the word "complexion," used in
describing an individual, to be considered as applied to the _tint_
of the skin only, or to the colour of the hair and eyes? Can a person,
having dark eyes and hair, but with a clear white skin, be said to be


_American Bittern--Derivation of "Calamity."_--It has been stated of
an American Bittern, that it has the power of admitting rays of light
from its breast, by which fish are attracted within its reach. Can any
one inform me as to the fact, or refer me to any ornithological work
in which I can find it?

In answer to "F.S. Martin"--Calamity (_calamitas_), not from
_calamus_, as it is usually derived, but perhaps from obs.
_calamis_, i.e. _columis_, from [Greek: kholo, kolhao, kolhazo] to
maim, mutilate, and so for _columitas_. (See Riddle's _Lat.-Eng.


_Inquisition in Mexico._--"D." wishes to be furnished with references
to any works in which the actual establishment of the Inquisition in
Mexico is mentioned or described, or in which any other information
respecting it is conveyed.

_Masters of St. Cross_.--"H. EDWARDS" will be obliged by information
of any work except _Dugdale's Monasticon_, containing a list of the
names of the Master of the Hospital of St. Cross, Winchester; or of
the Masters or Priors of the same place before Humphry de Milers;
and of the Masters between Bishop Sherborne, about 1491, and Bishop
Compton, about 1674.

_Etymology of "Dalston."_--The hamlet of Hackney, now universally
known only as _Dalston_, is spelt by most topographists _Dorleston_
or _Dalston_. I have seen it in one old Gazette _Darlston_, and
I observed it lately, on a stone let in to an old row of houses,
_Dolston_; this was dated 1792. I have searched a great many books in
vain to discover the etymology, and from it, of course, the correct
spelling of the word, the oldest form of which that I can find is

The only probable derivations of it that I can find are the old words
_Doles_ and _ton_ (from Saxon _dun_), a village built upon a slip of
land between furrows of ploughed earth; or _Dale_ (Dutch _Dal_), and
_stone_, a bank in a valley. The word may, however, be derived from
some man's name, though I can find none at all like it in a long list
of tenants upon Hackney Manor that I have searched. If any of your
readers can furnish this information they will much oblige.


_"Brown Study"_--a term generally applied to intense reverie. Why
"brown," rather than blue or yellow? _Brown_ must be a corruption of
some word. Query of "barren," in the sense of fruitless or useless?


_Coal Brandy_.--People now old can recollect that, when young, they
heard people then old talk of "coal-brandy." What was this? _Cold_?
or, in modern phase, _raw_, _neat_, or _genuine_?


_Swot_.--I have often heard military men talk of _swot_, meaning
thereby mathematics; and persons eminent in that science are termed
"_good swots_." As I never heard the word except amongst the military,
but there almost universally in "free and {353} easy," conversation,
I am led to think it a cant term. At any rate, I shall be glad to be
informed of its origin,--if it be not lost in the mists of soldierly


* * * * *



Mr. Strickland has justly observed that this subject "belongs rather
to human history than to pure zoology." Though I have not seen Mr.
Strickland's book, I venture to offer him a few suggestions, not as
_answers_ to his questions, but as slight aids towards the resolution
of some of them.

Qu. 1. There can be no doubt about the discovery of Mauritius
and Bourbon by the Portuguese; and if not by a Mascarhenas, that
the islands were first so named in honour of some member of that
illustrious family, many of whom make a conspicuous figure in the
Decads of the Portuguese Livy. I expected to have found some notice
of the discovery in the very curious little volume of Antonio
Galvao, printed in 1563, under the following title:--_Tratado dos
Descobrimentos Antigos, e Modernos feitos ate a Era de 1550_; but I
merely find a vague notice of several nameless islands--"alguma Ilheta
sem gente: onde diz que tomarao agoa e lenha"--and that, in 1517,
Jorge Mascarenhas was despatched by sea to the coast of China. This
is the more provoking, as, in general, Galvao is very circumstantial
about the discoveries of his countrymen.

