Notes & Queries, No. 36. Saturday, July 6, 1850

Produced by Jon Ingram, David King, the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team and The Internet Library of Early Journals,



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"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

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No. 36.] SATURDAY, JULY 6, 1850. [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

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Further Notes on Derivation of the Word "News", by
Samuel Hickson 81
More Borrowed Thoughts, by S. W. Singer 82
Strangers in the House of Commons, by C. Ross 83
Folk Lore:--High Spirits considered a Presage of impending
Calamity, by C Forbes 84
The Hydro-Incubator, by H. Kersley 84
Etymology of the Word "Parliament" 85
"Incidis in Scyllam, cupiens vitare Charybdim," by
C. Forbes and T. H. Friswell 85
A Note of Admiration! 86
The Earl of Norwich and his Son George Lord
Goring, by CH. and Lord Braybooke 86

James Carkasse's Lucida Intervalla 87
Minor Queries:--Epigrams on the Universities--Lammas'Day--Mother
Grey's Apples--Jewish Music--The Plant "Haemony"--Ventriloquism--
Epigram on Statue of French King--Lux fiat-Hiring of Servants--
Book of Homilies--Collar of SS.--Rainbow--Passage in Lucan--William
of Wykeham--Richard Baxter's Descendants--Passage in St. Peter--
Juicecups--Derivation of "Yote" or "Yeot"--Pedigree of Greene
Family--Family of Love--Sir Gammer Vans 87

Punishment of Death by Burning 90
To give a Man Horns, by C. Forbes and J.E.B. Mayor 90
Replies to Minor Queries:--Shipster--Three Dukes--Bishops
and their Precedence--Why Moses represented with
Horns--Leicester and the reputed Poisoners of his Time--New
Edition of Milton--Christian Captives--Borrowed Thoughts--North
Sides of Churchyards--Monastery--Churchyards--Epitaphs--Umbrellas--
English Translations of Erasmus--Chantrey's Sleeping Children, & c.

Separation of the Sexes in Time of Divine Service--Error
in Winstanley's Loyal Martyrology--Preaching in Nave only 94

Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, Sales, & c. 95
Books and Odd Volumes Wanted 95
Notices to Correspondents 95
Advertisements 96

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Without being what the Germans would call a _purist_, I cannot deem it
an object of secondary importance to defend the principles of the law
and constitution of the English language. For the adoption of words we
have no rule; and we act just as our convenience or necessity dictates:
but in their formation we must strictly conform to the laws we find
established. Your correspondents C.B. and A.E.B. (Vol. ii., p. 23.) seem
to me strangely to misconceive the real point at issue between us. To a
question by the latter, why I should attempt to derive "News" indirectly
from a German adjective, I answer, because in its transformation into a
German noun declined as an adjective, it gives the form which I contend
no English process will give. The rule your correspondents deduce from
this, neither of them, it appears, can understand. As I am not certain
that their deduction is a correct one, I beg to express it in my own
words as follows:--There is no such process known to the English
language as the formation of a noun-singular out of an adjective by the
addition of "_s_": neither is there any process known by which a
noun-plural can be formed from an adjective, without the previous
formation of the singular in the same sense; except in such cases as
"the rich, the poor, the noble," &c., where the singular form is used in
a plural sense. C.B. instances "goods, the shallows, blacks, for
mourning, greens." To the first of these I have already referred;
"shallow" is unquestionably a noun-singular; and to the remaining
instances the following remarks will apply.

As it should be understood that my argument applies solely to the
_English_ language, I think I might fairly take exception to a string of
instances with which A.E.B. endeavours to refute me from a vocabulary of
a language very expressive, no doubt, yet commonly called "slang". The
words in question are not English: I never use them myself, nor do I
recognise the right or necessity for any one else to do so; and I might,
indeed, deem this a sufficient answer. But the fact is that the language
in some degree is losing its instincts, and liberties are taken with it
now that it would not have allowed in its younger days. Have we not seen
participial adjectives made from nouns? I shall therefore waive my
objection, and answer by saying that there is no analogy between the
instances given and the case in point. They are, one and all, elliptical
expressions signifying "black clothes, green vegetables, tight
pantaloons, heavy dragoons, odd chances," &c. "Blacks" and "whites" are
not in point, the singular of either being quite as admissible as the
plural. The rule, if it be worth while to lay down a rule for the
formation of such vulgarisms, appears to be {82} that characteristic
adjective, in constant conjunction with a noun in common use, may be
used alone, the noun being understood. Custom has limited in some
measure the use of these abridged titles to classes or collective
bodies, and the adjective takes the same form that the noun itself would
have had; but, in point of fact, it would be just as good English to say
"a heavy" as "the heavies" and they all become unintelligible when we
lose sight of the noun to which they belong. If A.E.B. should assert
that a glass of "cold without," _because_, by those accustomed to
indulge in such potations, it was understood to mean "brandy and _cold_
water, _without_ sugar," was really a draught from some "well of purest
English undefil'd," the confusion of ideas could not be more complete.

Indeed, I very much doubt whether our word "News" contains the idea of
"new" at all. It is used with us to mean intelligence and the phrases,
"Is there any thing new?" and "Is there any news?" present, in my
opinion, two totally distinct ideas to the English mind in its ordinary
mechanical action. "Intelligence" is not necessarily "new", nor indeed
is "News:" in the oldest dictionary I possess, Baret's _Alvearie_, 1573,
I find "Olde newes or stale newes." A.E.B. is very positive that "news"
is plural, and he cites the "Cardinal of York" to prove it. All that I
can say is, that I think the Cardinal of York was wrong: and A.E.B.
thought so too, when his object was not to confound me, as may be seen
by his own practice in bloc concluding paragraph of his
communication:--"The _newes_ WAS of the victory," &c. The word "means,"
on the other hand, is beyond all dispute plural. What says Shakspeare?

"Yet nature is made letter by no mean
But nature makes that mean."

The plural was formed by the addition of "_s_:" yet from the infrequent
use of the word except in the plural, the singular form has become
obsolete, and the same form applies now to both numbers. Those who would
apply this reasoning to "News," forget that there is the slight
difficulty of the absence of the _noun_ "new" to start from.

I do not feel bound to furnish proof of so obvious a fact, that many of
the most striking similarities in language are mere coincidences. Words
derived from the same root, and retaining the same meaning, frequently
present the most dissimilar appearance, as "eveque" and "bishop;" and
the most distant roots frequently meet in the same word. When your
correspondents, therefore, remind me that there is a French word,
_noise_, I must remind them that it contains not one element of our
English word. Richardson gives the French word, but evidently discards
it, preferring the immediate derivation from "_noy_, that which noies or
annoys." I confess I do not understand his argument; but it was
referring to this that I said that our only known process would make a
plural noun of it. I have an impression that I have met with "annoys"
used by poetical license for "annoyances."

"Noise" has never been used in the sense of the French word in this
country. If derived immediately from the French, it is hardly probable
that it should so entirely have lost every particle of its original
meaning. With us it is either _a loud sound_, or _fame, report, rumour_,
being in this sense rendered in the Latin by the same two words, _fama,
rumor_, as News. The former sense is strictly consequential to the
latter, which I believe to be the original signification, as shown in
its use in the following passages:--

"At the same time it was noised abroad in the realme"


Cleopatra, catching but the least noise of this, dies

_Ant. and Cleo._, Act i. Sc. 2.

_Cre_. What was his cause of anger?
_Ser_. The noise goes, this.

_Troil. and Cres._, Act. i. Sc. 2.

Whether I or your correspondents be right, will remain perhaps for ever
doubtful; but the flight that can discover a relationship between this
word and another pronounced[1] as nearly the same as the two languages
will admit of, and which gives at all events one sense, if not, as I
think, the primary one, is scarcely so eccentric as that which finds the
origin of a word signifying a loud sound, and fame, or rumor, in
"nisus"; not even _struggle_, in the sense of _contention_, an endeavour
an effort, a strain.


St. John's Wood, June 15, 1850.

[Footnote 1: I do not think it necessary, here, to defend my
pronunciation of German; the expressions I now use being sufficient for
the purpose of my argument. I passed over CH.'s observation on this
subject, because it did not appear to me to touch the question.]

* * * * *


O many are the poets that are sown
By nature men endowed with highest gifts,
The vision and the facility divine,
Yet wanting the accomplishment of verse,
Nor having e'er, as life advanced, been led
by circumstance to take the height,
The measure of themselves, &c.

Wordsworth's _Excursion_, B. i.

This admired passage has its prototype in the following from the
_Lettere di Battista Guarini_, who points to a thought of similar kind
in Dante:--

"O quante nolili ingegni si perdono che riuscerebbe mirabili [in poesia]
se dal seguir le inchinazione loro non fossero, o da loro appetiti o da
i Padri loro sviati."

Coleridge, in his _Bibliographia Literaria_, 1st ed., vol. i. p. 28.,
relates a story of some one who desired {83} to be introduced to him,
but hesitated because he asserted that he had written an epigram on "The
Ancient Mariner," which Coleridge had himself written and inserted in
_The Morning Post_, to this effect:--

"Your poem must eternal be
Dear Sir! it cannot fail;
For 'tis incomprehensible,
And without head or tail."

