Notes and Queries 1850.03.23

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"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

No. 21.] Saturday, March 23. 1850.
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition, 4d.


NOTES:-- Page
Early Statistics--Chart, Kent 329
"Bis dat qui cito dat" 330
Parallel Passages 330
Errors corrected 331
Direct and Indirect Etymology 331
Error in Pope's Homer's Odyssey 331
Proverbial Sayings and their Origins, &c. 332

"The Supper of the Lorde" 332
What is a Chapel, by Rev. A. Gatty 333
Who translated the "Turkish Spy," by E.F. Rimbault, L.L.D. 334
Philalethes Cestriensis--Stephens' Sermons 334
Minor Queries:--Smelling of the Lamp--Gourders of Rain--The
Temple--Family of Steward, of Bristol--Paying through the
Nose--Memoirs of an American Lady--Bernicia--John Bull 335

Letter attributed to Sir R. Walpole, by Lord Braybrooke 336
Portraits of Ulrich of Hutten 336
Change of Names 337
Queries answered, No. 6., by Bolton Corney 337
Beaver Hats 338
Replies to Minor Queries:--Anecdote of the Civil Wars--Mousetrap
Dante--Cromwell's Estates--Genealogy of European Sovereigns--
Shipster--Kentish Ballad--Bess of Hardwick--Trophee--Emerald--
Ancient Motto: Barnacles--Tureen--Hudibrastic Couplet--Dr. Hugh
Todd's MSS. 338

Burnet--Translation from Vinny Bourne--Prince Madoc--Mistake in
Gibbon--Jew's Harp--Havior, &c. 341

Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. 342
Notices to Correspondents 343
Advertisements 343

* * * * *


Perhaps some one of your numerous readers will be good enough to
inform me whether any _general statistical returns_, compiled from our
early parish registers, have ever been published. An examination of
the register of Chart next Sutton Valence, in Kent, which disclosed
some very curious facts, has led me to make this inquiry. They seem to
point to the inevitable conclusion that the disturbed state of England
during the period of the Great Rebellion retarded the increase of
population to an extent almost incredible--so as to suggest a doubt
whether some special cause might not have operated in the parish in
question which was not felt elsewhere. But, as I am quite unable to
discover the existence of any such cause, I shall be glad to learn
whether a similar result appears generally in other registers of the
period above referred to.

The register-book of Chart commences with the year 1558, and
is continued regularly from that time. During the remainder of
the sixteenth, and for about the first thirty-five years of the
seventeenth century, the baptisms registered increase steadily in
number: from that period there is a very marked decrease. For the
twenty years commencing with 1600 and ending with 1619, the number
260; for the twenty years 1620 to 1639, the number is 246; and for
the twenty years 1640 to 1659, the number is _only_ 120.

No doubt this diminution must be attributed partly to the spread
of Nonconformity; but I believe that during the Protectorate, the
registration of _births_ was substituted for that of _baptisms_, and
therefore the state of religious feeling which then prevailed bears
less directly on the question. And even after the Restoration the
register exhibits but a small increase in the number of baptisms. For
the various periods of twenty years from that event up to 1760, the
numbers range from 152 to 195. And pursuing the inquiry, I find that
the number of marriages, for any given time, varies consistently with
that of baptisms. If any of your reader can clear up the difficulty, I
shall feel much obliged for any information which may tend to do so.

Are the following extracts from the register above referred to of
sufficient interest to merit your acceptance?

"1648.--Richard, the son of George Juxon, gent., and Sarah, his wife,
who was slayne 1 Junii at Maydestone Fight, was buryed on the third
daye of June, anno predicto."

"Joseph, the son of Thomas Daye, and An, his wife, who was wounded at
Maydestone Fight 1 Junii, was buryed the eleventh daye of June."

It is hardly necessary to mention, that the fight here referred to
took place between the parliamentary forces under Fairfax, and a large
body of Kentish gentlemen, who had risen, with their dependants,
in the hope of rescuing the king from the hands of the army. After
an obstinate engagement, in which the Kentish men fully maintained
{330} their character for gallantry, they were defeated with great

"1653.--The third of March, Mr. John Case of Chart next Sutton Clarke,
being chosen by the parishioners of the said Chart, to be the Register
of the said parish according to the Act touching marriages, _births_,
and buryalls, was this day sworne before me, and I do allow and
approve of him to be Register accordingly. As witness my hand.

Richa. Beale."

"1660.--Marye, the daughter of John Smith, Esq. was baptized on the
thirteenth daye of Januarie, 1660, by John Case, Vicar. The first
that hath been baptized at the font since it was re-erected by the
appoynm't of the said Mr. Smith, being full sixteene yeers paste. One
Thomas Scoone, an elder, having, out of his blinde zeale, defaced and
pulled it downe, w't other ornaments belonging to the churche."


Chancery Lane, 7th March.

* * * * *


Inquiry has been often made as to the origin of this proverb. Alciatus
is referred to generally as the authority whence it was derived. I
think, however, it may be traced to Publius Syrus, who lived about
forty-four years before Christ. It is equally probable, from the
peculiar species of composition in which the thought, if not the exact
words are found, that the proverb was derived from another and an
earlier source. The object of mimic exhibitions is to impress the mind
by imitation. Human life is burlesqued, personal defect heightened and
ridiculed; character is never represented in degree, but in extremes.
The dialogue of satirical comedy assumes naturally the form of the
apophthegm--it is epigrammatic and compressed that it may be pungent
and striking. Hence, no species of writing is more allied to or more
likely to pass into household words, and to become proverbs among a
people of quick retentive powers, such as the Greeks were, to whom we
are perhaps indebted for this. I send you the extract from Alciatus;
_Emblemata_, No. 162. Antverpiae, 18mo. 1584. Apud Christophorum

"Tres Charites Veneri assistunt, dominamque sequuntur:
Hincque voluptates, atque alimenta parant;
Laetitiam Euphrosyne, speciosum Aglaia nitorem;
Suadela est Pithus, blandus et ore lepos.
Cur nudae? mentis quoniam candore venustas
Constat, et eximia simplicitate plucet.
An quia nil referunt ingrati, atque arcula inanis
Est Charitum? qui dat munera, nudus eget.
Addita cur nuper pedibus talaria? _Bis dat_
_Qui cito dat_--Minimi gratia tarda preti est.
Implicitis ulnis cur vertitur altera? gratus
Fenerat: huic remanent una abeunte duae.
Jupiter iis genitor, coeli de semine divas
Omnibus acceptas edidit Eurynome."

Now here we have the proverb clearly enough.

I subjoin the note upon the lines in which it appears.

"Bis dat qui cito dat," in Mimis Publii. "Beneficium inopi bis dat,
qui dat celeriter." Proverb, Bis dat, &c.

Referring to the Sentences of Publius Syrus, published, with the
additional Fables of Phaedrus, from the Vatican MSS., by Angelo Mai,
I found the line thus given:

"Inopi beneficium bis dat, qui dat celeriter."

