Notes & Queries,No. 31., Saturday, June 1, 1850

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+"When found, make a note of."+--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

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No. 31.] Saturday, June 1. 1850. [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

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Parish Registers--Statistics 1
The Hudibrastic Verse, by S.W. Singer 3
Custom of presenting Gloves, by Jas. Crosby 4
Folk Lore: Exhumation of Body ominous to Family
of the Deceased--Suffolk Folk Lore--Cure for Fits--Bible and Key 4
Notes on Jeremy Taylor's Life of Christ, &c., by J.E.B. Mayor 5
Unpublished Epigrams in the British Museum 6
On Authors and Books, No. 7., by Bolton Corney 6

Punishment of Death by Burning 6
Cornelis Drebble 6
Verses attributed to Charles Yorke 7
Cultivation of Geometry in Lancashire 8
Asinorum Sepultura by W.B. MacCabe 8
Minor Queries:--Ransom of an English Nobleman--When
does Easter end?--Carucate of Land--Members
for Calais--Members for Durham--Leicester
and the reputed Poisoners of his Time--Lord John
Townshend's Poetical Works--Martello
Towers--Mynyddyslwyn--Three Dukes--Bishops and their
Precedence--Guineas--Parish Registers Tax--Charade 9

Howkey or Horkey, by S.W. Singer 10
Charles Martel 11
"Feast" and "Fast" 11
Replies to Minor Queries:--The Badger's Legs--Twm
Sion Catti--Christian Captives--Cannibals--Symbols
of the four Evangelists--Turkish Spy--Dr. Maginn's
Miscellanies--Trianon--Pimlico--The Arms of Godin--Title
of D.D.--Emancipation of the Jews--Sneck-up
or Snick-up 12

Notes on Books, Catalogues, Sales, &c. 14
Books and Odd Volumes wanted 15
Notice to Correspondents 15
Advertisements 15

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We cannot resist the opportunity which the commencement of our Second
Volume affords us, of addressing a few words of acknowledgment to our
friends, both contributors and readers. In the short space of seven months,
we have been enabled by their support to win for "NOTES AND QUERIES" no
unimportant position among the literary journals of this country. We came
forward for the purpose of affording the literary brotherhood of this great
nation an organ through which they might announce their difficulties and
requirements, through which such difficulties might find solution, and such
requirements be supplied. The little band of kind friends who first rallied
round us has been reinforced by a host of earnest men, who, at once
recognising the utility of our purpose, and seeing in our growing
prosperity how much love of letters existed among us, have joined us heart
and hand in the great object we proposed to ourselves in our Prospectus;
namely, that of making "NOTES AND QUERIES" by mutual intercommunication, "a
most useful supplement to works already in existence--a treasury for
enriching future editions of them--and an important contribution towards a
more perfect history than we yet possess of our language, our literature,
and those to whom we owe them."

Thanks, again and again, to the friends and correspondents, who, by their
labours, are enabling us to accomplish this great end. To them be the
honour of the work. We are content to say with the Arabian poet:

"With conscious pride we view the band
Of faithful friends that round us stand;
With pride exult, that we alone
Can join these scattered gems in one;
Rejoiced to be the silken line
On which these pearls united shine."

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Among the good services rendered to the public by yourself and your
correspondents, few, I think will be found more important than that of
having drawn their attention to Mr. Wyatt Edgell's valuable suggestions on
the transcription of Parochial Registers. The supposed impracticability of
his plan has perhaps hitherto deterred those most competent to the work
from giving it the consideration which it deserves. I believe the
scheme to be perfectly practicable; and, as a first move in the work, I
send you the result of my own dealings with the registers of my parish.

It is many years since I felt the desideratum which Mr. Edgell has brought
before the public;{2} and, by way of testing the practicability of
transcribing, and printing the parochial registers of the entire kingdom in
a form convenient for reference, I made an alphabetical transcript of my
own, which is now complete. The _modus operandi_ which I adopted was
this:--1. I first transcribed, on separate slips of paper, each baptismal
entry, with its date, and a reference to the page of the register, tying up
the slips in the order in which the names were entered in the register;
noting, as I proceeded, on _another_ paper, the number of males and females
in each year.

2. The slips being thus arranged, they came in their places handy for
collation with the original. I then collated each, year by year; during
the process depositing the slips one by one in piles alphabetically,
according to the initial letter of the surnames.

3. This done, I sorted each pile in an order as strictly alphabetical as
that used in dictionaries or ordinary indices.

4. I then transcribed them into a book, in their order, collating each page
as the work proceeded.

5. I then took the marriages in hand, adopting the same plan; entering each
of these twice, viz. both under the husband's and the wife's name.

6. Next, the burials, on the same plan.

7. I then drew up statistical tables of the number of baptisms, marriages,
and burials in each year, males and females separately where the register
appeared badly kept, making notes of the fact, and adding such observations
as occasionally seemed necessary.

8. I then drew up lists of vicars, transcripts of miscellaneous records of
events, and other casual entries that appeared in the register.[1]

I noted, as I went on, the time occupied in each of these operations. It
was as follows:--

1. The first transcripts on slips, with addition of statistical tables--

Baptisms 2004
Marriages, 420, each twice 840
Burials 1244
Total 4088 ... 551/2 hours.
2. Collecting and filing alphabetically 23 ----
3. Sorting in strict alphabetical order 131/4 ----
4. Transcribing into book 911/2 ----
5. Copying statistical tables into book 5 ----
Transcripts of miscellaneous entries,
lists of vicars, &c. &c. 7 ----
Total 1951/4 hours.

My registers begin in the year 1558, and the present population of the
parish is about 420, so that you have here an account of the labour
necessary to complete an alphabetical transcript of the register of a rural
parish of that extent in population.

I send you the result as a first step to a work of great national
importance, and of inestimable value with relation to family descent, title
to property long in abeyance, &c. &c. As to statistics, I doubt whether any
data worthy of consideration can be obtained from these sources, owing to
the constant irregularities which occur in keeping the registers.

No man, much less the minister of a parish, who has abundant calls upon his
time, can be expected to sit down to the task of transcribing his registers
through many _consecutive_ hours; but there are few who could not give
occasionally one or two hours to the work. In this way I effected my
transcripts; the work of 195 hours being distributed through nearly five
months--no great labour after all.

On an average, twelve words, with the figures, may be calculated for each
entry, which will give for this parish about 500 folios. Each entry having
been transcribed twice, we may call it, at a rough calculation, 1000 folios
written out ready for printing.

If the authorities at the Registrar-General's office would give their
attention to it, they must have _there_ abundant data on which to form
calculations as to the probable cost of the undertaking And I cannot help
thinking that, setting aside printing as an after consideration,
alphabetical transcripts, at least, might be obtained of all the parochial
registers in the kingdom, and deposited in that office, at no
insurmountable expense; and if the cost appear too heavy, the
accomplishment of the work might be distributed through a given number of
years; say ten, or even twenty.

Parliament might, perhaps, be induced to vote an annual grant for so
important a work till it was accomplished; albeit, when we think of their
niggardly denial of any thing to the printing, or{3} even the conservation
of the public records, sanguine hopes from that quarter can hardly be

To insure correctness, without which the scheme would be utterly valueless,
I would propose that a certain number of competent transcribers be
appointed for each county, either at a given salary, or at a remuneration
of so much per entry, to copy the registers of those parishes the ministers
of which are unwilling to do it, or feel themselves unequal to the task.
The option, however, should always, in the first instance, be given to the
minister, as the natural custos of the registers, and as one, from local
knowledge, likely to do the work correctly. To each county there should
also be appointed one or more competent persons as collators, to correct
the errors of the transcribers.

I throw out these rough hints in the hope that some of your correspondents
will furnish their ideas on the subject, till we at last arrive at a fully
practicable plan of carrying out Mr. Wyatt Edgell's suggestions, and, at
all events, obtain transcripts, if not printed copies, of every register in
the kingdom.


[1] To obviate the difficulties arising from capricious spelling,
I assumed that which I thought to be the correct one, and entered
all of the name under that one, placing, however, in parenthesis,
the actual mode of spelling adopted in the instance in question,
and also entering the name, as actually spelt, in its proper place,
with reference to the place where the searcher would find it; e.g.
In my register, the name of "Caiser" appears under more than twenty
varieties of form. I enter them all under "Cayser". In the _margin_,
opposite the first of these entries, I write consecutively the
different modes of spelling the name--"Caisar", "Caiser", "Casiar",
"Kayser", &c. &c. &c. In the table itself, I write,

Cayser, John.
[Casiar] John.
[Kaysar] John, &c. &c. &c.