Qu. 5. The article in Ree's _Cyclopaedia_ is a pretty specimen of the
manner in which such things are sometimes concocted, as the following
extracts will show:--

"Of _Bats_ they have as big as Hennes about Java and the
neighbor islands. Clusius bought one of the Hollanders, which
they brought from the Island of Swannes (Ilha do Cisne), newly
styled by them Maurice Island. It was about a foot from head
to taile, above a foot about; the wings one and twenty inches
long, nine broad; the claw, whereby it hung on the trees, was
two inches," &c. "Here also they found a Fowle, which they
called Walgh-vogel, of the bigness of a Swanne, and most
deformed shape." (_Purchas his Pilgrimage_, 1616, p. 642.)

And afterward, speaking of the island of Madura, he says,--

"In these partes are Battes as big as Hennes, which the people
roast and eat."

In the _Lettres edifiantes_ (edit. 1781, t. xiii. p. 302.) is a letter
from Pere Brown to Madame de Benamont concerning the Isle of Bourbon,
which he calls "_l'Isle de Mascarin_" erroneously saying it was
discovered by the Dutch about sixty years since. (The letter is
supposed to have been written about the commencement of the eighteenth
century.) He then relates how it was peopled by French fugitives
from Madagascar, when the massacre there took place on account of
the conduct of the _French_ king and his court. In describing its
production, he says,--

"Vers l'est de cette Isle il y a une petite plaine au haut
d'une montagne, qu'on appelle la Plaine des _Caffres_, ou
l'on trouve un gros _oiseau bleu_, dont la couleur est fort
eclatante. Il ressemble a un pigeon ramier; il vole rarement,
et toujours en rasant la terre, mais il marche avec une
vitesse surprenante; les habitans ne lui ont point encore
donne d'autre nom que celui _d'oiseau bleu_; sa chair est
assez bonne et se conserve longtemps."

Not a word, however, about the _Dodo_, which had it then existed
there, would certainly have been noticed by the observant Jesuit.
But now for the _bat_:--

"La _chauve-souris_ est ici de la grosseur d'une poule. Cet
_oiseau_ ne vit que de fruits et de grains, et c'est un mets
fort commun dans le pays. J'avois de la repugnance a suivre
l'exemple de ceux qui en mangeoient; mais en ayant goute par
surprise, j'en trouvai la chair fort delicate. On peut dire
que cet _animal_, qu'on abhorre naturellement, n'a rien de
mauvais que la figure."

The Italics are mine; but they serve to show how the confusion has
arisen. The writer speaks of the almost entire extinction of the land
Turtles, which were formerly abundant; and says, that the island was
well stocked with goats and wild hogs, but for some time they had
retreated to the mountains, where no one dared venture to wage war
upon them.

Again, in the _Voyage de l'Arabie Heureuse par l'Ocean Oriental et
le Detroit de la Mer rouge, dans les Annees 1708-10_ (Paris, 1716,
12mo.), the vessels visit both Mauritius and Bourbon, and some account
of the then state of both islands is given. At the Mauritius, one of
the captains relates that, foraging for provisions,--

"Toute notre chasse se borna a quelques pigeons rougeatres,
que nous tuames, et qui se laissent tellement approcher,
qu'on peut les assommer a coup de pierres. Je tuai aussi
deux _chauve-souris_ d'une espece particuliere, _de couleur
violette_, avec de petites taches jaunes, ayant une espece de
crampon aux ailes, par ou cet _oiseau_ se pend aux branches
des arbres, et _un bec de perroquet_. Les Hollandois disent
qu'elles sont bonnes a manger; et qu'en certaine saison, elles
valent bien nos becasses."

At Bourbon, he says,--

"On y voit grandes nombres _d'oiseau bleu_ qui se
nichent dans les herbes et dans les fougeres."

This was in the year 1710. There were then, he says, not more than
forty Dutch settlers on the Island of Mauritius, and they were daily
hoping and expecting to be transferred to Batavia. As editor (La
Roque) subjoins a relation furnished on the authority of M. de Vilers,
who had been governor there for the India Company, in which it is
said,-- {354}

"The island was uninhabited when the Portuguese, after having
doubled the Cape of Good Hope, discovered it. They gave it the
name of Mascarhenas, _a cause que leur chef se nommoit ainsi_;
and the vulgar still preserve it, calling the inhabitants
_Mascarins_. It was not decidedly inhabited until 1654, when
M. de Flacour, commandant at Madagascar, sent some invalids
there to recover their health, that others followed; and since
then it has been named the Isle of Bourbon."

Still no notice of the _Dodo!_ but

"On y trouve des oiseaux appelez _Flamans_, qui excedent la
hauteur d'un grand homme."