The same idea, I believe, occurs in Ovid. Query whether it is not
a thought naturally presenting itself to the mind, reflected by
memory, confirmed by experience, and which some Mimic author has
made proverbial by his terse, gnomic form of expression.


* * * * *


I take the liberty of sending you several parallel passages, which may
probably appear to you worthy of insertion in your valuable paper.


"There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune."

Shakspeare: _Julius Caesar_.

"There is an hour in each man's life appointed
To make his happiness, if then he seize it."

Beaumont and Fletcher: _The Custom of the Country_.

"There is a nick in Fortune's restless wheel
For each man's good--"

Chapman: _Bussy d'Ambois_.


"The fann'd snow,
That's bolted by the northern blast thrice o'er."

Shakspeare: _A Winter's Tale_.

"Snow in the fall,
Purely refined by the bleak northern blast."

Davenport: _The City Nightcap_.


"Like pearl
Dropt from the opening eyelids of the morn
Upon the bashful rose."

Middleton: _The Game at Chess_.

"Together both, ere the high lawns appeared
Under the opening eyelids of the morn,
We drive afield."

Milton: _Lysidas_.


"Brief as the lightning in the collied night,
That in a spleen enfolds both heaven and earth,
And ere a man hath power to say--Behold!
The jaws of darkness do devour it up."

Shakspeare: _Midsummer Night's Dream_.

"Nicht Blitzen gleich, die schnell vorueber schiessen,
Und ploetzlich von der Nacht verschlungen sind,
Mein Glueck wird seyn."

Schiller: _Die Braut von Messina_.



* * * * *{331}


_I._--Sharon Turner's _Hist. of England_ (Lond. 1814. 4to.), i. 332.

"The Emperor (Henry VI.) determined to extort an immoderate
ransom; but, to secure it, had him (Richard Coeur de Lion)
conveyed to a castle _in the Tyrol_, from which escape was
hopeless."--_Note_ "104. In _Tiruali_. Oxened. MS."

Ibid. p. 333:

"He (Richard) was removed from the dungeon _in the Tyrol_
to the emperor's residence at Haguenau."--_Note_ "109. See
_Richard's Letter to his Mother_. Hoveden, 726."

The fortress, here represented to be in the _Tyrol_, is about 220
miles distant ("as the crow flies") from the nearest point in that
district, and is the Castle of Trifels, which still crowns the highest
of three rocky eminences (Treyfels = _Three Rocks_), which rise from
the mountain range of the Vosges, on the southern side of the town
of Annweiler. In proceeding from Landau to Zweibruecken (Deux-Ponts),
the traveller may see it on his left. The keep is still in good
preservation; and it was on account of the natural strength of its
position that the imperial crown-jewels were formerly preserved in it.

I am unable to refer at present to the MS. of Oxenedes (Cotton, Nero,
D 2), which appears to give the erroneous reading of _Tirualli_
for _Triualli_ or _Trivalli_; but Mr. Turner might have avoided the
mistake by comparing that MS. with the printed text of Hoveden, in
which Richard is represented as dating his letter "de Castello de
Triuellis, in quo detinebamur."

_II._--Wright's _S. Patrick's Purgatory_ (Lond. 1844. 8vo.), p. 135.:

"On the patent rolls in the Tower of London, under the year
1358, we have an instance of testimonials given by the
king (Edward III.) on the same day, to two distinguished
foreigners, one _a noble Hungarian_, the other a Lombard,
Nicholas de Beccariis, of their having faithfully performed
this pilgrimage."

In a note on this passage, Mr. Wright reprints one of the testimonials
from Rymer (_Foedera_, vol. iii. pt. i. p. 174.), in which is the
following passage:

"Nobilis vir _Malatesta Ungarus de Arminio_ miles."

In the original deed, the text must have been _de Arimino_ (of
Rimini); for the person here referred to was a natural son of
Malatesta de' Malatesti, Lord of Rimini and of Pesaro, and took the
name of _L'Ungaro_ in consequence of his having been knighted by
Louis, King of Hungary, when the latter passed through the Malatesta
territory, when he was going to Naples for the purpose of avenging
his brother Andrew's death. In the Italian account of the family
(Clementini, _Raccolto Istorico della Fondazione di Rimino_. Rimino,
1617-27. 2 vols. 4to.), L'Ungario is said have been a great traveller,
_to have visited England_, and to have died in 1372, at the age of
45. (See also Sansovino, _Origine e Fatti delle Famiglie Illustri
d'Italia_. Venetia, 1670. 4to. p. 356.)


* * * * *


I have just been exceedingly interested in reading a lecture on
the _Origin and Progress of the English Language_, delivered at
the Athenaeum, Durham, before the Teachers' Society of the North
of England, by W. Finley, Graduate of the University of France.

The following passage well expresses a caution that should be always
kept in mind by the literary archaeologist:

"In the orthography of English words derived from the Latin,
_one great and leading principle_ must be kept in view. If
the word is of new adoption, it is certain that its spelling
will be like that which appears in the original word; or if
it has come to us through the French, the spelling will be
conformable to the word in that language; thus, persecution
from _persequor_, pursue from _poursuivre_. Again, flourish
from _fleurir_, efforescent, florid, &c., from _floreo_. And
to establish our orthography on certain grounds, it ought
to be the business of the lexicographer to determine the
date of the first appearance of an adopted word, and thus
satisfactorily determine its spelling." (_Lecture_, p. 20.


Home, March 2.

* * * * *


In all the editions I have seen of this translation, the following
very palpable errors exist, which I do not remember to have seen
noticed. The first of these errors is contained in book ix. lines
325, 326, 463, and 533,

"Fools that ye are! (the savage thus replies,
His inward fury blazing at his _eyes_.)"

"Sing'd are his _brows_: the scorching _lids_ grow black."

"Seest thou these _lids_ that now unfold in vain?"

and consists in Mr. Pope having bestowed two organs of sight on the
giant Polypheme.

The second occurs in line 405 of the same book;

"Brain'd on the rock: his _second_ dire repast;"

and is owing to the inadvertency of the translator, who forgets what
he had previously written in lines 342 to 348.

"He answer'd with his deed: his bloody hand
Snatch'd two, unhappy of my martial band;
And dash'd like dogs against the stony floor;
The pavement swims with brains and mingled gore.
Torn limb from limb, he spreads his horrid feast,
And fierce devours it like a mountain beast."

And in lines 368 and 369;

"The task thus finish'd of his morning hours,
Two more he snatches, murders, and devours!"


by which it distinctly appears that line 405 has a reference to the
_third_ "dire repast" of the Cyclops, instead of the _second_.

Perhaps you will not deem me presumptuous in offering an amendment of
these passages by the following substitutions:--

For lines 325 and 326,

Fools that ye are! (the savage made reply,
His inward fury blazing at his eye.)

for line 463,

Sing'd is his brow; the scorching lid grows black.

for line 405,

Brain'd on a rock: his third most dire repast.

and for line 533,

Seest thou this lid that now unfolds in vain?


