Notes and Queries 1850.02.23

Produced by The Internet Library of Early Journals, Jon Ingram,
William Flis, and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.



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"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

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No. 17.] Saturday, February 23. 1850. [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

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Alfred's Orosius, by R.T. Hampson 257
Folk Lore--Omens from Cattle--Horse's Head--Rush-bearings 258
On Authors and Books, No. 5., by Bolton Corney 259
Plagiarisms, or Parallel Passages, No. 2. 260
St. Antholin's 260

College Salting, by Rev. Dr. Maitland 261
A few Dodo Queries, by H.E. Strictland 261
Coleridge's Christabel, Byron's Lara: Tablet to Napoleon 262
Minor Queries:--Howkey or Horkey--Lord Bacon's Psalms--Treatise of
Equivocation 263

Etymology of Armagh, by Rev. Dr. Todd 264
William Hasse and his Poems, by E.F. Rimbault, LL.D. 265
Beaver Hats--Pisan, by T. Hudson Turner 266
Replies to Minor Queries:--Norman Pedigrees--Translation of AElian--Ave
Polyglot--Sir W. Rider--Pokership--Havior, Heavier or Hever--Sir W.
Hamilton--Dr. Johnson's Library 266

Etymology of News--The Golden Age 270

Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. 270
Books and Odd Volumes wanted 271
Notices to Correspondents 271
Advertisements 271

* * * * *


The sketch of Europe, which our illustrious Alfred has inserted in his
translation of _Orosius_, is justly considered, both here and on the
Continent, as a valuable fragment of antiquity[1]; and I am sorry that
I can commend little more than the pains taken by his translators,
the celebrated Daines Barrington and Dr. Ingram, to make it available
to ordinary readers. The learned judge had very good intentions, but
his knowledge of Anglo-Saxon was not equal to the task. Dr. Ingram
professedly applied himself to correct both Alfred's text and
Barrington's version, so far as relates to the description of Europe;
but in two instances, occurring in one passage, he has adopted the
judge's mistake of proper names for common nouns. I do not call
attention to the circumstance merely as a literary curiosity, but
to preserve the royal geographer from liability to imputations of
extraordinary ignorance of his subject, and also to show the accuracy
of his delineation of Europe at that interesting epoch, whence the
principal states of Europe must date their establishment.

King Alfred, mentioning the seat of the Obotriti, or Obotritae, as
they are sometimes named, a Venedic nation, who, in the 9th century,
occupied what is now the duchy of Mecklenburg, calls them _Apdrede_,
and says--"Be nor than him is apdrede, and cast north wylte the man
aefeldan haet."[2]

Barrington translates the words thus:--"To the north is Aprede, and to
the north east the wolds which are called AEfeldan."[3]

Dr. Ingram has the following variation:--"And to the east north are
the wolds which are called Heath Wolds."[4] To the word _wolds_
he appends a note:--"_Wylte_. See on this word a note hereafter."
Very well; the promised note is to justify the metamorphosis of the
warlike tribe, known in the annals and chronicles of the 9th century
as the Wilti, Wilzi, Weleti, and Welatibi, into heaths and wolds.
Thirty pages further on there is a note by J. Reinhold Forster,
the naturalist and navigator, who wrote it for Barrington in full
confidence that the translation was correct:--"The AEfeldan," he says,
"are, as king Alfred calls them, _wolds_; there are at present in
the middle part of Jutland, large tracts of high moors, covered with
_heath_ only."

Of _wylte_, Dr. Ingram writes:--"This word has never been correctly
explained; its original signification is the same, whether written
felds, fields, velts, welds, wilds, wylte, wealds, walds, walz, wolds,
&c. &c." And on _heath_, he says:--"Mr. Forster seems to have read
Haefeldan (or Haethfeldan), which indeed, I find in the Junian MS.
inserted as a various reading by Dr. Marshall (_MSS. Jun. 15_.). It
also occurs, further on in the MS., without any various reading. I
have therefore inserted it in the text." {258}

Dr. Marshall seems to have understood the passage. What King Alfred
says and means is this:--"On the north are the Apdrede (Obotritae), and
on the north east of them are the Wylte, who are called Haefeldi."

The anonymous Saxon Poet, who wrote the life of Charlemagne, gives the
same situation as Alfred to the Wilti:--

"Gens est Slavorum Wilti cognomine dicta,
Proxima litoribus quae possidet arva supremis
Jungit ubi oceano proprios Germania fines."[5]

Helmold says that they inhabited the part of the coast opposite to the
island of Rugen; and hereabouts Adam of Bremen places the _Heveldi_,
and many other Slavonic tribes.[6] I am not aware that any other
author than Alfred says, that the Wilti and Heveldi were the
same people; but the fact is probable. The Heveldi are of rare
occurrence, but not so the Wilti.[7] Ptolemy calls them [Greek:
Beltai]--Veltae or Weltae--and places them in Prussian Pomerania,
between the Vistula and Niemen. Eginhard says that "they are
Slavonians who, in our manner, are called Wilsi, but in their own
language, Welatibi."[8] Their country was called Wilcia,[9] and,
as a branch of them were settled in Batavia about 560, it does not
seem very improbable that from them were derived the Wilsaeton of the
Anglo-Saxon chronicles, meaning the _Wilts seated_, or settlers in
Wilts-shire. The name, as Eginhard has noticed, is Slavic, and is an
adoption of _welot_ or _weolot_, a giant, to denote the strength and
fierceness which rendered them formidable neighbours. _Heveldi_ seems
to be the same word made emphatic with a foreign addition.

Two other names have been given much trouble to the translators,
as well as to Mr. Forster. These are, _Maegtha Land_ and _Horiti_
or _Horithi_, for both occur, and the latter is not written with
the letter _thorn_, but with a distinct _t_ and _h_. Alfred has,
unquestionably, met with the Slavic _gorod_, which so frequesntly
occurs as the termination of the names of cities in the region where
he indicates the seat of his Horiti to be. It signifies a city, and
is an etymological equivalent of Goth. _gards_, a house, Lat. _cors,
cortis_; O.N. _gardr_, a district, A.-Sax. _geard_, whence our _yard_.
The Polish form is _grodz_, and the Sorabic, _hrodz_. He places the
Horiti to the east of the Slavi Dalamanti, who occupied the district
north east of Moravia, with the _Surpe_, that is, Serbi, Servi, on
their north, and the _Sisle_, Slusli, another Slavonic people, on the
west. This appears to be the site possessed by the Hunnic founders of
Kiow. In Helmold, Chunigord, _the city or station of the Huns_, is the
name of the part of Russia containing Kiow.[10]

To the north of Horiti, says Alfred, is _Maegtha Land_.--A Finnic
tribe, called Magyar, were settled in the 9th century in Mazovia,
whence a part of them descended into Hungary. According to Mr.
Forster, Mazovia has been called _Magan Land_; but I can find no trace
of that name. I can easily conceive, however, that _Magyar_ and _Land_
might become, in Saxon copying, Maegtha Land, for the country of the
Magyar. Elsewhere, Alfred uses Maegtha Land, the land of the Medes, for

Is there any other printed copy of the Saxon _Orosius_ than
Barrington's? for that forbids confidence by a number of needless and
unauthorised alterations in most of the pages.


[1] "La precieuse geographie d'Alfred, roi d'Angleterre."--Le
Comte J. Graeberg. _La Scandinavie Vengee_, p. 36.

[2] Cotton MSS., _Tiberius_, b. i. fol. 12b.

[3] Transl. of _Orosius_, p. 8.

[4] _Inaugural Lecture_, p. 72.

[5] _Vita Karoli Magni_, ann. 789.

[6] "Sunt et alii Slavorum populi qui inter Albiam et
Oderam degunt, sicut Heveldi, qui juxta Haliolam fluvium, et
Doxani, Liubuzzi, Wilini, et Stoderani, cum multis aliis."--_Hist.
Eccl._ p. 47, 48.

[7] _Annales Sangall. Brev._, ann. 789.--_Ann. Lauresham_, &c.

[8] _Vit. Kar. Mag._ and _Annal. Francor._, ann. 822.

[9] _Annal. Petav._, ann 789.

[10] _Chron. Slavorum_, l. i, c. 2.

* * * * *


_Omens from Cattle_.--I forward to you a _Note_, which, many years
ago, I inserted in my interleaved Brand's _Observations on Popular
Antiquities_, vol. ii. p. 519. 4to., in the hope that, as the subject
interested me _then_, it may not prove uninteresting to some _now_:--

"A bad omen seems to be drawn from _an ox or cow breaking into
a garden_. Though I laugh at the superstition, the omen was
painfully fulfilled in my case.

"About the middle of March, 1843, some cattle were driven
close to my house; and, the back door being open, _three_
got into our little bit of garden, and trampled it. When our
school-drudge came in the afternoon, and asked the cause of
the confusion, she expressed great sorrow and apprehension on
being told--said it was a bad sign--and that we should hear of
_three_ deaths within the next six months. Alas! in April, we
heard of dear J----'s murder; a fortnight after, A---- died;
and to-morrow, August 10th, I am to attend the funeral of my
excellent son-in-law.