Then, "Casiar", "Kaysar", &c., appear in their respective places
_sic_, "Casiar", _v_. "Cayser", "Kaysar", _v_. "Cayser", &c., nearly
on the plan adopted by Mr. Duffus Hardy in his admirable indices to
the _Close Rolls_.

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_"He that fights and runs away," &c._--Your correspondent MELANION may be
assured that the orations of Demosthenes do not afford any trace of the
proverbial senarius, [Greek: anaer d pheugon kai palin machaesetai]; and it
does not appear quite clear how the apophthegm containing it (which has
been so generally attributed to Plutarch) has been concocted. Heeren, in
doing full justice to the biographical talent of the Chaeronean, has yet
observed, "We may easily see that in his Lives he only occasionally
indicates his authorities, because his own head was so often the source."
It is in the life of Demosthenes that the story of his flight is told, but
briefly; and for that part which relates to the inscription on the shield
of Demosthenes, he says, [Greek: hos elege Putheas]. The other life among
those of the Ten Orators, the best critics think not to be Plutarch's; and
the relation in it is too ridiculous for credit; yet it is repeated by

The first writer in which the story takes something of the form in which
Erasmus gives it is Aulus Gellius (_Noct. Att._ l. xvii. c. 21.):--

"Post inde aliquanto tempore Philippus apud Chaeroneam
proelio magno Athenienses vicit. Tum Demosthenes orator ex eo
proelio salutem fuga quaesivit: quumque id ei, quod fugerat,
probrose objiceretur; _versu illo notissimo_ elusit, [Greek:
anaer d pheugon], inquit, [Greek: kai palin machaesetai]."

We here see that the senarius is designated as _a well-known verse_,
so that it must have been in the mouths of the people long before it was
applied to this piece of gossip. I have hitherto not been able to trace it
to an earlier writer.

The Apophthegmata of Erasmus were first published, I believe, in 1531, in
six books. I have an edition printed by Frobenius, at Basle, in 1538, in
which two more books are added; and, in an epistle prefixed to the seventh
book, Erasmus says,--

"Prodiit opus, tanta aviditate distractum est, ut protinus a
typographo coeperit efflagitare denuo."

He names twenty-one ancient Greek and Latin authors from which the
apophthegms had been collected; and, with regard to what he has taken from
Plutarch, he mentions the licence he has used:--

"Nos Plutarchum multis de causis sequi maluimus quam
interpretari, explanare quam vertere."

It is from this book of Erasmus that the worthy Nicolas Udall selected his
_Two Bookes of Apophthegmes_; and he tells his readers,--

"I have been so bold with mine author as to make the first
booke and second booke, which he maketh third and fowerth."

Udall has occasionally added further explanations of his own to those
translated from Erasmus. He promises, in good time, the remaining, books,
but says,--

"I have thought better, with two of the eight, to minister
unto you a taste of this bothe delectable and fruitefull

Those who are desirous of knowing at large the course pursued by Erasmus in
the compilation of this amusing and once popular work, will find it fully
stated in his preface; one passage of which will show the large licence he
allowed himself:--

"Sed totum opus quodammodo meum feci, dum et explanatius
effero qua Graece referuntur, interjectis interdum quae apud
alios autores additur comperissem," &c.

The only sure ground, as far as I can discover, for this gradually
constructed legend, is the mention of the flight of Demosthenes by
AEschines and Dinarchus. In the more amplified editions of Erasmus's
_Adages_, after the publication of the Apophthegmata, he repeats the story
in illustration of a Latin proverb (probably only a version of the Greek),
"Vir fugiens et denuo pugnabitur;" and I find in some collections of the
sixteenth century both the Latin and Greek given upon the authority of
Plutarch! Langius, in his _Polyanthea_ (a copious common-place book which
would outweigh twenty of our late Laureate's) has given the apophthegm
verbatim from Erasmus, and has boldly appended Plutarch's name. But the
more extraordinary course is that which one Gualandi took, who published,
at Venice, in 1568,{4} in 4to., an _omnium gatherum_, in five books, from
various sources, in which there is much taken from Erasmus, and yet the
title is _Apoftemmi di Plutarco_. In this book, the whole of the
twenty-three apophthegms of Erasmus which relate to Demosthenes are given,
and two more added at the end. It appears that Philelphus, and after him
Raphael Regius, had printed, in the fifteenth century, Latin collections
under the title of _Plutarch's Apophthegms_, and, according to
Erasmus, had both taken liberties with their original. I have not seen
either of these Latin versions, of which there were several editions. As
far as regards Demosthenes, I think we may fairly conclude that the story
is apocryphal. The Greek proverbial verse was no doubt a popular saying,
which Aulus Gellius thought might give a lively turn to his story, of which
an Italian would say, "Se non vero e ben trovato."


Feb. 9. 1850.

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The following extracts from a MS. "Day-book" of the celebrated Anne
Countess of Pembroke, recording the daily events of the last few months of
her life passed at Brougham Castle in 1675, afford a further illustration
of the custom of presenting gloves (Vol. i. pp. 72. 405.) as a matter of
courtesy and kindness; and show, also, that it was not unusual to make
presents of small sums of money in exhibition of the same feelings on the
part of the donor:--

"January, as the year begins on New Year's Day.

"10th day, And to-day there dined here with my folks my cousin
Thomas Sandford's wife, of Askham, and her second son; so after
dinner I had them into my chamber and kissed her, and took him by
the hand, and I gave her a pair of buckskin gloves, and him 5_s_.,
and then they went away.

"12th day. There dined here in the Painted Chamber with my folks
Mrs. Jane Carleton, the widow, sister to Sir W'm. Carleton,
deceased. So after dinner I had her into my chamber, and kissed
her and talked with her awhile, and I gave her 5_s_., and she went

"17th day, To-day there dined with my folks my cousin, Mr. Thomas
Burbeck, of Hornby, and his wife and their little daughter, and
his father-in-law, Mr. Cotterick, and his wife and his mother;
and there also dined here Mr. Robert Carleton, only son to the
widow, Lady Carleton. So after dinner I had them all into my
chamber, and kissed the women, and took the men by the hand, and
I gave to my cousin, Mr. Burbeck, and his wife each 10_s_., and
his mother 10_s_., and his father-in-law, Mr. Cotterick, and his
wife, each of them 10_s_., and 6_s_. to the child, and I gave Mr.
Carleton a pair of buckskin gloves, and then they all went away."

In another entry the Countess records the gift to a Mrs. Winch of Settra
Park of "four pair of buckskin gloves that came from Kendall."

It does not appear that any present was made to the Countess in return. As
in the case of Archbishop Laud and Master Prynne (Vol. i. p. 405.), these
gifts were evidently expressions of condescension and good will by one in a
high position to another in a somewhat lower station. It is, I take it,
evident that the money-gifts, from the rank in life of the parties, and
their connection with the Countess, could have been made with no other
meaning or intention.


Streatham, April 22. 1850.

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_Exhumation of a Body ominous to Family of the Deceased._--In the counties
of Leicester and Northampton, and I doubt not in other parts of England,
there is a superstitious idea that the removal or exhumation of a body
after interment bodes death or some terrible calamity to the surviving
members of the deceased's family. Turner, in his _History of Remarkable
Providences_, Lond. 1677, p. 77., thus alludes to this superstition:--

"Thomas Fludd of Kent, Esq., told me that it is an old
observation which was pressed earnestly to King James I., that he
should not remove the Queen of Scots' body from Northamptonshire,
where she was beheaded and interred. For that it always bodes ill
to the family when bodies are removed from their graves. For
some of the family will die shortly after, as did Prince Henry,
and, I think, Queen Anne."

In the above-named counties, _nine roasted mice_, three taken each third
morning, constitutes the common charm for the hooping-cough.


_Suffolk Folk Lore._--I send you a few articles on "Folk Lore", now, or not
long ago, current in the county of Suffolk, in addition to what is to be
found in the latter part of the second volume of Forby's _Vocabulary of
East Anglia_.

1. To ascertain whether her pretended lovers really love her or not, the
maiden takes an apple-pip, and naming one of her followers, puts the pip in
the fire. If it makes a noise in bursting from the heat, it is a proof of
love; but if it is consumed without a crack, she is fully satisfied that
there is no real regard towards her in the person named.

2. "I remember the wooing of a peascod instead of her." (_Shakesp._)--The
efficacy of peascods in the concerns of sweethearts is not yet forgotten
among our rustic vulgar. The kitchen-maid, when she shells green peas,
never omits, when she finds one having _nine_ peas, to lay it on the lintel
of the kitchen door; and the first clown who enters it is infallibly to be
her husband, or at least her sweetheart.