Godalming, Feb. 10. 1850.

* * * * *


In a note to Boswell's _Life of Johnson_ (Lond. 1816. 8vo.), iv. 196.,
the following lines are ascribed to their real authors:--

To _Joh. Baptista Mantuanus_ (Leipz. 1511. 4to), Eclog. i.:--

"Id commune malum, semel insanivimus omnes."

To _Philippe Gaultier_, who flourished in the last half of the 12th
century (Lugduni, 1558. 4to. fol. xlij. recto):--

"Incidis in Scillam cupiens vitare Charybdim."

At the conclusion of the same note, the authorship of

"Solamen miseris socios habuisse doloris,"

is said to remain undiscovered; but it appears to be a corrected form
of a line in Albertus ab Eyb's _Margarita Poetica_ (Nuremberg, 1472.
Fol.), where, with all its false quantities, it is ascribed to Ovid:--

"Solacium est miseris socios habere poenarum."

_Ovidius Epistolarum_.

In the same page (fol. 149. rect.),

(sic) "Fecundi calices quem non fecere disertum"

is transferred from Horace to Ovid; while, on the reverse of the same
fol., AEsop has the credit of

"Non bene pro toto libertas venditur auro;
Hoc coeleste bonum praeterit orbis opes."

Of the first line of the couplet, Menage says (_Menagiana_, Amstm.
1713. 12mo.), iii. 132., that it is "de la fable du 3'e Livre de ce
meme Poete a qui nous avons dit qu'appartenoit le vers

"'Alterius non sit qui suus esse potest;'"

But I cannot find the reference to which he alludes.

In the same fol. (149 rect.) is perhaps the earliest quotation of

"Gutta cavat lapidem non vi sed saepe cadende.--_Sapiens_,"

which occurs also in _Menagiana_ (Amstm. 1713. 12mo.), i. 209.:--

"Horace fait mention du Poete Cherile, de qui l'on n'a que ce
vers Grec--

"[Greek: Petran koilainei rhanis odatos endelecheiae.]"

"Gutta cavat lapidem non vi sed saepe cadendo."

The parallel passages in Ovid are in _Epist. ex Pont._ iv. x. 5.:--

"Gutta cavat lapidem; consumitur annulus usu,
Et feritur pressa vomer aduncus humo,"

and in _Art. Amat._ l. 475, 476.:--

"Quid magis est saxo durum? quid mollius unda?
Dura tamen molli saxa cavantur aqua."


* * * * *



I have before me a somewhat scarce volume of Theological Tracts (small
8vo.), ranging between the years 1533 and 1614. With the exception of
one relating to the Sacraments, by John Prime (Lond. 1582), the most
curious treatise is that entitled "The Supper of the Lorde, after
the true meanyng of the sixte of John, &c.... wherunto is added,
an Epystle to the reader, And incidentally in the exposition of the
Supper is confuted the letter of master More against John Fryth." To
a motto taken from 1 Cor. xi. is subjoined the following date, "Anno
M.CCCCC.XXXIII., v. daye of Apryll," together with a printer's device
(two hands pointing towards each other). This Tract was promptly
answered by Sir Thomas More (A.D. 1533, "after he had geuen ouer
the offyce of Lorde Chauncellour of Englande"), and is described by
him as "the poysoned booke whych a _nameles_ heretike hath named the
Supper of the Lorde" (_Works_, pp. 1035, seqq., ed. Rastell). From
the following passage of the reply, we learn that this offensive
publication, like so many others of the same class, has been printed

"And in thys wyse is ther sent ouer to be prynted the booke
that Frythe made last against the blessed sacrament answering
to my letter, wherewyth I confuted the pestilent treatice that
he hadde made agaynst it before. And the brethen looked for it
nowe at thys Bartlemewe tide last passed, and yet looke euery
day, except it be come all redy, and secretly runne among
them. But in the meane whyle, _ther is come ouer a nother
booke againste the blessed sacrament_, a booke of that sorte,
that Frythe's booke the brethren maye nowe forbeare. For more
blasphemous and more bedelem rype then thys booke is were that
booke harde to be, whyche is yet madde enough, as men say that
haue seen it" (p. 1036. G.).

More was evidently at a loss to discover the {333} author of this
work; for, after conjecturing that it might have come from William
Tyndal, or George Jaye (_alias_ Joy), or "som yong unlearned fole,"
he determines "for lacke of hys other name to cal the writer mayster
Masker," a sobriquet which is preserved throughout his confutation.
At the same time, it is clear, from the language of the treatise,
that its author, though anonymous, believed himself well known to
his opponent:

"I would have hereto put mi name, good reader, but I know wel
that thou regardest not who writteth, but what is writen; thou
estemest the worde of the verite, and not of the authour. And
as for M. More, whom the verite most offendeth, and doth but
mocke it out when he can not sole it, _he knoweth my name wel
inough_" (sub fin).

But here rises a grave difficulty, which I have taken the liberty of
propounding to the readers of "Notes and Queries." Notwithstanding the
above statements, both of the writer and of Sir Thomas More, as to the
_anonymous_ character of the treatise we are considering, the "Epistle
to the Reader" is in my copy subscribed "Robert Crowley," naturally
inducing the belief that the whole emanated from him.

Perhaps this difficulty may be resolved on the supposition that, while
the body of the Tract was first published without the "Epistle to
the Reader," and More's reply directed against it under this form, it
might soon afterwards have reached a second edition, to which the name
of the author was appended. It is certain that More's copy consisted
of 32 leaves only (p. 1039, G.), which corresponds with that now
before me, excluding the "Epistle to the Reader." Still, it is
difficult to conceive that the paragraph in which the author speaks
of himself as anonymous should have remained uncancelled in a
second edition after he had drawn off what More calls "his visour
of dissimulacion." There is, indeed, another supposition which would
account for the discrepancy in question, viz. that the epistle and a
fresh title-page were prefixed to some copies of the original edition;
but the pagination of the Tract seems to preclude this conjecture,
for B.i. stands upon the third leaf from what must have been the
commencement if we subtract the "Epistle to the Reader."

Wood does not appear to have perceived either this difficulty, or
a second which this treatise is calculated to excite. He places the
_Supper of the Lorde_ at the head of the numerous productions of
_Robert Crowley_, as if its authorship was perfectly ascertained. But
Crowley must have been a precocious polemic if he wrote a theological
treatise, like that answered by More, at least a year previously to
his entering the university. The date of his admission at Oxford was
1534; he was elected Fellow of Magdalene in 1542; he printed the
first edition of _Piers Plowman_ in 1550; and was still Parson of St.
Giles's, near Cripplegate, in 1588, i.e. fifty-five years after the
publication of the Tract we are considering. (See _Heylin's Hist. of
the Reformation_, ii. 186., E.H.S. ed.) Were there _two_ writers named
_Robert Crowley?_ or was _the_ Crowley a pupil or protege of some
early reformer, who caused his name to be affixed to a treatise for
which he is not wholly responsible? I leave these queries for the
elucidation of your bibliographical contributors.