Qu. 6. I know not whether Mr. S. is aware that there is the head of a
Dodo in the Royal Museum of Natural History at Copenhagen, which came
from the collection of Paludanus? M. Domeny de Rienzi, the compiler of
_Oceanie, ou cinquieme Partie du Globe_ (1838, t. iii. p. 384.), tells
us, that a Javanese captain gave him part of a _Dronte_, which he
unfortunately lost on being shipwrecked; but he forgot where he said
he obtained it.

Qu. 7. _Dodo_ is most probably the name given at first to the bird by
the Portuguese; _Doudo_, in that language, being a fool or _lumpish_
stupid person. And, besides that name, it bore that of _Toelpel_ in
German, which has the same signification. The _Dod-aers_ of the Dutch
is most probably a vulgar epithet of the Dutch sailors, expressive of
its _lumpish_ conformation and inactivity. Our sailors would possibly
have substituted heavy-a----. I find the Dodo was also called the
_Monk-swan_ of St. Maurice's Island at the commencement of last
century. The word _Dronte_ is apparently neither Portugese nor
Spanish, though in Connelly's _Dictionary_ of the latter language
we have--

"_Dronte_, cierto paxaro de Indias de alas muy cortas--an
appellation given by some to the Dodo."

It seems to me to be connected with _Drone_; but this can only be
ascertained from the period and the people by whom it was applied.

That the bird once existed there can be no doubt, from the notice
of Sir Hamon L'Estrange, which there is no reason for questioning;
and there seems to be as little reason to suppose that Tradescant's
stuffed specimen was a fabrication. He used to preserve his own
specimens; and there could be no motive at that period for a
fabrication. I had hoped to have found some notice of it in the
_Diary_ of that worthy virtuoso Zacharias Conrad von Uffenbach, who
visited the Ashmolean Museum in 1710; but though he notices other
natural curiosities, there is no mention of it. This worthy remarks on
the slovenly condition and inadequate superintendence of our museums,
and especially of that of Gresham College; but those who recollect
the state of our great national museum forty years since will not be
surprised at this, or at the calamitous destruction of Tradescant's
specimen of the Dodo. That the bird was extinct above 150 years ago I
think we may conclude from the notices I have extracted from La Roque,
and the letter of the Jesuit Brown. Mr. Strickland has done good
service to the cause of natural science by his monograph of this very
curious subject; and to him every particle of information must be
acceptable: this must be my excuse for the almost nothing I have been
able to contribute.


March 26. 1850.

* * * * *


Inquired about by "T.W." (No. 20. p. 318.), is a liturgical practice,
which long was, and still is, observed in Holy Week. On Maundy
Thursday, several particles of the Blessed Eucharist, consecrated
at the Mass sung that day, were reserved--a larger one for the
celebrating priest on the morrow, Good Friday; the smaller ones for
the viaticum of the dying, should need be, and carried in solemn
procession all round the church, from the high altar to a temporary
erection, fitted up like a tomb, with lights, and the figure of an
angel watching by, on the north side of the chancel. Therein the
Eucharist was kept till Easter Sunday morning, according to the
Salisbury Ritual; and there were people kneeling and praying at this
so-called sepulchre all the time, both night and day. To take care of
the church, left open throughout this period, and to look after the
lights, it was necessary for the sacristan to have other men to help
him; and what was given to them for this service is put down in the
church-wardens' books as money for "watching the sepulchre." By the
Roman Ritual, this ceremony lasts only from Maundy Thursday till
Good Friday. This rite will be duly followed in my own little church
here at Buckland, where some of my flock, two and two, in stated
succession, all through the night, as well as day, will be watching
from just after Mass on Maundy Thursday till next morning's service.
In some of the large Catholic churches in London and the provinces,
this ceremony is observed with great splendour.


Buckland, Farringdon.

_Watching the Sepulchre._--If no one sends a more satisfactory reply
to the query about "Watching the Sepulchre," the following extract
from Parker's _Glossary of Architecture_ (3rd edit. p. 197.) will
throw some light on the matter:--

"In many churches we find a large flat arch in the north
wall of the chancel near the alter, which was called the
Holy Sepulchre; and was used at Easter for the performance of
solemn rites commemorative of the resurrection of our Lord.
On this occasion there was usually a temporary wooden erection
over the arch; but, occasionally, the whole was of stone, and
very richly ornamented. There are fine specimens at Navenby
and Heckington churches, Lincolnshire, and {355} Hawton
church, Notts. All these in the decorated style of the
fourteenth century; and are of great magnificence, especially
the last."