"I have just heard of the same omen from another quarter."

This was added the next day:--

"But what is still more remarkable is, that when I went down
to Mr. ----'s burial, and was mentioning the superstition,
they told me that, while he was lying ill, a cow got into the
front garden, and was driven out with great difficulty."


_The Horse's Head--Rush-bearings._--The account of the Welch custom of
the "Grey Mare" in a late Number reminded me of something very similar
in Cheshire. In the parish of Lynn it is customary, for a week or ten
days before the 5th {259} of November, for the skeleton of a horse's
head, dressed up with ribbons, &c., having glass eyes inserted in the
sockets, and mounted on a short pole by way of handle, to be carried
by a man underneath, covered with a horse-cloth. There is generally
a chain attached to the nose, which is held by a second man, and
they are attended by several others. In houses to which they can gain
access, they go through some kind of performance, the man with the
chain telling the horse to rear, open its mouth, &c. Their object, of
course, is to obtain money. The horse will sometimes seize persons,
and hold them fast till they pay for being set free; but he is
generally very peaceable,--for in case of resistance being offered,
his companions frequently take flight, and leave the poor horse to
fight it out. I could never learn the origin of this strange custom.
I remember, when very young, having a perfect horror of meeting this
animal in the dark.

Another custom, which I suppose prevails in some other places, is the
"Rush-bearing." At the annual Wakes a large quantity of rushes are
collected together, and loaded on a cart, almost to the height of a
load of hay. They are bound on the cart, and cut evenly at each end.
On the Saturday evening a number of men sit on the top of the rushes,
holding garlands of artificial flowers, tinsel, &c. The cart is
drawn round the parish by three or four spirited horses, decked out
with ribbons,--the collars being surrounded with small bells. It is
attended by morris-dancers, dressed in strange style,--men in women's
clothes, &c. One big man in woman's clothes, with his face blacked,
has a belt round his waist, to which is attached a large bell, and
carries a ladle, in which he collects money from the spectators.
The company stop and dance at the principal public-houses in their
route, and then proceed to the parish church(!), where the rushes are
deposited, and the garlands hung up very conspicuously, to remain
till the next year. I believe a custom somewhat similar exists in
the adjoining parish of Warburton, but not carried out in such grand

It would be very interesting if your correspondents in different parts
of the country would send accounts of these relics of the barbarous


Runcorn, Feb. 13. 1850.

* * * * *


As a writer of dedications, Samuel Johnson was the giant of his time.
He once said to Boswell, the subject arising at a dinner-party, "Why,
I have dedicated to the royal family all round,"--and the _honest
chronicler_ proves that he spoke advisedly.

Compositions of this nature admit much variety of character. A
dedication may be the pure homage which we owe to merit, or the
expression of gratitude for favours received, or a memorial of
cherished friendship; and such dedications, in point of motive,
are beyond the reach of censure--I may fairly assert, are very
commendable. Nevertheless, Johnson left no compositions of either
class: "the _loftiness_ of his mind," as Boswell gravely states,
"prevented him from ever dedicating in his own person."

A more equivocal sort of dedication also prevailed. A book was
supposed to require the prefix of some eminent name as its patron,
in order to ensure its success. Now the author, though very capable
of writing with propriety on his chosen theme, might be unequal to
the courtly style which dedicators were wont to display, and as the
_complement_ was to be returned _substantially_, he might be tempted
to employ a superior artist on the occasion. It was chiefly under such
circumstances that the powers of Johnson were called into action. By
what arguments the stern moralist would have endeavoured to justify
the deception, for it deserves no better name, is more than I can
undertake to decide, and I submit the query to his enthusiastic

To the dedications enumerated by the faithful Boswell, and by his
sharp-sighted editors, Malone and Croker, I have to announce on
_internal_ evidence, a gorgeous addition! It is the dedication to
Edward Augustus, Duke of York, of _An Introduction to Geometry_, by
William Payne, London: T. Payne, at the Mews Gate, 1767. quarto., 1768.
octavo. I transcribe it _literatim_. It wants no comment:--



"They who are permitted to prefix the names of princes to
treatises of science generally enjoy the protection of a
patron, without fearing the censure of a judge.

"The honour of approaching your royal highness has given
me many opportunities of knowing, that the work which I now
presume to offer will not partake of the usual security.
For as the knowledge which your royal highness has already
acquired of GEOMETRY extends beyond the limits of an
introduction. I expect not to inform you; I shall be happy
if I merit your approbation.

"An address to such a patron admits no recommendation of the
science. It is superfluous to tell your royal highness that
GEOMETRY is the primary and fundamental art of life; that its
effects are extended through the principal operations of human
skill; that it conducts the soldier in the field, and the
seaman in the ocean; that it gives strength to the fortress,
and elegance to the palace. To your royal highness all this
is already known; GEOMETRY is secure of your regard, and your
opinion of its usefulness and value has sufficiently appeared,
by the condescension in which you have been pleased to honour
{260} one who has so little pretension to the notice of
princes, as

"Your royal highnesses [sic]'
"Most obliged,
"Most obedient,
"And most humble servant,

A short preface follows, which bears marks of reparation. It may have
received some touches from the same masterly hand.

The _external_ evidence in favour of the ascription of the above piece
to Johnson, if slight in itself, is not devoid of significance. He had
dedicated a book for the same author, which book was also published by
Mr. Thomas Payne, who was his brother, in 1756.


* * * * *


[_CONTINUED FROM NO. 11. P. 163._]

"Dans les premieres passions les femmes aiment l'amant; dans
les autres elles aiment l'amour."--La Rouchefoucauld, _Max._

"In her first passions woman loves her lover,
In all the others all she loves is love,
Which grows a habit she can ne'er get over,
And fits her loosely--like an easy glove," etc.

_Don Juan_, canto iii. st. iii.

There is no note on _this_ passage; but on the concluding lines of the
_very next_ stanza,

"Although, no doubt, her first of love affairs
Is that to which her heart is wholly granted;
Yet there are some, they say, who have had _none_,
But those who have ne'er end with only _one_,

we have the following editorial comment:--"These two lines are a
versification of a saying of Montaigne." (!!!) The saying is _not_
by Montaigne, but by La Rochefoucauld:--

"On peut trouver des femmes qui n'ont jamais eu de galanterie;
mais il est rare d'en trouver qui n'en aient jamais eu
qu'une."--_Max._ 73.

Byron borrows the same idea again:--

"Writing grows a habit, like a woman's gallantry. There are
women who have had no intrigue, but few who have had but one
only; so there are millions of men who have never written a
book, but few who have written only one."--_Observations upon
an Article in Blackwood's Magazine_; _Byron's Works_, vol. xv.
p. 87, Moore's Edition, 17 vols duod. London, 1833.

Both the silence of the author, and the blunder of his editor, seem
to me to prove that _Les Maximes_ are not as _generally_ known and
studied as they deserve to be.


* * * * *


Your correspondent MR. RIMBAULT (No. 12.) has made rather a grave
charge against my predecessors in office as churchwardens and
overseers of this parish; and although, I regret to say, such
accusations of unjust stewardship and dereliction of duty are
frequently and with justice imputed to some parish officers, yet I am
happy to be able, in this instance, to remove the stigma which would
otherwise attach to those of St. Antholin. The churchwardens' accounts
are in good preservation, and present (in an unbroken series) the
parish expenditure for nearly three centuries.

Mr. Rimbault has doubtless been misled by some error in the
description of the MSS. in Mr. Thorpe's catalogue (as advertised by
him for sale), which were probably merely extracts from the original

The first volume commences with the year 1574, and finishes in 1708;
the accounts are all written at the time of their respective dates,
and regularly signed by the auditors then and there present as

I have made numerous extracts from these interesting documents,
and _notes_ thereon, which I shall at some future time be happy to
lay before your readers, if you should consider them of sufficient

As a voucher for what I have stated with regard to their existence,
and to give some idea of their general character, I have selected (at
random) a few items from the year 1580-1:--

"The Accompte of Henrie Jaye, Churchwarden of the Parishe of
St. Antholyne, from the feaste of the Anunciacon of our Ladye
in Anno 1580 unto the same feaste followinge in Anno 1581."