If I have not already exceeded the limits allowable for such
communications, I would also ask your readers to explain the allusion
in the following passage from Crowley's tract:

"And know right well, that the more they steare thys
sacramente the broder shal theyr lyes be spreade, the more
shall theyr falsehoode appeare, and the more gloriously
shall the truthe triumph: as it is to se thys daye by longe
contencion in thys same and other like articles, which the
papists have so long abused, and howe more his lyes utter the
truthe every day more and more. For had he not come begynge
for the clergy from purgatory, wyth his 'supplicacion of
soules,' and Rastal and Rochester had they not so wyselye
played theyr partes, purgatory paradventure had served them
yet another yere; neyther had it so sone haue bene quenched,
nor the poor soule and proctoure there ben _wyth his bloudye
byshoppe christen catte so farre coniured into his owne Utopia
with a sachel about his necke to gather for the proud prystes
in Synagoga papistica_."

The Rastell here mentioned was doubtless he whom More (_Works_, p.
355.) calls his "brother" (i.e. his sister's husband), joining him
with Rochester (i.e. Bp. Fisher), as in this passage, on account of
his great zeal in checking the progress of the earlier Reformation;
but what is the allusion in the phrase "with his bloudye bishoppe
christen catte," &c., I am unable to divine. Neither in the
_Supplicacion of Soules_, nor in the reply to the "nameles heretike,"
have I discovered the slightest clue to its meaning.


St. Catherine's Hall, Cambridge.

[It would seem from a Query from the Rev. Henry Walter, in
No. 7. p. 109., on the subject of the name "Christen Cat,"
where the forgoing passage is quoted from Day's edition of
_Tyndale's Works_, that this tract was by Tyndale, and not
by Crowley.]

* * * * *


What is the most approved derivation of the word Chapel?--_Capella_,
from the goat-skin covering of what was at first a movable tabernacle?
_capa_, a cape worn by _capellanus_, the chaplain? _capsa_, a chest
for sacred relics? _kaba Eli_ (Heb.), the house of God? or what other
and better etymon?

Is it not invariably the purpose of a Chapel to supply the absence or
incommodiousness of the parish church?

At what period of ecclesiastical history was the {334} word Chapel
first introduced? If there be any truth in the legend that St.
Martin's hat was carried before the kings of France in their
expeditions, and that the pavilion in which it was lodged originated
the term, it is probably a very old word, as the Saint is stated to
have died A.D. 397. Yet the word in not acknowledged by Bingham.

Is Chapel a _legal_ description of the houses of religious meeting,
which are used by those who dissent from the Church of England?

Was the adoption of the word Chapel by dissenters, or their submission
to it, indicative of an idea of assistance, rather than of rivalry or
opposition, to the Church?

Any answer to these inquiries, which are proposed only for the sake
of information, by one whose means of reference and investigation are
limited, will be very acceptable.

Alfred Gatty.

Ecclesfield, March 5. 1850.

* * * * *


Is it known who really translated that clever work, _Letters writ by a
Turkish Spy_? The work was originally written in Italian, by John Paul
Marana, a Genoese; but the English translation has been attributed to
several individuals.

Among Dr. Charlett's correspondence, preserved in the Bodleian
Library, is a letter inquiring after a Mr. Bradshaw. The writer says,
"he was servitor or amanuensis to Dr. Allesbree, and proved very
considerable afterwards, being the author of all the volumes of the
'Turkish Spy' but one; and that was the first, which, you remember,
was printed a considerable time before the rest, and not much
taken notice of till the second volume came out. The first volume
was originally wrote in Italian, translated into French, and made
English; and all the rest after carried on by this Bradshaw, as I am
undoubtedly informed: so that I think him well worth inquiring after
while in Oxford. Dr. Midgely had only the name and conveyance to the
press, beside what books he helped Bradshaw to, which, by his poverty,
he could not procure himself." In the margin of this letter Ballard
has added, "Sir Roger Manley, author of the 'Turkish Spy.'" Baker, of
St. John's College, Cambridge, has written on the cover of the first
volume of his copy of _Athenae Oxoniensis_ (bequeathed to the Public
Library at Cambridge), "'Turkish Spy,' begun by Mr. Manley, continued
by Dr. Midgely with the assistance of others."

Edward F. Rimbault.

* * * * *


I shall feel much obliged if any of your correspondents can inform me
what is the real name of the author of the following work:

"An Impartial enquiry into the true character of that Faith,
which is required in the Gospel, as necessary to salvation;
in which it is briefly shewn, upon how righteous terms
unbelievers may become true Christians, &c., by Philalethes
Cestriensis. 8'o. Lond. 1746. Dedicated to Philip earl of
Chesterfield, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland."

In your 6th Number is an inquiry for a "tract or sermon" by the Rev.
W. Stephens, which elicited a reply in No. 8. from "Mr. Denton," who
mentions four sermons by that author and inquires whether any other
sermons or tracts of his were published, which are not included in the
two posthumous volumes?

Now it has struck me that a volume of sermons in my possession may,
from the nature of the subjects, be Stephens's, but whether included
in the volume alluded to I know not. The volume contains six sermons,
each with separate title and separate pagination. A common preface is
prefixed, and there has been a common title-page, which unfortunately
is missing in my copy.

"Serm. I. The Divinity of Christ argued, from his right
to worship, on Rev. v. 13, 14., preached in 1720, at
Great Torrington, at the Visitation of the Archdeacon of

"II. The necessity of believing the Divinity of the Son of
God, John iii. 16., preached at Great Torrington on Christmas
Day, 1721."

"III. The Humiliation and Exaltation of the Son of God
considered in the new light, Philipp. ii. 6-12., preached
at the primary Visitation of Stephen [Weston] Lord Bishop of
Exon, at Great Torrington, 1726."

"IV. Christ, King of the Jews both before and after his
Incarnation, Matt. ii. 1, 2., preached on Christmas Day and
First Sunday after Epiphany, 1727."

"V. The Beginning, Extent, and Duration of Christ's
Mediatorial Kingdom, same text, and preached at the same

"VI. The natural supremacy of God the Son; same text, &c."

The three last sermons have a title generally applicable, and repeated
before each viz., "The Supreme Dominion of God the Son, both Natural,
Oeconomical, and Judaical, proved from Scripture, in three Sermons."
The separate titles bear date 1729; and the publisher was Samuel Birt,
at the Bible and Ball, Ave Maria Lane.

This notice may supply the information of which Mr. Denton is in
quest, and at all events I should be very glad to learn who the author
really was. His sermons are, as is said of those of Stephens, far
above the ordinary run. The period at which they were delivered
agrees with the dates of those at page 118. The author, in the general
preface, says, that Sermon II. was not "suffer'd to see the light
before it had pass'd through the hands of _Dr. Waterland_." Was not
Stephens subsequently Vicar of St. Andrew's, Plymouth?