To this account of the sepulchre I may add, that one principal part
of the solemn rites referred to above consisted in depositing a
consecrated wafer or, as at Durham Cathedral, a crucifix within
its recess--a symbol of the entombment of our blessed Lord--and
removing it with great pomp, accompanied sometimes with a mimetic
representation of the visit of the Marys to the tomb, on the morning
of Easter Sunday. This is a subject capable of copious illustration,
for which, some time since, I collected some materials (which are
quite at your service); but, as your space is valuable, I will only
remark, that the "Watching the Sepulchre" was probably in imitation of
the watch kept by the Roman soldiers round the tomb of Our Lord, and
with the view of preserving the host from any casualty.

At Rome, the ceremony is anticipated, the wafer being carried in
procession, on the Thursday in Passion Week, from the Sistine to the
Paoline Chapel, and brought back again on the Friday; thus missing
the whole intention of the rite. Dr. Baggs, in his _Ceremonies of Holy
Week at Rome_, says (p. 65.):--

"When the pope reaches the altar (of the Capella Paolina),
the first cardinal deacon receives from his hands the blessed
sacrament, and, preceded by torches, carries it to the upper
part of the _macchina_; M. Sagrista places it within the urn
commonly called the sepulchre, where it is incensed by the
Pope.... M. Sagrista then shuts the sepulchre, and delivers
the key to the Card. Penitentiary, who is to officiate on the
following day."


* * * * *


_Dr. Rimbault's 4th Qu._ (No. 19. p. 302.).--"My mind to me a kingdom
is" will be found to be of much earlier date than Nicholas Breton.
Percy partly printed it from William Byrds's _Psalmes, Sonets,
and Songs of Sadnes_ (no date, but 1588 according to Ames), with
some additions and _improvements (?)_ from a B.L. copy in the
Pepysian collection. I have met with it in some early poetical
miscellany--perhaps Tottel, or _England's Helicon_--but cannot just
now refer to either.

The following copy is from a cotemporary MS. containing many of
the poems of Sir Edward Dyer, Edward Earl of Oxford, and their
cotemporaries, several of which have never been published. The
collection appears to have been made by Robert Mills, of Cambridge.
Dr. Rimbault will, no doubt, be glad to compare this text with
Breton's. It is, at least, much more genuine than the _composite_
one given by Bishop Percy.

"My mynde to me a kyngdome is,
Suche preasente joyes therin I fynde,
That it excells all other blisse,
That earth affordes or growes by kynde;
Thoughe muche I wante which moste would have,
Yet still my mynde forbiddes to crave.

"No princely pompe, no wealthy store,
No force to winne the victorye,
No wilye witt to salve a sore,
No shape to feade a loving eye;
To none of these I yielde as thrall,
For why? my mynde dothe serve for all.

"I see howe plenty suffers ofte,
And hasty clymers sone do fall,
I see that those which are alofte
Mishapp dothe threaten moste of all;
They get with toyle, they keepe with feare,
Suche cares my mynde coulde never beare.

"Content to live, this is my staye,
I seeke no more than maye suffyse,
I presse to beare no haughty swaye;
Look what I lack, my mynde supplies;
Lo, thus I triumph like a kynge,
Content with that my mynde doth bringe.

"Some have too muche, yet still do crave,
I little have and seek no more,
They are but poore, though muche they have,
And I am ryche with lyttle store;
They poore, I ryche, they begge, I gyve,
They lacke, I leave, they pyne, I lyve.

"I laughe not at another's losse,
I grudge not at another's payne;
No worldly wants my mynde can toss,
My state at one dothe still remayne:
I feare no foe, I fawn no friende,
I lothe not lyfe nor dreade my ende.

"Some weighe their pleasure by theyre luste,
Theyre wisdom by theyre rage of wyll,
Theyre treasure is theyre onlye truste,
A cloked crafte theyre store of skylle:
But all the pleasure that I fynde
Is to mayntayne a quiet mynde.

"My wealthe is healthe and perfect ease,
My conscience cleere my chiefe defence,
I neither seek by brybes to please,
Nor by deceyte to breede offence;
Thus do I lyve, thus will I dye,
Would all did so as well as I.