This was, however, only a Gadshill robbery,--stealing stolen goods. The
following epigram is said to be by Mr. Hole, in a MS. collection made by
Spence (penes me), and it appeared first in print in _Terrae Filius_,
from whence Dr. Salter copied it in his _Confusion worse Confounded_, p.

"Thy verses are eternal, O my friend!
For he who reads them, reads them to no end."

In _The Crypt_, a periodical published by the late Rev. P. Hall, vol. i.
p. 30., I find the following attributed to Coleridge, but I know not on
what authority, as it does not appear among his collected poems:--


"Sly Beelzebub took all occasions
To try Job's constancy and patience;
He took his honours, took his health,
He took his children, took his wealth,
His camels, horses, asses, cows,--
Still the sly devil did not take his spouse.
"But heav'n, that brings out good from evil,
And likes to disappoint the devil,
Had predetermined to restore
Two-fold of all Job had before,
His children, camels, asses, cows,--
Short-sighted devil, not to take his spouse."

This is merely an amplified version of the 199th epigram of the 3d Book
of Owen:

"Divitias Jobo, sobolemque, ipsamque salutem
Abstulit (hoc Domino non prohibens) Satan.
Omnibus ablatis, misero, tamen una superstes,
Quae magis afflictum redderet, uxor erat."

Of this there are several imitations in French, three of which are given
in the _Epigrammes Choisies d'Owen_, par M. de Kerivalant, published by
Labouisse at Lyons in 1819.


Mickleham, 1850.

* * * * *


(Vol. ii., p. 17.)

As far as my observation extends, i.e. the last thirty-one years, no
alteration has taken place in the practice of the House of Commons with
respect to the admission of strangers. In 1844 the House adopted the
usual sessional order regarding strangers, which I transcribe, inserting
within brackets the only material words added by Mr. Christie in 1845:--

"That the Serjeant-at-Arms attending this house do, from time to
time, take into his custody any stranger or strangers that he
shall see or be informed of to be in the house or gallery
[appropriated to the members of this house, and also any
stranger who, having been admitted into any other part of the
house or gallery, shall misconduct himself, or shall not
withdraw when strangers are directed to withdraw] while the
House or any committee of the whole House is sitting, and that
no person so taken into custody be discharged out of custody
without the special order of the House.

"That no member of the House do presume to bring any stranger or
strangers into the house, or the gallery thereof, while the
House is sitting."

This order appears to have been framed at a time when there was no
separate gallery exclusively appropriated to strangers, and when they
were introduced by members into the gallery of what is called the "body
of the house." This state of things had passed away: and for a long
series of years strangers had been admitted to a gallery in the House of
Commons in the face of the sessional order, by which your correspondent
CH. imagines their presence was "absolutely prohibited."

When I speak of strangers being admitted, it must not be supposed that
this was done by order of the House. No, every thing relating to the
admission of strangers to, and their accommodation in the House of
Commons, is effected by some mysterious agency for which no one is
directly responsible. Mr. Barry has built galleries for strangers in the
new house; but if the matter were made a subject of inquiry, it probably
would puzzle him to state under what authority he has acted.

Mr. Christie wished to make the sessional order applicable to existing
circumstances; and, it may be, he desired to draw from the House a
direct sanction for the admission of strangers. In the latter purpose,
however, if he ever entertained it, he failed. The wording of his
amendment is obscure, but necessarily so. The word "gallery," as
employed by him, can only refer to the gallery appropriated to members
of the House; but he intended it to apply to the strangers' gallery. The
order should have run thus, "admitted into any other part of the house,
or into the gallery appropriated to strangers;" but Mr. Christie well
knew that the House would not adopt those words, because they contain an
admission that strangers _are_ present whilst the House is sitting,
whereas it is a parliamentary fiction that they are _not_. If a member
in debate should inadvertently allude to the possibility of his
observations being heard by a stranger, the Speaker would immediately
call him to order; yet at other times the right honourable gentleman
will listen complacently to discussions {84} arising out of the
complaints of members that strangers will not publish to the world all
that they hear pass in debate. This is one of the consistencies
resulting from the determination of the House not expressly to recognise
the presence of strangers; but, after all, I am not aware that any
practical inconvenience flows from it. The non-reporting strangers
occupy a gallery at the end of the house immediately opposite the
Speaker's chair; but the right hon. gentleman, proving the truth of the
saying, "None so blind as he who will not see," never perceives them
until just as a division is about to take place, when he invariably
orders them to withdraw. When a member wishes to exclude strangers he
addresses the Speaker, saying, "I think, Sir, I see a stranger or
strangers in the house," whereupon the Speaker instantly directs
strangers to withdraw. The Speaker issues his order in these
words:--"Strangers must withdraw."

C. Ross.

_Strangers in the House of Commons_.--As a rider to the notice of CH. in
"NOTES AND QUERIES," it may be well to quote for correction the
following remarks in a clever article in the last _Edinburgh Review_, on
Mr. Lewis' _Authority in Matters of Opinion_. The Reviewer says (p.

"_This practice_ (viz., of publishing the debates in the House of
Commons) _which, &c., is not merely unprotected by law--it is positively
illegal_. Even the presence of auditors is a violation of the standing
orders of the House."


* * * * *


_High Spirits considered a Presage of impending Calamity or Death_:--

1. "How oft when men are at the point of death
Have they been merry! which their keepers call
A lightning before death."

_Romeo and Juliet_, Act v. Sc. 3.

2. "C'etait le jour de Noel [1759]. Je m'etais leve d'assez bonne heure,
et avec une humeur plus gaie que de coutume. Dans les idees de vieille
femme, cela presage toujours quelque chose do triste.... Pour cette fois
pourtunt le hasard justifia la croyance."--_Memoires de J. Casanova_,
vol. iii p. 29.

3. "Upon Saturday last ... the Duke did rise up, in a well-disposed
humour, out of his bed, and cut a caper or two.... Lieutenant Felton
made a thrust with a common tenpenny knife, over Fryer's arm at the
Duke, which lighted so fatally, that he slit his heart in two, leaving
the knife sticking in the body."--_Death of Duke of Buckingham_; Howell.
_Fam. Letters_, Aug. 5, 1628.

4. "On this fatal evening [Feb. 20, 1435], the revels of the court were
kept up to a late hour ... the prince himself appears to have been in
unusually gay and cheerful spirits. He even jested, if we may believe
the cotemporary manuscript, about a prophecy which had declared that a
king should that year be slain."--_Death of King James I_.; Tytler,
_Hist. Scotland_, vol. iii. p. 306.

5. "'I think,' said the old gardener to one of the maids, 'the gauger's
_fie_;' by which word the common people express those violent spirits
which they think a presage of death."--_Guy Mannering_, chap. 9.

6. "H.W.L." said: "I believe the bodies of the four persons seen by the
jury, were those of G.B., W.B., J.B., and T.B. On Friday night they were
all very merry, and Mrs. B. said she feared something would happen
before they went to bed, because they were so happy."--_Evidence given
at inquest on bodies of four persons killed by explosion of
firework-manufactory in Bermondsey_, Friday, Oct. 12, 1849. See _Times_,
Oct. 17, 1849.

Nos. 1, 2, 5, 6, are evidently notices of the Belief; Nos. 3, 4, are
"what you will." Many of your correspondents may be able to supply
earlier and more curious illustrations.


June 19.

* * * * *


Most, if not all, of your readers have heard of the newly-invented
machine for hatching and rearing in chickens, without the maternal aid
of the hen; probably many of them have paid a visit (and a _shilling_)
at No. 4. Leicester Square, where the incubator is to be seen in full
operation. The following extract will, therefore, be acceptable, as it
tends to show the truth of the inspired writer's words, "There is no new
thing under the sun:"--

"Therefore ... it were well we made our remarks in some
creatures, that might be continually in our power, to observe in
them the course of nature, every day and hour. Sir _John
Heydon_, the Lieutenant of his Majesties Ordnance (that generous
and knowing gentleman and consummate souldier, both in theory
and practice) was the first that instructed me how to do this,
by means of a furnace, so made as to imitate the warmth of a
sitting hen. In which you may lay several eggs to hatch and by
breaking them at several ages, you may distinctly observe every
hourly mutation in them, if you please. The first will be, that
on one side you shall find a great resplendent clearness in the
white. After a while, a little spot of red matter, like blood
will appear in the midst of that clearness, fast'ned to the
yolk, which will have a motion of opening and shutting, so as
sometimes you will see it, and straight again it will vanish
from your sight, and indeed, at first it is so little that you
cannot see it, but by the motion of it; for at every pulse, as
it opens you may see it, and immediately again it shuts, in such
sort as it is not to be discerned. From this red speck, after a
while, there will stream out a number of little (almost
imperceptible) red veins. At the end of some of which, in time,
there will be gathered together a knot of matter, which by
little and little will take the form of a head and you will, ere
long, begin to discern eyes and a beak in it. All this while the
first red spot of blood grows bigger and solider, till at length
it becomes {85} a fleshy substance, and, by its figure, may easily
be discern'd to be the heart; which as yet hath no other inclosure
but the substance of the egg. But by little and little, the rest
of the body of an animal is framed out of those red veins which
stream out all about from the heart. And in process of time,
that body encloses the heart within it by the chest, which grows
over on both sides, and in the end meets and closes itself fast
together. After which this little creature soon fills the shell,
by converting into several parts of itself all the substance of
the egg; and then growing weary of so strait a habitation, it
breaks prison and comes out a perfectly formed chicken."--Sir
Kenelm Digby's _Treatise of Bodies_, Ch. xxiv. p. 274. ed. 1669.

