Notes & Queries, No. 38, Saturday, July 20, 1850

Produced by Jon Ingram, David King, the Online Distributed
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"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

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No. 38.] SATURDAY, JULY 20, 1850 [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

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Meaning of Delighted as used by Shakspeare, by S. Hickson
Authors of "The Rolliad," by Lord Braybrooke
Notes on Milton
Derivation of Easter, by J. Sansom
Folk Lore--Passages of Death, by Dr. Guest--Divination
at Marriages
Francis Lenton the Poet, by Dr. Rimbault
Minor Notes:--Lilburn or Prynne--Peep of Day--Martinet--
Guy's Porridge Pot
Nicholas Ferrar of Little Gidding, by John Miland
Stukeley's "Stonehenge," by Henry Cunliffe
Athelstane's Form of Donation--Meaning of "Somagia,"
by J. Sansom
Minor Queries:--Charade--"Smoke Money"--"Rapido
contrarius orbi"--Lord Richard Christophilus--
Fiz gigs--Specimens of Erica in Bloom--Michael
Scott the Wizard--Stone Chalices
Ulrich von Hutten and the "Epistolae Obscurorum
Virorum," by S.W. Singer
Caxton's Printing-office, by J.G. Nichols
The New Temple
Strangers in the House of Commons
Replies to Minor Queries:--Morganatic Marriage--
Umbrellas--Bands--Scarf--Jewish Music--North
Sides of Churchyards unconsecrated--"Men are but
Children" &c.--Ventriloquism--Cromwell's Estates
--Magor--Vincent Gookin--All-to brake
Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, Sales, &c.
Books and Odd Volumes Wanted
Notices to Correspondents

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I wish to call attention to the peculiar use of a word, or rather to a
peculiar word, in Shakspeare, which I do not recollect to have met with
in any other writer. I say a "peculiar word," because, although the verb
_To delight_ is well known, and of general use, the word, the same in
form, to which I refer, is not only of different meaning, but, as I
conceive, of distinct derivation the non-recognition of which has led to
a misconception of the meaning of one of the finest passages in
Shakspeare. The first passage in which it occurs, that I shall quote, is
the well known one from _Measure for Measure_:

"Ay, but to die, and go we know not where;
To lie in cold obstruction, and to rot,
This sensible warm motion to become
A kneaded clod; and the _delighted_ spirit
To bathe in fiery floods, or to reside
In thrilling regions of thick-ribbed ice;
To be imprison'd in the viewless winds
And blown with restless violence round about
The pendant world." Act iii. Sc. 1.

Now, if we examine the construction of this passage, we shall find that
it appears to have been the object of the writer to separate, and place
in juxtaposition with each other, the conditions of the body and the
spirit, each being imagined under circumstances to excite repulsion or
terror in a sentient being. The mind sees the former lying in "cold
obstruction," rotting, changed from a "sensible warm motion" to a
"kneaded clod," every circumstance leaving the impression of dull, dead
weight, deprived of force and motion. The spirit, on the other hand, is
imagined under circumstances that give the most vivid picture
conceivable of utter powerlessness:

"Imprison'd in the viewless winds,
And blown with restless violence round about
The pendant world."

To call the spirit here "delighted," in our sense of the term, would be
absurd; and no explanation of the passage in this sense, however
ingenious, is intelligible. That it is intended to represent the spirit
simply as _lightened_, made light, relieved from the weight of matter, I
am convinced, and this is my view of the meaning of the word in the
present instance.

_Delight_ is naturally formed by the participle _de_ and _light_, to
make light, in the same way as "debase," to make base, "defile," to make
foul. The analogy is not quite so perfect in such words as "define,"
"defile" (file), "deliver," "depart," &c.; yet they all may be
considered of the same class. The last of these is used with us only in
the sense of _to go away_; in Shakspeare's time (and Shakspeare so uses
it) it meant also _to part_, or _part with_. A correspondent of Mr.
Knight's suggests {114} for the word _delight_ in this passage, also, a
new derivation; using _de_ as a negation, and _light (lux), delighted_,
removed from the regions of light. This is impossible; if we look at the
context we shall see that it not only contemplated no such thing, but
that it is distinctly opposed to it.

I am less inclined to entertain any doubt of the view I have taken being
correct, from the confirmation it receives in another passage of
Shakspeare, which runs as follows:

"If virtue no _delighted_ beauty lack,
Your son-in-law shows far more fair than black."

_Othello_, Act i. Sc. 3.

Passing by the cool impertinence of one editor, who asserts that
Shakspeare frequently used the past for the present participle, and the
almost equally cool correction of another, who places the explanatory
note "*delightful" at the bottom of the page, I will merely remark that
the two latest editors of Shakspeare, having apparently nothing to say
on the subject, have very wisely said nothing. Yet, as we understand the
term "delighted," the passage surely needs explanation. We cannot
suppose that Shakspeare used epithets so weakening as "delighting" or
"delightful." The meaning of the passage would appear to be this: If
virtue be not wanting in beauty--such beauty as can belong to virtue,
not physical, but of a higher kind, and freed from all material
elements--then your son-in-law, black though he is, shows far more fair
than black, possessing, in fact, this _abstract_ kind of beauty to that
degree that his colour is forgotten. In short, "delighted" here seems to
mean, _lightened_ of all that is gross or unessential.

There is yet another instance in Cymbeline, which seems to bear a
similar construction:

"Whom best I love, I cross: to make my gifts
The more delay'd, _delighted_."

Act v. Sc. 4.

That is, "the _more_ delighted;" the longer held back, the better worth
having; lightened of whatever might detract from their value, that is,
refined or purified. In making the remark here, that "delighted" refers
not to the recipient nor to the giver, but to the gifts, I pass by the
nonsense that the greatest master of the English language did not heed
the distinction between the past and the present participles, as not
worth a second thought.

The word appears to have had a distinct value of its own, and is not to
be explained by any other single word. If this be so, it could hardly
have been coined by Shakspeare. Though, possibly, it may never have been
much used, perhaps some of your correspondents may be able to furnish
other instances from other writers.


St. John's Wood.

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The subjoined list of the authors of _The Rolliad_, though less complete
than I could have wished, is, I believe, substantially correct, and may,
therefore, be acceptable to your readers. The names were transcribed by
me from a copy of the ninth edition of _The Rolliad_ (1791), still in
the library at Sunninghill Park, in which they had been recorded on the
first page of the respective papers.

There seems to be no doubt that they were originally communicated by Mr.
George Ellis, who has always been considered as one of the most talented
contributors to _The Rolliad_. He also resided for many years at
Sunninghill, and was in habits of intimacy with the owners of the Park.
Your correspondent C. (Vol. ii., p. 43.) may remark that Lord John
Townshend's name occurs only twice in my list; but his Lordship may have
written some of the papers which are not in the Sunninghill volume, as
they appeared only in the editions of the work printed subsequently to
1791, and are designated as _Political Miscellanies_.

_Names of the Authors of the Rolliad_.

Dedication to Kenyon Dr. Laurence.
Family of the Rollos Tickell, &c.
Extract from Dedication General Fitzpatrick.
Criticisms from the No.
_Rolliad_ George Ellis 1 & 2.
---- Dr. Laurence 3.
---- Richardson 4.
---- General Fitzpatrick 5.
---- Dr. Laurence 6, 7, 8.
---- General Fitzpatrick 9.
---- Richardson 10 & 11.
---- General Fitzpatrick 12.
Criticisms not in the
original, but probably
written by Dr. Laurence 13 & 14.
Criticisms, &c. Part. ii. George Ellis 1 & 2.
---- Richardson 3 & 4.
---- General Fitzpatrick 5.
Criticisms, not in the
original Mr. Reid 6.
---- Dr. Laurence 7.

_Political Eclogues_.

Rose Dr. Laurence.
The Liars General Fitzpatrick.
Margaret Nicholson Mr. Adair.
Charles Jenkinson George Ellis.
Jekyl Lord John Townshend.

_Probationary Odes_.

All the Preliminaries Mr. Tickell.
Irregular Ode Mr. Tickell No. 1.
Ode to the New Year George Ellis 2.
Ode Rev. H. Bate Dudley 3.
---- Richardson 4.
Duan John Ellis 5. {115}
Ossianade Unknown 6.
Irregular Ode Unknown 7.
Ode to the Attorney-
General Mr. Brummell 8.
Laureate Ode Mr. Tickell 9.
New Year's Ode Mr. Pearce 10.
Ode by M.A. Taylor Mr. Boscawen 11.
---- by Major Scott Lord John Towns-
hend 12.
---- Irregular(Dundas) Never known to the
Club 13.
---- by Warton Bishop of Ossory
(Hon. William
Beresford) 14.
---- Pindaric General Fitzpatrick 15.
---- Irregular Dr. Laurence 16.
---- Prettyman General Burgoyne 17.
---- Graham Mr. Reid 18.
Letter, &c. and Mount-
morres Richardson 19.
Birthday Ode George Ellis 20.
Pindaric Ode Unmarked 21.
Real Birthday Ode T. Warton 22.
Remaining prose Richardson.