3. If you have your clothes mended upon your back, you will be ill spoken

4. If you sweep the house with blossomed broom in May,
Y're sure to sweep the head of the house away.

Similar to which is the following:--

5. To sleep in a room with the whitethorn bloom in it during the month of
May, will surely be followed by some great misfortune.

6. _Cure for Fits._--If a young woman has fits, she applies to ten or a
dozen unmarried men (if the sufferer be a man, he applies to as many
maidens) and obtains from each of them a small piece of silver of any kind,
as a piece of a broken spoon, or ring, or brooch, buckle, and even
sometimes a small coin, and a penny; the twelve pieces of silver are taken
to a silversmith or other worker in metal, who forms therefrom a ring,
which is to be worn by the person afflicted. If any of the silver remains
after the ring is made, the workman has it as his perquisite; and the
twelve pennies also are intended as the wages for his work, and he must
charge no more.

In 1830 I went into a gunsmith's shop in the village where I then resided,
and seeing some fragments of silver in a saucer, I had the curiosity to
inquire about them, when I was informed that they were the remains of the
contributions for a ring for the above purpose which he had lately been
employed to make.


_Bible and Key._--Mr. Stevens's note on divination (Vol. i. p. 413.)
reminds me of another use to which the bible and key are made subservient
by the rustics in this locality. When some choice specimen of the
"Lancashire Witches" thinks it necessary to decide upon selecting a suitor
from among the number of her admirers, she not unfrequently calls in the
aid of these auxiliaries to assist in determining her choice. Having opened
the Bible at the passage in Ruth which states, "whither thou goest I will
go," &c., and having carefully placed the wards of the key upon the verses,
she ties the book firmly with a piece of cord; and, having mentioned the
name of an admirer, she very solemnly repeats the passage in question, at
the same time holding the Bible suspended _by joining the ends of her
little fingers_ inserted under the handle of the key. If the key retain its
position during the repetition, the person whose name has been mentioned is
considered to be rejected and so another name is tried until the book turns
round and falls through the fingers, which is said to be a sure token that
the name just mentioned is that of an individual who will certainly marry


Burnley, April 27.

P.S. In confirmation of the above, I may state that I have a Bible in my
possession which bears evidence of having seen much service of this


(_Eden's Edit._)

Part I. _Ad_ sect. 8. Sec. 2. p. 166.--"It was Tertullian's great argument in
behalf of Christians, 'see how they love one another.'"--_Apol._ c. 39.

Part I. Discourse iv. Sec. 4. p. 173.--"A cook told Dionysius the tyrant, the
black broth of Lacedaemon would not do well at Syracuse, unless it be
tasted by a Spartan's palate."--Cicero, _Tusc. D._ v. Sec. 98. Stob. _Flor.
Tit._ 29. n. 100. Plut. _Inst. Lac._ 2. [these have been already referred
to in "NOTES AND QUERIES"]: and compare Plutarch (_Vit. Lycurgi_, c. 12.).

Part II. _Ad_ sect. 12. Sec. 4. p. 394.--"If a man throw away his gold, as did
Crates the Theban."--Diog. Laert. vi. Sec. 87.

Ibid. Sec. 7. p. 395. note _b_.--"Gaudet patientia duris."--Lucan. ix. 403.

Ibid. Sec. 16. p. 404. note _y_.--"Plato vocat puritatem [Greek: apokrisin
cheironon apo beltionon.]" _Definit._ p. 415. D.

Ibid. Sec. 41. (on the tenth commandment) p. 446. note _z_.--"Non minus esse
turpe oculos quam pedes in aliena immittere, dixit Xenocrates."--AElian.
_Var. Hist._ xiv. 42. Plutarch _de Curiositate_, c. 12.

Part II. Sect. 12. Discourse xi. Sec. 5. p 451.--"Harpaste, Seneca's wife's
fool."--Seneca, _Epist_. 50.

Part II. Sect. 12. Discourse xiv. Sec. 8. p. 496.--"Vespasian, by the help of
Apollonius Tyaneus, who was his familiar."--See Philostratus (_Vit.
Apollon._ v. 28. Sec. 1.).

Part III. Sect. 13. Discourse xv. Sec. 11. p. 526.--"What the Roman gave as an
estimate of a rich man, saying, 'He that can maintain an army, is
rich.'"-Cicero _Off_. I. Sec. 25. Plutarch _Vit. Crassi_, c. 2.

Part III. Sect. 13. Discourse xvi. Sec. 8. p. 554. note _e_.--"Hic felix,
nullo turbante Deorum; Is, nullo parcente, miser."--Lucan, viii. 707.


(_Eden's Edit_.)

Serm. XVIII. Part I. sect. 2. Sec. 2.--"Alexander, that wept because he had no
more worlds to conquer."--Plutarch _de Tranquillitate Animi_, c. 4.

Serm. XXIII. Part I. p. 613.--"[Greek: ophrus hepaerkotes, kai to phronimon
zaetountes en tois peripatois.]"--Plato _Comicus apud Athenaeum_, p. 103.
_d_. Lib. iii. c. 23. Sec. 61. Cfr. Bato _Comicus apud eundem_, p. 163. _b_.
Lib. iv. c. 17. Sec. 55.

Serm. XXIV. Sec. 5. p. 625.--"Lysander was [Greek: panourgos]."--Plutarch,
_Lysand_. c. 7.


(_Eden's Edit_.)

Cap. III. Sect. 7. Sec. 7. p. 340.--"When men saw the graves of Calatinus, of
the Servilii, the Scipios, the Metelli, did ever any man amongst the
wisest{6} Romans think them unhappy?" Translated from Cicero (_Tusc. Disc_.
1. c. 7. Sec. 13.)

Cap. III. Sect. 8. Sec. 6. p. 345.--"Brutus, ... when Furius came to cut his
throat, after his defeat by Anthony, he ran from it like a girl."--Valer.
Max. ix. 13. Sec. 3 Senec. _Epist_. 82.


Marlborough College, May 13.

* * * * *


I am not aware that the following epigrams have ever been printed. I
transferred them to my note-book some time ago from the letters of Mr.
Martyn, a _litterateur_ of temporary fame in the first half of the
eighteenth century, addressed to Dr. Birch; which are among the Birch MSS.
in the British Museum. Mr. Martyn, if I remember right, gives them as not
his own. You may think them worth printing in your agreeable Miscellany:--


"Alack and well-a-day
Potter himself is turned to clay."

Two epigrams on the coffins of Dr. Sacheverel and Sally Salisbury being
found together in the vault of St. Andrew's:--

"Lo! to one grave consigned, of rival fame,
A reverend Doctor and a wanton dame.
Well for the world both did to rest retire,
For each, while living, set mankind on fire."

"A fit companion for a high-church priest;
He non-resistance taught, and she profest."


* * * * *


The author of the volume of which I am about to give a character, from the
Ms. of sir William Musgrave, seems to be the person who is described by
Gough as "Arthur Dobbs, Esq. of Castle Dobbs, promoter of the discovery of
the N.W. passage." The note may interest both historians and collectors of

AN ESSAY on the trade and improvement of
Ireland. By Arthur Dobbs, Esq. _Dublin_,
1729-31. 8vo.

"This volume contains both the parts of the work and is a most
curious collection of facts and accounts respecting the
population revenue and trade of Ireland; and I believe it is
scarce, as I have not often met with it, nor do I remember to
have heard it quoted on either side during the warm disputes
about the commercial intercourse between England and Ireland in
the year 1785." [W. Musgrave.]

I procured this volume from the collection of Mr. Heber, vii. 1682.--Sir
William Musgrave was a _Trustee_ of the British Museum, and bequeathed near
two thousand volumes to that incomparable establishment. He was partial to
biography, and gave much assistance to Granger. His _Adversaria_ and
_Obituary_, I often consult. The latter work is an excellent specimen of
well-applied assiduity. Ob. 1800.


* * * * *



Judging from the astonishment with which I learned from an eye-witness the
circumstance, I think that some of your readers will be surprised to learn
that, within the memory of witnesses still alive, a woman was burnt to
death under sentence of the judge of assize, for the murder of her husband.

This crime--petty treason--was formerly punished with fire and faggot; and
the repeal of the law is mentioned by Lord Campbell in a note to his life
of one of our recent chancellors, but I have not his work to refer to.

The post to which this woman was bound stood, till recently, in a field
adjoining Winchester.

She was condemned to be burnt at the stake; and a marine, her paramour and
an accomplice in the murder, was condemned to be hanged.