"FINIS. [Symbol: CROWN] E. DIER."


* * * * *


"Be pleased to observe," says Herbert, "that, though 'The Supper of
the Lorde' and 'The Vision of Piers Plowman' are inserted among the
rest of his writings, he wrote only the prefixes to them" (vol. ii.
p. 278.). Farther on he gives the title of the book, and adds, "Though
this treatise is anonymous, Will. Tindall is allowed to have been the
author; Crowley wrote only the preface." It was originally printed at
Nornberg, and dated as above [the same date as that given by "C.H.,"
No. 21. p. 332.]. "Bearing no printer's name, nor date of printing,
I have placed it to Crowley, being a printer, as having the justest
claim to it" (p. 762.). {356} There is a copy in the Lambeth Library,
No. 553. p. 249. in my "List," of which I have said (on what grounds I
do not now know), "This must be a different edition from that noticed
by Herbert (ii. 762.) and Dibdin (iv. 334. No. 2427.)." I have not
Dibdin's work at hand to refer to, but as I see nothing in Herbert on
which I could ground such a statement, I suppose that something may be
found in Dibdin's account; though probably it may be only my mistake
or his. As to foreign editions, I always feel very suspicious of their
existence; and though I do not remember this book in particular, or
know why I supposed it to differ from the edition ascribed to Crowley,
yet I feel pretty confident that it bore no mark of "Nornberg."
According to my description it had four pairs of [Symbol: pointing
hands] on the title, and contained E iv., in eights, which should be
thirty _six_ leaves.


* * * * *


_John Ross Mackay_ (No. 8. p. 125.).--In reply to the Query of your
correspondent "D.," I beg to forward the following quotation from
Sir N.W. Wraxall's _Historical Memoirs of his Own Time_, 3rd edition.
Speaking of the peace of Fontainbleau, he says,--

"John Ross Mackay, who had been private secretary to the Earl
of Bute, and afterwards during seventeen years was treasurer
of the ordnance, a man with whom I was personally acquainted,
frequently avowed the fact. He lived to a very advanced age,
sat in several parliaments, and only died, I believe in 1796.
A gentleman of high professional rank, and of unimpeached
veracity, who is still alive, told me, that dining at the late
Earl of Besborough's, in Cavendish Square, in the year 1790,
where only four persons were present, including himself, Ross
Mackay, who was one of the number, gave them the most ample
information upon the subject. Lord Besborough having called
after dinner for a bottle of champagne, a wine to which Mackay
was partial, and the conversation turning on the means of
governing the House of Commons, Mackay said, that, 'money
formed, after all, the only effectual and certain method.'
'The peace of 1763,' continued he, 'was carried through and
approved by a pecuniary distribution. Nothing else could have
surmounted the difficulty. I was myself the channel through
which the money passed. With my own hand I secured above one
hundred and twenty votes on that most important question
to ministers. Eighty thousand pounds were set apart for the
purpose. Forty members of the House of Commons received from
me a thousand pounds each. To eighty others, I paid five
hundred pounds apiece.'"


Godalming, March 19. 1850.

_Shipster_.--_Gourders_.--As no satisfactory elucidation of the
question propounded by Mr. Fox (No. 14. p. 216.) has been suggested,
and I think he will scarcely accept the conjecture of "F.C.B.,"
however ingenious (No. 21. p. 339.), I am tempted to offer a note
on the business or calling of a shipster. It had, I believe, no
connection with nautical concerns; it did not designate a skipper (in
the Dutch use of the word) of the fair sex. That rare volume, Caxton's
_Boke for Travellers_, a treasury of archaisms, supplies the best
definition of her calling:--"Mabyll the shepster cheuissheth her
right well; she maketh surplys, shertes, breches, keuerchiffs, and
all that may be wrought of lynnen cloth." The French term given, as
corresponding to shepster, is "_cousturiere._" Palsgrave also, in
his _Eclaircissement de la Langue francoyse_, gives "schepstarre,
_lingiere_:--sheres for shepsters, _forces_." If further evidence were
requisite, old Elyot might be cited, who renders both _sarcinatrix_
and _sutatis_ (? _sutatrix_) as "a shepster, a seamester." The term
may probably be derived from her skill in shaping or cutting out the
various garments of which Caxton gives so quaint an inventory. Her
vocation was the very same as that of the _tailleuse_ of present
times--the _Schneiderinn_, she-cutter, of Germany. Palsgrave likewise
gives this use of the verb "to shape," expressed in French by
"_tailler_." He says, "He is a good tayloure, and _shapeth_ a garment
as well as any man." It is singular that Nares should have overlooked
this obsolete term; and Mr. Halliwell, in his useful _Glossarial
Collections_, seems misled by some similarity of sound, having
noticed, perhaps, in Palsgrave, only the second occurrence of the
word as before cited, "sheres for shepsters." He gives that author as
authority for the explanation "shepster, a sheep-shearer" (_Dict. of
Archaic Words_, in v.). It has been shown, however, I believe, to have
no more concern with a sheep than a ship.