I am not certain whether Mr. Adair, to whom "Margaret Nicholson," one of
the happiest of the Political Eclogues, is attributed, is the present
Sir Robert Adair. If so, as the only survivor amongst his literary
colleagues, he might furnish some interesting particulars respecting the
remarkable work to which I have called your attention.


Audley End, July, 1850.

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(Continued from Vol. ii., p. 53.)

_Il Penseroso._

On l. 8 (G.):--

"Fantastic swarms of dreams there hover'd,
Green, red, and yellow, tawney, black, and blue;
They make no noise, but right resemble may
Th' unnumber'd moats that in the sun-beams play."

_Sylvester's Du Bartas._

Caelia, in Beaumont and Fletcher's _Humorous Lieutenant_, says,--

"My maidenhead to a mote in the sun, he's jealous."

Act iv. Sc. 8.

On l. 35. (G.) Mr. Warton might have found a happier illustration of his
argument in Ben Jonson's _Every Man in his Humour_, Act i. Sc. 3.:--

"Too conceal such real ornaments as these, and shadow
their glory, as a milliner's wife does her wrought
stomacher, with a smoaky lawn, or a _black cyprus_."

--Whalley's edit. vol. i. p. 33.

On l. 39. (G.) The origin of this uncommon use of the word "commerce" is
from Donne:--

"If this commerce 'twixt heaven and earth were not

--_Poems_, p. 249. Ed. 4to. 1633.

On l. 43. (G.):--

"That sallow-faced, sad, stooping nymph, whose eye
Still on the ground is fixed steadfastly."

_Sylvester's Du Bartas_

On l. 52. (G.):--

"Mounted aloft on Contemplation's wings."

_G. Wither_, P. 1. vol. i. Ed. 1633.

Drummond has given "golden wings" to Fame.

On l. 88. (G.):--

Hermes Trismegistus.

On l. 100. (G.):--

"Tyrants' bloody gests
Of Thebes, Mycenae, or proud Ilion."

_Sylvester's Du Bartas._

* * * * *


On l. 23. (G.):--

"And without respect of odds,
Vye renown with Demy-gods."

_Wither's Mistresse of Philarete_, Sig. E. 5. Ed. 1633.

On l. 27. (G.):--

"But yet, whate'er he do or can devise,
Disguised glory shineth in his eyes."

_Sylvester's Du Bartas._

On l. 46. (G.):--

"An eastern wind commix'd with _noisome airs_,
Shall _blast the plants_ and the _young sapplings_."

_Span. Trag. Old Plays_, vol. iii. p. 222.

On l. 65. (G.) Compare Drunmond--speech of Endymion before Charles:--

"To tell by me, their herald, coming things,
And what each Fate to her stern distaff sings," &c.

On l. 84. (M.):--

"And with his beams enamel'd every greene."

_Fairfax's Tasso_, b. i. st. 35.

On l. 97. (G.):--

"Those brooks with lilies bravely deck't."

_Drayton_, 1447.

On l. 106. (G.):--

"Pan entertains, this coming night,
His paramour, the Syrinx bright."

_Fletcher's Faithful Shepherdess_, Act i.


* * * * *


Southey, in his _Book of the Church_, derives our word _Easter_ from a
_Saxon_ source:--

"The worship," he says, "of the goddess _Eostre_ or _Eastre_,
which may probably be traced to the Astarte of the Phoenicians,
is retained among us in the word _Easter_; her annual festival
having been superseded by that sacred day."

Should he not rather have given a _British_ origin to the name of our
Christian holy day? Southey acknowledges that the "heathenism which the
{116} Saxons introduced, bears no [very little?] affinity either to that
of the Britons or the Romans;" yet it is certain that the Britons
worshipped Baal and _Ashtaroth_, a relic of whose worship appears to be
still retained in Cornwall to this day. The Druids, as Southey tells us,
"made the people pass through the fire in honour of Baal." But the
_festival_ in honour of Baal appears to have been in the _autumn_: for

"They made the people," he informs us, "at the beginning of
_winter_, extinguish all their fires on one day and kindle them
again from the sacred fire of the Druids, which would make the
house fortunate for the ensuing year; and, if any man came who
had not paid his yearly dues, [Easter offerings, &c., date back
as far as this!] they refused to give him a spark, neither durst
any of his neighbours relieve him, nor might he himself procure
fire by any other means, so that he and his family were deprived
of it till he had discharged the uttermost of his debt."

The Druidical fires kindled in the _spring_ of the year, on the other
hand, would appear to be those in honour of _Ashtaroth_, or _Astarte_,
from whom the _British Christians_ may naturally enough have derived the
name of _Easter_ for their corresponding season. We might go even
further than this, and say that the young ladies who are reported still
to take the chief part in keeping up the Druidical festivities in
Cornwall, very happily represent the ancient _Estal_ (or _Vestal_)

"In times of Paganism," says O'Halloran, "we find in _Ireland_
females devoted to celibacy. There was in Tara a royal
foundation of this kind, wherein none were admitted but virgins
of the noblest blood. It was called Cluain-Feart, or the place
of retirement till death," &c ... "The duty of these virgins was
to keep up the fires of Bel, or the sun, and of Sambain, or the
moon, which customs they borrowed from their Phoenician
ancestors. They both [i.e. the Irish and the Phoenicians] adored
Bel, or the sun, the moon, and the stars. The 'house of
_Rimmon_' which the Phoenicians worshipped in, like our temples
of Fleachta in Meath, was sacred to the _moon_. The word
'_Rimmon_' has by no means been understood by the different
commentators; and yet, by recurring to the Irish (a branch of
the Phoenician) it becomes very intelligible; for '_Re_' is
Irish for the moon, and '_Muadh_' signifies an _image_, and the
compound word '_Reamhan_,' signifies _prognosticating by the
appearance of the moon_. It appears by the life of our great S.
Columba, that the Druid temples were here decorated with figures
of the sun, the moon, and stars. The Phoenicians, under the name
of _Bel-Samen_, adored the Supreme; and it is pretty remarkable,
that to this very day, to wish a friend every happiness this
life can afford, we say in Irish, 'The blessings of _Samen_ and
_Bel_ be with you!' that is, of the seasons; Bel signifying the
sun, and Samhain the moon."

--(See O'Halloran's _Hist. of Ireland_, vol. i. P. 47.)


* * * * *


_Presages of Death_.--The Note by Mr. C. FORBES (Vol. ii., p. 84.) on
"High Spirits considered a Presage of impending Calamity or Death,"
reminded me of a collection of authorities I once made, for academical
purposes, of a somewhat analogous bearing,--I mean the ancient belief in
the existence of a power of prophecy at that period which immediately
precedes dissolution.

The most ancient, as well as the most striking instance, is recorded in
the forty-ninth chapter of Genesis:--

"And Jacob called his sons and said, Gather yourselves together
_that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last
days_.... And when Jacob had made an end of commanding his sons,
he gathered up his feet into his bed, and yielded up the ghost,
and was gathered unto his people."

Homer affords two instances of a similar kind: thus, Patroclus
prophesies the death of Hector (Il. [Greek: p] 852.)[1]:--

[Greek: "Ou thaen oud autos daeron beae alla toi aedae
Agchi parestaeke Thanatos kai Moira krataiae,
Chersi dament Achilaeos amnmonos Aiakidao."][2]

Again, Hector in his turn prophesies the death of Achilles by the hand
of Paris (Il. [Greek: ch.] 358.):--

[Greek: "Phrazeo nun, mae toi ti theon maenima genomai
Aemati to ote ken se Pharis kai phoibus Apollon,
Esthlon eont, olesosin eni Skaiaesi pulaesin."][3]

This was not merely a poetical fancy, or a superstitious faith of the
ignorant, for we find it laid down as a great physical truth by the
greatest of the Greek philosophers, the divine Socrates:--

[Greek: "To de dae meta touto epithumo humin chraesmodaesai, o
katapsaephisamenoi mou kai gar eimi aedae entautha en o malist
anthropoi chraesmodousin hotan mellosin apothaneisthai."][4]

In Xenophon, also, the same idea is expressed, and, if possible, in
language still more definite and precise:--{117}

[Greek: "Hae de tou anthropou psuchae tote daepou theiotatae
kataphainetai, kai tote ti ton mellonton proora."][5]

Diodorus Siculus, again, has produced great authorities on this

[Greek: "Puthagoras ho Samios, kai tines heteroi ton palaion
phusikon, apephaenanto tas psuchas ton anthropon uparchein
athanatous, akolouthos de to dogmati touto kai progignoskein
autas ta mellonta, kath hon an kairon en tae teleutae ton apo
tou somatos chorismon poiontai."][6]

From the ancient writers I yet wish to add one more authority; and I do
so especially, because the doctrine of the Stagirite is therein
recorded. Sextus Empiricus writes,--

[Greek: "Hae psuchae, phaesin Aristotelaes, promanteuetai kai
proagoreuei ta mellonta--en to kata thanaton chorizesthai ton

Without encroaching further upon the space of this periodical by
multiplying evidence corroborative of the same fact, I will content
myself by drawing the attention of the reader to our own great poet and
philosopher, Shakspeare, whose subtle genius and intuitive knowledge of
human nature render his opinions on all such subjects of peculiar value.
Thus in _Richard II_., Act ii. sc. 1., the dying Gaunt, alluding to his
nephew, the young and self-willed king, exclaims,--

"Methinks I am a prophet new inspired;
And thus, expiring, do foretel of him."