Could Sir Kenelm return to the scenes of this upper world, and pay a
visit to Mr. Cantelo's machine, his shade might say with truthfulness,
what Horace Smith's mummy answered to his questioner,--

"--We men of yore
Were versed in all the knowledge you can mention."

The operations of the two machines appear to be precisely the same: the
only difference being the Sir Kenelm's was an experimental one, made for
the purpose of investigating the process of nature; while Cantelo's, in
accordance with "the spirit of the iron time," is a practical one, made
for the purposes of utility and profit. Sir Kenelm's Treatise appears to
have been first published in the year 1644.


Corpus Christi Hall, Maidstone.

* * * * *


It has been observed by a learned annotator on the _Commentaries of
Blackstone_, that, "no inconsiderable pains have been bestowed in
analysing the word 'Parliament;'" and after adducing several amusing
instances of the attempts that have been made (and those too by men of
the most recondite learning) to arrive at its true radical properties,
he concludes his remarks by observing that

"'Parliament' imported originally nothing more than a council or
conference, and that the termination '_ment_,' in parliament,
has no more signification than it has in _impeachment_,
_engagement_, _imprisonment_, _hereditament_, and ten thouand
others of the same nature."

He admits, however, that the civilians have, in deriving testament from
_testari mentem_, imparted a greater significance to the termination
"ment." Amidst such diversity of opinion, I am emboldened to offer a
solution of the word "Parliament," which, from its novelty alone, if
possessing no better qualification, may perhaps recommend itself to the
consideration of your readers. In my humble judgment, all former
etymologists of the word appear to have stumbled _in limine_, for I
would suggest that its compounds are "_palam_" and "_mens_."

With the Romans there existed a law that in certain cases the verdict of
the jury might be given CLAM VEL PALAM, viz., _privily_ or _openly_, or
in other words, by _tablet_ or _ballot_, or by _voices_. Now as the
essence of a Parliament or council of the people was its representative
character, and as secrecy would be inconsistent with such a character,
it was doubtless a _sine qua non_ that its proceedings should be
conducted "_palam_," in an open manner. The absence of the letter "_r_"
may possibly be objected to, but a moment's reflection will cast it into
the shade, the classical pronunciation of the word _palam_ being the
same as if spelt _PARlam_; and the illiterate state of this country when
the word Parliament was first introduced would easily account for a
_phonetic_ style of orthography. The words enumerated by Blackstone's
annotator are purely of English composition, and have no _correspondent_
in the dead languages; whilst _testament_, _sacrament_, _parliament_,
and many others, are Latin words Anglicised by dropping the termination
"_um_"--a great distinction as regards the relative value of words,
which the learned annotator seems to have overlooked. "_Mentum_" is
doubtless the offspring of "_mens_", signifying the mind, thought,
deliberation, opinion; and as we find "_palam populo_" to mean "_in the
sight of the people_," so, without any great stretch of imagination, may
we interpret "_palam mente_" into "_freedom of thought or of
deliberation_" or "_an open expression of opinion_:" the essential
qualities of a representative system, and which our ancestors have been
careful to hand down to posterity in a word, viz., _Parliament_.


* * * * *


I should be sorry to see this fine old _proverb in metaphor_ passed over
with no better notice than that which seems to have been assigned to it
in Boswell's _Johnson_.

Erasmophilos, a correspondent of the _Gentleman's Magazine_ in 1774,
quotes a passage from Dr. Jortin's _Life of Erasmus_, vol. ii. p. 151.,
which supplies the following particulars, viz.:--

1. That the line was first discovered by Galeottus Martius of Narni,
A.D. 1476.

2. That it is in lib. v. 301. of the "Alexandreis," a poem in _ten_
books, by Philippe Gualtier (commonly called "de Chatillon," though in
reality a native of Lille, in Flanders).

3. That the context of the passage in which it occurs is as follows:--

"-- Quo tendis inertem
Rex periture, fugam? Nescis, heu perdite, nescis
Quem fugias: hostes incurris dum fugis hostem.
Incidis in Scyllam, cupiens vitare Charybdim."

where the poet apostrophises Darius, who, while {86} flying from
Alexander, fell into the lands of Bessus. (See _Selections from Gent.
Mag_. vol. ii. p. 199. London, 1814.)


This celebrated Latin verse, which has become proverbial, has a very
obscure authority, probably not known to many of your readers. It is
from Gualtier de Lille, as has been remarked by Galeottus Martius and
Paquier in their researches. This Gualtier flourished in the thirteenth
century. The verse is extracted from a poem in ten books, called the
"Alexandriad," and it is the 301st of the 5th book; it relates to the
fate of Darius, who, flying from Alexander, fell into the hands of
Bessus. It runs thus:--

"-- Quo flectis inertem
Rex periture, fugam? Nescis, heu perdite, nescis,
Quem fugias; hostes incurris dum fugis hostem;
_Incidis in Scyllam, cupiens vitare Charybdim_"

As honest JOHN BUNYAN, to his only bit of Latin which he quotes, places
a marginal note: "The Latin which I borrow,"--a very honest way; so I I
beg to say that I never saw this "Alexandriad," and that the above is an
excerpt from _Menagiana_, pub. 1715, edited by Bertrand de la Monnoie,
wherein may also be found much curious reading and research.


* * * * *


Sir Walter Scott, in a letter to Miss Johanna Baillie, dated October 12,
1825, (Lockhart's _Life of Sir W. S._, vol. vi. p. 82.), says,--

"I well intended to have written from Ireland, but alas! as some
stern old divine says, 'Hell is paved with good intentions.'
There was such a whirl of laking, and boating, and wondering,
and shouting, and laughing, and carousing--" [He alludes to his
visiting among the Westmoreland and Cumberland lakes on his way
home, especially] "so much to be seen, and so little time to see
it; so much to be heard, and only two ears to listen to twenty
voices, that upon the whole I grew desperate, and gave up all
thoughts of doing what was right and proper on post-days, and so
all my epistolary good intentions are gone to Macadamise, I
suppose, 'the burning marle' of the infernal regions."

How easily a showy absurdity is substituted for a serious truth, and
taken for granted to be the right sense. Without having been there, I
may venture to affirm that "Hell is _not_ paved with good intentions,
such things being _all lost or dropt on the way_ by travellers who reach
that bourne;" for, where "Hope never comes," "good intentions" cannot
exist any more than they can be formed, since to fulfil them were
impossible. The authentic and emphatical figure in the saying is, "The
_road_ to hell is paved with good intentions;" and it was uttered by the
"stern old divine," whoever he might be, as a warning _not_ to let "good
intentions" miscarry for want of being realized at the time and upon the
spot. The moral, moreover, is manifestly this, that people may be going
to hell with "the best intentions in the world," substituting all the
while _well-meaning_ for _well-doing_.



* * * * *


As in small matters accuracy is of vital consequence, let me correct a
mistake which I made, writing in a hurry, in my last communication about
the two Gorings (Vol. ii., p. 65.). The Earl of Norwich was not under
sentence of death, as is there stated, on January 8, 1649. He was then a
prisoner: he was not tried and sentenced till March.[2]

The following notice of the son's quarrels with his brother cavaliers
occurs in a letter printed in Carte's bulky appendix to his bulky _Life
of the Duke of Ormond_. As this is an unread book, you may think it
worth while to print the passage, which is only confirmatory of
Clarendon's account of the younger Goring's proceedings in the West of
England in 1645. The letter is from Arthur Trevor to Ormond, and dated
Launceston, August 18, 1645.

"Mr. Goring's army is broken and all his men in disorder. He
hates the council here, and I find plainly there is no love
lost; they fear he will seize on the Prince, and he, that they
will take him: what will follow hereupon may be foretold,
without the aid of the wise woman on the bank. Sir John
Colepeper was at Court lately to remove him, to the discontent
of many. In short, the war is at an end in the West; each one
looks for a ship, and nothing more.

"Lord Digby and Mr. Goring are not friends; Prince Rupert yet
goes with Mr. Goring, but how long that will hold, I dare not
undertake, knowing both their constitutions."

It will be observed that the writer of the letter, though a cavalier,
here calls him _Mr. Goring_, when as his father was created Earl of
Norwich in the previous year, he was _Lord Goring_ in cavalier

He is indiscriminately called Mr. Goring and Lord Goring in passages of
letters by cavaliers relating to the campaign in the West of 1645, which
occur in Carte's _Collection of Letters_ (vol. i. pp. 59, 60. 81. 86.).