* * * * *{335}


_Smelling of the Lamp._--Can you or one of your learned
correspondents, tell me the origin or first user of the literary
"smelling of the lamp?" I know that it is commonly attributed to
Demosthenes? but if it is his, I want chapter and verse for it.

_Gourders of Rain._--Will any of your correspondents be kind enough to
suggest the etymology of the word "gourders" (= torrents)? It occurs
in the following passage of _Harding against Jewel_ (p. 189., Antv.

"Let the _gourders_ of raine come downe from you and all other
heretikes, let the floudes of worldly rages thrust, let the
windes of Sathan's temptations blowe their worst, this house
shall not be overthrowen."


St. Catherine's Hall, Cambridge.

The _Temple or_ a _Temple_.--I am happy to see that your
correspondent, Mr. Thoms, is about to illustrate some of the
obscurities of Chaucer. Perhaps he or some of your learned
contributors may be able to remove a doubt that has arisen in my mind
relative to the poet's well-known description of the Manciple in his
Prologue to the _Canterbury Tales_.

You are aware that the occupation of the Temple by students of the
law in the reign of Edward III. has no other authority than tradition.
Dugdale, Herbert, Pearce, and others who have written on the Inns of
Court, adduce this passage from Chaucer in support of the assertion;
and they all quote the first line thus:

"A manciple there was of _the_ Temple."

In Tyrwhitt's edition of _Chaucer_, however, and in all other copies
I have seen, the reading is

"A gentil manciple was ther of _a_ temple."

Now the difference between "the Temple" and "a temple" is not
inconsiderable. I should feel obliged, therefore, by any explanation
which will account for it. If Chaucer was, as he is sometimes
pretended to be, a member of the Temple, it is somewhat extraordinary
that he should have designated it so loosely. The words in the real
passage would seem to have a more general signification, and not to
be applied to any particular house of legal resort.

Edward Foss.

_Family of Steward or Stewart of Bristol_.--I have in my possession a
drawing, probably of the time of James or Charles I., of the following
arms. Azure a lion rampant or, with a crescent for difference,
impaling argent a cross engrailed flory sable between four Cornish
choughs proper--Crest, on a wreath of the colours a Saracen's head
full-faced, couped at the shoulders proper, wreathed round the temples
and tied or and azure.

On removing the shield from the paper on which it was pasted, I found
a spoiled sketch of the coat of Poulett, with the name Ambrose Moore
written over it in a hand of about the reign of Charles I.: the object
in passing the fresh shield over the spoiled coat appears to have been
merely to make use of the mantling.

I have also a locket of silver gilt containing a miniature of a
gentleman apparently of the time of the Commonwealth, finely executed
in oils upon copper; on the back are engraved the arms and crest above
described without the impalement, the crescent bearing the addition
of a label. The only information I have is, that the locket and the
drawing belonged to a family of the name of Steward or Stewart, who
were clothworkers at Bristol during the Commonwealth, and for some
generations later; and they are now in the possession of their
descendants. The first of whom I have any authentic record is Hercules
Steward, who was admitted to the liberties of the city of Bristol in

I cannot find that any family of Steward has borne the arms in
question; and if any of your readers can throw a light on the matter,
I shall feel greatly obliged to them.

Query. Was there a Herald painter of the time named Ambrose Moore?


Feb. 26. 1850.

_Paying through the Nose_.--Can any one tell me the origin of the
phrase, "Paying though the nose," expressing a dear bargain?


_Memoirs of an American Lady_.--Are the _Memoirs of an American
Lady_ out of print? They were written by Mrs. Grant, of Laggan, the
authoress of _Letters from the Mountains_, and of whom some very
interesting memoirs have lately been published by her son.


_Bernicia_.--Can any learned correspondent favour me with the name
or title of any English nobleman who held authority in Wales, or the
Borders, in 1370-80? The motive for this query is, that a poem of the
time, by Trahaearn, a celebrated bard, contains the following passage:

"Though fierce in his valour like Lleon, with a violent
irresistible assault, he vaulted into battle, to plunder the
King of _Bernicia_; yet the ravager of thrice seven dominions
was a placid and liberal-handed chief, when he entertained the
bards at his magnificent table."

It is not supposed that the king here mentioned was any thing more
than a powerful nobleman, whose possessions, or castle and lands, were
situated in the north of England; in which division of the island
the ancient Bernicia was placed. As there is no evidence as to the
locality or limits of this ancient district, it is hoped that an
answer to the above query will afford a satisfactory solution to an
uncertainty that has long existed among Welsh antiquaries.



_John Bull_.--Might I beg to ask, through your columns, the origin of
the name "_John Bull_," as applied to Englishmen? I have frequently
heard the question asked; but I never heard it satisfactorily
answered. An antiquary once told me that it was so applied from the
number of _Johns_ among our countrymen, and the profusion of _bles_
in our language; an explanation which I placed to the credit of my
friend's ingenuity.


* * * * *



I feel very confident that I once read the letter attributed to Sir
R. Walpole (No. 19. p. 304.) in some magazine, long before I had ever
seen _Banks' Extinct and Dormant Peerage_. My impression is, also,
that I never believed the document to be authentic; and that opinion
is confirmed by a reference to the _Correspondence of Horace Walpole_,
vol. i. ed. 1840, and to the journals of the day. I find from these
authorities, that the first of the memorable divisions which drove
Sir Robert from the helm, took place on the 21st Jan. 1741-2, when
Pulteney's motion for a secret committee was lost by three voices
only. We are told that the speeches were very brilliant, and Sir
R. Walpole particularly distinguished himself. He might have been
tormented by his enemies, but not by the stone, (the excuse assigned
in the letter for his inability to attend the king), for Horace left
him at one o'clock in the morning, after the debate had terminated,
"_at supper all alive and in spirits," and he even boasted that he was
younger than his son_. The next struggle was on the 28th of Jan., on
the Chippenham election, when the minister was defeated by one, and
his friends advised him to resign; but it was not till after the 3rd
of Feb., when the majority against him upon the renewal of the last
question had increased to sixteen, that he intimated his intention
to retire. These facts, coupled with the inferences drawn by your
correspondent P.C.S.S. as to the suspicious style of the letter, and
the imprudence of such a communication, go far to prove that it was
a forgery: but the passage in _Walpole's Reminiscences_, vol. i. p.
cviii. ed. 1840, with which I will now conclude my remarks, seems to
set the question at rest:--

"Sir Robert, before he quitted the king, persuaded his Majesty
to insist, as a preliminary to the change, that Mr. Pulteney
should go into the House of Lords, his great credit lying in
the other House: and _I remember my father's action when he
returned from Court, and told me what he had done; 'I have
turned the key of the closet upon him,' making that motion
with his hand_."


Audley End, March 18. 1850.

* * * * *


It is pleasant to see that an answer to a query can sometimes do more
than satisfy a doubt, by accidentally touching an accordant note
which awakens a responsive feeling. I am much pleased that my scanty
information was acceptable to "R.G."; and wish it was in my power
to give him more certain information respecting the portraits of
_Hutten_, who is one of my heroes, although I am no "hero-worshipper."