The value of your periodical in eliciting the explanation of crabbed
archaisms is highly to be commended. Shall I anticipate Mr. Bolton
Corney, or some other of your acute glossarial correspondents, if
I offer another suggestion, in reply to "C.H." (No. 21. p. 335.),
regarding "gourders of raine?" I have never met with the word in
this form; but Gouldman gives "a gord of water which cometh by rain,
_aquilegium_." Guort, gorz, or gort, in Domesday, are interpreted
by Kelham as "a wear"; and in old French, _gort_ or _gorz_ signifies
"_flot, gorgees, quantite_" (Roquefort). All these words, as well as
the Low Latin _gordus_ (Ducange), are doubtless to be deduced, with
_gurges, a gyrando_.


_Rococo_ (No. 20. p. 321.).--The _history_ of this word appears
to be involved in uncertainty. Some French authorities derive it
from "_rocaille_," rock-work, pebbles for a grotto, &c.; others
from "_Rocco_," an architect (whose existence, however, I cannot
trace), the author, it is to be supposed, {357} of the antiquated,
unfashionable, and false style which the word "Rococo" is employed
to designate. The _use_ of the word is said to have first arisen in
France towards the end of the reign of Louis XV. or the beginning
of that of Louis XVI., and it is now employed in the above senses,
not only in architecture, but in literature, fashion, and the arts


Oxford, March 18.

_Rococo_.--This is one of those cant words, of no very definite,
and of merely conventional, meaning, for any thing said or done in
ignorance of the true propriety of the matter in question. "_C'est
du rococo_," it is mere stuff, or nonsense, or rather twaddle. It was
born on the stage, about ten years ago, at one of the minor theatres
at Paris, though probably borrowed from a wine-shop, and most likely
will have as brief an existence as our own late "flare-up," and such
ephemeral colloquialisms, or rather vulgarisms, that tickle the public
fancy for a day, till pushed from their stool by another.


March 18. 1850.

_God tempers the Wind, &c._--The French proverb, "A brebis tondue
Dieu mesure le vent" (God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb), will
be found in Quitard's _Dictionnaire etymologique, historique et
anecdotique, des Proverbes, et des Locutions proverbiales de la
Langue francaise_, 8vo. Paris, 1842. Mons. Quitard adds the following
explanation of the proverb:--"Dieu proportionne a nos forces les
afflictions qu'il nous envoie." I have also found this proverb in
Furetiere's _Dictionnaire universal de tous les Mots francais_, &c. 4
vols. folio, La Haye, 1727.


Oxford. March 18.

The proverb, "A brebis pres tondue, Dieu luy mesure le vent," is to
be found in Jan. Gruter. _Florileg. Ethico-polit. part. alt. proverb.
gallic._, p. 353. 8vo. Francof. 1611.



_Guildhalls_ (No. 20. p. 320)--These were anciently the halls, or
places of meeting, of Guilds, or communities formed for secular or
religious purposes, none of which could be legally set up without
the King's licence. Trade companies were founded, and still exist,
in various parts of the kingdom, as "Gilda Mercatorum;" and there is
little doubt that this was the origin of the municipal or governing
corporate bodies in cities and towns whose "Guildhalls" still
remain--"gildated" and "incorporated" were synonymous terms.

In many places, at one time of considerable importance, where Guilds
were established, though the latter have vanished, the name of their
Halls has survived.

Your correspondent "A SUBSCRIBER AB INITIO" is referred to Madox,
_Firma Burgi_, which will afford him much information on the subject.