A number of letters about the son, Lord Goring's proceedings in the West
in 1645 are printed in the third volume of Mr. Lister's _Life of Lord

The Earl of Norwich's second son, Charles, who afterwards succeeded as
second earl, commanded a {87} brigade under his brother in the West in
1645. (Bulstrode's _Memoirs_, p. 142.; Carte's _Letters_, i. 116. 121.)

Some account of the father, Earl of Norwich's operations against the
parliament in Essex in 1648, is given in a curious autobiography of
Arthur Wilson, the author of the _History of James I_., which is printed
in Peck's _Desiderata Curiosa_, book xi. part 5. Wilson was living at
the time in Essex.

An interesting fragment of a letter from Goring the son to the Earl of
Dorset, written apparently as he was on the point of retiring into
France, and dated Pondesfred, January 26, 1646, is printed in Mr. Eliot
Warburton's _Memoirs of Prince Rupert_, iii. 215.

Mr. Warburton, by the way, clearly confounds the father with the son
when he speaks of the Earl of Norwich's trial and reprieve (iii. 408.).
Three letters printed in Mr. W.'s second volume (pp. 172. 181, 182.),
and signed "Goring", are probably letters of the father's, but given by
Mr. Warburton to the son.

I perceive also that Mr. Bell, the editor of the lately published
_Fairfax Correspondence_, has not avoided confusion between the father
and son. In the first volume of the correspondence relating to the civil
war (p. 281.), the editor says, under date January, 1646,--

"Lord Hopton in the meanwhile has been appointed to the command
in Cornwall, superseding Goring. Also has been sent off on
several negociations to France."

Goring went off to France on his own account; his father was at that
time Charles I.'s ambassador at the court of France.

I should like to know the year in which a letter of Goring the son's,
printed by Mr. Bell in vol. i. p. 23., was written, if it can be
ascertained. As printed, it is dated "Berwick, June 22." Is _Berwick_
right? Is there a bath there? The letter is addressed to Sir Constantine
Huygens, and in it is this passage--

"I have now my lameness so much renewed that I cannot come to
clear myself; as soon as the bath has restored me to my
strength, I shall employ it in his Highness's service, if he
please to let me return into the same place of his favour that I
thought myself happy in before."

I should expect that this letter was written from France after Goring's
abrupt retreat into that country. It is stated that the letter comes
from Mr. Bentley's collection.

The Earl of Norwich was in Flanders in November 1569, and accompanied
the Dukes of York and Gloucester from Brussels to Breda. (Carte's
_Letters_, ii. 282.)


If the following account of the Goring family given by Banks (_Dormant
and Extinct Peerage_, vol. iii. p. 575.) is correct, it will appear that
the father and both his sons were styled at different times. "Lord
Goring," and that they may very easily be distinguished.

"George Goring, of Hurstpierpont, Sussex, the son of George
Goring, and Anne his wife, sister to Edward Lord Denny,
afterwards Earl of Norwich, was created Baron Goring in the
fourth of Charles I., and in the xx'th of the same reign
advanced to the earldom of Norwich, which had become extinct by
the death of his maternal uncle above-mentioned, S.P.M.

"He betrayed Portsmouth, of which he was governor, to the king,
and rendered him many other signal services. He married Mary,
one of the daughters of Edward Nevill, vi'th Baron of
Abergavenny, and had issue four daughters, and two sons, the
eldest of whom, George, was an eminent commander for Charles I.,
and best _known as 'General Goring_,' and who, after the loss of
the crown to his royal master, retired to the Continent, and
served with credit as lieutenant-general to the King of Spain.
He married Lettice, daughter of Richard Earl of Cork, and died
abroad, S.P., in _the lifetime of his father_, who survived till
1662, and was succeeded by _his only remaining son_, Charles
Lord Goring, and second Earl of Norwich, with whom, as he left
no issue by his wife, daughter of ---- Leman, and widow of Sir
Richard Beker, all his honours became extinct in 1672. He was
unquestionably the Lord Goring noticed by Pepys as returning to
England in 1660, and not the old peer his father, who, if
described by any title, would have been styled 'Earl of


July 1, 1850.

[Footnote 2: Let me also correct a misprint. Banks, the author of the
_Dormant and Extinct Perrage_, is misprinted Burke.]

* * * * *



I met lately with a quarto volume of poems printed at London in 1679,

"_Lucida Intevalla_ containing divers miscellaneous Poems
written at Finsbury and Bethlem, by the Doctor's Patient

On the title-page was written in an old hand the native of the "patient
extraordinary" and author _James Carkasse_, and that of the "doctor"
_Thomas Allen_. A little reading convinced me that the writer was a very
fit subject for a lunatic asylum; but at page 5, I met with an allusion
to the celebrated Mr. Pepys, which I will beg to quote:--

"Get thee behind me then, dumb devil, begone,
The Lord hath eppthatha said to my tongue,
Him I must praise who open'd hath my lips,
Sent me from Navy, to the Ark, by Pepys;
By Mr. Pepys, who hath my rival been
For the Duke's[3] favour, more than years thirteen;
But I excluded, he high and fortunate,
This Secretary I could never mate; {88}
But Clerk of th' Acts, if I'm a parson, then
I shall prevail, the voice outdoes the pen;
Though in a gown, this challenge I may make,
And wager win, save if you can, your stake.
To th' Admiral I all submit, and vail--"

The book from which I extract is _cropped_, so that the last line is
illegible. Can the noble editor of Pepys' _Diary_, or any of your
readers, inform me who and what was this Mr. James Carkasse?


[Footnote 3: The Duke of York, afterwards James II.]

* * * * *


_Epigrams on the Universities_.--There are two clever epigrams on the
circumstance, I believe, of Charles I. sending a troop of horse to one
of the universities, about the same time that he presented some books to
the other.

The sting of the first, if I recollect right, is directed against the
university to which the books were sent, the king--

"--right well discerning,
How much that loyal body wanted learning."

The reply which this provoked, is an attack on the other university, the
innuendo being that the troops were sent there--

"Because that learned body wanted loyalty."

I quote from memory.

Can any of your readers, through the medium of your valuable paper,
favour me with the correct version of the epigrams, and with the
particular circumstances which gave rise to them?



_Lammas Day_.--Why was the 1st of August called "Lammas Day?" Two
definitions are commonly given to the word "Lammas." 1. That it may mean
_Loaf-mass_. 2. That it may be a word having some allusion to St. Peter,
as the patron of _Lambs_.

O'Halloran, however, in his _History of Ireland_, favours us with
another definition; upon the value of which I should be glad of the
opinion of some of your learned contributors. Speaking of Lughaidh, he

"From this prince the month of August was called Lughnas
(Lunas), from which the English adopted the name _Lammas_, for
the 1st day of August."


_Mother Grey's Apples_.--At the time I was a little girl,--you will not,
I am sure, be ungallant enough to inquire when that was, when I tell you
I am now a woman,--I remember that the nursery maid, whose duty it was
to wait upon myself and sisters, invariably said, if she found us out of
temper--"So, so! young ladies, you are in the sulks, eh? Well, sulk
away; you'll be like 'Mother Grey's apples,' you'll be sure to come
round again." We often inquired, on the return of fine weather, who
Mother Grey was, and what were the peculiar circumstances of the apples
coming round?--questions, however, which were always evaded. Now, as the
servant was a Cambridge girl, and had a brother a _gyp_, or bedmaker, at
one of the colleges, besides her uncle keeping the tennis court there, I
have often thought there must have been some college legend or tradition
in Alma Mater, of Mother Grey and her apples. Will any of your learned
correspondents, should it happen to fall within their knowledge, take
pity on the natural curiosity of the sex, by furnishing its details?


_Jewish Music_.--What was the precise character of the _Jewish music_,
both before and after David? And what variety of musical instruments had
the Jews?


_The Plant "Haemony_."--Can any of your readers furnish information of,
or reference to the plant _Haemony_, mentioned in Milton's _Comus_, l.

"--a small unsightly root,
But of divine effect,...
The leaf was darkish, and had prickles on it,
But in another country, as he said,
_Bore a bright golden flower, but not in this soil:_
--More medicinal is it than that Moly,
That Hermes once to wise Ulysses gave;
He called it _Haemony_, and gave it me,
And bade me keep it as of sov'reign use
'Gainst all enchantments," &c. &c.

The Moly that Hermes to Ulysses gave, is the wild garlick, [Greek: molu]
by some thought the wild rue. (_Odyss_. b. x. 1. 302.) It is the [Greek:
moluza] of Hippocrates, who recommends it to be eaten as an antidote
against drunkenness. But of _Haemony_ I have been unable to find any
reference among our ordinary medical authorities, Paulus Aeginata,
Celsus, Galen, or Dioscorides. A short note of reference would be very
instructive to many of the readers of Milton.


17. Chester Street, Belgrave Square.

_Ventriloquism_.--What evidence is there, that _ventriloquism_ was made
use of in the ancient oracles? Was the [Greek: pneuma puthonos] (Acts,
xvi. 16.) an example of the exercise of this art? Was the Witch of Endor
a ventriloquist? or what is meant by the word [Greek: eggastrimuthos] at
Isai. xix. 3., in the Septuagint?