Again, in _Henry IV., Part I._, Act v. sc. 4., the brave Percy, when in
the agonies of death, conveys the same idea in the following words:--

"O, I could prophesy,
But that the earthy and cold hand of death
Lies on my tongue."

Reckoning, therefore, from the time of Jacob, this belief, whether with
or without foundation, has been maintained upwards of 3500 years. It was
grounded on the assumed fact, that the soul became divine in the same
ratio as its connection with the body was loosened or destroyed. In
sleep, the unity is weakened but not ended: hence, in sleep, the
material being dead, the immaterial, or divine principle, wanders
unguided, like a gentle breeze over the unconscious strings of an AEolian
harp; and according to the health or disease of the body are pleasing
visions or horrid phantoms (_aegri somnia_, as Horace) present to the
mind of the sleeper. Before death, the soul, or immaterial principle,
is, as it were, on the confines of two worlds, and may possess at the
same moment a power which is both prospective and retrospective. At that
time its connection with the body being merely nominal, it partakes of
that perfectly pure, ethereal, and exalted nature (_quod multo magis
faciet post mortem quum omnino corpore excesserit_) which is designed
for it hereafter.

As the question is an interesting one, I conclude by asking, through the
medium of the "NOTES AND QUERIES," if a belief in this power of prophesy
before death be known to exist at the present day?


London, July 8.

[Footnote 1: For the assistance of the general reader, I have introduced
hasty translations of the several passages quoted.]

[Footnote 2: (And I moreover tell you, and do you meditate well upon it,
that) you yourself are not destined to live long, for even now death is
drawing nigh unto you, and a violent fate awaits you,--about to be slain
in fight by the hands of Achilles, the irreproachable son of Oacus.]

[Footnote 3: Consider now whether I may not be to you the cause of
divine anger, in that day when Paris and Phoebus Apollo shall slay you,
albeit so mighty, at the Scaean gate.]

[Footnote 4: Wherefore I have an earnest desire to prophesy to you who
have condemned me; for I am already arrived at that stage of my
existence in which, especially, men utter prophetic sayings, that is,
when they are about to die.]

[Footnote 5: That time, indeed, the soul of man appears to be in a
manner divine, for to a certain extent it foresees things which are
about to happen.]

[Footnote 6: Pythagoras the Samian, and some others of the ancient
philosophers, showed that the souls of men were immortal, and that, when
they were on the point of separating from the body, they possessed a
knowledge of futurity.]

[Footnote 7: The soul, says Aristotle, when on the point of taking its
departure from the body, foretells and prophesies things about to

* * * * *

_Divination at Marriages_.--The following practices are very prevalent
at marriages in these districts; and as I do not find them noticed by
Brand in the last edition of his _Popular Antiquities_, they may perhaps
be thought worthy a place in the "NOTES AND QUERIES."

1. Put a wedding ring into the _posset_, and after serving it out, the
unmarried person whose cup contains the ring will be the first of the
company to be married.

2. Make a common flat cake of flour, water, currants, &c., and put
therein a wedding ring and a sixpence. When the company is about to
retire on the wedding-day, the cake must be broken and distributed
amongst the unmarried females. She who gets the ring in her portion of
the cake will shortly be married, and the one who gets the sixpence will
die an old maid.


Burnley, July 9. 1850.

* * * * *


In a MS. obituary of the seventeenth century, preserved at Staunton
Hall, Leicestershire, I found the following:--

"May 12. 1642. This day died Francis Lenton, of Lincoln's Inn,

This entry undoubtedly relates to the author of three very rare poetical
tracts: 1. _The Young Gallant's Whirligigg_, 1629; 2. _The Innes of
Court_, 1634; 3. _Great Brittain's Beauties_, 1638. In the dedication to
Sir Julius Caesar, prefixed to the first-named work, the writer speaks of
having "once belonged to the _Innes of Court_," and says he was "no
usuall poetizer, but, to barre idlenesse, imployed that little talent
the Muses conferr'd upon him in this little tract." Sir Egerton Brydges
supposed the copy of _The Young Gallant's Whirligigg_ preserved in the
library of Sion College to be _unique_; but this is not the case, as the
writer knows of _two_ others,--one at Staunton Hall, and another at
Tixall Priory in Staffordshire. It has been reprinted by Mr. {118}
Halliwell at the end of a volume containing _The Marriage of Wit and
Wisdom_, published by the Shakspeare Society. In his prefatory remarks
that gentleman says,

"Besides his printed works, Lenton wrote the _Poetical History
of Queene Hester_, with the translation of the 83rd Psalm,
reflecting upon the present times. MS. dated 1649."

This date must be incorrect, if our entry in the Staunton obituary
relates to the same person; and there is every reason to suppose that it
does. The _autograph_ MS. of Lenton occurred in Heber's sale (Part xi.
No. 724.), and is thus described:

_Hadassiah_, or the _History of Queen Hester_, sung in a sacred
and serious poeme, and divided into ten chapters, by F. Lenton,
the Queen's Majesties Poet, 1638.

This is undoubtedly the _correct_ date, as it is in the handwriting of
the author. Query. What is the meaning of Lenton's title, "the Queen's
Majesties Poet"?

Edward F. Rimbault.

* * * * *

Minor Notes.

_Lilburn or Prynne?_--I am anxious to suggest in "Notes and Queries"
whether a character in the Second Canto of Part iii. of _Hudibras_ (line
421), beginning,

"To match this saint, there was another,
As busy and perverse a brother,
An haberdasher of small wares,
In politics and state affairs,"

Has not been wrongly given by Dr. Grey to Lilburn, and whether Prynne is
not rather the person described. Dr. Grey admits in his note that the
application of the passage to Lilburn involves an anachronism, Lilburn
having died in 1657, and this passage being a description of one among

"The quacks of government who sate"

to consult for the Restoration, when they saw ruin impending.


_Peep of Day._--Jacob Grimm, in his _Deutsche Mythologie_, p. 428., ed.
1., remarks that the ideas of light and sound are sometimes confounded;
and in support of his observation he quotes passages of Danish and
German poets in which the sun and moon are said to _pipe_ (pfeifen). In
further illustration of this usage, he also cites the words "the sun
began to peep," from a Scotch ballad in Scott's _Border Minstrelsy_,
vol. ii. p. 430. In p. 431. he explains the words "par son l'aube,"
which occur in old French poets, by "per sonitum aurorae;" and compares
the English expression, "the peep of day."

The Latin _pipio_ or _pipo_, whence the Italian _pipare_, and the French
_pepier_, is the ultimate origin of the verb _to peep_; which, in old
English, bore the sense of chirping, and is so used in the authorised
version of Isaiah, viii. 19., x. 14. Halliwell, in his _Archaic
Dictionary_, explains "peep" as "a flock of chickens," but cites no
example. _To peep_, however, in the sense of taking a rapid look at
anything through a small aperture, is an old use of the word, as is
proved by the expression _Peeping_ Tom of Coventry. As so used, it
corresponds with the German _gucken_. Mr. Richardson remarks that this
meaning was probably suggested by the young chick looking out of the
half-broken shell. It is quite certain that the "peep of day" has
nothing to do with sound; but expresses the first appearance of the sun,
as he just looks over the eastern hills.


_Martinet._--Will the following passage throw any light on the origin of
the word _Martinet_?