Among the "receaittes" we have--

"R'd of Mr. Thorowgoode for an olde font stone,
by the consente of a vestrie v's iiij'd

"R'd for the clothe of _bodkine_[11] y't Ser Roger
Marten hade before in keppinge, and now
sold by the consente of a vestry and our
mynnister iij'll vj's viij'd

"The Payments as followithe:--

"P'd to the wife of John Bakone _gwder_ of the
Lazer cotte at Myle End[12] in full of her due {261}
for keppinge of Evan Redde y't was Mr.
Hariots mane till his departtur and for his
Shete and Burialle as dothe apere xl's viij'd

"P'd for makinge of the Longe pillowe & the
pulpit clothe ij's

"P'd for a yard and a nale of fustane for the same
pillowe xvj'd

"P'd for silke to the same pillowe xvj'd

"P'd for xj'li of fethers for the same pillowe, at
v'd iiij's vij'd

"P'd for brede and beer that day the quen cam
in xij'd

"P'd for candells and mendinge the _baldrocke_[13] vj'd

"P'd for paynttinge y'e stafe of the survayer iij'd

"P'd for mendynge the lytell bell iij's

"Pd to Mr. Sanders for the yearly rent of the
Laystall and skowringe the _harnes_[14] for
his yer iij's viij'd

"P'd to Mr. Wright for the makinge of the Cloke[15]
mor than he gatheride, agred one at the laste
vestrie xvij's

"P'd to Peter Medcalfe for mending the Cloke
when it neade due at o'r Ladies Daye laste
past in Anno 1581 iij's

"P'd for entringe this account xx'd."


Overseer of St. Antholin, 1850.

[11] _Brodekine_. A richly-gilt stuff.

[12] It appears from an entry in the preceding year, that this
man was first sent to "Sentt Thomas Spittell in Soughwork," when
it was discovered that he was afflicted with the leprosy, or some
cutaneous disease, and immediately removed to the Lazar-house at
Mile End, it being strictly forbidden that such cases should
remain in the hospitals. These lazar-houses were built away from
the town; one was the Lock Hospital, in Southwark; one at
Kingsland, another at Knightsbridge, and that mentioned above
between Mile End and Stratford. The laws were very strict in the
expulsion of leprous people from the city; and if they attempted
to force their way into the hospitals, they were bound fast to
horses, and dragged away to the lazar-houses.

[13] The _baldricke_ was the garter and buckle by means of
which the clapper was suspended inside the bell.

[14] _Harnes_, or armour, which perhaps hung over some of the
monuments in the church.

[15] It was about this time that clocks began to be generally
used in churches (although of a much earlier invention); and in
subsequent years we have several items of expenditure connected
with that above mentioned. In 1595:--

"Paid for a small bell for the _watche_ iiij's

"Paid to the smith for Iron worke to it xx'd

"Paid for a waight for the Clocke wayinge
36'lb and for a ringe of Iron v's."

Still, however, the hour-glass was used at the pulpit-desk, to
determine the length the parson should go in his discourse; and
xij'd for a new hour-glass frequently occurs.

* * * * *



Mr. Editor.--If your very valuable work had existed in October, 1847,
when I published in the _British Magazine_ a part of Archibishop
Whitgift's accounts relative to his pupils while he was Master of
Trinity College, Cambridge, I should certainly have applied to you
for assistance.

In several of the accounts there is a charge for the pupil's
"salting;" and after consulting gentlemen more accurately informed
with regard to the customs of the university than myself, I was
obliged to append a note to the word, when it occurred for the first
time in the account of Lord Edward Zouch, in which I said, "I must
confess my inability to explain this word; and do not know whether it
may be worth while to state that, on my mentioning it to a gentleman,
once a fellow-commoner of the college, he told me, that when, as a
freshman, he was getting his gown from the maker, he made some remark
on the long strips of sleeve by which such gowns are distinguished,
and was told that they were called 'salt-bags,' but he could not learn
why; and an Oxford friend tells me, that going to the buttery to
drink salt and water was part of the form of his admission.... This
nobleman's (i.e. Lord Edward Zouch's) amounted to 4s., and that of the
Earl of Cumberland to 3s. 4d., while in other cases it was as low as
8d." To this I added the suggestion that it was probably some fee,
or expense, which varied according to the rank of the parties. It
afterwards occurred to me that this "salting" was, perhaps, some
entertainment given by the new-comer, from and after which he ceased
to be "fresh;" and that while we seem to have lost the "salting" both
really and nominally, we retain the word to which it has reference.

Be this as it may, my attention has just now been recalled to the
question by my accidentally meeting with one of Owen's epigrams, which
shows that in his time there was some sort of salting at Oxford, and
also of peppering at Winchester. As I doubt not that you have readers
well acquainted with the customs of both these seats of learning,
perhaps some may be good enough to afford information. Owen was at
Oxford not many years after Whitgift had been Master of Trinity at
Cambridge, if (as Wood states) he took his bachelor's degree in 1590.
The epigram is as follows:--

"Oxoniae salsus (juvenis tum) more vetusto;
Wintoniaeque (puer tum) piperatus eram.
Si quid inest nostro piperisve salisve libello,
Oxoniense sal est, Wintoniense piper."

It is No. 64 in that book of epigrams which Owen inscribed "Ad Carolum
Eboracensem, fratrem Principis, filium Regis," p. 205, edit. Elz,
1628. 12mo. I give this full reference in order to express my most
hearty sympathy with the righteous indignation of my highly respected
friend, your correspondent "L.S." (No. 15 p. 230.), against imperfect
references. I do not, however, agree with him in thinking it fortunate
that he is not a "despotic monarch;" on the contrary, now that I have
not to take up verses, or construe Greek to him, I should like it of
all things; and I am sure the world would be much the better for it.


Gloucester, Feb. 18. 1850.

* * * * *


The discovery and speedy extinction of that extraordinary bird the
DODO, belongs rather to {262} human history than to pure zoology, and
I therefore hope that a few Queries relating to this curious subject
will be admissible into your publication. I have already, in the work
entitled _The Dodo and its Kindred_, and in the Supplementary notices
inserted last year in the _Annals and Magazine of Natural History_
(ser. 2. vol. iii. pp. 136, 259; vol. iv. p. 335), endeavoured to
collect together the _omne scitum_ of the Dodo-history, but I am
satisfied that the _omne scibile_ is not yet attained.

_Query I._--Is there any historical record of the first discovery of
Mauritius and Bourbon by the Portuguese? These islands bore the name
of _Mascarenhas_ as early as 1598, when they were so indicated on one
of the De Bry's maps. Subsequent compilers state that they were thus
named after their Portuguese discoverer, but I have not succeeded in
finding any notice of them in the histories of Portuguese expeditions
to the East Indies which I have consulted. The only appartently
authentic indication of their discovery, that I am aware of, is the
pillar bearing the name of John III. of Portugal, and dated 1545,
which is stated by Leguat, on Du Quesne's authority, to have been
found in Bourbon by Flacour, when he took possession of the island
in 1653.

_Query II_.--It appears from Leguat's _New Voyage to the East Indies_,
London, 1708, pp. 2, 37., that the Marquis Du Quesne, being desirous
of sending out a colony from Holland to the Isle of Bourbon in 1689 or
1690, published (probably in Dutch) an account of that Island, with a
view of inducing emigrants to go thither. I should be greatly obliged
if any of your readers can tell me the title, date, and place of
publication of this book, and where a copy of it is to be seen or

_Query III_.--Are there in existence any original oil-paintings of
the Dodo by Savery or any other artist, besides the five described in
the _Dodo and its Kindred_--viz., the one at the Hague, at Berlin,
at Vienna, at the British Museum, and at Oxford? And are there any
original engravings of this bird, besides that in De Bry, in Clusius,
in Van den Broecke, in Herbert, in Bontekoc, and in Bontius, of all
which I have published fac-similes?

_Query IV_.--Are there any _original_ authors who mention the Dodo
as a living bird, besides Van Neck, Clusius, Heemskerk, Willem van
West-Zanen, Matelief, Van der Hagen, Verhuffen, Van den Broecke,
Bontekoe, Herbert, Cauche, Lestrange, and Benjamin Harry? Or any
authority for the _Solitaire_ of Rodriguez besides Leguat and
D'Heguerty; or for the Dodo-like birds of Bourbon besides Castelton,
Carre Sieur D.B., and Billiard?

_Query V_--In Rees' _Cyclopaeia_, article BOURBON, we are told that
in that island there is "a kind of large bat, denominated _l'Oiseau
bleu_, which are skinned and eaten as a great delicacy." Where did the
compiler of the article pick up this statement?

_Query VI_.--Is there in existence any figure, published or
unpublished, of the Dodo-like bird which once inhabited the Isle of

_Query VII_--What is the derivation or meaning of the words _Dodaers_
and _Dronte_, as applied to the Dodo?

_Query VIII_.--Sir Hamon Lestrange has recorded that about 1638 he
saw a living Dodo exhibited in London. (See _Sloane MSS_. 1839, v. p.
9. in Brit. Mus.; Wilkin's ed. of _Sir T. Browne's Works_, vol. i. p.
369.; vol. ii, p. 173.; _The Dodo and its Kindred_, p. 22.) Is there
any contemporary notice extant in print or in MS. which confirms this
statement? A splendidly bound copy of _The Dodo and its Kindred_ will
be given to any one who can answer this query affirmatively.