"Plutarch informs us," says Rollin (_Ancient History_, vol. i. p. 65.),
"that the god did not compose the verses of the oracle. He inflamed the
Pythia's imagination, and kindled in her soul that living light which
unveiled all futurity to her. The words she uttered in the heat of her
enthusiam, having neither method nor connection, and coming only by
starts, to use that expression [Greek: eggastrimuthos] from the bottom
of her stomach, or rather from her belly, were collected {89} with care
by the prophets, who gave them afterwards to the poets to be turned into

If the Pythian priestess was really a ventriloquist, to what extent was
she conscious of the deception she practised?


_Statue of French King, Epigram on_.--Can any of your readers inform me
who was the author of the following epigram, written on the occasion of
an equestrian statue of a French king attended by the Virtues being
erected in Paris:--

"O la belle statue! O le beau Piedestal!
Les Vertus sont a pied, le Vice est a cheval!"


_Lux Fiat_.--Who was the first Christian or Jewish writer by whom _lux
fiat_ was referred to the creation of the _angels_?


_Hiring of Servants_.--At Maureuil, in the environs of Abbeville, a
practice has long existed of hiring servants in the market-place on
festival days. I have observed the same custom in various parts of
England, and particularly in the midland counties. Can any of your
correspondents inform me of the origin of this?



_Book of Homilies_.--Burnet, in his _History of the Reformation in anno
1542_, says,--

"A Book of Homilies was printed, in which the Gospels and Epistles of
all the Sundays and Holidays of the year were set down with a _Homily to
every one of these_. To these were also added Sermons upon several
occasions, as for _Weddings_, _Christenings_, and _Funerals_."

Can any learned clerk inform me where a copy of such Homilies can be


_Collar of SS_.--Where can we find _much_ about the SS. collar? Is there
any list extant of persons who were honoured with that badge?


_Rainbow_.--By what heathen poet is the _rainbow_ spoken of as "risus
plorantis Olympi?"


_Passage in Lucan_.--What parallel passages are there to that of

"Communis mundo superest rogus, ossibus astra


_William of Wykeham_.--Is there any better Life of William of Wykeham
than the very insufficient one of Bishop Lowth?

What were the circumstances of the rise of William of Wykeham,
respecting which Lowth is so very scanty and unsatisfactory?

Where did William of Wykeham get the wealth with which he built and
endowed New College, Oxon, and St. Mary's, Winchester; and rebuilt
Winchester Cathedral?

What are the present incomes of New College, and St Mary's, Winchester?

Is there a copy of the Statutes of these colleges in the British Museum,
or in any other public library?


April 22, 1850.

_Richard Baxter's Descendants_.--Can any of your correspondents inform
me of the whereabouts of the descendants of the celebrated Richard
Baxter? He was a Northamptonshire man, but I think his family removed
into some county in the west.


_Passage in St. Peter_.--Besides the well-known passage in the
_Tempest_, what _Christian_ writers have used any kindred expression to
2 Pet. iii. 10.?


8. Park Place, Oxford, June 1. 1850.

_Juice-cups_.--Is it beneath the dignity of "NOTES AND QUERIES" to admit
an inquiry respecting the philosophy and real effect of placing an
inverted cup in a fruit pie? The question is not about the _object_, but
whether that object is, or can be, effected by the means employed.


Derivation of "Yote" or "Yeot."--What is the derivation of the word
"yote" or "yeot," a term used in Glocestershire and Somersetshire, for
"leading in" iron work to stone?


_Pedigree of Greene Family_.--At Vol. i., p. 200., reference is made to
"a fine Pedigree on vellum, of the Greene family, penes T. Wotton, Esq."

Can any person inform me who now possesses the said pedigree, or is
there a copy of it which may be consulted?

One John Greene, of Enfield, was clerk to the New River Company: he died
1705, and was buried at Enfield. He married Elizabeth Myddelton,
grand-daughter of Sir Hugh. I wish to find out the birth and parentage
of the said John Greene and shall be _thankful_, if I may say so much,
without adding too much to the length of my Query.


_Family of Love_.--Referring to Dr. RIMBAULT'S communication on the
subject of this sect (Vol. ii., p. 49.), will you allow me to inquire
whether there is any evidence that its members deserved Fuller's severe
condemnation? Queen Elizabeth might consider them a "damnable sect," if
they were believed to hold heterodox opinions in religion and politics;
but were their lives or their writings immoral?


_Sir Gammer Vans_.--Can any one give any account of a comic story about
one "_Sir Gammer Vans_," of whom, amongst other absurdities, it is said
"_that his aunt was a justice of peace, and his sister a captain of
horse_"? It is alluded to somewhere {90} in Swift's _Letters_ or
_Miscellanies_; and I was told by a person whose recollection, added to
my own, goes back near a hundred years, that it was supposed to be a
_political satire_, and may have been of Irish origin, as I think there
is some allusion to it in one of Goldsmith's plays or essays.


* * * * *



Probably some of the readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES" will share in the
surprise expressed by E.S.S.W. (Vol. ii., p. 6.), yet many persons now
living must remember when spectacles such as he alludes to were by no
means uncommon. An examination of the newspapers and other periodicals
of the latter half of the eighteenth century would supply numerous
instances in which the punishment of strangling and burning was
inflicted; as well in cases of petit treason, for the murder of a
husband, as more frequently in cases of coining, which, as the law then
stood, was one species of high treason. I had collected a pretty long
list from the _Historical Chronicle_ in the earlier volumes of the
_Gentleman's Magazine_, but thought it scarcely of sufficient importance
to merit insertion in "NOTES AND QUERIES." Perhaps, however, the
following extracts may possess some interest: one as showing the manner
in which executions of this kind were latterly performed in London, and
the other as apparently furnishing an instance of later date than that
which Mr. Ross considers the last in which this barbarous punishment was
inflicted. The first occurs in the 56th vol. of the Magazine, Part 1. P.
524., under the date of the 21st June, 1786--

"This morning, the malefactors already mentioned were all
executed according to their sentence. About a quarter of an hour
after the platform had dropped, Phoebe Harris, the female
convict, was led by two officers to a stake about eleven feet
high, fixed in the ground, near the top of which was an inverted
curve made of irons, to which one end of a halter was tied. The
prisoner stood on a low stool, which, after the ordinary had
prayed with her a short time, was taken away, and she hung
suspended by the neck, her feet being scarcely more than twelve
or fourteen inches from the pavement. Soon after the signs of
life had ceased, two cartloads of faggots were placed round her
and set on fire; the flames soon burning the halter, she then
sunk a few inches, but was supported by an iron chain passed
over her chest and affixed to the stake."

The crime for which this woman suffered was coining. Probably the method
of execution here related was adopted in consequence of the horrible
occurrence narrated by Mr. Ross.

In vol. lix. of the same Magazine, Part 1. p. 272, under the date of the
_18th of March_, 1789, is an account of the executions of nine
malefactors at Newgate; and amongst them,--

"Christian Murphy, alias Bowman, for coining, was brought out
after the rest were turned off, and fixed to a stake, and burnt,
being first strangled by the stool being taken from under her."

From the very slight difference in dates, I am inclined to think that
this is the same case with that alluded to by Mr. Ross.


June 24, 1850.

* * * * *

(Vol. i. p. 383.)

Your correspondent L.C. has started a most interesting inquiry, and your
readers must, I am sure, join with me in regretting that he should have
been so laconic in the third division of his Query; and have failed to
refer to, even if he did not quote, the passages from "late Greek," in
which "horns" are mentioned as a symbol of a husband's dishonor. The
earliest notice of this symbolical use of horns is, I believe, to be
found in the _Oneirocritica_ of Artemidorus, who lived during the reign
of Hadrian, A.D. 117-138:

[Greek: "Pepi de ippon en to peri agonon logo proeiraeiai. Elege de tis
theasameno tini epi kriou kathaemenpo, kai pesonti ex autou ek ton
euprosthen, mnaesteuomeno de kai mellonti en autais tais haemerais tous
gamous epetelein, proeipein auto hoti hae gunae sou porneusei, kai kata
to legomenon, kerata soi poiaesei kai outos apethae, k.t.l."--Artem.
_Oneirocritica_, lib. ii, cap. 12.]

See Menage, _Origines de la Langue Francoise_, Paris, 1650, in verb.
"Cornard." I have only seen Reiff's edition of Artemidorus, 8vo. Lipsiae,
1805. His illustrations of the passage (far too numerous to be quoted)
seem to be curious, and likely to repay the reader for the trouble of
examination. His note commences with a reference to Olaus Borrichius,
_Antiqua Urb. Rom. facies_:--

"Alexander Magnus ....successores ejus..... in nummis omnes
cornuti quasi Jovii, honore utique manifesto, donee cornuum
decus in ludibria uxoriorum vertit somnorum interpres

On which he observes,--

"Bene. Nam ante Artimidorium nullus, quod sciam, hujus scommatis
mentionem fecit. Quod enim Traug. Fred. Benedict. ad Ciceron.
_Epist. ad Div._ 7.24. ad voc. 'Cipius' conjecit, id paullo
audientus mihi videtur conjecisse."