Une discipline, devenue encore plus exacte, avait mis dans
l'armee un nouvel ordre. Il n'y avait point encore d'inspecteurs
de cavalerie et d'infanterie, comme nous en avons vu depuis,
mais deux hommes uniques chacun dans leur genre en fesaient les
fonctions. _Martinet mettait alors l'infanterie sur le pied de
discipline ou elle est aujourd'hui._ Le Chevalier de _Fourilles_
fesait la meme change dans la cavalerie. Il y avait un an que
_Martinet_ avait mis la baionnette en usage dans quelque
regimens, &c.--Voltaire, _Siecle de Louis XIV._ c. 10.

C. Forbes.

July 2.

_Guy's Porridge Pot._--In the porter's lodge at Warwick Castle are
preserved some enormous pieces of armour, which, _according to
tradition_, were worn by the famous champion "Guy, Earl of Warwick;" and
in addition (with other marvellous curiosities) is also exhibited Guy's
porridge pot, of bell metal, said to weigh 300 lbs., and to contain 120
gallons. There is also a flesh-fork to ring it.

Mr. Nichols, in his _History of Leicestershire_, Part ii. vol. iii.,

"A turnpike road from Ashby to Whitwick, passes through Talbot
Lane. Of this lane and the famous large pot at Warwick Castle,
we have an old traditionary couplet:

"'There's nothing left of Talbot's name,
But Talbot's Pot and Talbot's Lane.'

"Richard Beauchamp Earl of Warwick, died in 1439. His eldest
daughter, Margaret, was married to John Talbot Earl of
Shrewsbury, by whom she had one son, John Viscount Lisle, from
whom the Dudleys descended, Viscount Lisle and Earl of Warwick."

It would therefore appear that neither the armour nor the pot belonged
to the "noble Guy"--the armour being comparatively of modern
manufacture, and the pot, it appears, descended from the Talbots to the
Warwick family: which pot is generally filled with punch on the birth of
a male heir to that noble family.

W. Reader.

* * * * *{119}



Dr. Peckard, in his Preface to the _Life of Nicholas Ferrar of Little
Gidding_, says the memoir he published was edited or compiled by him
from "the original MS. still in my possession" (p. xi.); and in the
Appendix adds, that "Mr. John Ferrar," the elder brother of Nicholas,
was the author of it (p. 279.).

How he compiled or edited "the original MS." he states with much candour
in his Preface (p. xv.):

"The editor's intention," in altering the narrative, "was to
give what is not observed in the original, a regular series of
facts; and through the whole a sort of evenness and simplicity
of stile equally free from meanness and affectation. In short,
to make the old and the new, as far as he could, uniform; that
he might not appear to have sewed a piece of new cloth to an old
garment, and made its condition worse by his endeavours to mend

Again, at page 308., he says,

"There is an antient MS. in folio, giving an account of Mr. N.
Ferrar, which at length, from Gidding, came into the hands of
Mr. Ed. Ferrar of Huntingdon, and is now in the possession of
the editor. Mr. Peck had the use of this MS. as appears by
several marginal notes in his handwriting; from this and some
loose and unconnected papers of Mr. Peck.... the editor, as well
as he was able, has made out the foregoing memoirs."

Can any of your numerous correspondents inform me if this "antient MS."
is still in existence, and in whose possession?

Peckard was related to the Ferrars, and was Master of Magdalen Coll.,

In "A Catalogue of MSS. (once) at Gidding," Peckard, p. 306., the third
article is "Lives, Characters, Histories, and Tales for moral and
religious Instruction, in five volumes folio, neatly bound and gilt, by
Mary Collet." This work, with five others, "undoubtedly were all written
by N. Ferrar, Sen.," says Dr. Peckard; and in the Memoir, at page 191.,
he gives a list of these "short histories," ninety-eight in number,
"which are still remaining in my possession;" and adds further, at p.

"These lives, characters, and moral essays would, I think, fill
two or three volumes in 8vo., but _they are written in so
minute_ a character, that I cannot form any conjecture to be
depended upon."

I have been thus particular in describing these "histories", because the
subjects of them are identical with those in Fuller's _Holy and Profane
State_, the first edition of which was published at Cambridge, in 1642.
"The characters I have conformed," says Fuller in his Preface, "to the
then standing laws of the realm (a twelvemonth ago were they sent to the
press), since which time the wisdom of the King and state hath" altered
many things. Nicholas Ferrar died December 2, 1637, and the Query I wish
to ask is, Did Fuller compose them (for that he was really the author of
them can hardly be doubted) at the suggestion and for the benefit of the
community at Gidding, some years before he published them; and is it
possible to ascertain and determine if the MS. is in the handwriting of
Ferrar or Fuller?

Is there any print or view in existence of the "Nunnery," at Little

In the _Life of Dr. Thomas Fuller_, published anonymously in 1661, it is
stated, that at his funeral a customary sermon was preached by Dr.
Hardy, Dean of Rochester, "which hath not yet (though it is hoped and
much desired may) passe the presse," p. 63.

Query. Was this sermon ever published? and secondly, who was the author
of the _Life_ from which the above passage is quoted?

John Miland.

* * * * *


May I request a space in your periodical for the following Queries,
drawn from Dr. Stukeley's _Stonehenge and Abury_, p. 31.?

1st. "But eternally to be lamented is the loss of that tablet of
tin, which was found at this place (Stonehenge) in the time of
King Henry VIII., inscribed with many letters, but in so strange
a character that neither Sir Thomas Elliott, a learned
antiquary, nor Mr. Lilly, master of St. Paul's school, could
make any thing out of it. Mr. Sammes may be right, who judges it
to have been _Punic_. I imagine if we call it Irish we shall not
err much. No doubt but what it was a memorial of the founders,
wrote by the Druids and had it been preserved till now, would
have been an invaluable curiosity."

Can you or any of your contributors give me any further information
about this inscription?

2. The Doctor continues,

"To make the reader some amends for such a loss I have given a
specimen of supposed Druid writing, out of Lambecius' account of
the Emperor's library at Vienna. 'Tis wrote on a very thin plate
of gold with a sharp-pointed instrument. It was in an urn found
at Vienna, rolled up in several cases of other metal, together
with funeral exuviae. It was thought by the curious, one of those
epistles which the Celtic people were wont to send to their
friends in the other world. The reader may divert himself with
trying to explain it."

Has this inscription ever been explained, and how? Stukeley's book is by
no means a rare one; therefore I have not trusted myself to copy the
inscription: and such as feel disposed to help me in my difficulty would
doubtless prefer seeing the Doctor's own illustration at p. 31.

Henry Cunliffe.

Hyde Park Street.{120}


Tristram Risdon, in his quaint _Survey of the Co. of Devon_, after
mentioning the foundation of the church of High Bickington by King

"Who," he says, "gave to God and it one hide of land, as
appeareth by the donation, a copy whereof, for the antiquity
thereof, I will here insert: 'Iche Athelstane king, grome of
this home, geve and graunt to the preist of this chirch, one
yoke of mye land frelith to holde, woode in my holt house to
buyld, bitt grass for all hys beasts, fuel for hys hearth,
pannage for hys sowe and piggs, world without end,'"--

adds presently afterwards, that

"Sir John Willington gave _Weeksland_ in this tything, unto
Robert Tolla, _cum 40 somagia annuatim capiend in Buckenholt_
(so be the words of the grant) in the time of K. Edw. I."

The Willingtons were lords of the manor of Umberleigh, where
Athelstane's palace stood, with its chapel dedicated to the Holy
Trinity, formerly rich in ancient monuments, and having a chantry near
to it. Some of the monuments from this chapel are still preserved in the
neighbouring church of Atherington.

My Queries upon this Note are:

1. Whence did Risdon derive his copy of King Athelstane's form of
donation? 2. What is the precise meaning of the word _Somagia_?

In _Ducange_ (ed. Par. 1726, tom. vi. col. 589.) I find:

"_Somegia_. Praestatio, ut videtur _ex summis_, v. gr. bladi,
frumenti. Charta Philippi Reg. Franc. an. 1210. Idem etiam
Savaricus detinet sibi census suos, et venditiones, et quosdam
reditus, qui _Somegiae_ vocantur, et avenam, et _captagia_
hominum et foeminarum suarum, qui reditus cum una Somegiarum in
festo B. Remigii persolverentur; deinde secunda Somegia in
vicesima die Natalis Domini, et tertia in Octabis Resurrectionis
Dominicae, ei similiter persolventur; caponum etiam suorum in
crastino Natalis Domini percipiet solutionem: unaquaeque vero
somegiarum quatuor denarios bonae monetae valet."

Ducange refers also to some kindred words; but, instead of clearing up
my difficulty in the word _somagia_, he presents me with another in
_captagia_, the meaning of which I do not clearly understand. Perhaps
some of your more learned contributors will obligingly help me to the
true import of these words?

J. Sansom.

* * * * *

Minor Queries.