A gentleman lately deceased told me the circumstances minutely. I think
that he had been at the trial, but I know that he was at the execution, and
saw the wretched woman fixed to the stake, fire put to the faggots, and her
body burnt. But I know two persons still alive who were present at her
execution, and I endeavoured, in 1848, to ascertain from one of them the
date of this event, and "_made a note_" of his answer, which was to this

"I can't recollect the year; but I remember the circumstance well.
It was about sixty-five years ago. I was there alone with the
crowd. I sat on my father's shoulder, and saw them bring her and
the marine to the field. They fixed her neck by a rope to the
stake, and then set fire to the faggots, and burnt her."

She was probably strangled by this rope.

One Query which I would ask is, Was this execution at Winchester, in 1783
(or thereabouts), the last instance in England? and another is, Are you
aware of any other instance in the latter part of the last century?


* * * * *


In a very curious little book, entitled _Kronycke van Alemaer_, and
published in that town anno 1645, I read the following particulars about
Cornelis Drebbel, a native of the same city.

Being justly renowned as a natural philosopher, and having made great
progress in mechanics,{7} our Drebbel was named tutor of the young Prince
of Austria, by the emperor Ferdinandus II.; an office which he fulfilled so
well, that he was afterwards chosen councillor to his Majesty, and honoured
with a rich pension for past services. But, alas! in the year 1620, Prague,
the place he dwelt in, was taken by Frederick, then king of Bohemia,
several members of the imperial council were imprisoned, and some of them
even put to death.

Bereft of every thing he possessed, a prisoner as well as the others, poor
Drebbel would perhaps have undergone the same lot if the High Mighty States
of the United Provinces had not sent a message to the King of England,
asking him to interfere in their countryman's favour. They succeeded in
their benevolent request for his English Majesty obtained at last from his
son-in-law, the Dutch philosopher's liberation, who (I don't exaggerate)
was _made a present of_ to the British king; maybe as a sort of _lion_,
which the king of Morocco had never yet thought of bestowing upon the
monarch as a regal offering.

Drebbel, however, did not forget how much he owed to the intercession of
King James, and, to show his gratitude, presented him with an object of
very peculiar make. I will try to give you an exact version of its not very
clear description in the Dutch book.

"A glass or crystal globe, wherein he blew or made a perpetual
motion by the power of the four elements. For every thing which
(by the force of the elements) passes, in a year, on the surface
of the earth (sic!) could be seen to pass in this cylindrical
wonder in the shorter lapse of twenty-four hours. Thus were
marked by it, all years, months, days, hours; the course of the
sun, moon, planets, and stars, &c. It made you understand what
cold is, what the cause of the _primum mobile_, what the first
principle of the sun, how it moves the firmament, all stars, the
moon, the sea, the surface of the earth, what occasions the ebb,
flood, thunder, lightning, rain, wind, and how all things wax and
multiply, &c.,--as every one can be informed of by Drebbel's own
works; we refer the curious to his book, entitled _Eeuwige
Beweginghe_ (Perpetual Motion)."

Can this instrument have been a kind of Orrery?

"He built a ship, in which one could row and navigate _under
water_, from Westminster to Greenwich, the distance of two Dutch
miles; even five or six miles, as far as one pleased. In this
boat, a person could see under the surface of the water, and
without candlelight, as much as he needed to read in the Bible or
any other book. Not long ago, this remarkable ship was yet to be
seen lying on the Thames or London river.

"Aided by some instruments of his own manufacture, Drebbel could
make it rain, lighten, and thunder at every time of the year, so
that you would have sworn it came in a natural way from heaven.

"By means of other instruments, he could, in the midst of summer,
so much refrigerate the atmosphere of certain places, that you
would have thought yourself in the very midst of winter. This
experiment he did once on his Majesty's request, in the great
Hall of Westminster; and although a hot summer day had been
chosen by the King, it became so cold in the Hall, that James and
his followers took to their heels in hasty flight.

"With a certain instrument, he could draw an incredible quantity
of water out of a well or river.

"By his peculiar ingenuity, he could, at all times of the year,
even in the midst of winter, hatch chickens and ducklings without
using hens or ducks.

"He made instruments, by means of which were seen pictures and
portraits; for instance, he could show you kings, princes,
nobles, although residing at that moment in foreign countries.
And there was no paint nor painter's work to be seen, so that you
saw a picture in appearance, but not in reality."

Perhaps a magic lantern?

"He could make a glass, that placed in the dark near him or
another, drew the light of a candle, standing at the other end of
a long room, with such force, that the glass near him reflected
so much light as to enable him to see to read perfectly."

Was this done by parallel parabolical mirrors?

"He could make a plane glass without grinding it on either side,
in which people saw themselves reflected seven times.

"He invented all these and many other curiosities, too long to
relate, without the aid of the black art; but by natural
philosophy alone, if we may believe the _tongues_ whose _eyes_
saw it. By these experiments, he so gained the King's favour, his
Majesty granted him a pension of 2000 guilders. He died in
London, anno 1634, the sixtieth year of his age."

Thus writes the Alkmaar chronicler. If you, or any of your learned
correspondents, can elucidate the history of the instruments made by my
countryman, he will much oblige all scientific antiquarians, and me, though
not a Dr. Heavybottom, especially. I need not make apologies for my bad
English, and hope none of your many readers will criticise it in a _Dutch_


Amsterdam, April, 1850.

* * * * *


I have in my possession a MS. book, in his own handwriting, of the late
Rev. MARTIN STAFFORD SMITH of Bath, formerly chaplain to BISHOP WARBURTON,
containing, amongst other matter, a series of letters, and extracts of
letters, from the amiable and gifted, but unfortunate, CHARLES YORKE, to
Bishop Warburton. At the close of this series, is the following note and

"Verses transcribed from the original, in Mr. C. Yorke's own
writing, among his letters to Bishop Warburton; probably
manuscript, and certainly his own composition: written from the

"Stript to the naked soul, escaped from clay,
From doubts unfetter'd, and dissolv'd in day,
Unwarm'd by vanity, unreach'd by strife,
And all my hopes and fears thrown off with life,--{8}
Why am I charm'd by Friendship's fond essays,
And, tho' unbodied, conscious of thy praise?
Has pride a portion in the parted soul?
Does passion still the formless mind controul?
Can gratitude out-pant the silent breath,
Or a friend's sorrow pierce the glooms of death?
No; 'tis a spirit's nobler taste of bliss,
That feels the worth it left, in proofs like this;
That not its own applause but thine approves,
Whose practice praises, and whose virtue loves;
Who lov'st to crown departed friends with fame,
Then dying late, shalt all thou gav'st reclaim."

It is my own impression, as well as that of an eminent critic to whom I
communicated these lines, that they have been printed. If any contributor
to "NOTES AND QUERIES" can tell where they are to be found, or can throw
any light on their authorship, it will gratify


Bath, May 18. 1850.

* * * * *


It has been a frequent subject of remark, that geometry in its purest form
has been cultivated in the northern counties, but more especially in
Lancashire, with extraordinary ardour and success; and this by a class of
men placed in a position the most unpropitious that can be conceived for
the study--by operatives of the humblest class, and these chiefly
_weavers_. The geometrical labours of these men would have gladdened the
hearts of Euclid, Apollonius and Archimedes, and would have been chronicled
by Pappus with his usual truthfulness and judicious commendation; had they
only but so laboured in Greece, antecedently to, or cotemporarily with,
those "fathers of geometry," instead of in modern England, cotemporarily
with the Hargreaves, the Peels, and the Arkwrights. Yet not one in a
thousand of your readers, perhaps, has ever heard of these men; and the
_visible_ traces of their existence and labours are very few, scarce, and
scattered. A vague general statement respecting the prevalence of
geometrical studies amongst the "middle-classes" of England was made by
Playfair in the _Edinburgh Review_ many years ago, which is quite
calculated to mislead the reader; and the subject was dwelt upon at some
length, and eloquently, by Harvey, at the British Association in 1831.
Attention has been more recently directed to this subject by two living
geometers--one in the _Philosophical Magazine_, and the other in the
_Mechanics'_; but they both have wholly untouched a question of primary
importance--even almost unmentioned:--it is, _how_, _when_, _where_, and by
_whom_, was this most unlikely direction given to the minds of these men?

An answer to this question would form an important chapter in the history
of human development, and throw much light upon the great educational
questions of the present day. It may furnish useful hints for legislation,
and would be of singular aid to those who were appointed to work out
legislative objects in a true spirit. It cannot be doubted that a succinct
account of the origin of this taste, and of the influences by which it has
been maintained even to the present hour, would be a subject of interest to
most of your readers, quite irrespective the greater or less importance and
difficulty of the studies themselves, as the result would show how
knowledge cannot only be effectively diffused but _successfully extended_
under circumstances apparently the most hopeless.