_Query IX_.--In Holme's _Academy of Armory and Blazou_, Chester, 1688,
p. 289, we find a Dodo figured as an heraldic device, a fac-simile of
which is given in the _Annals of Natural History_, 2nd series, vol.
iii. p. 260. The author thus describes it: "He beareth Sable a _Dodo_
or _Dronte_ proper. By the name of _Dronte_. This exotic bird doth
equal a swan in bigness," &c. &c. Now I wish to ask, where did this
family of _Dronte_ reside? Is anything known concerning them? How did
they come by these arms? and are any members of the family now living?

_Query X._--From a passage in the _Histoire de l'Academie Royale des
Sciences_, 1776, p. 37, it appears that Pingre the French astronomer,
published, or at least wrote, a relation of his voyage to Rodriguez,
in which he speaks of _Solitaires_. Is this the fact? and if so, what
is the title of his work?


* * * * *


I am one of those who look upon the creations of our great poets as
deserving illustration almost as much as actual history; and I am
always distressed when I meet with passages representing events with
respect to which I cannot make up my mind as to what the author meant,
or intended his readers to believe. Two of these occur to me at this
moment, and I shall be much obliged by any of your correspondents
giving, in your pages, brief replies to my queries, or referring me
to any published works where I may find their solution.

1. What did Coleridge mean to represent or imply in his tale of
_Christabel_? Who or what was Geraldine? What did Christabel see in
her, at times, so unutterably horrible? What is meant by "the ladye
strange" making Christabel _carry_ her over the sill of the portal?
&c., &c. {263}

2. What does Byron mean us to infer that Lara _saw_ in his hall that
midnight, when he so alarmed his household with

"A sound, a voice, a shriek, a fearful call,
A long loud shriek--and silence."?

The poet, it is true, seems to refuse, purposely, to let his readers
into the truth, telling them:--

"Whate'er his frenzy dream'd or eye beheld,
If yet remember'd, ne'er to be reaveal'd,
Rests at his heart."

But still, I conceive there can be no doubt that _he knew the truth_
(I speak as of realities), --knew what he intended to represent by so
full and elaborate a delineation of a scene. And it is the author's
meaning and intention that I wish to come at.

I will ask one more question relative to this magnificent poem
(which I don't think has had justice done it by the critics), but
one respecting which I hardly think there can be any doubt as to the
author's secret meaning:--Is not the _Kaled_ of _Lara_ the _Gulnare_
of the _Giaour_?

Before concluding, I will add a query on a very different subject.

3. Many of your readers have, doubtless, seen the large marble tablet
erected by the Vallaisians in honour of Napoleon, in the Convent of
the Great St. Bernard. A recent traveller in Switzerland (Dr. Forbes)
has, I find, noticed the inscription, and questioned, as I had
done, both its meaning and Latinity. I extract this author's note as
expressing exactly the point on which I desiderate information:--

"Having doubts both as to the precise meaning and lingual
purity of the compound epithet _Bis Italicus_, here applied
to Napoleon, I subjoin the passage in which it occurs, for the
judgement of the learned:--

RESPUBLICA.'"--_A Physician's Holiday_, p. 468.


Athenaeum, January 26. 1850.

* * * * *


_Howkey or Horkey._-- Can anybody explain the etymology of the
word _Howkey_ or _Horkey_, generally used to denote a harvest-home
merriment in our eastern counties? Forbes speaks of it as an
intractable word, and neither he nor Sir J. Cullum have succeeded
in explaining it satisfactorily.


Audley End, Feb. 16.

_Lord Bacon's Metrical Version of the Psalms._--The answer in No. 15.
p. 235. to A CORNISHMAN'S Query (No. 13. p. 202) respecting "Bacon's
Metrical Version of the Psalms," suggests another query. The work in
question was a mere "exercise of sickness;" it contains only seven
psalms (the 1st, 12th, 90th, 104th, 126th, 137th, and 149th), and is,
without pretension of any kind, a very proper diversion for a mind
that could not be inactive and yet required rest; and very good verses
for a man unpractised in metrical composition. The _Collection of
Apophthegms_ (also a recreation in sickness), though considerably
larger and altogether weightier, was considered so trifling a work
that Dr. Rawley, in his "perfect list of his Lordship's true works,
&c.," appended to the first edition of the _Resuscitatio_ (1657),
either forgot or did not think fit to mention it. Yet both these
trifles were not only written but _published_, by Bacon himself the
year before his death--a thing quite contrary to his practice; for
though he had written and carefully preserved and circulated in
manuscript so much, he had till then published nothing that was not
of the weightiest and most solid kind. Can any of your correspondents
inform me how much two such books may possibly have been _worth_ to
a publisher in the year 1625; being works of low price and popular
character, proceeding from an author of great name? How much is
it reasonable to suppose that a publisher may have given for the
copyright? or how far may it have gone towards the payment of a
bookseller's bill?


Feb. 7. 1850.

_Treatise of Equivocation._--I shall feel happy if, through your
very opportune medium, I can obtain some information respecting a
very extraordinary and mysterious book, as to its existence, local
habitation, and any other _material_ circumstance, which has the title
of _A Treatise of Equivocation._ The first recognition of the work is
in the _Relation of the Proceedings in the Trial for the Powder Plot_,
1604. At signat. I. the Attourney-General, Sir E. Coke, appeals to it,
and affirms that it was allowed by the Archpriest Blackwel, and that
the title was altered to _A Treatise against Lying and Fraudulent
Dissimulation_. He proceeds to describe some of its contents, as
if he were himself acquainted with the book. Thomas Morton, Bishop
of Lichfield, and Coventry, afterwards of Durham, in his _Full
Satisfaction concerning a double Romish Iniquitie; Rebellion and
Equivocation_, 1606, refers to the work as familiarly acquainted
with it. (See Ep. Dedic. A. 3.; likewise pages 88 & 94.) He gives
the authorship to Creswell or Tresham. He refers likewise to a Latin
work entitled _Resolutio Casuum_, to the same effect, possibly a
translation, to which he subjoins the names of Parsons and Allen.
Robert Abbot, in his _Antilogia_, 1613, pp. 13, 14. emphatically and
at length produces the same book and facts; but they are merely copied
from the _Relation_ of the Powder-treason Trial. Henry Mason, in his
most satisfactory work, _The New Art of Lying, &c._, 1624, has spoken
of the {264} _Treatise_ with the same familiarity (see p. 51.), and
elsewhere, if my memory does not deceive me. Dodd, in his _Church
history_,--when will the new edition begin to move again? Can
Stonyhurst tell?--ascribes the work to Tresham. Hardly any of the
similar works in these times belong to _one_ author. It may just be
added, that Parson's _Mitigation_ contains, perhaps, all the substance
of the Roman equivocation, with not much reserve or disguise. It was
published in answer to Bishop Morton's work in 1607. Foulis has, of
course, substantially all the above, but nothing more.

Now, the questions which I want to have solved are these:--Was the
book ever extant in MS. Or print? Is it now extant, and where? Who
has seen a copy? What is its size, date, and extent? Has the Durham
Cathedral Library, in particular, a copy? Mr. Botfield might have
informed us. In fact, where is any effectual intelligence of the
fugitive to be found?


Feb. 8. 1850.

* * * * *



Some of your correspondents have taken up the not unnatural idea, that
the last syllable of the word "Armagh" is identical with the Celtic
word _magh_, a plain. But there are two objections to this. In the
first place, the name is never spelt in Irish _Armagh_, nor even
_Ardmagh_, but always ARDMACHA. _Ardmagh_ or _Armagh_ is only the
anglicised spelling, adapted to English tongues and ears. It is
therefore clearly absurd to take this corrupt form of the word as
our _datum_, in the attempt to search for its etymology. Secondly,
the Irish names of places which are derived from, or compounded of,
_magh_, a plain, are always anglicised, _moy, moi, mow_, or _mo_,
to represent the pronunciation: as Fermoy, Athmoy, Knockmoy, Moira,
Moyagher, Moyaliffe (or Me-aliffe, as it is now commonly spelt),
Moville, Moyarta, and thousands of other cases. And those who are
acquainted with the Irish language will at once tell, by the ear, that
_Armagh_, as the word is pronounced by the native peasantry, even by
those who have lost that language (as most of them in that district
now have), could not be a compound of _magh_, a plain.

The work of M. Bullet, quoted by your correspondent "HERMES," is full
of ignorant blunders similar to that which he commits, when he tells
us that Armagh in compounded of "_Ar_, article, and _mag_, ville."
The article, in Irish, is _An_, not _ar_; and _mag_ does not signify
a town. He adopts, your readers will perceive, the modern English
spelling, which could not lead to a correct result, even if M. Bullet
had been acquainted with the Celtic languages. The same remark applies
to the explanation given by the author of _Circles of Gomer_. _Ard_,
not _Ar_, is the word to be explained; and therefore, even though _Ar_
and _Ararat_ meant, as he tells us, "earth, country, or upon and on
the earth," this would throw no light on the etymology of ARD_macha_.