_Charade_.--Can any one tell who is the author of the following charade?
No doubt, the lines are well known to many of your readers, although I
have never seen them in print. It has been said that Dr. Robinson, a
physician, wrote them. It strikes me that the real author, whoever he
be, richly deserves to be named in "Notes and Queries."

"Me, the contented man desires,
The poor man has, the rich requires;
The miser gives, the spendthrift saves,
And all must carry to their graves."

It can scarcely be necessary to add that the answer is, _nothing_.

Alfred Gatty.

July 1. 1850.

"_Smoke Money_."--Under this name is collected every year at Battle, in
Sussex, by the Constable, one penny from every householder, and paid to
the Lord of the Manor. What is its origin and meaning?


"_Rapido contrarius orbi_."--What divine of the seventeenth century
adopted these words as his motto? They are part of a line in one of
Owen's epigrams.


_Lord Richard Christophilus_.--Can any of your readers give any account
of Lord Richard Christophilus, a Turk converted to Christianity, to
whom, immediately after the Restoration, in July, 1660, the Privy
Council appointed a pension of 50l. a-year, and an additional allowance
of 2l. a-week.


_Fiz-gigs_.--In those excellent poems, Sandys's _Paraphrases on Job and
other Books of the Bible_, there is a word of a most destructive
character to the effect. Speaking of leviathan, he asks,

"Canst thou with _fiz-gigs_ pierce him to the quick?"

It may be an ignorant question, but I do not know what fiz-gigs are.


_Specimens of Erica in Bloom_.--Can any of your correspondents oblige me
by the information where I can procure specimens in bloom of the
following plants, viz. Erica crescenta, Erica paperina, E. purpurea, E.
flammea, and at what season they come into blossom in England? If
specimens are not procurable without much expense and trouble, can you
supply me with the name of a work in which these plants are figured?



_Michael Scott, the Wizard_.--What works by Michael Scott, the reputed
wizard, (Sir Walter's _Deus ex Machina_ in _The Lay of the Last
Minstrel_), have been printed?


_Stone Chalices_.--Can any of the readers of "Notes and Queries" inform
me whether the use of _stone chalices_ was authorised by the ancient
constitutions of the Church; and, if so, at what period, and where the
said constitutions were enacted?


* * * * *{121}



(Vol. ii., p. 55.)

I have never seen the article in the _Quarterly Review_ to which your
correspondent H.B.C. alludes: he will probably find it by reference to
the index, which is not just now within my reach. The neat London
edition, 1710, of the _Epistolae_ was given by Michael Mattaire. There
are several subsequent reimpressions, but none worth notice except that
by Henr. Guil. Rotermund, Hanover, 1827, 8vo.; and again, with
improvements, "cum nova praefatione, nec non illustratione historica
circa originem earum, atque notitia de vita et scriptis virorum in
Epistolis occurentium aucta," 1830, both in 8vo.

The best edition, however, is that given by Dr. Ernst Muench, Leipsic,
1827, 8vo., with the following title:

"Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum aliaque AEvi Decimi sexti Monimenta
Rarissima. Die Briefe der Finsterlinge an Magister Ortuinus von
Deventer, nebst andern sehr seltenen Beitraegen zur
Literatur-Sitten-und-Kirchengeschichte des xvi'n Jahrhunderts."

This contains many important additions, and a copious historical
introduction. Both the editors write in German.

That this admirable satire produced an immense effect at the period of
its publication, there can be no doubt; but that it has ever been
thoroughly understood and relished among us may be doubted. Mr. Hallam,
in his _Literature of Europe_, vol. i., seems to have been disgusted
with the monkish dog-Latin and bald jokes, not recollecting that this
was a necessary and essential part of the design. Nor is it strange that
Steele, who was perhaps not very well acquainted with the history of
literature, should have misconceived the nature of the publication, when
we learn from an epistle of Sir Thomas More to Erasmus, that some of the
stupid theologasters themselves, who were held up to ridicule, received
it with approbation as a serious work:

"_Epist. Obs. Viror_. operae pretium est videre quantopere
placeant omnibus, et doctis joco, et indoctis serio, qui dum
ridemus, putant rideri stylum tantum, quem illi non defendunt,
sed gravitate sententiarum dicunt compensatum, et latere sub
rudi vagina pulcherrimum gladium. Utinam fuisset inditus libello
alius titulus! Profecto intra centum annos homines studio
stupidi non sensissent nasum, quamquam rhinocerotico

Erasmus evidently enjoyed the witty contrivance, though he affects to
disapprove it as an anonymous libel. Simler, in his life of Bullinger,
relates that on the first reading Erasmus fell into such a fit of
laughter as to burst an abscess in his face with which he was at that
time troubled, and which prevented the necessity of a surgical

The literary history of the _Epistolae_ and the _Dialogue_ is involved in
obscurity. That Ulrich von Hutten had a large share in their concoction
there can be no doubt; and that he was assisted by Crotus Rubianus and
Hermann von Busch, if not by others, seems highly probable. The
authorship of _Lamentationes Obscurorum Virorum_ is a paradox which has
not yet been solved. They are a parody, but a poor one, of the
_Epistolae_, and in the second edition are attributed to Ortuinus
Gratius. If they are by him, he must have been a dull dog indeed; but by
some it has been thought that they are the work of a Reuchlinist, to
mystify the monks of Cologne, and render them still more ridiculous;
yet, as the Pope's bull against the _Epistolae_, and Erasmus's
disapproving letter, find a prominent place, and some other
well-grounded inculpations occur, it appears to me that some
slender-witted advocate of the enemies of learning has here shown his
want of skill in handling the weapons of the adversary.

How much Sir Thomas More was pleased with the writings of Hutten we may
gather from the opening of a letter which Erasmus addressed to Hutten,
giving an interesting account of his illustrious friend, in August,

"Quod Thomae Mori ingenium sic deamas, ac pene dixerim deperis,
nimirum scriptis illius inflammatus, quibus (ut vere scribis)
nihil esse potest neque doctius neque festivius; istue mibi
crede, clarissime Huttene tibi cum multis commune est, cum Moro
mutuum etiam. Nam is vicissim adeo scriptorum tuorum genio
delectatur, ut ipse tibi plopemodum invideam."

The Dialogue (Mire Festivus), which in the edition of 1710 occurs
between the first and second parts of the _Epistolae_, bears especial
marks of Hutten's manner, and is doubtless by him. The interlocutors are
three of the illustrious obscure, Magisters Ortuinus, Lupoldus, and
Gingolphus, and the first act of the comedy consists in their
observations upon the promoters of learning, Reuchlin, Erasmus, and
Faber Stapulensis, who afterwards make their appearance, and the
discussion becomes general, but no impression can be made upon the
stupid and prejudiced monks. The theme is, of course, the inutility of
the new learning, Hebrew and Greek and correct Latinity. One short
passage seems to me admirable:{122}

"_M. Ging_. Et Sanctus Ambrosius, Sanctus Augustinus, et alii
omnes zelossimi doctores non sciebant ipsi bene tot, sicut iste
Ribaldi? _M. Ort_. Ipsi deberent interponere suis. _M. Lup_. Non
bene indigemus de suo Graeco. _M. Ging_. Videtur eis, qui sciunt
dicere _tou, tou, logos, monsotiros, legoim, taff, hagiotatos_,
quod ipse sciunt plus quam Deus. _M. Ort_. Magister noster
Lupolde, creditis, quod Deus curat multum de iste Graeco? _M.
Lup_. Certe non, Magister noster Ortuine, ego credo, quod Deus
non curat multum."

Ranke, in his _History of the Reformation_, has very justly estimated
the merits and character of these remarkable productions:

"We must not look for the delicate apprehension and tact, which
can only be formed in a highly polished state of society, nor
for the indignation of insulted morality expressed by the
ancients: it is altogether a caricature, not of finished
individual portraits, but of a single type;--a clownish sensual
German priest, his intellect narrowed by stupid wonder and
fanatical hatred, who relates with silly _naivete_ and gossiping
confidence the various absurd and scandalous situations into
which he falls. These letters are not the work of a high
poetical genius, but they have truth, coarse strong features of
resemblance, and vivid colouring."

Ranke mentions another satire, which appeared in March, 1520, directed
against John Eck, the opponent of Luther, the latter being regarded in
the light of a successor of Reuchlin, under the title of _Abgehobelte
Eck_, or _Eccius dedolatus_, "which, for fantastic invention, striking
and crushing truth, and Aristophanic wit, far exceeded the _Literae Obsc.
V._, which it somewhat resembled." I have not yet been able to meet with
this; but such high praise, from so judicious a critic, makes me very
desirous to see and peruse it.

S.W. Singer.

Mickleham, July 3. 1850.