The earliest woodcut portrait of him with which I am acquainted, is to
be found in the very elegant volume containing the pieces relating to
the murder of his cousin John, by Ulrich of Wirtemberg (the title too
long for these pages), which, from the inscription at the end, appears
to have been printed in the Castle of Stakelberg, in 1519. It is a
half length, in a hat, under a kind of portico, with two shields at
the upper corners: the inscription beneath is in white letters on
a black ground. It occurs near the end of the volume; in which is
another spirited woodcut, representing the murder.

The other two cotemporary portraits occur in the "Expostulatio,"
before noticed. The largest of these, at the end of the volume, is
in armour, crowned with laurel, and holding a sword, looking toward
the left. This is but indifferently copied, or rather followed, in
Tobias Stimmer's rare and elegant little volume, _Imagines Viror.
Liter. Illust._, published by Reusner and Jobinus, Argent. 1587, 12mo.

I have never seen a good modern representation of this remarkable man,
who devoted the whole energies of his soul to the sacred cause of the
truth and freedom, and the liberation of his country and mankind from
the trammels of a corrupt and dissolute Church; and, be it remembered,
that he and Reuchlin were precursors of Luther in the noble work,
which entitles them to at least a share in our gratitude for the
unspeakable benefit conferred by this glorious emancipation.

Ebernburg, the fortress of his friend, the noble and heroic Franz von
Sickingen, Hutten called the _Bulwark of Righteousness_. I had long
sought for a representation of Sickingen, and at length found a medal
represented in the _Sylloge Numismatum Elegantiorum_ of Luckius, fol.
Argent, 1620, bearing the date 1522.

Hutten's life is full of romantic incident: it was one of toil and
pain, for the most part; and he may well have compared his wanderings
to those of Ulysses, as he seems to have done in the following verses,
which accompany the portrait first above mentioned:

"Desine fortunam miseris inimicaque fata
Objicere, et casus velle putare deos.
Jactatur pius AEneas, jactatur Ulysses,
Per mare, per terras, hic bonus, ille pius.
Crede mihi non sunt meritis sua praemia, casu
Volvimur, haud malus est, cui mala proveniunt.
Sis miser, et nulli miserabilis, omnia quisquis
A diis pro merito cuique venire putas."


I should like to see the German verses your correspondent mentions, if
he will be good enough to favour me, through your intervention, with
an inspection of the volume containing them.


March 12. 1850.

* * * * *


"B." inquires (No. 16. p. 246.) what is the use of the royal license
for the change of a surname? He is referred to Mr. Markland's
paper "On the Antiquity and Introduction of Surnames into England"
(_Archaeologia_, xviii. p. 111.). Mr. Markland says,--

"Sir Joseph Jekyll, when Master of the Rolls, in the year
1730, remarks--'I am satisfied the usage of passing Acts of
Parliament for the taking upon one a surname is but modern;
and that any one may take upon him what surname, and as many
surnames, as he pleases, without an Act of Parliament.' The
decree in the above case was reversed in the House of Lords."

Mr. Markland adds,--

"From the facts and deductions here stated, it would seem
that the Master of the Rolls had good ground for making his
decree. The law, as it stands, however, had grown out of the
_practice_: and common prudence dictates, that the assumption
of a new surname should now be accompanied by such an
authority as may establish beyond all question the legality of
the act."

It must also be remembered, that a testator often directs that a
devisee shall procure the royal license or an Act of Parliament
for the change of name, in order to entitle him to the testator's
property. If this direction be neglected, could not the party next
benefited sue for it on that ground, and with success?


_Change of Name_ (No. 16. p. 246.).--The doctrine, that a person
may change his surname without any formality whatever, has long
been "settled," and is by no means of so recent a date as your
correspondent supposes, which will presently appear.

In _Coke upon Littleton_, after some observations as to the change
of Christian name at confirmation, it is stated--

"And this doth agree with our ancient books, where it is
holden that a man may have divers names at divers times, but
not divers Christian names." (Vol. ii. p. 218. ed. 1818, by
J.H. Thomas.)

Reference is made to _Acc. 1 Com. Dig._ 19, 20., "Abatement" (E. 18,
19.); _Bac. Abr._ "Misnomer," B.; Rex _v._ Billinghurst, 3 _Maul.
& S._ 254.: but these passages throw no additional light upon our
immediate subject.

Sir Joseph Jekyll, in the case of Barlow _v._ Bateman, in 1730,

"I am satisfied the usage of passing Acts of Parliament for
the taking upon one a surname is but modern, and that any one
may take upon him what surname, and as many surnames, as he
pleases, without an Act of Parliament." (3 Peere Williams,

The decision of the Master of the Rolls in this case was afterwards
overruled by the House of Lords; but on a point not affecting the
accuracy of the observations I have quoted.

Lord Eldon, in the case of Leigh _v._ Leigh, decided in 1808, made
the following remarks:--

"An Act of Parliament, giving a new name, does not take away
the former name: a legacy given by that name might be taken.
In most of the Acts of Parliament for this purpose there is
a special proviso to prevent the loss of the former name. The
King's licence is nothing more than permission to take the
name, and does not give it. A name, therefore, taken in that
way is by voluntary assumption." (15 Ves. Jun., p. 100.)

This case decided that the assumption of a name by a person, by the
King's license, would not entitle him to take under a limitation in a
will "unto the first and nearest of my kindred, being male, and of my
name and blood." The same rule would no doubt hold as to a change of
name by Act of Parliament. (See Pyot _v._ Pyot, 1 _Ves. Sen._ 335.)

These extracts from the highest authorities will sufficiently show
of how little use is an Act of Parliament, or the royal license, for
effecting a change of name; indeed, the chief, perhaps I might almost
say the only, advantage of these costly forms, except, of course,
where they are required by the express terms of a will, is the
facility they afford in case it should become necessary to prove that
John White was ten years ago John Brown.


* * * * *


There is no class of books which it more behoves future compilers
of glossaries to consult, than those which treat of geography,
navigation, military and naval economy, and the science of warfare
both on shore and afloat. As far as the technical terms have been used
by poets and dramatists, much valuable illustration may be found in
the annotated editions of their works, but much more is required for
general purposes, and I could point out some fifty volumes which would
enable an industrious student, possessing a competent acquaintance
with those subjects in their modern state, to produce a most useful
supplement to our existing glossaries.

With very small pretensions to the amount of information which [Greek:
S] ascribes to me, I will at once answer his query on the meaning of

GRUMETE is pure Spanish. It also occurs as a Portuguese word. I shall
transcribe the explanations of it as given by the best authorities on
those languages:--

"GRVMETE.--El muchacho que sirue en el nauio, y sube por el
mastil, o arbol, y por la antena, y haze todo {338} lo demas
que le mandan con gran presteza."--Sebastian de Couarruuias,

"GRUMETE.--El mozo que sirve en el navio para subir a la
gavia y otros usos. _Tirunculus nauticus_."--La real academia

"GRUMETE.--Grumete he o moco que serve como de criado
aos marinheiros, sobindo pellos mastros ate a gavea,
etc."--Raphael Bluteau.