Nor does Manchester stand as the only instance, for the _weavers_ of
Spitalfields display precisely the same singular phenomenon. What is still
more singular is, that the same class in both localities have shown the
same ardent devotion to natural history, and especially to Botany; although
it is to be remarked that, whilst the botanists of Spitalfields have been
horticulturists, those of Manchester have confined themselves more to
English field flowers, the far more worthy and intellectual of the two.

We could add a "Note" here and there on some points arising out of this
question; but our want of definite and complete information, and of the
means of gaining it (except through you), compels us to leave the subject
to others, better qualified for its discussion. Pray, sir, open your pages
to the question, and oblige, your ever obedient servants,


Hill Top, May 27, 1850.

* * * * *


In former times it was the practice, upon the demise of those who died
under sentence of excommunication, not merely to refuse interment to their
bodies in consecrated ground, but to decline giving them any species of
interment at all. The corpse was placed upon the surface of the earth, and
there surrounded and covered over with stones. It was _blocked up_,
"imblocatus," and this mode of disposing of dead bodies was designated
"_Asinorum Sepultura._" Ducange gives more than one instance, viz.,
"Sepultura asini sepeliantur"--"ejusque corpus exanime asinorum accipiat

Wherefore was this mode of disposing of the dead bodies called "an ass's
sepulture?" It is not sufficient to say that the body of a human being was
buried like that of a beast, for then the term would be general and not
particular; neither can I imagine that Christian writers used the phrase
for the purpose of repudiating the accusation preferred against them by
Pagans, of worshipping an ass. (See Baronius, ad. an. 201. Sec.21.) The dead
carcasses{9} of dogs and hounds were sometimes attached to the bodies of
criminals. (See Grinds, _Deutsche Rechte Alterthum_, pp. 685, 686.) I refer
to this to show that there must have been some special reason for the term
"_asinorum sepultura_". That reason I would wish to have explained; Ducange
does not give it, he merely tells what was the practice; and the attention
of Grimm, it is plain, from his explanation of the "unehrliches begraebnis"
(pp. 726, 727, 728.), was not directed towards it.


* * * * *

+Minor Queries.+

_Ransom of an English Nobleman_.--At page 28. vol. ii. of the _Secret
History of the Court of James I._, Edinburgh, 1811 (a reprint), occurs the

"Nay, to how lowe an ebbe of honor was this our poore despicable
kingdome brought, that (even in Queen Elizabeth's time, the glory
of the world) a great nobleman being taken prisoner, was freely
released with this farewell given him, that they desired but two
mastieffes for his ransome!"

Who was this great nobleman, and where may I find the fullest particulars
of the whole transaction?


_When does Easter end_?--An enactment of the legislature directs a certain
act to be done "_within two months after Easter_" in 1850, under a penalty
for non-performance. I have no difficulty in finding that two calendar
months are meant, but am puzzled how to compute when they should commence.
I should be much obliged by being informed when Easter ends? that question
set at rest, the other part is easily understood and obeyed.


_Carucate of Land_.--Will any one inform me what were the dimensions of a
carucate of land, in Edward III.'s time? also, what was the comparative
value of money at the same date? Are Tables, giving the value of money at
various periods in our history, to be found in any readily accessible


_Members for Calais_.--Henry VIII. granted a representative in the English
parliament to the town of Calais. Can any of your correspondents inform me
whether this right was exercised till the loss of that town, and, if so,
who were the members?


_Members for Durham_.--What was the reason that neither the county nor the
city of Durham returned members to parliament previous to 1673-4?


_Leicester, and the reputed Poisoners of his Time_.--At page 315. vol. ii.
of D'Israeli's _Amenities of Literature_, London, 1840, is as follows:--

"We find strange persons in the Earl's household (Leicester).
Salvador, the Italian chemist, a confidential counsellor,
supposed to have departed from this world with many secrets,
succeeded by Dr. Julio, who risked the promotion. We are told of
the lady who had lost her hair and her nails," ... "of the
Cardinal Chatillon, who, after being closeted with the Queen,
returning to France, never got beyond Canterbury; of the sending
a casuist with a case of conscience to Walsingham, to satisfy
that statesman of the moral expediency of ridding the state of
the Queen of Scots by an Italian philtre."

Where may I turn for the above, more particularly for an account of the
lady who had lost her hair and her nails?


April 9. 1850.

_Lord John Townshend's Poetical Works_.--Can any of your readers inform me
whether the poetical works of Lord John Townshend, M.P., were ever
collected and published, and, if so, when, and by whom? His lordship, who,
it will be remembered, successively represented Cambridge University,
Westminster, and Knaresborough, was considered to be the principal
contributor to the _Rolliad_, and the author of many odes, sonnets, and
other political effusions which circulated during, the eventful period


May 4.

_Martello Towers_.--Is it the fact that the towers erected along the low
coasts of Kent and Sussex during the prevalent dread of the French invasion
received their designation from a town in Spain, where they were first
built? By whom was the plan introduced into England? Is any account of
their erection to be found in any _Blue Book_ of the period?


_Mynyddyslwyn_.--The name of the parish Mynyddyslwyn, in Monmouthshire.
This name, so full of Druidic suggestion, was lost from general use at, and
anterior to, the incorporation of Wales with England by the statute of
Rhudolan. In a list of the names of Welsh parishes at that time, the parish
is called _The Parish of Tudor ab Howell_. Has any reader of the "NOTES AND
QUERIES" met with Mynyddyslwyn in any document bearing an earlier date?



_Three Dukes_.--Who were the three Dukes who killed the beadle on Sunday
morning, 26th February, 1671, as commemorated by verses in _Poems on State
Affairs_, vol. i. p. 147.?


_Bishops and their Precedence_.--Bishops, in all Tables of Precedency, have
place before the temporal barons. No reason is assigned but it is generally
supposed to be from the respect due to{10} the Church and their high
calling which might have placed them higher.

Can any of your readers tell where any _authority_ or _reason_ is given by
writers upon precedence why the precedence is given to them over the
temporal barons? E.

_Guineas_.--What is the earliest instance of the use of the word _guinea_
as a name for a coin? The common story is, that the piece of twenty-one
shillings was so called in the reign of Charles II. from being made of
gold from Guinea. What coin is meant in the following receipt?--

"Sachent tous que Mons. Gualhard de Dureffourt ... ad recue ...
quatorze _guianois_ dour et dys sondz de la mon[oye] currant a

The date is 12. Nov. 1387. The document is quoted in Madox's _Baronia
Anglica_, p. 159. note _d_.


_Parish Registers Tax_.--In the Parish Register of Wigston Magna,
Leicestershire, are the following entries against several dates in the
Baptisms and Burials:--

1784. Septr. 5th (Burials), "P'd Tax to y's Day."
---- Novr. 28th (Baptisms), "p'd Tax."
1785. Octr. 14th (Baptisms), "p'd Tax to this Day."
1786. Septr. 12th (Christenings), "p'd tax to this Day."
1786. Septr. 1st (Burials), "p'd tax to this Day."
1787. July 31st (Baptisms), "P'd Tax to this Day."
---- Septr. 27th (Burials), "P'd Tax to this Day."

I should be glad to be informed what tax is here referred to. These are all
the entries of the kind.


_Charade_.--Can any of your readers help me to a solution of the following
poetical charade, which I believe appeared in the _Times_ newspaper a few
years back with this heading to it:--

"The following piece of mysticism has been sent to us as
original, with a request for a solution. The authorship is among
the secrets of literature: it is said to have been by Fox,
Sheridan, Gregory, Psalmenazar, Lord Byron, and the Wandering
Jew. We leave the question to our erudite readers."

"I sit on a rock
While I'm raising the wind,
But the storm once abated,
I'm gentle and kind;
I see kings at my feet,
Who wait but my nod,
To kneel in the dust
Which my footsteps have trod.
Though seen by the world,
I'm known but to few;
The Gentiles detest me,
I'm pork to the Jew.
I never have past
But one night in the dark,
And that was with Noah,
Alone, in the ark.
My weight is three pounds,
My length is a mile,
And when I'm discover'd,
You'll say, with a smile,
My first and my last
Are the wish of our isle."

I should be obliged if any body could give me a key to this.