[Footnote 8: "Ubi primum exissent _Ep. Ob. V._ miro Monachorum applausu
exceptae sunt apud Britannos a Franciscanis ac Dominicanis, qui sibi
persuadebant, eas in Reuchlini contumeliam, et Monachorum favorem, serio
proditus: quamque quidam egregie doctus, sed nasutissimus, fingeret se
nonnihil offendi stylo, consulati sunt hominem."--_Erasm. Epist._ 979.]

_Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum_.--Your Querist H.B.C. (Vol. ii., pp.
55-57.) will find, in the 53rd vol. _Edinb. Rev._ p. 180., a long
article on these celebrated letters, containing much of the information
required. It is worthy of remark, that in page 195. we are told

"In 1710 there was printed in London the _most elegant_ edition
that has ever appeared of these letters, which the editor, Mich.
Mattaire, gravely represents as the productions of their
ostensible authors."

Now this edition, though neat, has no claim to be termed most elegant,
which is hardly to be reconciled with what the reviewer says in a note,
p. 210., "that the text of this ed. of 1710 is of no authority, and
swarms with typographical blunders."

The work on its first appearance produced great excitement, and was
condemned by Pope Leo X. See _Dict. des Livres Condamnes, &c._, par
Peignot, tom. ii. p. 218.

Many amusing anecdotes and notices are to be found in Bayle's _Dict_.
See particularly sub nomine Erasmus. Burton, in his _Anatomy of Mel._
pt. i. sec. 2. Mem 3 sub 6. citing Jovius in Elogiis, says,

"Hostratus cucullatus adeo graviter ob Reuchlini librum qui
inscribitur, Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum dolore simul et pudore
sauciatus, et scipsum interfecerit."

See also _Nouv. Diction. Historique_ in the account of Gratius, O.

There is also a good article on these letters in a very excellent work
entitled _Analectabiblion_, or _Extraits Critique de divers Livres
rares, &c., tirez du Cabinet du Marq. D. R. (oure)_. Paris, 1836. 2
tomes 8vo.


_Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum_.--The article inquired for by H.B.C. (Vol.
ii, p. 55) is probably one in the _Edinburgh Review_, vol. liii. p.
180., attributed to Sir William Hamilton, the distinguished Professor of
Logic in the university of Edinburgh.


* * * * *


(Vol. ii., p. 99.)

Mr. Rimbault is wrong in giving to Abbot Milling the honour of being the
patron of Caxton, which is due to Abbot Esteney. Mr. C. Knight in his
_Life of Caxton_, which appropriately formed the first work of his
series of _Weekly Volumes_, has the following remarks upon the passage
from Stow, quoted by Mr. Rimbault:

"The careful historians of London here committed one error; John
Islip did not become abbot of Westminster till 1500. John
Esteney was made abbot in 1474, and remained such until his
death in 1498. His predecessor was Thomas Milling. In Dugdale's
_Monasticon_ we find, speaking of Esteney, 'It was in this
abbot's time, and not in that of Milling, or in that of Abbot
Islip, that Caxton exercised the art of printing at
Westminster.'"--p. 140. #/

I have no work at hand to which I can refer for the date of Milling's
death, but if 1492 be correct, perhaps he may have been promoted to a

With reference to Mr. Rimbault's remark, that Caxton first mentions the
place of his printing in 1477, so that he must have printed some time
without informing us where, I may be allowed to observe that it seems
highly probable he printed, and indeed learned the art, at Cologne. At
the end of the third book of his translation of the _Recuyell of the
Historyes of Troye_, Caxton says:

"Thus end I this book which I have translated after mine author,
as nigh as God hath given me cunning, to whom be given the laud
and praises ... I have practised and learned, at my great charge
and dispense, to ordain this said book in print, after the
manner and form as you may here see."{123}

And on the title-page he informs us:

"Whyche sayd translacion and werke was begonne in Brugis in
1468, and ended in the holy cyte of Colen, 19 Sept. 1471."

This may refer to the translation only; but as Caxton was both
translator and printer, it does not seem unreasonable to regard it as
indicating when his entire labour upon the work was brought to a close.
I might support the view that Caxton printed at Cologne by other
arguments which would make the matter tolerably certain (see _Life of
Caxton_, p. 125., &c.); but as the excellent little work to which I am
indebted for these particulars is so well known, and so easily
accessible, I should not be justified in occupying more of your space,
and I will therefore conclude with noting that the parochial library at
Shipdham, in Norfolk, is said to contain books printed by Caxton and
other early printers. Perhaps some one of your correspondents would
record, for the general benefit, of what they consist.


Dr. Rimbault has evidently not seen a short article on Caxton's printing
at Westminster, which I inserted in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for
April, 1846, nor the reference made to it in the magazine for June last,
p. 630., or he would have admitted that his objections to Dr. Dibdin's
conjectures on this point had been already stated; moreover, I think he
would have seen that the difficulty had been actually cleared up. In
truth, the popular misapprehension on this subject has not been
occasioned by any obscurity in the colophons of the great printer, or in
the survey of Stow, but merely by the erroneous constricted sense into
which the word abbey has passed in this country. Caxton himself tells us
he printed his books in "th' abbay of Westminstre," but he does not say
in the church of the abbey. Stow distinctly says it was in the almonry
of the abbey; and the handbill Dr. Rimbault refers to confirms that
fact. The almonry was not merely "within the precincts of the abbey," it
was actually a part of the abbey. Dr. Rimbault aims at the conclusion
that "the old chapel of St. Anne was doubtless the place where the first
printing-office was erected in England." But why so? Did not the chapel
continue a chapel until the Reformation, if not later? And Caxton would
no more set up his press in a chapel than in the abbey-church itself.
Stow says it was erected in the almonry. The almonry was one of the
courts of the abbey, (situated directly west of the abbey-church, and
not east, as Dr. Dibdin surmised); it contained a chapel dedicated to
St. Anne, and latterly an almshouse erected by the Lady Margaret. The
latter probably replaced other offices or lodgings of greater antiquity,
connected with the duties of the almoner, or the reception and relief of
the poor; and there need be no doubt that it was one of these buildings
that the Abbot of Westminster placed at the disposal of our
proto-typographer. There was nothing very extraordinary in his so doing
if we view the circumstance in its true light; for the _scriptoria_ of
the monasteries had ever been the principal manufactories of books. A
single press was now to do the work of many pens. The experiment was
successful; "after which time," as Stow goes on to say, "the like was
practised in the Abbeys of St. Augustine, at Canterbury, St. Alban's,
and other monasteries." The monks became printers instead of scribes;
but they would not ordinarily convert their churches or chapels into
printing-houses. The workmen, it is true, term the meetings held for
consultation on their common interests or pleasures, their _chapels_;
and whether this may have arisen from any particular instance in which a
chapel was converted into a printing-house, I cannot say. In order to
ascertain the origin of this term these Queries may be proposed:--Is it
peculiar to printers and to this country? Or is it used also in other
trades and on the Continent?

John Gough Nichols.

* * * * *


Although I am unable to give a satisfactory reply to Mr. Foss's
inquiries, such information as I have is freely at his service. It may,
at all events, serve as a finger-post to the road.

My survey gives a most minute extent, of 35 preceptories, 23 "camerae" of
the Hospitallers, 13 preceptories formerly commandries of the Templars,
74 limbs, and 70 granges, impropriations, &c., and, among them all, not
a single one of the valuation of the New Temple itself. _Reprises_ of
that establishment are entered, but no _receipts_.

The former are as follows:

"In emendationem et sustentationem ecclesie Novi Templi, London,
et in vino, cera, et oleo, et ornamentis ejusdem ... x m.

"In uno fratri [_sic_] Capellano et octo Capellanis secularibus,
deservientibus ecclesiam quondam Templariorum apud London,
vocatam Novum Templum, prout ordinatum est per totum consilium
totius regni, pro animabus fundatorum dicti Novi Templi et alia
[_sic_] possessionum alibi ... lv m.

"Videlicet, frati Capellano, pro se et ecclesia, xv m., et
cuilibet Capellano, v m., ubi solebant esse, tempore
Templariorum, unus Prior ecclesie et xij Capellani seculares.

"Item in diversis pensionibus solvendis diversis personis per
annum, tam in Curia domini Regis, quam Justiciariis Clericis,
Officiariis, et aliis ministris, in diversis Curiis suis, ac
etiam aliis familiaribus magnatum, tam pro terris tenementis,
redditibus, et libertatibus hospitalis, quam Templariorum, et
maxime pro terris Templariorum manutenendis, videlicet,
Baronibus in Scaccario domini Regis Domino Roberto de Sadyngton,
militi, Capitali baroni de Scaccario, xl." &c. &c.{124}

enumerating pensions to the judges, clerks, &c., in all the courts, to
the amount of above 60l. per annum. To

"Magnatibus, secretariis, et familiaribus domini Regis et

the pensions enumerated amount to about 440_l._ per annum.