"HIBERNICUS" (No. 14. p. 217.) is partly right and partly wrong; he
adopts the anglicised spelling of the second syllable, although he
seems aware that the first syllable ought to be _Ard_; and he admits
also that this word is a substantive, signifying a _height_, not the
adjective _high_. "A high plain," in Irish, would be, not Ardmagh,
or Ardmoy (as it would have been anglicised), but _Magh-ard_ (Anglice
_Moyard_). Great light will be thrown on the whole subject of the
etymology of Irish typographical names, when the Index to my friend
Mr. O'Donovan's edition of the _Annals of the Four Masters_ makes its

I may add too, in conclusion, that Camden is wrong in suggesting that
_Armach_ (as he spells it, retaining, curiously enough, the correct
etymology of the last syllable) is identical with _Dearmach_ (where
the last syllable ought to be _magh_). This latter place is the
well-known Durrow, in the county Westmeath; and its name, in Irish,
is _Duir-magh_, which is really a compound from _magh_, a plain. Bede
tells us, that the word signified, in the Scottish language, _Campus
roborum_ (see Bede, _Hist. Eccl._ lib. iii. c. 4.); but Adamson (_Vit.
Columbae_, c. 39.) more correctly translates it, "monasterium _Roboreti
Campi_." It is not likely that such authorities could confound Durrow,
in Westmeath, with the ecclesiastical metropolis of Ireland, and
patriarchal see of St. Patrick.

Whoever the Mach or Macha was from whom Ardmacha has its name
(whether the queen called Macha-mong-ruadh, whose reign is assigned
by O'Flaherty to A.M. 3603, or the older Macha, who is said to be the
wife of Nemedius), it should be borne in mind, that the word whose
etymology is required is ARDMACHA[16], and not _Armagh._ What would
be thought of the critic who would now attempt to investigate the
etymology of the English word _bishop_, by dividing it into two
syllables, and seeking analogies in sound for each syllable.

I have ventured to go at greater length into this matter than its
importance may seem to warrant, because it illustrates so clearly a
very general error, from which Celtic literature has deeply suffered,
of inventing fanciful etymologies adapted to the modern English
spellings, instead of the original Celtic forms of names; and this
error, as the question before us proves, is as old as Camden's time,
and older.


Trin. Coll. Dublin, Feb. 2, 1850.

[16] Those who have access to Colgan's _Acta Sanctorum
Hiberniae_ will see that he always spells Armagh, _Ardmacha_;
and Durrow, _Durmugia_.

* * * * *{265}


I read with great pleasure MR. COLLIER'S interesting paper on "William
Basse and his Poems," inserted in your 13th Number. Very little is
known of this once popular poet, but it is very desirable that that
little should be collected together, which cannot be better effected
than through the friendly system of inter-communication established by
your valuable journal.

From my limited researches upon this subject, it appears that there
were two poets of the name of William Basse. Anthony Wood (_Athen.
Oxon._, edit. Bliss. iv. 222.) speaks of one William Basse, of
Moreton, near Thame, in Oxfordshire, who was some time a retainer
of Lord Wenman, of Thame Park, i.e. Richard Viscount Wenman, in the
peerage of Ireland. And I find among my MS. biographical collections
that a William Basse, of Suffolk, was admitted a sizar of Emanuel
College, Cambridge, in 1629. A.B. 1632, and A.M. in 1636. The William
Basse who wrote _Great Brittaines Sunnes-set_ in 1613, was also the
author of the MS. collection of poems entitled _Polyhymnia_, mentioned
by MR. COLLIER. In proof of this it is merely necessary to notice
the dedication of the former "To his Honourable Master, Sir Richard
Wenman, Knight," and the verses and acrostics in the MS. "To the Right
Hon. the Lady Aungier Wenman, Mrs. Jane Wenman, and the truly noble,
vertuous, and learned Lady, the Lady Agnes Wenman." Basse's Poems
were evidently intended for the press, but we may conjecture that the
confusion of the times prevented them from appearing. Thomas Warton,
in his _Life and Literary Remains of Ralph Bathurst, M.D._, has a copy
of verses by the Dr. "To Mr. W. Basse, upon the intended publication
of his Poems, January 13, 1651;" to which the learned editor adds, "I
find no account of this writer or his poems." The whole consists of
forty-four verses, from which I extract the beginning and the end:--

Basse, whose rich mine of wit we here behold
As porcelain earth, more precious, 'cause more old;
Who, like an aged oak, so long hath stood,
And art religion now as well as food:
Though thy grey Muse grew up with elder times,
And our deceased grandsires lisp'd thy rhymes;
Yet we can sing thee too, and make the lays
Which deck thy brow look fresher with thy praise.
* * * * *
Though these, your happy births, have silent past
More years than some abortive wits shall last;
He still writes new, who once so well hath sung:
That Muse can ne'er be old, which ne'er was young."

These verses are valuable as showing that Basse was living in 1651,
and that he was then an aged man. The Emanuelian of the same name, who
took his M.A. degree in 1636, might possibly be his son. At any rate,
the latter was a poet. There are some of his pieces among the MSS. in
the Public Library, Cambridge; and I have a small MS. volume of his
rhymes, scarcely soaring above mediocrity, which was presented to me
by an ancient family residing in Suffolk.

A poem by William Basse is inserted in the _Annalia Dubrensia_, 1636,
in praise of Robert Dover and his revival of the Cotswold Games; but
it is not clear to which of these poets we may ascribe it. Malone
attributes two rare volumes to one or other of these poets. The first,
a translation or paraphrase of Juvenal's tenth satire, entitled _That
which seems Best is Worst_, 12mo., 1617; the second, "A Miscellany of
Merriment," entitled _A Helpe to Discourse_, 2nd edit. 8vo., 1620:
but the former is more probably the work of William Barkstead. I may
mention that a copy of Basse's _Sword and Buckler, or Serving Man's
Defence_, 1602, is among Malone's books in the Bodleian.

Izaac Walton speaks of William Basse, "one that hath made the choice
songs of the _Hunter in His Career_, and of _Tom of Bedlam_, and many
others of note." The ballad mentioned by MR. COLLIER, "Maister Basse
his Career, or the Hunting of the Hare," is undoubtably the one
alluded to by Walton. I may add, that it is printed in _Wit and
Drollery_, edit. 1682. p. 64.; and also in _Old Ballads_, 1725, vol.
iii. p. 196. The tune is contained in the _Shene MS._, a curious
collection of old tunes in the Advocate's Library, Edinburgh; and a
ballad entitled _Hubert's Ghost_, to the tune of _Basse's Carrier_, is
preserved among the Bagford Collection of Old Ballads in the British
Museum. With regard to the second ballad mentioned by Walton, our
knowledge is not so perfect. Sir John Hawkins in a note (_Complete
Angler_, 5th edit. p. 73.) says:--

"This song, beginning--
'Forth from my dark and dismal cell,'

with the music to it, set by Hen. Lawes, is printed in a book,
entitled _Choice Ayres, Songs and Dialogues, to sing to the
Theorbo Lute, and Bass Viol_, folio. 1675, and in Playfield's
_Antidote against Melancholy_, 8vo. 1669, and also in Dr.
Percy's _Reliques of Ancient English Poetry_, vol. ii. p. 350;
but in the latter with a mistake in the last line of the third
stanza, of the word _Pentarchy_ for _Pentateuch_."

A copy of the _Choice Ayres_, 1675, is now before me, but Henry
Lawes's name does not appear to the song in question. Sir John has
evidently made a mistake; the air of _Mad Tom_ was composed by John
Cooper, alias _Giovanni Coperario_, for one of the Masques perfomed
by the Gentlemen of Gray's Inn. (See _The English Dancing Master_,
1651, in the British Museum, and Additional MS. 10,440, in the same
repository.) With regard to the ballad itself, there is an early copy
(of the latter part of the sixteenth century) {266} preserved in the
Harleian MSS., No. 7332, fol. 41. It purports to have been

"Written (i.e. transcribed) be Feargod Barebone, who being
at many times idle and wanting employment, wrote out certain
songs and epigrams, with the idea of mending his hand in

There is another copy among Malone's MSS. in the Bodleian (No. 16. p.
55.), where it is entitled _A new Tom of Bedlam_. But I contend there
is no evidence to show that this is the ballad alluded to by Walton;
none of the copies having the name of the author. We have two other
songs (probably more) bearing the same title of _Tom of Bedlam_; one
beginning, "From the top of high Caucasus;" the other commencing,
"From the hag and hungry goblin;" either of which are quite as likely
to have been intended as that mentioned above.

It still remains a question, I think, which of the two Basses was
the author of the ballads mentioned by Walton. But I have already
trespassed so long upon your valuable space that I will leave the
further consideration of the subject until a future period: in the
meantime, perhaps some of your correspondents may be enabled to
"illuminate our darkness" upon the various knotty points.