* * * * *



_Howkey_ or _Horkey_ (Vol. i. p. 263.) is evidently, as your East Anglian
correspondent and J.M.B. have pointed out, a corrupt pronunciation of the
original _Hockey_; _Hock_ being a heap of sheaves of corn, and hence the
_hock-cart_, or cart loaded with sheaves.

Herrick, who often affords pleasing illustrations of old rural customs and
superstitions, has a short poem, addressed to Lord Westmoreland, entitled
"The Hock-cart, or Harvest Home," in which he says:--

"The harvest swains and wenches bound,
For joy to see the hock-cart crown'd."

_Die Hocke_ was, in the language of Lower Saxony, _a heap of sheaves_.
_Hocken_ was the act of piling up these sheaves; and in that valuable
repertory of old and provincial German words, the _Woerterbuch_ of J.L.
Frisch, it is shown to belong to the family of words which signify a _heap_
or _hilly protuberance_.

We should have been prepared to find the word in East Anglia; but from
Herrick's use of it, and others, it must have formerly been prevalent in
the West of England also. It has nothing to do with _Hock-tide_, which is
the _Hoch-zeit_ of the Germans, and is merely [Transcriber's note:
illegible] _feast_ or _highday_ of which a very satisfactory account
will be found in Mr. Hampson's "Glossary" annexed to his _Medii Aevi
Kalendarium_. An interesting account of the _Hoch-zeit_ of the Germans
of Lower Saxony occurs where we should little expect it, in the
_Sprichwoerter_ of Master Egenolf, printed at Francfort in 1548, 4to.;
and may perhaps serve to illustrate some of our obsolete rural customs:--

"We Germans keep carnival (all the time between Epiphany and
Ash-Wednesday) St. Bernard's and St. Martin's days, Whitsuntide
and Easter, as times, above all other periods of the year, when
we should eat, drink, and be merry. St. Burchard's day, on account
of the fermentation of the new must. St. Martin's, probably on
account of the fermentation of the new wine: then we roast fat
geese, and all the world enjoy themselves. At Easter we bake
pancakes (_fladen_); at Whitsuntide we make bowers of green
boughs, and keep the feast of the tabernacle in Saxony and
Thuringia; and we drink, Whitsun-beer for eight days. In Saxony,
we also keep the feast of St. Panthalion with drinking and eating
sausages and roast legs of mutton stuffed with{11} garlic. To the
_kirmse_, or church feast, which happens only once a year, four
or five neighbouring villages go together, and it is a
praiseworthy custom, as it maintains a neighbourly and kindly
feeling among the people."

The pleasing account of the English harvest feast in Gage's _Hengrave_,
calls it _Hochay_. Pegge, in his Supplement to Grose's _Provincial Words,
Hockey_. Dr. Nares notices it in his _Glossary_, and refers to an account
of its observance in Suffolk given in the _New Monthly Magazine_ for
November, 1820. See also Major Moor's _Suffolk Words_, and Forby's
_Vocabulary of East Anglia_, who says that Bloomfield, the rustic poet of
Suffolk, calls it the _Horky_; Dr. Nares having said that Bloomfield does
not venture on this provincial term for a _Harvest-home_.


May 14. 1850.

* * * * *


(Vol. i. pp. 86. 275.)

If Charles _Martel_ must no longer be the _Mauler_, he will only be
excluded from a very motley band. Here are a few of his repudiated

1. The _Maccabaei_ from Hebr. _Makkab_, a hammer.

2. Edward I., "_Malleus_ Scotorum."

3. "St. Augustine, that _Maul_ of heretics, was in chief repute with"
Josias Shute, among the Latin Fathers. (Lloyd's _Memoires_, p. 294.) "God
make you as Augustine, _Malleum Haereticorum_." (Edward's _Gangraena_, Part
II. p. 17. 1646.)

4. "Robertus Grossetest, Episcopus Lincolniensis, _Romanorum Malleus_, ob.
1253." (Fulman, _Notitia Oxon_. p. 103. 2nd ed.)

5. "Petrus de Alliaco, circ. A.D. 1400, _Malleus a veritate aberrantium
indefessus_ appellari solebat." (Wharton in _Keble's Hooker_, i. 102.)

6. T. Cromwell, "_Malleus Monachorum_:" "_Mauler_ of Monasteries" [Fuller,
if I recollect rightly, quoted by Carlyle]. Also, "_Mawling_ religious
houses." (Lloyd's _State Worthies_, i. 72. 8vo. ed.)

7. Bishop Prideaux, "_Malleus Haerese[=o]s_." (Wood, _Ath. Oxon_. iii.

8. Hooker, "_Schismaticorum Malleus_," Bp. H. King's Letter to Iz. Walton.

9. Peter Gunning, "_Schismaticorum Malleus_." (Barwick's _Life_, p. 22.
Latin ed.)

10. Archbishop Usher, "_Errorum malleus_." (Univ. of Oxford. Parr's _Life
of Usher_, p. 101.)

11. Henry Hammond, _Errorum maleus, &c._. (Lloyd's _Memoires_, p. 401.)

12. Dean Comber, "_falsi Malleus_". (Ib. v. 450.) The reader will at once
recollect "The hammer of the whole earth," in Jeremiah, L. 23. Grotius, in
his note on the "_Malleus_ universae terrae" of that passage, says,--

"Sic vocat Chaldaeos, pari de causa ut ob quam
Francorum quidam dictus est _Martellus_".

Compare George Herbert of Lord Bacon,--"Sophismatum _Mastix ... Securis_
que errorum," &c. &c. (_Poems_, p. 253, ed. 1844.) Nor must we forget
Attila, "the _scourge_ of God."


_Charles Martel_ (Vol. i. p. 86.)--The following note may perhaps be
acceptable in conjunction with that of G.J.K. (p. 86.), on Charles Martel.
It is taken from Michelet's _History of France_, an easily accessible work.

"Charlemagne is usually considered as the translation of Carolus
Magnus. 'Challemaines si vaut autant comme grant challes.'
(_Chro. de St. Denis_, 1. i. c. 4.) Charlemagne is merely a
corruption of Carloman, Karlmann, the strong man. In the
above-cited chronicle itself, the words Challes and Challemaines
are used for Charles and Carloman (_maine_, a corruption of
_mann_, as _leine_ of _lana_). In the _Chronicle of Theophanes_ a
still more conclusive text is found: he calls Carloman [Greek:
Karoullomagnos]; _Scr. fr._ v. 187. The two brothers must have
borne the same name. In the 10th century, Charles the Bald was
dignified, though most undeservedly, with the same title of
Great, through the ignorance of the Latin monks.--_Epitaph. ap
Scrip. fr_. vii. 322.

... Nomen qui nomine duxit
De Magni Magnus, de Caroli Carolus.

A similar kind of blunder was made by the Greek
writers in the name Elagabal, which they transformed
into Heliogabal, from "[Greek: Helios], the sun."

With regard to Charles Martel, Michelet does not allude to M. Collin de
Plaucy's explanation, and adopts the old version--

"Son surnom paien de Marteau me ferait volontiers douter s'il
etait chretien. On sait que le marteau est l'attribut de Thor, le
signe de l'association paicune, celui de la propriete de la
conquete barbare."--Vide Michelet's _Origines du Droit Francais_.

Charles was notoriously at variance with the Church. I should consider
Michelet a much better authority than M. Collin de Plaucy, who, to judge
from his preface to another work, _Le Dictionnaire Infernal_, slavishly
submits his critical acuteness to the dicta of his Church.


* * * * *


I am not going to take part in the game of _hockey_, started by LORD
BRAYBROOKE, and carried on with so much spirit by several of your
correspondents in No. 28.; but I have a word to say to one of the
hockey-players, C.B., who, _per fas et nefas_, has mixed up "feast and
fast" with the game.

C.B. asks, "Is not the derivation of 'feast' and 'fast' originally the
same? that which is appointed connected with 'fas,' and that from 'fari?'"
I should say no; and let me cite the familiar lines from the beginning of
Ovid's _Fasti_:--{12}

"Ne tamen ignores variorum jura dierum
Non habet officii Lucifer omnis idem.
Ille Nefastus erit per quem tria verba silentur:
Fastus, erit per quem lege licebit agi.
Neu toto perstare die sua jura putaris;
Qui jam Fastus erit, mane Nefastus erat.
Nam simul exta Deo data sunt, licet omnia fari;
Verbaque Honoratus libera Praetor habet."

The _dies festus_ was not only not _dies fastus_, but _dies nefastus_.