Then, to the treasurer, barons, clerks, &c., of the Exchequer (140

"Bis in anno, videlicet, tempore yemali, pilliola furrata
pellura minuti varii et bogeti, et quedam non furrata; et
tempore estivali totidem pilliola lineata de sindone, et quedam
non lineata, unicuique de Curia Scaccarii predicti, tam
minoribus quam majoribus, secundum gradus, statum, et officium
personarum predictarum, que expense se extendunt annuatim ad ...
x ii."

"Item sunt alie expense facte in Curiis Regis annuatim pro
officio generalis procuratoris in diversis Curiis Regis, que de
necessitate fieri oportet, pro brevibus Regis, et Cartis
impetendis, et aliis, negociis in eisdem Curiis expediendis, que
ad minus ascendunt per annum, prout evidencius apparet, per
compotum et memoranda dicti fratris de Scaccario qui per
capitulum ad illud officium oneratur ... lx m."

"Item in donis dandis in Curiis domini Regis et aliorum magnatum
_pro favore habendo_ et pro placitis defendendis, et expensis
parlialmentorum, ad minus bis per annum ... cc m."

I have made these extracts somewhat more at length than may, perhaps, be
to the point in question, because they contain much that is highly
interesting as to the apparently questionable mode in which the
Hospitallers obtained the protection of the courts (and probably they
were not singular in their proceedings); annual pensions to judges,
besides other largesses, and much of this "pro favore habendo,"
contrasts painfully with the "spotless purity of the ermine" which
dignifies our present age.

In the "extent" we have occasionally a grange held rent free for life by
a judge. Chief Justice Geffrey de Scrop so held that of Penhull in

Putting all these facts together, and bearing in mind that, throughout
this elaborate "extent," there are neither profits nor rent entered, as
for the Temple itself, so that it seems to have then been neither in the
possession nor occupation of the Hospitallers, is it not possible that
they had alienated it to the lawyers, as a discharge for these heavy
annual incumbrances,--_prospectively_, perhaps, because by the entry of
these charges among the "reprise," the life interests, at all events,
were still paid; or perhaps the alienation was itself made to them "pro
favore habendo" in some transaction that the Hospitallers wished to have
carried by the Courts; or it may have been made as a _bona fide_ bribe
for future protection. At all events, when we see such extensive
payments made annually to the lawyers, their ultimate possession of the
fee simple is no unnatural result. But, as I am altogether ignorant of
the history of the New Temple, I must refrain from suggestions, giving
the simple facts as I find them, and leaving the rest to the learning
and investigation of your correspondent.


* * * * *


(Vol. ii., pp. 17. 83.)

Mr. Ross is right in saying that "no alteration has taken place in the
_practice_ of the House of Commons with respect to the admission of
strangers." The practice was at variance with the old sessional order:
it is consistent with the new standing order of 1845. I do not
understand how any one can read these words of the new standing order,
"that the sergeant-at-arms ... do take into his custody any stranger
whom he may see ... in any part of the house or gallery appropriated to
the members of the House: and also any stranger _who, having been
admitted into any other part of the house or gallery_," &c., and say
that the House of Commons does not now recognise the presence of
strangers; nor can I understand how Mr. Ross can doubt that the old
sessional order absolutely prohibited their presence. It did not keep
them out certainly, for they were admitted in the teeth of it; but so
long as that sessional order was in force, prohibition to strangers was
the theory.

Mr. Ross refers to publication of speeches. Publication is still
prohibited in theory. Mr. Ross perhaps is not aware that the prohibition
of publication of speeches rests on a foundation independent of the old
sessional order against the presence of strangers,--on a series of
resolutions declaring publication to be a breach of the privileges of
Parliament, to be found in the Journals of 1642, 1694, 1695, 1697, 1703,
1722, and 1724.

We unfortunately cannot settle in your columns whether, as Mr. Ross
asserts, "if a member in debate should inadvertently allude to the
possibility of his observations being heard by a stranger, the Speaker
would immediately call him to order;" but my strong belief is, that he
would not: and I hope, if there are any members of the House of Commons
who have time to read "Notes and Queries," that one of them may be
induced to take a suitable opportunity of obtaining the Speaker's

"Yet at other times," Mr. Ross goes on to say, "the right honourable
gentlemen will listen complacently to discussions arising out of the
complaints of members that strangers will not publish to the world all
that they hear pass in debate." If this be so, I suppose the Speaker
sees nothing disorderly in a complaint, that what has been spoken in
Parliament has _not_ been published: but I read frequently in my
newspaper that the Speaker interrupts {125} members who speak of
speeches having been published. "This is one of the inconsistencies,"
Mr. Ross proceeds, "resulting from the determination of the House not
expressly to recognise the presence of strangers." Inconsistency there
certainly is,--the inconsistency of making publication a breach of
privilege, and allowing it to go on daily.

As strangers may be admitted into the House to hear debates, and not
allowed to publish what they hear, so they may he admitted, subject to
exclusion at certain times, or when the House chooses. And this is the
case. The House, of course, retains the power of excluding them at any
moment. They are always made to withdraw before the House goes to a
division. This is a matter of practice, founded probably on some
supposed reasons of convenience. Again, on any member desiring strangers
to be excluded, the Speaker desires them to withdraw, without allowing
any discussion.

I have only to notice one other observation of Mr. Ross's, which is the

"When I speak of strangers being admitted, it must not be
supposed that this was done by order of the House. No,
everything relating to the admission of strangers to, and their
accommodation in the House of Commons, is effected by some
mysterious agency, for which no one is directly responsible. Mr.
Barry has built galleries for strangers in the new house; but if
the matter were made a subject of inquiry, it probably would
puzzle him to state under what authority he has acted."

I do not think there is anything mysterious as regards admission. I am
fond of hearing the debates, and my parliamentary friends are very kind
to me. Sometimes I content myself with an order from a member, which
takes me into the hinder seats of the non-reporting strangers' gallery;
sometimes, when I know beforehand of an interesting debate, I get one of
my friends to put my name on the "Speaker's list," and I then take my
seat on one of the two front rows of the strangers' gallery; sometimes,
again, I go down on the chance, while the House is sitting; and if I am
fortunate enough to find any one of any friends there, he generally
brings me, in a few moments, an order from the Sergeant-at-arms, which
takes me also to the front row of the strangers' gallery. Some benches
under the strangers' gallery are reserved for peers, ambassadors, and
peers' eldest sons. The Speaker and the Sergeant-at-arms give permission
generally to foreigners, and sometimes to some other persons, to sit in
these benches. I do not know which officer of the House of Commons
superintends the admission of reporters. Ladies are admitted to the
Black Hole assigned to them, by orders from the Sergeant-at-arms. I have
no doubt that the Speaker and Sergeant-at-arms are responsible to the
House for everything relating to the admission of strangers, and without
taking upon myself to say what is the authority under which Mr. Barry
has acted, I have no doubt that, in building galleries for strangers in
the new house, he has done what is consistent not only with the long
established practice, but, under the new order of 1845, with the theory
of the House of Commons.

As regards the passage quoted by Mr. Jackson from the _Edinburgh
Review_, the reviewer would probably allow that he had overlooked the
new standing order of 1845; and Mr. Jackson will perceive that the
recognition of the presence of strangers does not legalise the
publication of speeches. The supposed difficulty in the way of
legalising publication is, that the House of Commons would then make
itself morally responsible for the publication of any libellous matter
in speeches. I do not see the force of this difficulty. But the
expediency of the existing rule is not a proper subject for discussion
in your columns.


Whatever the present practice of the House of Commons with respect to
strangers may be, it does not seem probable that it will soon undergo
alteration. In the session of 1849 a Select Committee, composed of
fifteen members, and including the leading men of all parties, was
appointed "to consider the present practice of this House in respect of
the exclusion of strangers." The following is the Report of the
Committee _in extenso_ (_Parl. Pap._, No. 498. Sess. 1849):

"That the existing usage of excluding strangers during a
division, and upon the notice by an individual Member that
strangers are present, has prevailed from a very early period of
parliamentary history; that the instances in which the power of
an individual Member to exclude has been exercised have been
very rare: and that it is the unanimous opinion of your
committee, that there is no sufficient ground for making any
alteration in the existing practice with regard to the admission
or exclusion of strangers."

This Report confirms the statement of Mr. Ross (p. 83., _ante_), that
within his experience of thirty-one years no change has been made in the
present rule of the House upon this matter, which, it would seem, dates
very far back. The Speaker was the only witness examined before the
Committee, and his evidence is not printed.