* * * * *


Allow me to say a few words in reply to your correspondent "GASTROS."
His quotation from Fairholt (_Costume in England_), who cites
Stubbes's _Anatomy of Abuses_ as the earliest authority for the use
of beaver hats in England, is not a satisfactory reply to my query;
inasmuch as I am aware that beaver hats were occasionally worn by
great people in this country some centuries before Stubbes was born.
For example, Henry III. possessed "unum capellum de Bevre cum apparatu
auri et lapidibus preciosis;" as appears from the "Wardrobe Account,"
of the 55th year of his reign. I have, therefore, still to ask for
the _earliest_ instance of the use of hats or caps of this material
in England; such hats, as well as gloves, are mentioned in several
English inventories made between the thirteenth and sixteenth
centuries. Is there any example earlier than the time of Henry III.?

"GASTROS" has also obligingly replied to my query as to "the meaning
of the term _Pisan_, used in old records for some part of defensive
armour," but he seems to have forgotten that I expressly stated that
term had no relation to "the fabrics of Pisa;" at least such is my
belief. With regard to the inventory of the arms and armour of Louis
le Hutin, taken in 1316, printed in Meyrick's _Ancient Armour_, to
which he kindly refers me, it may be observed that the said inventory
is so perversely translated in the first edition of that work (just
now I have no means of consulting the second), as to be all but
useless; indeed it might be termed one of the most extraordinary
literary performances of modern times, as the following instance
may suffice to show. One of the items of the inventory is, "une cote
gamboisee a arbroissiaus d'or broudees a chardonereus;" and it is thus
rendered into English, "a gamboised coat with a rough surface (like
a thicket;--_note_) of gold embroidered on the nap of the cloth!"
The real signification is "a gamboised coat embroidered in gold,
with little bushes (or trees), with gold-finches [on them]." But I
am rather wandering from my point: I never could ascertain on what
authority Sir Samuel Meyrick asserted that "jazeran armour," as
he calls it, was formed of "overlapping plates." The French word
_jazeran_ was derived from the Italian _ghiazarino_, or _ghiazzerino_,
which signified "a gorget of mail," or what some of our antiquaries
have termed "a standard of mail;" in France this word always preserved
its relation to mail, and in process of time came to be applied to
so lowly an object as a flagon-chain: see Cotgrave's _Fr. Dict._ ed.
1673. Roquefort, indeed, says a "jaserans" was a cuirass, but to
my apprehension the passage which he quotes from the _Roman

"Es haubers, _jazerans_, et es elmes gemez"--

seems to prove that, in that instance at least, a gorget is meant.
At any rate, the translation of the passage in the inventory to which
"GASTROS" refers should be, "three Pisan collerets of steel mail," not
that given by Meyrick. Here we have clearly a fabric of Pisa: whereas
the _pisan_, of which I desire to know the meaning, invariable occurs
as an independent term, e.g. "_item, unum pisanum_," or "_unum par
pisanorum_." Of course I have my own conjecture on the subject, but
should be glad to hear other opinions; so I again put the question to
your correspondents. In conclusion I would observe to "GASTROS" that
they must be _very_ late MSS. indeed in which such a contraction as
_pisan_ for _partisan_ can be found. If you have room, and think it
worth while, I will from time to time send you some corrections of the
more flagrant errors of Meyrick.


* * * * *


_Norman Pedigrees_. In reference to your correspondent "B.'s"
inquiries, he will find much information in the Publications de
la Societe des Antiquaires de Normandie. Under their auspices, M.
Estancelin published in 1828 a full history of the Earls of Eu. I am
not aware of any full collection of pedigrees of the companions of
William the Conqueror: the names of several of the lands from which
they took their designations yet remain.



_Norman Pedigrees._--In answer to "B.'s" query (No. 14. p. 214.),
an excellent Gazetteer was published in Paris, 1831, entitled
_Dictionnaire Complet Geographique, Statistique, et Commercial de la
France et de ses Colonies; par M. Briand-de-Verze_, pp. 856. Many of
the names of the Conqueror's Norman companions will be found in that
work; as, for instance, Geoffrey de "_Mandeville_, village. Calvados
arrondissement, 311/2 O.N.O. de Bayeaux," &c.

Norman de _Beauchamp_: three Beauchamps are mentioned; that 51. from
Avranches will be the one in question.


Oxford, Feb. 19. 1850.

_Norman Pedigrees._--Your correspondent "B." (No. 14. p. 214.) would
probably find part of the information he seeks in _Domesday Book, seu
Censualis Willelmi Primi Regis Angliae_. But query? Is "B." right in
supposing the prefix "De" to be _French_? Does it not rather originate
in the _Latin_?

"Domesday" is written in Latin throughout; and the "de," denoting the
place, is there occasionally followed by what seems to be the Latin
ablative case. I copy an example:--

"Canonici de Hansone ten. l. hida de Sansone," (i.e. loc. in
co. Stafford.)

Then of the person it is said--

"Sanson ten. de rege, &c.... iii. hid. trae in Hargedone," &c.


_Translation of AElian._--In answer to the query of "G.M." in No. 15.
p. 232., I beg to state that in Lowndes's _Manual_, vol. i. p. 13., is
the following notice under the head of "AElianus Claudius:"--

"Various Histories translated by T. Stanley, London, 1665,
8vo. 5s. This translation is by the son of the learned editor
of AEschylus, and was reprinted 1670. 1677."


_Ave Trici and Gheeze Ysenoudi._--I regret that I cannot give "H.L.B."
any further information about these ladies than the colophon I
transcribed affords. To me, however, it is quite clear that they were
sisters of some convent in Flanders or Holland; the name of their
spiritual father, Nicolas Wyt, and the names of the ladies, clearly
indicate this.


_Daysman_ (No. 12. p. 188.)-- It seems to me that a preferable
etymology may be found to that given by Nares and Jacob. The arbiter
or judge might formerly have occupied a _dais_ or _lit de justice_, or
he might have been selected from those entitled to sit on the raised
parts of the courts of law, i.e. jurisconsulti, or barristers as we
call them. I have heard another etymology, which however I do not
favour, that the arbiter, chosen from men of the same rank as the
disputants, should be paid for loss of his day's work.


Perhaps the following may be of some use in clearing up this point.
In the _Graphic Illustrator_, a literary and antiquarian miscellany
edited by E.W. Brayley, London, 1834, at p. 14, towards the end of
an article on the Tudor Style of Architecture, signed T.M. is the

"This room (talking of the great halls in old manor-houses)
was in every manor-house a necessary appendage for holding
'the court,' the services belonging to which are equally
denominated 'the homage,' with those of the king's palace. The
_dais_, or raised part of the _upper end_ of the hall, _was
so called_, from the administration of justice. A _dais-man_
is still a popular term for an arbitrator in the North, and
_Domesday-Book_ (with the name of which I suppose every one to
be familiar) is known to be a list of manor-houses."



[Our correspondents will probably find some confirmation of
their ingenious suggestion in the following passage from _The
Vision of Piers Ploughman_:--

"And at the day of dome
At the heighe deys sitte."

Ll. 4898-9. ed. Wright.]

_Saveguard_.--"BURIENSIS" (No. 13. p. 202.) is informed that a
_saveguard_ was an article of dress worn by women, some fifty or sixty
years ago, over the skirts of their gowns when riding on horseback,
chiefly when they sat on pillions, on a _double horse_, as it was

It was a sort of outside petticoat, usually made of serge,
linsey-wolsey, or some other strong material: and its use was to
_guard_ the gown from injury by the dirt of the (then very dirty)
roads. It was succeeded by the well-known riding-habit; though I have
seen it used on a side-siddle by a rider who did not possess the more
modern dress.


Amongst the bequests to the Clothworkers' Company of London is one by
Barbara Burnell, by will dated 27th June, 1630, wherein she directs
the company to bestow 4l. 6s. yearly in woollen cloth to make six
waistcoats and six _safeguards_ for six poor women.[17]

Also we find that John Skepworth, by will dated 17th Oct. 1678, gave
two closes of land to the parish of Louth, to the intent that the
churchwardens and overseers of the poor there should apply the rents
and profits of the same in providing so much coarse woollen cloth as
would make ten suits yearly to be given to ten poor people of Louth,
the men to have coats and breeches, and the women to have waistcoats
and _safeguards_.[18] {268}

If "BURIENSIS" has a friend belonging to the Clothworkers' Company, it
is probable that he will acquire much information on this subject from
their old records.


[17] Reports from the Commissioners of Charities b. 235. 32nd
part 4.--696.

[18] Ibid.

_Derivation of "Calamity"_ (No. 14. p. 215.)--"Calamity" is from
the Latin _calamitas_, from _calamus_ a straw or stalk of corn,
signifying, 1st, the agricultural misfortune of the corn being beaten
down or laid by a storm; and thence, any other trouble or disaster:--

"Ipsa egreditur nostri fundi _calamitas_."