_Treatise of Equivocation_.--In reply to the inquiry of your
correspondent "J.M." (No. 17. p. 263.), I beg to state that, as my
name was mentioned in connection with the Query, I wrote to the Rev.
James Raine, the librarian of the Durham Cathedral Library, inquiring
whether _The Treatise of Equivocation_ existed in the Chapter Library.
From that gentleman I have received this morning the following
reply:--"I cannot find, in this library, the book referred to in
the 'NOTES AND QUERIES,' neither can I discover it in that of Bishop
Cosin. The Catalogue of the latter is, however, very defective. The
said publication ('NOTES AND QUERIES') promises to be very useful."
Although this information is of a purely negative character, yet
I thought it right to endeavour to satisfy your correspondent's


Nortan Hall.

_Judas Bell_ (No. 13. p. 195.; No. 15. p. 235.).--The lines here
quoted by "C.W.G.," from "a singular Scotch poem," evidently mean to
express or examplify discord; and the words "to jingle _Judas bells_,"
refer to "bells _jangled, out of tune, and harsh_."

The Maltese at Valletta, a people singularly, and, as we should
say, morbidly, addicted to the seeming enjoyment of the most horrid
discords, on Good Friday Eve, have the custom of _jangling_ the church
bells with the utmost violence, in execration of the memory of Judas;
and I have seen there a large wooden machine (of which they have
many in use), constructed on a principle similar to that of an
old-fashioned watchman's rattle, but of far greater power in creating
an uproar, intended to be symbolical of the rattling of _Judas's
bones, that will not rest in his grave_. The Maltese, as is well
known, are a very superstitious people. The employment of _Judas
candles_ would, no doubt, if properly explained, turn out to mean to
imply execration against the memory of Judas, wherever they may be
used. But in the expression _Judas bell_, the greatest conceivable
amount of _discord_ is that which is intended to be expressed.


6. Chesterfield street, Mayfair, March 23. 1850.

[To this we may add, that the question at present pending
between this country and Greece, so far as regards the
claim of M. Pacifico, appears, from the papers laid before
Parliament, to have had its origin in what Sir Edward Lyon
states "to have been the custom in Athens for some years, to
burn an effigy of Judas on Easter day." And from the account
of the origin of the riots by the Council of the Criminal
Court of Athens, we learn, that "it is proved by the {358}
investigation, that on March 23, 1847, Easter Day, a report
was spread in the parish of the Church des incorporels,
that the Jew, D. Pacifico, by paying the churchwarden of the
church, succeeded in preventing the effigy of Judas from
being burnt, which by annual custom was made and burnt in
that parish on Easter Day." From another document in the same
collection it seems, that the Greek Government, out of respect
to M. Charles de Rothschild, who was at Athens in April, 1847,
forbid in all the Greek churches of the capital the burning of

_Grummett_ (No. 20. p. 319.).--The following use of the word whose
definition is sought by "[Greek: Sigma]" occurs in a description of
the _members_ or adjuncts of the Cinque Port of Hastings in 1229:--

"Servicia inde debita domino regi xxi. naves, et in qualibet
nave xxi. homines, cum uno garcione qui dicitur _gromet_."

In quoting this passage in a paper "On the Seals of the Cinque Ports,"
in the _Sussex Archaeological Collections_ (Vol. i. p. 16.), I applied
the following illustration:--

"_Gromet_ seems to be a diminutive of '_grome_', a
serving-man, whence the modern groom. The provincialism
_grummet_, much used in Sussex to designate a clumsy, awkward
youth, has doubtless some relation to this cabin-boy of the
Ports' navy."

I ought to add, that the passage above given is to be found in Jeake's
_Charters of the Cinque Ports_.


Lewes, March 18. 1850.

_Grummett_.--Bailey explains, "_Gromets_ or _Gromwells_, the most
servile persons on ship-board," probably, metaphorically, from
"_Gromet_ or _Grummet_," "small rings," adds Bailey, "fastened with
staples on the upper side of the yard." The latter term is still in
use; the metaphorical one is, I believe, quite obsolete.


_Meaning of "Grummett," &c_.--The word is derived from the Low Latin
"_gromettus_", the original of our "groom" (see Ducange's, _Gromes_
and _Gromus_), and answers to the old French _gourmete_, i.e.
_garcon_. In old books he is sometimes called a "novice" or "page,"
and may be compared with the "apprentice" of our marine. He was
employed in waiting on the sailors, cooking their victuals, working
the pumps, scouring the decks, and, in short, was expected to lend
a hand wherever he was wanted, except taking the helm (Clairac,
_Commentaire du premier Article des Rooles d'Oleron_); and,
consequently, is always distinguished from, and rated below, the
mariner or able-bodied seaman.