Without going beyond _feast_ and _fast_, I see nothing in C.B.'s suggestion
better than the old derivations of the words _feast_ from _festus -um_, and
_fast_ from the Anglo-Saxon; nor indeed anything half so good. _Feast_ and
_fast_ are opposed in meaning: our word _fast_ has a meaning which neither
_fas, fari_, nor _fastus_, nor all three together, will explain.


* * * * *

+Replies to Minor Queries.+

_The Badger's Legs_ (Vol. i., p. 381.).--In answer to one of your
correspondents, who inquires whether there is any allusion to the
inequalities of the badger's legs previous to that made by Sir T.

"And as that beast hath legs (which shepherds fear,
'Yclept a badger, which our lambs doth tear),
One long, the other short, that when he runs
Upon the plain, he halts, but when he runs
On craggy rocks, or steepy hills, we see
None runs more swift or easier than he."

Browne's _Britannia's Pastorals_, B.I.

Song 5. A.D. 1613.


_Twm Sion Catti_ (Vol. i., p. 456.).--Seleucus observes that Twm Catti
flourished between the years 1590 and 1630.

I have seen the original pardon, under the great seal, countersigned
Vaughan, and bearing date 15th Jan., 1st of Elizabeth (1559).

The pardon extends to--

"Thome Johns, alias Cattye, nuper de Tregaen in Com. Cardigan,
Genš., alias dict. Thome Johns, alias Catty ae Tregaem, in Com.
Cardigan, Generoso, alias dict. Thome Jones, alias Catty, Gent.,
sen quocunque alio nomine vel cognomine seu additione hominis
cognitionis dignitatis, officii sen losi idem Thomas cognatur,
vocetur seu nuncupetur," &c. &c.; and includes "omnia escapia et

I have written the extract without all the contractions in the original.


May 21. 1850.

_Christian Captives_ (Vol. i., p. 441.).--R.W.B. may probably obtain
valuable information from the trustees of Lady Mico's Charity. See
Attorney-General _v_. Gibson, 2 _Beavan_, 317. (_n_.)

A note on that case may not be uninteresting, as showing the vast increase
of a fund originally small.

Lady Mico, in 1670, gave 1000_l_. to redeem poor slaves. In 1686 this fund
was laid out in the purchase of land.

In 1827 an information was filed against Mr. Gibson and others and at that
time the rental of the purchased land amounted to something like 3000_l_. a
year, and the trustees had accumulated upwards of 115,000_l_. Consols.

Trustees were appointed in 1834, and their office is No. 20. Buckingham
Street, Strand. The funds are applied towards the education of our
emancipated slaves. Q.D.

_Cannibals_.--Your correspondent W. (Vol. i., p. 186.) will field the
origin of this word in Stillingfleet's _Origines Sacrae_, Part II. Book i.
c. i., where there are traced the gradations observed by travellers in the
savagery of the several natives of America. Has it been recorded of any
people in Europe, Asia, or Africa, that they were addicted to the practice
of scalping? T.J.

_Symbols of the four Evangelists_.--The misappropriation of the four faces
of the cherubim, originally designed to shadow forth the incarnate Deity,
to the four evangelists, with whom these emblematic representations are
still, as anciently, associated in architectural decorations and heraldic
bearings, appear to have originated, among the early Christians, in the
reverence with which they regarded the four gospels. JARLZBERG (Vol. i., p.
385.) explains why the lion is assigned to St. Mark, and desires to know
the reasons assigned for the three other Evangelists' emblems.

"Aquila", says Aringhi, "dignissimum ilium ac lynceum in
arcanarum rerum ac mysteriorum sublimitate speculatorem, Joannem
Evangelistam sublimi velocium pennarum symbolo portendit."

The ox, according to the same author, has been assigned as well to St.
Matthew as to St. Luke, as all laborious ministers of the gospel are aptly
represented by the "animal natum tolerare labores."


_Turkish Spy_ (Vol. i., p.334).--In the _Gent. Mag._ for March last, it is
well observed that "It is a great fault in an historical writer not to be
well read in Sylvanus Urban." The remark will apply to your inquirer
concerning these celebrated letters, and indeed, to many others who devote
much labour in exploring the contents of MSS., without being aware of what
lies on the surface of literature. The late D'Israeli is a striking
instance of this art of _discovering_ in an old MS. what had been long
known in print.

In consequence of what Mr. Hallam stated concerning these _Letters of a
Turkish Spy_, I sent a communication to the _Gent. Mag._, which
appeared{13} in vol. xiv. N.S. 142., on the subject, which gave rise to
several interesting articles in the same and subsequent vol. from other
more able writers. To these I would refer Dr. Rimbault, and it will afford
me much satisfaction if he will aid in elucidating what still remains a
_vexata questio_.


_Dr. Maginn's Miscellanies_ (Vol. i., p. 470.).--In reply to J.M.B., I beg
to state that the "_Magazine Miscellanies_" of Dr. Maginn were published in
numbers, at 3_d_. each, by Dodsley and Co., Crane Court, Fleet St. I have
nine numbers of it, all that were published, I believe, containing several
tales, serious and humorous Poems, Irish Melodies, Maxims of Mr. O'Doherty,
Miscellaneous Papers, The Tobias Correspondence, a translation of Lucian's
Timon, Shakspere Papers on Sir John Falstaff Jaques, Romeo, Bottom the
Weaver, Lady Macbeth, and Timon; a Translation of the Batrachomyomachia,
and three or four of the Homeric Ballads.



As your correspondent J.M.B. appears to be inquiring into the earliest
contributions of Dr. Maginn to the periodical press in England, you may
inform him that he communicated a great number of papers, &c., to the
_Literary Gazette_ before he left Cork, and wrote articles in _Blackwood's
Magazine_. The former were his first appearances in print in England,
though the Cork journals published many of his productions whilst yet a
mere boy.


_Trianon_ (Vol. i., p. 439.).--The meaning of this word is "a pavilion,"
and was applied, doubtless, to the elegant structures to which your
correspondent refers, on account of the light and graceful style of their
architecture. J.K.R.W.

_Lee Trianons_.--I have always understood that these gardens, &c., took
their name from the village of Trianon, the site of which they occupy, and
which village Louis XIV. purchased from the monks of St. Genevieve.


_Pimlico_ (Vol. i. p. 383. and 474.).--Would it not be worth the while of
some of your ingenious correspondents to inquire whether the following
extract may not give a clue to the origin of this word?

In an enumeration of "strange birds" to be found in Barbadoes, there is
mention of "the Egge Bird, the Cahow, the Tropick Bird, _the Pemlico which
presageth storms_." America painted to the life. (_The True History of the
Spaniards' Proceedings in America_, by Ferdinando Gorges, Esq., Lond. 4to.


_The Arms of Godin_.--My attention has been drawn to a Query from Mr.
KERSLEY, in page 439. of Vol. i., relative to the arms of Godin. I have
seen these arms blazoned variously. Mr. Godin Shiffner bears them quarterly
with his own coat of Shiffner, and blazons them thus:--_Party per fess,
azure and gules, a barr or; in chief, a dexter and sinister hand grasping a
cup, all proper_.

I am inclined to think this is an innovation upon the original arms, as I
have them painted on an old piece of china _azure, a cup or_. They are here
impaled with the arms of Du Fon, an ancient French family that intermarried
with the Godins.

In the _Theatre de la Noblesse de Brabant_, I find that "Francois Godin,
Secretaire ordinaire du Roy Philippe II., en grand conseil seant a
Malines," was ennobled by letters patent, dated Madrid, 7th January, 1589,
and "port les armoiries suivantes, qui sont, _un escu de sinople a une
coupe lasalade, ou couverture ouverte d'or; ledit escu somme d'un heaume
d'argent grille et lisere d'or; aux bourlet et hachements d'or et de
sinople: cimier une coupe de l'escu_."

This blazoning is corrected in the index, where the arms are stated to be
"_un escu de sinople a la coupe couverte d'or_."

In the _Nobiliaire des Pays-Bas_, I find that Daniel Godin, Seigneur de
Beauvois, was enobled by Philip IV. in 1623, and "les armes sont, _de
sinople a une coupe couverte d'or_."

In 1642, "Jean-Francois Godin, Seigneur de Baumez, Baille et haut Justicier
de Reumes" (son of Francois Godin, who was ennobled by Philip II.),
obtained permission from Philip IV. to alter his paternal coat, and to
carry "_un ecu de sinople a trois coupes couvertes d'or; cet ecu timbre
d'un casque d'argent, grille, lisere, et couronne d'or, orne de ses
lambrequins d'or et de sinople, et au-dessus en cimier, une tete et col de
licorne au naturel_."

His son, Jaques-Francois Godin, appears afterwards to have obtained the
title of Baron.