Ter. _Eun_. i. 1.

Upon which the commentator in the Delph. ed. has this note:--

"_Calamitas_ est grando et tempestas, quae calamos segetum
prosternit et conterit. Unde Cicero Verrem vocat '_calamitosam

Ainsworth, quoting the above passage from Terence, adds:--

"Ubi Donatus. Proprie _calamitatem_ rustici vocant quod
comminuat _calamum_; h.e. culmen et segetem."

The etymology of its synonym, "_disaster_," is more direct--[Greek:
dhus hasthaer], a star of evil influence, or, as we say, "born under
an ill planet."

[Greek: Philologos]

Forcellini, _s.v. Calamitas_, says:--

"Proprie significat imminutionem clademque calamorum segetis,
quae grandine vel impetuoso aliquo turbine aut alia quapiam de
causa fit."

He then quotes Servius, _Ad Georg_, i. 151:--

"Robigo genus est vitii, quo culmi pereunt, quod a rusticanis
calamitas dicitur."

Then follows the note of Donatus on Ter. _Eun_. i. 1. 34.

It appears to me, if "_calamitas_" were derived from _calamus_, it
would mean something very different from what it does.

Another suggestion is, that the first syllable is the same as the
root of _cad-o_, to fall; _l_ and _d_, everybody knows, are
easily interchangeable: as Odysseus, Ulixes: [Greek: dakruon],
_lacrima_, _tear_, &c. &c. If so, _calamitas_ is a corrupted form
of _cadamitas_. Mar. Victorinus, _De Orthogr_. p. 2456., says:--

"Gueius Pompeius Magnus et scribebat et dicebat _Kadamitatem_
pro _Kalamitatem_."--(Quoted from Bothe's _Poetae_," _Scenici
Latinorum_, vol. v. p. 21.)

But how is the -_amitas_ to be explained? I may as well add,
that Doederlein, with his usual felicity, derives it from [Greek:


I beg to refer MR. F.S. MARTIN (No. 14. p. 215.), for the derivation
of "Calamity," to the _Etymologicon Linguae Latinae_ of Gerard Vossius,
or to the _Totius Latinitatis Lexicon_ of Facciolatus and Forcellinus.
He will there find that the word _calamitas_ was first used with
reference to the storms which destroyed the stalks (_calami_) of corn,
and afterwards came to signify metaphorically, any severe misfortune.
The terrific hail-storm of the summer of 1843, which destroyed the
crops of corn through several of the eastern and midland counties of
this kingdom, was a _calamity_ in the original sense of the word.

"W.P.P." has also kindly replied to this query by furnishing a part of
the Article on _Calamitas_ in Vossius; and "J.F.M." adds, _Calamitas_

"The spindling of the corn, which with us is rare, but in
hotter countries common: insomuch as the word _calamitas_ was
first derived from _calamus_, when the corn could not get out
of the stalk."--Bacon, _Nat. Hist_. sect. 669.

_Derivation of "Zero"_ (No. 14. p. 215.).--_Zero_ Ital.; Fr. _un
chiffre_, _un rien_, a cipher in arithmetic, a nought; whence the
proverb _avere nel zero, mepriser souverainement_, to value at
nothing, to have a sovereign contempt for. I do not know what the
etymology of the word may be; but the application is obvious to that
point in the scale of the thermometer below the numbered degrees to
which, in ordinary temperatures, the mercury does not sink.

[Greek: Philologos]

Deanery of Gloucester, Feb. 7. 1850.

"_Zero_" (No. 14. p. 215.)--_Zero_, as is well known, is an Italian
word signifying the arithmetical figure of nought (0). It has been
conjectured that it is derived from the transposition from the Hebrew
word _ezor_, a girdle, the zero assuming that form. (See Furetiere,
vol. iii.) Prof. le Moine, of Leyden (quoted by Menage), claims for
it also an Eastern origin, and thinks we have received it from the
Arabians, together with their method of reckoning ciphers. He suggests
that it may be a corruption from the Hebrew [Hebrew: rphs], _safara_,
to number.

_Complutensian Polyglot_.--I cannot pretend to reply to "MR. JEBB'S"
inquiry under this head in No. 12. p. 213.; but perhaps it may assist
him in his researches, should he not have seen the pamphlet, to refer
to Bishop Smallridge's "Enquiry into the Authority of the Primitive
Complutensian Edition of the New Testament, as principally founded on
the most ancient Vatican MS., together with some research after that
MS. In order to decide the dispute about 1 John v. 7. In a letter to
Dr. Bentley. 8vo. London, 1722."


Oxford, Feb. 5.

_Sir William Rider_.--In reply to the queries of "H.F.," No. 12. p.
186., respecting Sir William Rider, I beg to say that among the many
MS. notes which I have collected relating to the Rider family, {269}
&c., I find the following from the _Visitation of Surry_, 1623, and
from a MS. book of _Pedigrees of Peers_ in the Herald's College, with

"Thomas Rider married a daughter of ---- Poole of Stafforde,
by whom he had Sir William Rider, born at Muchalstone, co.
Stafforde, Sheriff of London, 1591, Citizen and Haberdasher,
Lord Mayor, 1600. Will dated 1 Nov., and proved 9 Nov.
1610, 8 Jas. I. (94 Wood); buried at Low Layton, Essex, &c.
Sir William married Elizabeth, da. of R. Stone, of Helme,
co. Norfolk; by whom he had, besides other children and
descendants, Mary daughter and coheiress, who married Sir
Thomas Lake, of Canons, Middlesex, from whose issue descended
Viscount Lake."


_Pokership_ (No. 12. p. 185., and No. 14. p. 218.).--It is to be
regretted that no information has been supplied respecting the meaning
of this remarkable word, either from local sources or from the surveys
of crown lands in the Exchequer or Land Revenue offices. In one or the
other of these quarters we should surely find something which would
dispense with further conjecture. In the meantime the following facts,
obtained from records easily accessible, will probably be sufficient
to dispose of the explanations hitherto suggested, and to show that
the _poker_ of Bringwood forest was neither a _parker_ nor a _purser_.

The offices conveyed to Sir R. Harley by James I. had been, before
his reign, the subject of crown grants, after the honor of Wigmore had
become vested in the crown by the merger of the earldom of March in
the crown. Hence, I find that in the act 13 Edward IV. (A.D. 1473),
for the resumption of royal grants, there is a saving of a prior grant
of the "office of keeper of oure forest or chace of Boryngwode,"
and of the fees for the "kepyng of the Dikes within oure counte of
Hereford, parcelles of oure seid forest." (6 _Rot. Parl._ p. 94.)

In a similar act of resumption, 1 Henry VII., there is a like saving
in favour of Thomas Grove, to whom had been granted the keepership of
Boryngwood chase in "Wigmoresland," and "the _pokershipp_ and keping
of the diche of the same." The _parkership_ of Wigmore Park is saved
in the same act. (6 _Rot. Parl._ p. 353 and 383.)

In the first year of Henry VIII. there is a Receiver's Account of
Wigmore, in which I observe the following deductions claimed in
respect of the fees and salaries of officers:-

"In feodo Thomae Grove, forestarii de Bringewod,
6l. 1s. 6d.
-- ejusdem Thomae, fossat'de Prestwode dych,
-- Edm. Sharp, parcarii parci de Wiggemour,
6l. 1s. 6d.
-- Thomae Grove, pocar' omnium boscorum
in Wiggemourslonde 30s. 4d."

There is another like account rendered in 23 & 24 Hen. VII. These,
and no doubt many other accounts and documents respecting the honor of
Wigmore and its appartenances, are among the Exchequer records, and
we are entitled to infer from them, firstly, that a _parcarius_ and a
_pocarius_ are two different offices; secondly, that, whether the duty
of the latter was performed on the dikes or in the woods of Boringwood
chase, the theory of Mr. Bolton Corney (pace cl. viri dixerim) is
very deficient in probability. If the above authorities had not fallen
under my notice, I should have confidently adopted the conjecture
of the noble Querist, who first drew attention to the word, and,
so far from considering the substitution of "poker" for "parker"
an improbable blunder of the copyist, I should have pronounced it
fortunate for the house of Harley that their founder had not been
converted into a porcarius or pig-driver.


_Pokership_.--I had flattered myself that _Parkership_ was the real
interpretation of the above word, but I have once more doubts on
the subject. I this morning accidentally stumbled upon the word
"Porcellagium," which is interpreted in Ducange's _Glossary_,
"Tributum ex porcis seu porcellis."

_Porcarius_ also occurs as _Porcorum custos_, and mention is made
of "Porcorum servitium quo quis porcos domini sui pascentes servare

Now, considering how much value was formerly attached to the right
of turning out swine in wooded wastes, during the acorn season, it
seems probable that Sir R. Harley might be the king's "Porcarius,"
or receiver of the money paid for an annual license to depasture hogs
in the royal forests; and, after all, _Porkership_ is as like to
_Pokership_ as _Parkership_, and one mistake would be as easily made
as the other.