I have not succeeded in obtaining a sight of this edition of the
Epistles. And I should feel much obliged to any one who would quote the
"conjecture," and so enable your readers to gauge its "audacity" for
themselves. Is it not odd that Reiff should have made no remark on the
utter want of connection between the "honor manifestus," and the
"ludibria" of Olaus? or on the [Greek: kata to legomenon] of the author
that he was illustrating? {91} Artemidorus may certainly have been the
first who _recorded_ the _scomma_; but the words [Greek: kata to
legomenon] would almost justify us supposing that

"--The horn
Was a crest ere he was born."

Menage (referred to above) evidently lays some stress on the following
epigram, as an illustration of the question:--

[Greek: "Ostis eso purous katalambanei ouk agorazon,
Keinou Amaltheias hae gunae esti keras."]

Parmenon. _Anthol._ lib. ii.

But I confess that I am utterly unable to see its point and therefore
cannot, of course, trace its connection with the subject. Falstaff, it
is true, speaks of the "horn of abundance," but then he assigns it to
the husband, and makes the "lightness of the wife shine through it."
(_K. Henry IV._ Act i. Sc. 2., on which see Warburton's note.)


Temple, April 25.

L.C. may find the following references of service to him in his inquiry
into the origin of this expression:--"Solanus ad Luc. D.M. 1. 2.; Jacobs
ad Lucill. Epigr. 9.; Belin. ad Lucian, t. iii. p. 326.; Huschk. _Anal._
p. 168.; Lambec. ad Codin. Sec. 126.; Nodell in _Diario Class._ t. x. p.
157.; Bayl. _Dict._ in Junone, not. E." Boissonade's note in his
_Anecdotae_, vol. iii. p. 140.


Marlborough College.

* * * * *


_Shipster_ (Vol. ii., p. 30.).--If C. B. will consult Dr. Latham's
_English Language_, 2nd ed., he will find that the termination _ster_ is
not merely a _notion_ of Tyrwhitt's, but a fact. Sempstress has a
_double_ feminine termination. _Spinster_ is the only word in the
present English which retains the old feminine meaning of the
termination _ster_.


_Three Dukes_ (Vol. ii., p. 9.).--I should like a more satisfactory
answer to this Query than that I given by C. (Vol. ii., p. 46.). I can
give the I names of _two_ of the Dukes (viz. Monmouth and Albermarle);
but who was the _third_, and where can a _detailed account_ of the
transaction be found? In Wades' _British History chronologically
arranged_, 3rd edit. p. 230, is the following paragraph under the date
of Feb. 28, 1671 (that is, 1670-1):--

"The Duke of Monmouth, who had contrived the outrage on
Coventry, in a drunken frolic with the young Duke of Albemarle
and others, deliberately kills a ward-beadle. Charles, to save
his son, pardoned all the murderers."

The date given in the _State Poems_ is Sunday
morning, Feb. 26th, 1670-71. Mr. Lister, in his
_Life of Edward, Earl of Clarendon_ (vol. ii. p. 492.),
alludes to the affair:--

"The King's illegitimate son Monmouth, in company with the young
Duke of Albemarle and others, kills a watchman, who begs for
mercy, and the King pardons all the murderers."

C.H. Cooper

Cambridge, June 24, 1850.

_Bishops and their Precedence_ (Vol. ii., p. 9.).--I believe bishops
have their precedence because they are both _temporal_ and _spiritual_
barons. Some I years ago, I took the following note from the
_Gentleman's Mag_. for a year between 1790 and 1800; I cannot say
positively what year (for I was very young at the time, and
unfortunately omitted to "note" it):--

"Every Bishop has a temporal barony annexed to his see. The
Bishop of Durham is Earl of Sudbury and Baron Evenwood; and the
Bishop of Norwich is Baron of Northwalsham."

Query, where may the accounts of the respective baronies of the
bishoprics be found?


_Why Moses represented with Horns_.--Your correspondent H.W. (Vol. i, p.
420.) refers the origin of what he calls the strange practice of making
Moses appear horned to a mistranslation in the Vulgate. I send you an
extract from Coleridge which suggests something more profound the such
an accidental cause; and explains the statement of Rosenmueller (p.
419.), that the Jews attributed horns to Moses "figuratively for

"When I was at Rome, among many other visits to the tomb of
Julius II, I went thither once with a Prussian artist, a man of
great genius and vivacity of feeling. As we were gazing on
Michael Angelo's Moses, our conversation turned on the horns and
beard of that stupendous statue of the necessity of each to
support the other; of the superhuman effect of the former, and
the necessity if the existence of both to give a harmony and
_integrity_ both to the image and the feeling excited by it.
Conceive them removed, and the statue would become _un_natural
without being _super_natural. We called to mind the horns of the
rising sun, and I repeated the noble passage from Taylor's _Holy
Dying_. That horns were the emblem of power and sovereignty
among the Eastern nations; and are still retained as such in
Abyssinia; the Achelous of the ancient Greeks; and the probable
ideas and feelings that originally suggested the mixture of the
human and the brute form in the figure, by which they realised
the idea of their mysterious Pan, as representing intelligence
blended with a darker power, deeper, mightier, and more
universal than the conscious intellect of man; than
intelligence--all these thoughts passed in procession before our
minds."--Coleridge's _Biographia Literaria_, vol. ii. p. 127.
edit. 1817. {92}

[The noble passage from Taylor's _Holy Dying_, which Coleridge
recreated, is subjoined.]

"As when the sun approaches towards the gates of the morning, he
first opens a little eye of heaven, and sends away the spirits
of darkness, and gives light to a cock, and calls up the lark to
matins, and by and bye gilds the fringes of a cloud, and peeps
over the eastern hills, thrusting out his golden horns like
those which decked the brows of Moses, when he was forced to
wear a veil, because himself had seen the face of God; and
still, while a man tells the story, the sun gets up higher, till
he shows a fair face and a full light, and then he shines one
whole day, under a cloud often, and sometimes weeping great and
little showers, and sets quickly; so is a man's reason and his

--Jeremy Taylor's _Holy Dying_.


_Leicester and the reputed Poisoners of his Time_ (Vol. ii., p.
9.).--"The lady who had lost her hair and her nails," an account of whom
is requested by your correspondent H.C., was Lady Douglas, daughter of
William Lord Howard of Effingham, and widow of John Lord Sheffield.
Leicester was married to her after the death of his first wife Anne,
daughter and heir of Sir John Robsart, and had by her a son, the
celebrated Sir Robert Dudley, whose legitimacy, owing to his father's
disowning the marriage with Lady Sheffield, in order to wed Lady Essex,
was afterwards the subject of so much contention. On the publication of
this latter marriage, Lady Douglas, in order, it is said, to secure
herself from any future practices, had, from a dread of being made away
with by Leicester, united herself to Sir Edward Stafford, then
ambassador in France. Full particulars of this double marriage will be
found in Dugdale's _Antiquities of Warwickshire_.

The extract from D'Israeli's _Amenities of Literature_ relates to
charges against Leicester, which will be found at large in _Leicester's
Commonwealth_, written by Parsons the Jesuit,--a work, however, which
must be received with great caution, from the author's well-known enmity
to the Earl of Leicester, and his hatred to the Puritans, who were
protected by that nobleman's powerful influence.



_New Edition of Milton_ (Vol. ii., p. 21.).--The Rev. J. Mitford, as I
have understood, is employed upon a new edition of Milton's works, both
prose and verse, to be published by Mr. Pickering. I may mention, by the
way, that the sentence from Strada, "Cupido gloriae, quae etiam
sapientibus novissima exuitur," which is quoted by Mr. Mitford on
Lycidas, Aldine edition, v. 71. ("Fame, that last infirmity of noble
minds"), is borrowed from Tacitus _Hist_. iv. 6. Compare _Athenaeus_, xi.
15. Sec. 116. p. 507. d., where Plato is represented as saying:--

"[Greek: Eschaton ton taes doxaes chitona en to thanato auto

Will you allow me to add, that the quotation from Seneca in Vol. i., p.
427. Of "NOTES AND QUERIES" is from the _Nat. Quaest. Proef_.


Marlborough College, June 8.

_Christian Captives_ (Vol. i., p. 441.).--There is an unfortunate hiatus
in the accounts of this parish from 1642 to 1679, which prevents my
stating positively the amount of the collection here made; but in 1670,
Jan 1., there occurs the following:--

"Item. To Mr. Day for Copying ouer the fower parts that was
gathered in the parish for the Reliefe of Slaues in Algiears - -
- - 0 2 0"

Mr. Day was curate of Ecclesfield at that time; and in another part of
the book there is, in his handwriting, a subscription list, which,
though only headed "Colected by hous Row for the ..." is more than
probably the copy referred to. From it the totals collected appear to
have been,--

_s_. _d_.
Ecclesfield 6 7-1/2
Greno Firth 13 6
Southey Soke 10 7
Wadsley 4 6
L1 15 2-1/2

The above are the four byerlaws, or divisions of the parish, and the
four churchwardens used separately to collect in their respective
byerlaws; and then a fair copy of the whole was made out by the curate
or schoolmaster. An ordinary collection in church, upon a brief,
averaged 7_s_. 6_d_. at this period.