The information here given is taken from Jal, _Archeologie navale_,
vol. ii. p. 238.

A. RICH, Jun.

* * * * *


_The Duke of Monmouth_.--I made the following note many years ago,
and am now reminded of its existence by your admirable periodical,
which must rouse many an idler besides myself to a rummage amongst
long-neglected old papers. This small piece of tradition indicates
that the adventurous but ill-advised duke was a man of unusual
muscular power and activity.

"On the 8th of July, 1685, the Duke of Monmouth was brought
a prisoner to Ringwood, and halted at an inn there. My
mother, who was a native of Ringwood, used to relate that her
grandmother was one of the spectators when the royal prisoner
came out to take horse; and that the old lady never failed to
recount, how he rejected any assistance in mounting, though
his arms were pinioned; but placing his foot in the stirrup,
sprang lightly into his saddle, to the admiration of all


Dowry Parade, Clifton Hotwells, March 21. 1850.

* * * * *



Narcissus loved himself we know,
And you, perhaps, have cause to show
Why you should do the same;
But he was wrong: and, if I may,
Philautus, I will freely say,
I think you more to blame.
He loved what others loved; while you
Admire what other folks eschew.


* * * * *

_Junius_.--Nobody can read, without being struck with the propriety
of it, that beautiful passage in the 8th letter--"Examine your own
breast, Sir William, &c. &c. &c." A parallel passage may however be
found in _Bevill Higgons's Short View of English History_ (temp. Hen.
VI.), a work written before 1700, and not published till thirty-four
years afterwards:--

"So weak and fallible is that admired maxim, 'Factum valet,
quot fieri non debuit,' an excuse first invented to palliate
the unfledged villainy of some men, _who are ashamed to be
knaves, yet have not the courage to be honest_."

I have not quoted the whole of the passage from _Junius_, as I
consider it to be in almost every body's hands. I am collecting some
curious, and I hope valuable, information about that work.


_Arabic Numerals_.--Your correspondent T.S.D.'s account of a supposed
date upon the Church of St. Brelade, Jersey, brings to my mind a
circumstance that once occurred to myself, which may, perhaps, be
amusing to date-hunters. Some years ago I visited a farm-house
in the north of England, whose owner had a taste for collecting
curiosities of all sorts. Not the least valuable of his collection
was a splendidly carved oak bedstead, which he considered of great
antiquity. Its date, plainly marked upon the panels at the bottom
of the front posts, was, he told me, 1111. On {359} examining this
astounding date a little closely, I soon perceived that the two middle
strokes had a slight curvature, a tendency to approach the shape of an
S, which distinguished them from the two exterior lines. The date was,
in fact, 1551; yet so small was the difference of the figures, that
the mistake was really a pardonable one.

Is your correspondent "E.V." acquainted with the _History of Castle
Acre Priory_, published some years ago? If my memory fails me not,
there is a date given in that work, as found inscribed on the plaster
of the Priory wall, much more ancient than 1445.

Has the derivation of the first four Arabic numerals, and probably
of the ninth, from the ancient Egyptian hieratic and enchorial
characters, for the ordinals corresponding with those numbers, ever
been noticed by writers upon the history of arithmetical notation?
The correspondence will be obvious to any one who refers to the table
given in the 4th vol. of Sir G. Wilkinson's _Ancient Egyptians_ (3rd
edit.), p. 198.


* * * * *




McCULLOCH'S ISLES OF SCOTLAND, 4 vols. 8vo. 1824.




Vol. II.


JAMES' NAVAL HISTORY, in 4 vols. Vols. II. and III.

YOUNG'S ANNALS OF AGRICULTURE, Fortieth and Five remaining volumes.

* * * * *


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On the 1st of MAY next will be published,

HISTORIC RELIQUES; a Series of Representations of ARMS, JEWELLERY,
GOLD and SILVER PLATE, FURNITURE, ARMOUR, &c. in Royal and Noble
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Relics of antiquity, in themselves most interesting and instructive,
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The aim of the present publication is to illustrate, by a series of
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