Audley End, Feb. 16.

[We are enabled to confirm the accuracy of Lord Braybrooke's
conjecture as to _Pokership_ being the office conferred
upon Sir Robert Harley, inasmuch as we are in expectation of
receiving an account of the various forms of its name from
a gentleman who has not only the ability, but also peculiar
facilities for illustrating this and similar obscure terms.]

_Havior--Heavier or Hever_.-Supposed etymology of _Havior, Heavier_,
and _Hever_, as applied by park-keepers to an emasculated male
deer.--"NOTES AND QUERIES," (No. 15. p. 230.)

Pennant, in his _British Zoology_, 8vo. edition, 1776, vol. i. p.
38., and 8vo. edition, 1812, vol. i. p. 45., under the article,
"Goat" says:--

"The meat of a castrated goat of six or seven years old,
(which is called _Hyfr_,) is reckoned the best; being
generally very sweet and fat. This makes an excellent pasty,
goes under the name of rock venison, and is little inferior
to that of the deer."

As Pennant was a Welchman, a scholar and a {270} naturalist, he will
probably be considered good authority; and _Hyfr_, the most likely
origin of the altered terms of the deer park-keepers.

The word occurs twice in page 61. vol. ii. of the _Sportsman's
Cabinet_, in the article on the Stag or Red Deer, where it is printed
_Heavier_; and it will be found also as _Hever_, in Mr. Jesse's
_Scenes and Tales of Country Life_, at page 349.


Ryder Street, St. James, Feb. 11. 1850.

Mr. Halliwell gives the words _haver_ and _havering_, in the same
sense as _havior_. Are not these words identical with _aver, averium_,
in the sense of cattle, tame beasts? _Averium_, from the old French,
_aveir_, i.e. _avoir_, originally meant any personal property; but
like _catalla_, chattels, it came to signify more particularly the
most important part of a peasant's possessions--namely, his live
stock. Thus, in the laws of William the Conqueror (Thorpe's _Ancient
Laws_, vol. ii. p. 469.), we find:--

"Si praepositus hundredi equos aut boves aut oves aut porcos
vel cujuscumque generis averia vagancia restare fecerit," &c.

The word may naturally enough have been applied to deer reduced to the
state of tame and domesticated cattle.


[TREBOR furnishes us with a reference to _Pegge's Anonymiana_,
who endeavours to show that the proper term is "halfer;" on
the same principle that an entire horse is spoken of, the word
being pronounced "haver" by those who call half "hafe," while
those who pronounce half with the open _a_ say "hauver:" while
J. Westby Gibson suggests that Havior is _Evir_, from the
Latin "_Eviro, Eviratus, Eviratio_," but admits that he can
give no authority for the use of _Evir_.]

_Sir W. Hamilton_ (No. 14. p. 216.).--Douglas says, that this Sir W.
Hamilton was not _son_, but grandson and brother of the 1st and 2nd
earls of Abercorn, his father having died _vita patris_. I therefore
doubt that the inscription has been miscopied. "He was," Douglas says,
"resident at Rome, on the part of the Queen Dowager;" but this could
hardly be the service alluded to.


_Dr. Johnson's Library_ (no. 14. p. 214.).--I have a copy of Dr.
Johnson's Sale Catalogue. The title is as follows:

"A catalogue of the valuable Library of Books of the late
learned Samuel Johnson, Esq., LL.D., deceased, which will be
sold by auction (by Order of the Executors) by Mr. Christie,
at his Great Room in Pall Mall, on Wednesday, February 16.
1785. and three following Days. To be viewed on Monday and
Tuesday preceding the Sale, which will begin each Day at 12
o'Clock. Catalogues may be had as above."

It is a Catalogue of 28 pages and 662 lots, of which 650 are books.
The twelve last are prints, chiefly "framed and glazed." The Catalogue
is very rare; there is not a copy in the British Museum, and Messrs.
Christie and Manson are without one. I may add, as your correspondent
is curious about Johnson's Library, that I have the presentation copy
to the Doctor of Twiss's _Travels in Spain_, with "the gift of the
Author" in Johnson's handwriting, immediately beneath Twiss's MS.
presentation. The Twiss was in Lot 284.


* * * * *


_Etymology of "News_."--The word "news" is not derived, as many
suppose, from the adjective new, but from a practice that obtained
in newspapers of an early date, of prefixing to the title the letters
expressive of the cardinal points, thus:--

E. W.

meaning that their intelligence was derived from all quarters of the
globe. This must, at any rate, be allowed as ingenious etymology.




Why "golden," when that age alone, we're told,
Was blest with happy ignorance of gold--
More justly we our venal times might call
"The Golden Age," for gold is all in all.


* * * * *


Messrs. Sotheby and Co. will sell on Monday next two collections of
Autographs; the first consisting of Autograph Letters, the property
of a gentleman; which will be immediately followed by that belonging
to the late Mr. Rodd, and the extensive Correspondence of the late
William Upcott, Esq., comprising several thousand Autograph Letters.
Mr. Rodd's collection comprises many letters of great historical and
literary interest.

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson will sell by auction on Friday, March the
8th, and seven following days, the extensive and very important Stock
of Books of Mr. James Carpenter, of Bond Street, who is retiring from
business. The characteristics of this fine collection are the numerous
books of prints and illustrated works which it contains, such as the
matchless Series of Piranesi's Works, being the dedication copy to
the king of Sweden: a copy of Boswell's _Life of Johnson_, in 8 vols.
{271} folio, illustrated with nearly six hundred Portraits and Views.

We heard some time since that the long-established and
highly-respectable house of Payne and Foss, of Pall Mall, had
succeeded the late Mr. Rodd in the agency of purchasing for the
British Museum. The rumour proved to be unfounded, and now receives
a formal contradiction by the announcement that Messrs. Payne and
Foss are retiring from business, and that the first portion of their
extensive and valuable Stock of Books will be sold by auction by
Messrs. Sotheby and Co.; the first division in a ten days' sale,
commencing on the 18th and terminating on the 28th March; which will
be followed by the second division, which will also occupy ten days,
and commence on Monday the 8th April. The lovers of choice copies of
fine editions of first-class books will have, on this occasion, such
an opportunity of enriching their collections as rarely presents

We have received the following Catalogues:--

"Number Two, for 1850, of John Miller's Catalogue of Books,
old and new, on sale at 43. Chandos Street, Trafalgar Square."

"Catalogue of curious and rare Books, recently purchased, now
on sale by George Bumstead, 205. High Holborn."

"Catalogue (No. 5.) of Books, Theological and Miscellaneous,
and Catalogue (No. 6.) of Books, consisting chiefly of Foreign
Literature and Theology, on sale by Andrew Clark, No. 4. City

"Cheap List of useful and curious Books relating to
Ecclesiastical History, Councils, Ceremonies, the Puritans,
&c., on sale by S. and I. Palmer, 24. Red Lion Street,

"A List of Books, chiefly curious ones, now selling by Thomas
Kerslake, Bookseller, at No. 3. Park Street, Bristol."

* * * * *















about 1762.

1750, pp. 15. folio.


BELL ON THE HAND. Bridgewater Treatises.

_Odd Volumes._


*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price. _carriage free_,
to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet

* * * * *


Among the many papers which we are unavoidably obliged to postpone
are an original and inedited _Letter by Horace Walpole_, Mr. Singer's
Reply to C.W.G. on _AElfric's Colloquies_, an interesting communication
from Mr. Coles respecting _Arabella Stuart_, a paper by Mr. Rye on
the _Queen of Robert Bruce_, and T.S.D.'s able article on _Arabic

The Erectheum Club (like "The Parthenon") takes its name from the
Erectheum at Athens.

H.M.A. declined with thanks.

X.P. is informed that the _monotome_ edition of Boswell's Johnson
edited by Croker, is not an abridgment of the larger work, but a new
and thoroughly revised edition of it; and with a really good index.

To correspondents inquiring as to the mode of procuring "NOTES AND
QUERIES," we have once more to explain, that every bookseller and
newsman will supply it regularly, if ordered; and that gentlemen
residing in the country, who may find a difficulty in getting it
through any bookseller in their neighbourhood, may be supplied
regularly with the stamped edition, by giving their orders direct to
the publisher, MR. GEORGE BELL, 186 Fleet Street, accompanied by a
Post-Office order for a quarter, 4s. 4d.; a half year, 8s. 8d.; or
one year, 17s. 4d.

Errata. P. 242. col. 2. l. 11., for "coheir" read "cognate;" and line
16, for "Argidius" "AEgidius;" and p. 243, col 1. l. 35. read "anecdote
of Dionysius related by Cicero and by Plutarch, in his _Laconic
Apophthegms_, which Stobaeus evidently followed."

* * * * *

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* * * * *

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* * * * *{272}

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See also _Gentleman's Magazine_ for February, 1850.

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* * * * *

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