* * * * *


_Morganatic Marriage_ (Vol. ii., p. 72.).--According to M., Ducange has
connected this expression with _morgingab_; but I have looked in vain
for such connection in my edition of the _Glossary_ (Paris, 1733). The
truth most probably is, that _morganatic_, in the phrase "matrimonium ad
morganaticam," {126} was akin to the Gothic _maurgjan_, signifying, "to
procrastinate," "to bring to an end," "to shorten," "to limit." This
application of the word would naturally rise out of the restrictions
imposed upon the wife and children of a morganatic marriage.


_Umbrellas_ (Vol. i., p. 415. 436.; ii. 25.).--In Swift's description of
a city shower (_Tatler_, No. 238., October 17. 1710), umbrellas are
mentioned as in common use by women:

"Now in contiguous drops the flood comes down,
Threatening with deluge the devoted town;
To shops, in crowds, the daggled females fly,
Pretend to cheapen goods, but nothing buy;
The Templar spruce, while every spout's abroach,
Stays till 'tis fair, yet seems to call a coach;
The tucked-up sempstress walks with hasty strides,
While streams run down her oiled umbrella's sides."


U.U. Club, July 2.

_Bands_ (Vol. ii., pp. 23. 76.)--_Scarf_.--I was glad to read Arun's
explanation of the origin of the bands now worn by the clergy; which,
however, seems merely to amount to their being an adoption of a Genevan
portion of clerical costume. That they are the descendants of the ruff,
there can be no doubt, just as wrist-bands have more recently succeeded
to ruffles.

I cannot resist mentioning that an ingenious friend suggested to me,
that the broad, stiff, laid-down collar, alluded to in the former part
of Arun's communication, possibly gave rise to the modern band in the
following manner:--When the scarf, still in use, was drawn over the
shoulders and hung down in front, that part of the broad collar which
was left visible, being divided up the middle, presented a shape and
appearance exactly like our common bands. Hence, it was imagined, this
small separate article of dress might have originated.

Is it Butler, Swift, or who, that says,

"A Chrysostom to smoothe his band in"?

Whenever this was written, it must have referred to our modern bands.

Who amongst the clergy are _entitled_ to wear a scarf? Is it the badge
of a chaplain only? or what circumstances justify its being worn?

Alfred Gatty.

July 1. 1850.

_Bands_ (Vol. ii., p. 76.).--An early example of the collar, approaching
to the form of our modern bands, may be seen in the portrait of Cardinal
Beatoun, who was assassinated in 1546. The original is in Holyrood
Palace, and an engraving in Mr. Lodge's _Portraits_. The artist is
unknown, but from the age of the face one may infer that it was painted
about 1540.


_Jewish Music_ (Vol. ii., p. 88.).--See a host of authorities on the
subject of Hebrew music and musical instruments in Winer's
_Realwoerterbuch_ vol. ii., pp. 120. _seq._, 3d edit. There is a good
abstract respecting them in Jahn's _Hebrew Antiquities_, sect. 92-96.


_North Sides of Churchyards unconsecrated_ (Vol. ii., p. 55.).--In
illustration of, not in answer to, Mr. Sansom's inquiry, I beg to offer
the following statement. During a long series of years an average of
about 150 corpses has been annually deposited in Ecclesfield churchyard,
which has rendered it an extremely crowded cemetery. But,
notwithstanding these frequent interments, my late sexton told me that
he remembered when there was scarcely one grave to the north of the
church, it being popularly considered that only suicides, unbaptised
persons, and still-born children ought to be buried there. However, when
a vicar died about twenty-seven years ago, unlike his predecessors, who
had generally been buried in the chancel, he was laid in a tomb on the
north side of the churchyard, adjoining the vicarage. From this time
forward the situation lost all its evil reputation amongst the richer
inhabitants of the parish, who have almost entirely occupied it with
family vaults.

Whether the prejudice against the north side of our churchyard arose
from an idea that it was unconsecrated, I cannot tell but I suspect
that, from inherited dislike, the poor are still indisposed towards it.
When the women of the village have to come to the vicarage after
nightfall, they generally manage to bring a companion, and hurry past
the gloomy end of the north transept as if they knew

"that close behind
Some frightful fiend did tread."

I cannot help fancying that the objection is attributable to a notion
that evil spirits haunt the spot in which, possibly from very early
times, such interments took place as my sexton described. As a
suggestion towards a full solution of this popular superstition, I would
ask whether persons who formerly underwent ecclesiastical
excommunication were customarily buried on the north side of

Alfred Gatty.

Ecclesfield, June 28. 1850.

I can only give from recollection a statement of a tradition, that when
Jesus Christ died he turned his head towards the south; and so, ever
since, the south side of a church has the pre-eminence. There generally
is the bishop's throne, and the south aisle of ancient basilicas was
appropriated to men. Simple observation shows that the supposed sanctity
extends to the churchyard,--for there the tombstones lie thickest.

I find that my source of information for the {127} tradition was
Cockerell's last lecture on Architecture, _Athenaeum_ for 1843, p. 187.
col. 3.


"_Men are but Children_," &c.--R.G. (Vol. ii., p. 22.) will find the
line about which he inquires in Dryden's _All for Love; or, The World
well Lost_, Act iv. Sc. 1.

Dolabella (_loq._):
"Men are but children of a larger growth,
Our appetites as apt to change as theirs,
And full as craving too, and full as vain."


King's College, London, July 12. 1850.

_Ventriloquism_ (Vol. ii., p. 88.).--Mr. SANSOM will find some curious
information touching the words [Hebrew: 'or], [Greek: eggastrimuthos],
&c., in Dr. Maitland's recent _Illustrations and Enquiries relating to
Mesmerism_, pp. 55. 81. The Lexicons of Drs. Lee and Gesenius may also
be consulted, under the word [Hebrew: 'or]. The former of these
lexicographers would rank the Pythian priestess with "our modern


St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge.

_Cromwell's Estates--Magor_ (Vol. i., p. 277. 389.).--As the South Wales
line is now open as far as Chepstow, it may not be uninteresting to V.
to know, that it diverges from the coast between Chepstow and Newport,
in order to pass Bishopston and _Magor_, the last of which he rightly
placed in Monmouthshire.


_Vincent Gookin_ (Vol. i., pp. 385. 473. 492.; Vol. ii. p. 44.) is
described in a _Narrative of the late Parliament_ (Cromwell's
Parliament, d. 1656), in the _Harleian Miscellany_, as

"One of the letters of land in Ireland, receiving three hundred
pounds per annum."

He and three other Irish members, Colonel Jephson, Ralph King, and Bice,
are classed together in this tract, which is hostile to Cromwell, as

"Persons not thought meet to be in command, though they much
desire it, and are of such poor principles and so unfit to make
rulers of as they would not have been set with the dogs of the
flock, if the army and others who once pretended to be honest
had kept close to their former good and honest principles."

Vincent Gookin voted for the clause in the "Petition and Advice" giving
the title of "King" to Cromwell.


_All-to brake_ (Vol. i., p. 395.).--The interpretation given is
incorrect. "All-to" is very commonly used by early writers for
"altogether:" e.g., "all-to behacked," Calfhill's _Answer to Martiall's
Treatise of the Cross_, Parker Society's edition, p. 3.; "all-to
becrossed," _ibid._ p. 91.; "all-to bebatted," _ibid._ p. 133., &c. &c.
The Parker Society reprints will supply innumerable examples of the use
of the expression.

* * * * *



The two of Mr. Hunter's _Critical and Historical Tracts_, which we have
had the opportunity of examining, justify to the fullest the
expectations we had formed of them. The first, _Agincourt; a
Contribution towards an authentic List of the Commanders of the English
Host, in King Henry the Fifth's Expedition, in the Third Year of his
Reign_, Mr. Hunter describes as "an instalment," we venture to add "a
very valuable instalment," from evidence which has been buried for
centuries in the unknown masses of national records, towards a complete
list of the English Commanders who served with the King in that
expedition, with, in most cases, the number of the retinue which each
Commander undertook to bring into the field, and, in some instances,
notices of events happening to the contingents. The value of a work
based upon such materials, our historical readers will instantly
recognise. The lovers of our poetry will regard with equal interest, and
peruse with equal satisfaction, Mr. Hunter's brochure entitled _Milton;
a Sheaf of Gleanings after his Biographers and Annotators_, and admit
that he has bound up the new biographical illustrations and critical
comments, which he has gathered in that pleasant field of literary
inquiry, the life and writings of Milton, into a goodly and a pleasant

Messrs. Sotheby and Co. will commence on Monday, the 29th of this month,
a three days' Sale of Greek Roman, and English Coins, English and
Foreign Medals, Cabinets, &c., the property of a Gentleman leaving

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