The earliest mention I can find of the Godin arms is in 1588, when
Christopher Godin carried "_de sinople a une coupe couverte d'or_." He was
a son of Jacques Seigneur d'Aubrecicourt and of Francoise Lettin, and
brother to the first-named Francois Godin. There appears to have been
another brother, Jaques; and they were all three ennobled by Philip II.,
probably for their public services, as Christopher was Conseiller et
Receveur-general des Domaines et Finances des Pays-Bas; Jacques, Conseiller
et Maitre de la Chambre des Comptes en Hollande; and Francois, Secretaire
du Grand Conseil a Malines.

I am not aware what connection existed between these Godins and the family
of that name in Normandy (now extinct); but the _cup_ in the arms, though
borne differently, proves that they were of the same race.


May 23, 1850.

_The Title of D.D._--The remarks of your correspondent "BROWN RAPPEE" (Vol.
I. p. 438.){14} induced me to turn to the List of the Fellows of the
Society of Antiquaries, and I find it in my power to exonerate the compiler
of the list on one point from the carelessness he imputes. "BROWN RAPPEE"
says, "We see one or two D.D.'s deprived of their titles of 'Rev.'" I find
but one D.D. in that condition, and in that instance the list is correct,
and the usual prefix would have been an error; the gentleman in question
_not_ being in orders, although his services in Biblical literature have
been acknowledged with the degree of D.D. Your correspondent does not seem
to be aware that this doctorate is, like all others, an academical, and not
a clerical, distinction and that, although it is seldom dissociated from
the clerical office in this country, any lay scholar of adequate
attainments in theology is competent to receive this distinction, and any
university to bestow it upon him.


_Emancipation of the Jews_ (Vol. i. p. 479.).--The following extract from
Tovey's _Anglia Judaica_, p. 259., may be acceptable in connection with
this subject:--

"As soon as King Charles was murther'd, the Jews petitioned the
Council of War to endeavour a repeal of that act of parliament
which had been made against them; promising, in return, to make
them a present of five hundred thousand pounds: Provided that
they could likewise procure the cathedral of St. Paul to be
procured them for a synagogue, and the Bodleian Library at Oxford
to begin their traffic with, which piece of service it seems was
undertaken by those _honest men_, at the solicitation of Hugh
Peters and Henry Masters, whom the Jews employed as their brokers
but without any success."

Afterwards, however, the Jews of Holland sent a deputation, consisting of
the famous Rabbi Manasseh ben Israel, and several wealthy Jewish merchants.
When Cromwell came into full power their hopes were raised, for he was
known to be favourable to their re-admission; but after much discussion,
the popular feeling, and the voices of many influential preachers, were
found to be so much against the measure that nothing was eventually done;
and Charles II. must be regarded as the restorer of the Jews to this
country. Tovey says that the Rabbi Netto, "the governor of the synagogue"
in his time, had searched the Jewish registers at his request, and had
found that, so late as 1663, there were but twelve Jews in England. It
seems that while these negotiations were in hand, all sorts of absurd and
idle rumours were afloat. Among these I incline to reckon the alleged
proposal to purchase St. Paul's for a synagogue. It seems to be
sufficiently refuted by the intrinsic absurdity of the thing. But beyond
this we have the express denial, made on the spot and at the time, by Rabbi
Manasseh ben Israel himself. On turning to his _Vindiciae Judaeorum_,
written in this country, I find that after recapitulating various calumnies
on his people--such as their sacrificing Christian children, etc.--he thus
goes on:--

"'Love and hatred,' says Plutarch, 'corrupt the truth of every
thing;' as experience sufficiently declares it, when we see that
which comes to pass, that one and the same thing, in one and the
same city, at one and the same time, is related in different
manners. I myself, in my own negociation here, have found it so.
For it hath been rumoured abroad, that our nation had purchased
St. Paul's church, for to make it their synagogue,
notwithstanding it was a temple formerly consecrated to Diana.
And many other things have been reported of us that never entered
the thought of our nation."


_Sneck-up or Snick-up._--Surely this means nothing more or less than what
we should write _Hiccup!_ or _Hiccough!_ so, at least, I have always
supposed; misled, perhaps, by Sir Toby's surname, and his parenthetical
imprecation on "pickle herring". I do not pretend to be a critic of
Shakspeare, and must confess that I do not possess a copy of the "Twelfth
Night" but after seeing your correspondent R.R.'s letter (Vol. i., p.
467.), I resolved to write you a note. First, however, I called on a
neighbour to get a look at the text, and he brought me down Theobald's
edition of 1773, where it stands,--

"_Sir To._ We did keep time, Sir, in our catches.
Sneck up!" [_Hiccoughs._

The effort necessary to pronounce the word "catches" might help to produce
a catch of another sort in the stomach of a gentleman oppressed with drink
and pickle herring; and it seems likely that some such idea was in the
author's mind.


* * * * *



The readiness which many of our friends have evinced to illustrate that
most curious, interesting, and valuable of all gossiping histories, the
recently completed edition of _The Diary of Samuel Pepys_, for which the
public is indebted to our noble correspondent Lord Braybrooke, tempts us to
call their attention to the no less important work now in course of
publication, _The Diary and Correspondence of John Evelyn._ This we are the
more anxious to do, inasmuch as, although the two volumes already issued
complete the Diary, there remains still an opportunity of introducing into
the concluding volumes such farther notes and illustrations as any of our
readers may be enabled and disposed to furnish and who would not gladly so
show his reverence for the memory of such a man as John Evelyn?

_A List of Printed Service Books according to the Ancient Uses of the
Anglican Church_ has recently been{15} printed by Mr. F. Dickenson (late
M.P. for Somersetshire), as a first attempt towards getting a complete
account of all such books, and of all copies of each class that are extant.
Mr. Dickenson's object is, eventually to produce a complete _Catalogue
raisonnee_ of all books of this class, whether printed or MSS., comprising,
as to the MSS., a careful abstract of the contents of each, with a notice
of its probable age and of anything that may help to fix the place where it
was written, or intended to be used; and as to the printed copies,
supplying the title, colophon, foliation, and any peculiarities of type,
woodcuts, or ornaments, and including besides, an account of the origin and
history of the Anglican uses. Any information on these heads with which
that gentleman may be favoured, our readers may calculate on seeing turned
to good account.

We have tested De la Rue and Co.'s _Improved Pamphlet Binder_ (registered
by James MacCabe), for the purpose of facilitating the binding or
extracting of any letter or pamphlet, without the possibility of deranging
the consecutive order of any others that may be contained in it, and have
found it answer extremely well the purpose for which it was intended.
Whether containing one pamphlet or fifty,--and we tried with the numbers of
our valued contemporary, the _Athenaeum_,--it equally forms a perfect book;
and we have therefore no doubt of its practical utility.

Messrs. Sotheby and Co., Wellington Street, Strand, will commence on
Wednesday next a nine days' sale of the Philological, Philosophical,
Historical, Classical, and General Library of the late Dr. Scott, of
Bedford Square, a library particularly rich in Oriental Works.

* * * * *



(_In continuation of Lists in former Nos._):


_Odd Volumes_.

Title-page to Vol. I.


TRIAL OF THE EARL OF STRAFFORD (being Vol. VIII. of "Rushworth's
Historical Collections").

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
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* * * * *


_The matter is so generally understood with regard to the management of
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HE CANNOT UNDERTAKE TO RETURN MANUSCRIPTS; _but on one point he wishes to
offer a few words of explanation to his correspondents in general, and
particularly to those who do not enable him to communicate with them except
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his interest to take all he can get, and make the most, and the best of
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and of the impossibility of sometimes giving an explanation, when there
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rapidly as can be, consistently with fullness and accuracy, and we hope to
have that and the Title page ready by the 15th of the Month._

_Our readers will perceive some few alterations in the mechanical
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_Errata in Vol. I._--P. 405. col. 1., for "Taxall" and "Texshall," read
"Paxall" and "Pexshall," and for "Bacon," read "Becon;" p. 412. col. 2. l.
17., for "audato" read "andato," l. 20., for "Ginnone," read "Giunone," l.
23., for "DELLE," read "DETTE," l. 24, for "Gopelin," read "Gosselin;" p
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col. 1. l. 23., for "vespertionum," read "vespertilionum."

* * * * *

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A PRIEST TO THE TEMPLE; or, THE COUNTRY PARSON: his Character, and Rule of
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London: GEORGE BELL, Fleet Street. Leicester J.S. CROSSLEY.

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containing Eighteen Figures, with a Description and a Sketch of the
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"A graphic outline of the subject of military costume during the
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