We have a statement of the rank and ratings of the officers and men
of a ship of war in the _Sea grammar_ of captain Smith, 1627. 4to. The
word in question, as a _rating_, had then become obsolete. The duties
of the seamen are thus described:

"The _sailers_ are the ancient men for hoising the sailes,
getting the tacks aboord, haling the bowlings, and steering
the ship.

"The _younkers_ are the young men called fore-mast men, to
take in the top-sailes, or top and yard, for furling the
sailes, or slinging the yards, bousing or trising, and take
their turnes at helme."

Now, a comparison of the definitions of the Spanish and Portuguese
_gromete_, and the English _younker_, leads me to infer that the
latter term had been substituted for _grummett_ or _gromet_, and
that the duties of both classes were nearly the same.

If the above information should seem less precise than might be
expected, I must make my apology in the words which Edward Jorden
addressed to captain Smith on the publication of his _Sea grammar_:

"Who can
Deriue thy words, is more grammarian
Than Camden, Clenard, Ramus, Lilly were:
Here's language would haue non-plust Scaliger!"

Bolton Corney.

* * * * *


Permit me to suggest that, in asking a question, it is often desirable
that the querist should state briefly the amount of information he
already possesses on the subject. For instance, had Mr. "T.H. Turner,"
when inquiring after _beaver hats_ (No. 7. p. 100.), stated, that he
had met with the mention of them as early as the time of Hen. III., I,
of course, should not have troubled you with a notice of them in the
reign of Elizabeth. Indeed, I owe Mr. Turner an apology; for if I had
reflected a moment upon the extensive antiquarian information of
the querist, I should certainly have concluded that he must be well
acquainted with the authorities I cited, which happened to be at my
elbow at the time I read the query. Mr. B. Corney (No. 19. p. 307.)
has supplied a beaver hat from Chaucer's _Canterbury Tales_; we meet
with another in his _Testament of Creseide_, v. 386., "in a mantill
and a beaver hat." We may therefore conclude that they were not
unusual in Chaucer's time. I now think it very probable that beaver
hats were introduced into this country as early as the Norman
Conquest; for we find mention of them in Normandy at a still earlier
period. In the "Chronicle of the Abbey of St. Wandrille" (edited by
Acheri, in his _Spicilegium_), we find, amongst the gifts of the Abbot
Ansegisus, who died A.D. 833,

"Cappas Romanas duas, unam videlicet ex rubeo cindato, et
fimbriis viridibus in circuitu ornatam; alteram _ex cane
Pontico_, quero vulgus _Bevurum_ nuncupat, similiter fimbriis
sui coloris decoratam in orbe."

I do not conceive this cap to have been made of the _skin_ of a
beaver, for the term would then most probably have been "ex _pelli_
canis Pontici."

This Chronicle contains several curious inventories of the gifts of
many of the abbots; in which we may see the splendour of the vessels
and vestments used at that period in religious services, as well as
the style of reading then prevalent amongst the monks.


Cambridge, March 11.

[There is a Query which arises out of this subject which none
of our correspondents have yet touched upon--What was the
original meaning of _Beaver_, as applied to a hat or cap? and
was it taken from the name of the animal, or did it give the
name to it?]

* * * * *


_Anecdote of the Civil Wars_.--In looking through your "Notes and
Queries," to which I heartily wish continued success, I find, in No.
6. p. 93, a question which appears to be as yet unanswered.

The story to which your questioner alludes as an "anecdote of the
Civil Wars," is a very beautiful one, and deserves authentication.

I have a note of it from Dr. Thomas's additions to Dugdale's
_Warwickshire_, which dates the occurrence as having taken place Oct.
22, 1642, the day previous to the battle of Edgehill, and identifies
the merry sportsman as Richard Schuckburgh, of Upper Shuckburgh; who,
however, on his presentation to the king, "immediately went home,
aroused his tenants, and the next day attended the army to the field,
where he was knighted, and was present at the battle." Being out of
the reach of books, I am unable further to verify the story; but it is
to such unhappy rustics that your publication is most acceptable.


[Thanks to the kindness of our correspondent "C.W.B.," we
have referred to Dugdale's _Warwickshire_ (ed. Thomas, 1730).
vol. i. p. 309., and extract from it the following proof that
Walpole had authority for his story. Who knows, after this,
but we may in the same way trace from whence he procured the
celebrated letter of the Countess of Pembroke, respecting
which there is a query from Mr. Peter Cunningham, in No. 2.
p. 28.

"As king Charles the First marched to Edgcot, near Banbury, on
22nd Oct., 1642, he saw him hunting in the fields not far from
Shuckborough, with a very good pack of hounds, upon which it
is reported, that he fetched a deep sigh and asked who that
gentleman was that hunted so merrily that morning, when he was
going to fight for his crown and dignity. And being told {339}
that it was this Richard Shuckburgh, he was ordered to be
called to him, and was by him very graciously received. Upon
which he went immediately home, armed all his tenants, and the
next day attended on him in the field, where he was knighted,
and was present at the battle of Edghill."]

_Mousetrap Dante_ (No. 10. pp. 154, 155.).--I beg to refer your
correspondent to the Visconte Colomb de Batines' _Bibliographia
Dantesea_ (Prato, 1845-48. 8vo.), tom. ii. pp. 264, 265., where he
will find a list (correct so far as it goes) of the fifteen MSS. of
the _Comedia_, purchased for the Bodleian Library about the year 1822,
from the Abbate Matteo Canonici, of Venice.

I have reason for believing, that the only MSS. which exist in that
collection, in addition to those enumerated in the list, are: 1.
Canon Ital. 100. "Compendium Cujusdam Commentarii" (4to paper); and
2. "Codices Canonici Miscellanei 449." fol., _vellum_ (it cannot
therefore be this), which contains the complete commentary of Jacopo
dalla Lana.


_Cromwell's Estates_ (No. 18. p. 277.).--The seignory of Gower is the
peninsula which runs out between the bays of Swansea and Carmarthen;
and which terminates at Swansea on the S.E. side, and at Longhor on
the N.W., and comprises the district which, in common with a part of
Scotland, anciently bore the name of Rheged. It is a locality rich in
all that can attract the antiquary and the naturalist.

Mr. Dillwyn's _Contributions towards a History of Swansea_ contains
the following references to the Gower property of Cromwell:--"We are
informed by the Minute-book of the Common Hall" (at Swansea), "that
on May 19, 1648, there came to this towne the truly Honourable Oliver
Cromwell, Esq.... Lord of this towne, the Seignory of Gower, and Manor
of Killay, with the members thereof," &c. "On May 5. 1647, Parliament
settled the estates of the Marquis of Worcester, in Gloucestershire
and Monmouthshire, on Cromwell; and, by a subsequent order, the
estate in Glamorganshire was added to this grant. The conveyance from
Parliament to Cromwell is made, not only in the name of his Majesty,
but has a portrait of Charles the First at its head."