_Borrowed Thoughts_ (Vol. i., p. 482.).--The number of "NOTES AND
QUERIES" here alluded to has unluckily not reached me; but in Vol. ii.,
p. 30., I observe that your correspondent C., in correcting one error,
has inadvertently committed another. Monsieur de la Palisse is the hero
alluded to in the popular song which was written at the commencement of
the eighteenth century by Bernard de la Monnoye, upon the old ballad,
composed after the battle of Pavia, and commencing,--

"Helas! La Palice est mort,
Il est mort devant Pavie;
Helas! s'il n'estait pas mort,
Il serait encore en vie!"



_North Sides of Churchyards_ (Vol. ii., p. 55.).--A portion of many
churchyards is said to have been left unconsecrated, though not to be
used as playground for the youth of the parish, but for the burial of
excommunicated persons. This was {93} not, however, always on the north
side of the church, as is evident from the following extract from the
Register of Hart, Durham:--

"Dec. 17. 1596, Ellen Thompson, Fornicatrix (and then
excommunicated), was buried of ře people in ře chaer at the
entrance unto ře řeate or stile of ře churchyard, on the east

Nor is the north side of the church always the less favourite part for
burial. I could name many instances where this is the only part used.

The churchyard now within two hundred yards of me contains about an acre
of ground; the larger portion of which lies to the south of the church,
but has been very little used for sepulture till of late years, though
the churchyard is very ancient. Even now the poor have an objection to
bury their friends there. I believe the prejudice is always in favour of
the part next the town or village; that on the other side of the church
being generally called "the backside."

I find various notices of excommunicated persons being very strangely
buried, and in extraordinary places, but I have not as yet met with any
act or injunction on the subject. If any of your readers can supply such
a document, it would be extremely interesting and useful.



_Monastery, Arrangement of one_ (Vol. i., p. 452.),--A.P.H., who
requests any information respecting the extent, arrangement, and uses of
a monastic building, has doubtless consulted Fosbroke's _British



_Churchyards, Epitaphs_ (Vol. ii., p. 56.).--I beg to submit the
following observations in answer to the Queries under this head.

Fairs, and also markets, were held in churchyards until put a stop to in
1285 by an enactment in the 13 Edw. I. c. 6:--

"E communde le rey e defend qe feire ne marche ne seient tenuz
en cimeter pur honur de seint eglise."

Previous to the passing of this act, the king had forbidden the keeping
of Northampton fair in the church or churchyard of All Saints in that
town; and Bishop Grostete, following the monarch's example, had sent
instructions through the whole diocese of Lincoln, prohibiting fairs to
be kept in such sacred places. (See Burn's _Eccl. Law_, tit. "Church,"
ed. 1788.) Fairs and markets were usually held on Sunday, until the 27
Hen. VI. c. 5. ordered the discontinuing of this custom, with trifling
exceptions. Appended to the fourth Report of the Lincolnshire
Architectural Society is a paper by Mr. Bloxan on "Churchyard
Monuments," from which it appears that in the churchyards of Cumberland
and Cornwall, and in those of Wales, are several crosses, considered to
be as early as, if not earlier than, the twelfth century: that in the
churchyards of the Isle of Man are other crosses of various dates, from
the eighth to the twelfth century and that in some of the churchyards in
Kent, of which those of Chartham, Godmersham, and Godneston are
specified, there are remaining some of the most simple headstone crosses
that can be imagined, most of which the writer apprehends to be of the
twelfth or thirteenth century, though he adds, "there is no sufficient
reason why they should not be of later date." Several other instances
between the periods particularised are also given. The Report is not
published, but perhaps a copy might be obtained from the printer, W.
Edwards, Corn Market, Louth. See further the _Archaeological Journal_,
passim, and Mr. Cutt's work on _Sepulchral Crosses and Slabs_. The
privilege of sanctuary was taken from churchyards, as well as from all
other places, in 1623, by the 21 Jac. I. c. 28., which provides,

"That no sanctuary or privilege of sanctuary shall be hereafter
admitted or allowed in any case" (sec. 7.).


_Umbrella_ (Vol. i., p. 415; vol. ii., p. 25.).--Seeing that the Query
respecting this useful article of domestic economy has been
satisfactorily answered, may I be allowed to mention that umbrellas are
described by the ancients as marks of distinction. Pausanias and
Hesychius report that at Alea, a city of Arcadia, a feast called Scieria
was celebrated in honour of Bacchus, in which the statue of the rosy god
was carried in procession, crowned with vine leaves, and placed upon an
ornamental litter, in which was seated a young girl carrying an
umbrella, to indelicate the majesty of the god. On several bas-reliefs
from Persepolis, the king is represented under an umbrella, which a
female holds over his head.



_English Translations of Erasmus' "Encomium Moriae"_ (Vol. i., p.
385.).--Perhaps JARLZBERG, who seems interested in the various
translations of this admirable work, might like to know of a French
translation, with designs from Holbein, which I purchased some weeks ago
at a sale in a provincial French town. It is entitled _L'Eloge de la
Folie, compose en forme de Declaration par Erasme, et traduit par Mr.
Guendeville, avec les Notes de Gerard Listre, et les belles Figures de
Holbein; le tout sur l'Oiginal de l'Academie de Bale_. Amsterdam, chez
Francois l'Honore. 1735.



_Lady Slingsby_ (Vol. ii., p. 71.).--She was a professional actress, who
played under the name of _Mrs_. (probably _Miss_) _Mary Lee_, from about
1672 to 1680, after which date she is called _Lady_ {94} _Slingsby_, and
she played under this title for about five years, when she seems to have
quitted the stage. She survived her husband, for "Dame Mary Slingsby,
_widow_, of St. James's parish, was buried at Pancras, 1st of March,


_Meaning of "Bawn"_ (Vol. i., p. 60.).--The poet Campbell uses the word
_bawn_ as follows:--

"And fast and far, before the star
Of day-spring, rush'd we through the glade,
And saw at dawn the lofty _bawn_
Of Castle-Connor fade."

_O'Connor's Child_.


_Chantrey's Sleeping Children_ (Vol. ii., p. 70.)--Your correspondent
PLECTRUM is anxious to know on what grounds I attribute to Stothard any
part of the design of the monument in Lichfield Cathedral known as
Chantrey's "Sleeping Children?" I will endeavour to satisfy him.

The design, suggested, as it were, by the very nature of the commission,
was communicated by Chantrey to Stothard with a request that he would
make for him two or three sketches of sleeping children, at his usual
price. What Stothard did, I have heard my father say, was very like the
monument as it now stands. The sketch from which Chantrey wrought was
given to me by my father a few months before his death, and is now
suspended on the wall of the room in which I write.

It is a pencil-sketch, shaded with Indian ink, and is very Stothard-like
and beautiful. It wants, however, a certain sculptural grace, which
Chantrey gave with a master feeling; and it wants the snow-drops in the
hand of the younger sister,--a touch of poetic beauty suggested by my

The carver of the group (the person who copied it in marble) was the
late Mr. F.A. Lege, to whom the merit of the whole monument has been
foolishly ascribed.

I should be sorry to impress the world with the belief that I mean in
any way to detract from the merit of Chantrey in making this statement.
I have divulged no secret. I have only endeavoured to explain what till
now has been too often misunderstood.


The following statement may perhaps give to PLECTRUM the information he

Dining one day alone with Chantrey, in Jan. 1833, our conversation
accidentally turned upon some of his monuments, and amongst other things
he told me the circumstances connected with the monument at Lichfield to
the two children of Mrs. Robinson. As I was leaving Chantrey, I asked
him if I might write down what he had told me; his reply was,
"Certainly; indeed I rather wish you would." Before I went to bed I
wrote down what I now send you; I afterwards showed it to Chantrey, who
acknowledged it to be correct. It was hastily written, but I send it as
I wrote it at the time, without alteration.

Nicholson, the drawing master, taught Mrs. Robinson and her two
children. Not long after the death of Mr. Robinson, the eldest child was
burnt to death; and a very short time afterwards the other child
sickened and died. Nicholson called on Chantrey and desired him to take
a cast of the child's face, as the mother wished to have some monument
of it. Chantrey immediately repaired to the house, made his cast, and
had a most affecting interview with the unhappy mother. She was desirous
of having a monument to be placed in Lichfield Cathedral, and wished to
know whether the cast just taken would enable Chantrey to make a
tolerable resemblance of her lost treasure. After reminding her how
uncertain all works of art were in that respect, he assured her he hoped
to be able to accomplish her wishes. She then conversed with him upon
the subject of the monument, of her distressed feelings at the
accumulated losses of her husband and her two children, in so short a
space of time; expatiated upon their characters, and her great
affection; and dwelt much upon her feelings when, before she retired to
bed, she had usually contemplated them when she hung over them locked in
each other's arms asleep. While she dwelt upon these recollections, it
occurred to Chantrey that the representation of this scene would be the
most appropriate monument; and as soon as he arrived at home he made a
small model of the two children, nearly as they were afterwards
executed, and as they were universally admired. As Mrs. Robinson wished
to see a drawing of the design, Chantrey called upon Stothard, and
employed him to make the requisite drawing from the small model: this
was done; and from this circumstance originated the story, from those
envious of Chantrey's rising fame, that he was indebted to Stothard for
all the merit of the original design.


* * * * *


_Separation of the Sexes in Time of Divine Service_.--I note with
pleasure that traces of this ancient usage still exist in parts of
Sussex. In Poling Church, and also in Arundel Church, the movable Seats
are marked with the letters M. and W. respectively, according as they
are assigned to the men or women. On the first Sunday in the year I
attended service in Arundel Church, and observed, with respect to the
benches which were placed in the middle of the nave for the use of the
poorer classes, that the women as they entered proceeded to those at the
eastern end, which were left vacant for them, whilst the men by
themselves {95} occupied those at the western end. The existence of a
distinction of this kind in regard to the open seats only, affords
strong proof, if proof were necessary, that it was the introduction of
appropriated pews which led to the disuse of else long established, and
once general, custom of the men occupying the south side of the nave,
and the women the north.


_Error in Winstanley's Loyal Martyrology_.--Winstanley, in _The Loyall
Martyrology_ (London, printed by Thomas Mabb, 1665), p. 67., says of
Master Gerard, the author of that elaborate herbal which bears his
name--"This gallant gentleman, renowned for arts and arms, was likewise
at the storming of that (Basing) House unfortunately slain." According
to Johnson, who edited his Herbal in 1633, Gerard was born at Namptwich,
in Cheshire, in the year 1545; and died about 1607. Basing House was
stormed Oct. 1645: had Gerard served there, he would have been 100 years
old. It appears that Winstanley has confounded Gerard with his editor
Thomas Johnson above mentioned, who was killed during the siege of
Basing House, anno 1644. (See Fuller's _Worthies_, vol. iii. p. 422.
edit. 1840. London.)


_Preaching in Nave only.--Prayers and Preaching distinct Services_--In
Ely Cathedral the old and proper custom of sermons being delivered in
the nave only is still maintained. And this observance has doubtless led
to the continuance of another, which is a sufficient answer to those who
object to the length of our service, as it shows that formerly in
practice, as still in principle, prayers and preaching were distinct
services. In the morning of Sunday there is no sermon in either of the
parish churches in Ely, but prayers only; and those of the respective
congregations who wish to hear a sermon remove to the cathedral, where
they are joined by the ecclesiastics and others who have "been to
choir". Consequently, any one may "go to sermon" (I use the language of
the place) without having been to prayers, or to prayers in one of the
parish churches, or the choir, without necessarily hearing the sermon.

I think it would be very interesting, if your widely scattered
correspondents would from time to time communicate in your columns such
instances of any variation from the now usual mode of celebrating divine
service as may fall under their _personal_ observation.


* * * * *



It has been frequently, more frequently, perhaps than justly, objected
to the Shakspeare Society, that few of its publications bear directly
upon the illustration of the works of the great dramatist. That the
Council would gladly publish works more immediately in connection with
Shakspeare and his writings, if the materials for them could be found,
is proved by the fact of their having just published the _Remarks of
Karl Simrock on the Plots of Shakspeare's Plays_, which that gentleman,
whose name is honoured by all lovers of early German poetry and romance,
appended to the third volume of the _Quellen der Shakspeare_, a
collection of Novels, Tales, &c., illustrative of Shakspeare, which
Simrock collected and translated in conjunction with Echtermeyer and
Henschel, and which somewhat resembles Mr. Collier's _Shakspeare's
Library_. The translation of these remarks, made for the Society, was
placed in the hands of Mr. Halliwell, and forms, with the notes and
additions of that gentleman, a volume containing much new and curious
information upon a very interesting point in Shakspearian literature.

Messrs. Sotheby and Co., of Wellington Street, will sell on Monday, July
8th, and six following days, a very Choice Cabinet of Coins and Medals,
the property of a Nobleman; and on Monday, July 15th, and five following
days, an extensive Assemblage of Historical, Theological, and
Miscellaneous Books.

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson, of 191. Piccadilly, announce a Sale of
Splendid Engravings by British and Foreign Artists on Monday next.

We have received the following Catalogues:--William Nield's (46.
Burlington Arcade) Catalogue No. 3. of Very Cheap Books; Edward Stibbs'
(331. Strand) Select Catalogue of a Collection of Books just purchased
from a celebrated literary character.

* * * * *



(In continuation of Lists in former Nos.)

DRAYTON'S POLYOLBION. (A perfect copy of any edition.)


Odd volumes.


Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES", 186. Fleet street.

* * * * *

Notices to Correspondents

VOLUME THE FIRST, _Complete with Index, may now be had, price 9_s_.
6_d_., bound in cloth_. THE INDEX, _published last week, is, we trust,
sufficiently full to satisfy to the utmost the wishes of our
Subscribers. We feel that, if called upon at any time to establish the
utility of_ NOTES AND QUERIES, _we may confidently point to the Index as
a proof that the Literary Inquirer, be his particular branch of Study
what it may, will not search in vain in our pages for valuable Notes and
Illustrations of it.

Answers to several correspondents in our next_.

Errata. No. 34. p. 60., for "D_o_lort" read "D_e_lort," and for
"Triar_mum_" , read "Triar_num_". No. 35. p. 75. in the article on
"Carucate of Land" for "acre", read "acras", and for "B_oe_julia", read
"B_a_julia". The articles "God Save the Queen," p. 71., and "Royal and
Distinguished Interments", p. 79., should have been subscripted "F.K."
instead of "J.H.M." {96}

* * * * *

No. CLXXXV., will be Published on WEDNESDAY next,
July 10th.











London: LONGMAN AND CO. Edinburgh: A. AND C. BLACK.

* * * * *

Now ready, Octavo Edition. plain, 15_s_.; Quarto Edition, having the
Plates of the Tesselated Pavements all coloured, 1_l_. 5_s_.

Remains of Roman art, in Cirencester, the Site of Ancient Corinium:
containing Plates by De la Motte, of the magnificient Tesselated
Pavements discovered in August and September, 1849, with copies of the
grand Heads of Ceres, Flora, and Pamona; reduced by the Talootype from
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and numerous wood engravings.

In the Quarto edition the folding of the plates necessary for the
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London: GEORGE BELL. Cirencester: Bailey and Jones. Norwich: C. Muskett.
Plymouth: R. Lidstone. Reading: George Lovejoy.

* * * * *

Just Published,



Among which will be found many of the Works of the FATHERS,
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* * * * *

Now Publishing, The Churches of the Middle Ages. By HENRY BOWMAN and
JOSEPH S. CROWTHERS, Architects, Manchester. To be completed in Twenty
Parts, each containing Six Plates, Imperial Folio. Issued at intervals
of two months. Price per Part to Subscribers. Proofs, large paper,
10_s_. 6_d_.; Tinted, small paper, 9_s_.; Plain, 7_s_. 6_d_. Parts 1 to
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Lincolnshire; Temple Balsall Chapel, Warwickshire; and Heckington
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"Ewerby is a magnificent specimen of a Flowing Middle-Pointed Church. It
is most perfectly measured and described: one can follow the most
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this will be of incalculable value to the architects of our Colonies or
the United States, who have no means of access to ancient churches. The
Plates are on stone done with remarkable skill and distinctness. Of
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presents a very vision of beauty; we can hardly conceive anything more
perfect. We heartily recommend this series to all who are able to
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London. GEORGE BELL., 186. Fleet Street

* * * * *


The Primaeval Antiquities of Denmark. By J.J.A. WORSAAE. Member of the
Royal Society of Antiquaries of Copenhagen. Translated and applied to
the illustration of similar Remains in England, by WILLIAM J. THOMS,
F.S.A., Secretary of the Camden Society. With numerous Woodcuts. 8vo.
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"The best antiquarian handbook we have ever met with--so clear is the
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antiquarians."--_Morning Herald._

"A book of remarkable interest and ability.... Mr. Worsaae's book is in
all ways a valuable addition to our literature.... Mr. Thoms has
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"The work, which we desire to commend to the attention of our readers,
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important work."--_Archaeological Journal._

See also the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for February 1850.

Oxford: JOHN HENRY PARKER, and 337. Strand. London

* * * * *

Preparing for publication, in 2 vols. small 8vo.

The Folk-Lore of England. By WILLIAM J. THOMS, F.S.A., Secretary of the
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contributions to the History of our National Folk-Lore; and especially
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Communications of inedited Legends, Notices of remarkable Customs and
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* * * * *

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The Judges of England; from the TIME of the CONQUEST. By EDWARD FOSS,

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and such taste and judgement as will enable him to quit, when occasion
requires, the dry details of a professional inquiry, and to impart to
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