_Genealogy of European Sovereigns_ (No. 6. p. 92.)--The best and most
comprehensive work on this subject bears the following title:--_Johann
Huebner's genealogische Tabellen_, 4 vols. folio, oblong, Leipzig,
1737 et seq. (Of the 3rd vol. a new and much improved edition, by
G.F. Krebel, appeared in 1766.) Supplement: _Tafeln zu J. Huebner's
genealogischen Tabellen_, by Sophia Queen of Denmark, 6 parts, folio,
oblong, Copenhagen, 1822-24.

A. Asher.


_Shipster_ (No. 14. p. 216.).--Are not _Baxter_ and _Tupster_ the
feminines of _Baker_ and _Tapper_?--and may not _Shipster_ signify a
_female ship-owner_?


_Kentish Ballad_ (No. 16. p. 247.).--The song beginning "When Harold
was invaded" has long been a favourite in this county. It is entitled
"The Man of Kent," and was composed by Tom Durfey, in the time of
Charles the Second. It may be found, with the music, in Chappell's
_Collection of English Airs_. He cites it as being in _Pills to purge
Melancholy, with Music_, 1719, and states that in the _Essex Champion,
or famous History of Sir Billy of Billericay and his Squire Ricardo_,
1690, the song of "The Man of Kent" is mentioned. I have none of these
works at hand for immediate reference, but the above note contains all
that I have been able to collect on the subject of our popular ballad.

There is another song, much to the same purport, beginning--

"When as the Duke of Normandy,
With glistening spear and shield,"

in Evans's _Songs_, vol. ii. p. 33, printed by him from _The Garland
of Delight_, by Delone, in the Pepys collection at Cambridge--a
black-letter volume; and probably the song was by himself.

Your correspondent "F.B." asks for the remainder of the song. In pity
to yourself and your readers, I forbear sending you the countless
stanzas--numerous enough in the _original_ song, but now, by the
additions of successive generations, swelled to a volume. He will find
in Chappell's collection all that is worth having, with the assurance,
repeated oft enough for the most enthusiastic of our _modest_
countrymen, that

"In Britain's race if one surpass,
A man of Kent is he."


Ryarsh Vicarage.

_Bess of Hardwick_ (No. 18. p. 276.).--The armorial bearings of John
Hardwick, of Hardwick, co. Derby, father of Bess, were: Argent, a
saltier engrailed, and on a chief blue three roses of the field.


Oxford, March 9. 1850.

_Trophee_ (No. 19. p. 303.).--"Trophe," in the Prologue of Lydgate's
Translation of Boccaccio's _Fall of Princes_, is a misprint:

"In youth he made a translation
Of a boke, which called is Troyle,
In Lumbardes tonge, as men may rede and se,
And in our vulgar, long or that he deyde,
Gave it the name of Troylous and Cres-eyde."

The book called _Troyle_ is Boccaccio's _Troilo_, or _Filostrato_.


Oxford, March 11. 1850.


_Emerald_ (No. 14. p. 217.).--Before we puzzle ourselves with the
meaning of a thing, it is well to consider whether the authority _may_
not be very loose and inaccurate. This _emerald cross_, even if it was
made of emeralds, might have been in several pieces. But we are told
generally, in Phillips's _Mineralogy_, that "the large emeralds spoken
of by various writers, such as that in the Abbey of Richenau, of the
weight of 28 lbs., and which formerly belonged to Charlemagne, are
believed to be either green fluor, or prase. The most magnificent
specimen of genuine emeralds was presented to the Church of Loretto
by one of the Spanish kings. It consists of a mass of white quartz,
thickly implanted with emeralds, more than an inch in diameter."

The note to the above exemplifies what I have just said. It is called
_emerald_, he says, because it is _green_, from the Greek. I might
make a query of this; but it is clearly a mistake of some half-learned
or ill-understood informant. The name has nothing to do with green.
_Emerald_, in Italian _smeraldo_, is, I dare say, from the Greek
_smaragdus_. It is derived, according to the Oxford _Lexicon_, from
[Greek: mairo], to shine, whence [Greek: marmarugae]. In looking for
this, I find another Greek word, _smirix_, which is the origin of
_emery_, having the same meaning. It is derived from [Greek: smao],
to rub, or make bright. I cannot help suspecting that the two radical
verbs are connected.


_Ancient Motto--Barnacles_.--In reference to your querist in No. 6.,
respecting the motto which "some Pope or Emperor caused to be engraven
in the centre of his table," and the correspondent in No. 7. who
replies to him by a quotation from Horace, I beg to observe that
honest Thomas Fuller, in _The Holy State_, 275. ed. Lond. 1648, tells
us, that St. Augustine "had this distich written on his table:--

"Quisquis amat dictis absentem rodere famam,
Hanc mensam indignam noverit esse sibi.
* * * * *
He that doth love on absent friends to jeere,
May hence depart, no room is for him here."

With respect to the Barnacle fowl, it may be an addendum, not
uninteresting to your correspondent "W.B. MacCabe," to add to
his extract from Giraldus another from Hector Boece, _History of
Scotland_, "imprentit be Thomas Davidson, prenter to the Kyngis nobyll
grace [James VI.]." He observes, that the opinion of some, that the
"Claik geis growis on treis be the nebbis, is vane," and says he "maid
na lytyll lauboure and deligence to serche the treuthe and virite
yairof," having "salit throw the seis quhare thir Clakis ar bred," and
assures us, that although they were produced in "mony syndry wayis,
thay ar bred ay allanerly be nature of the seis." These fowls, he
continues, are formed from worms which are found in wood that has been
long immersed in salt water, and he avers that their transformation
was "notably provyn in the zier of God 1480 besyde the castell of
Petslego, in the sycht of mony pepyll," by a tree which was cast
ashore, in which the creatures were seen, partly formed, and some
with head, feet, and wings; "bot thay had na faderis." Some years
afterwards, a tree was thrown on the beach near Dundee, with the same
appearances, and a ship broken up at Leith exhibited the same marvel;
but he clinches the argument by a "notable example schawin afore our
eyne. Maister Alexander Galloway Person, of Kynkell, was with us in
thir Illis (the Hebridae), and be adventure liftet up ane see tangle,
hyng and full of mussil schellis," one of which he opened, "bot than
he was mair astonist than afore, for he saw na fische in it bot ane
perfit schapin foule. This clerk, knawin us richt desirous of sic
uncouth thingis, came haistely, and opinit it iwith all circumstance
afore rehersit." So far the venerable "Chanon of Aberdene." The West
Highlanders still believe in the barnacle origin of this species of


_Tureen_ (No. 16. p. 246.; No. 19. p. 307.).--I have seen
old-fashioned silver tureens which turned on a pivot attached to the
handles, and always concluded that it was to this form that Goldsmith
alluded in the line quoted by "G.W."


_Hudibrastic Couplet_ (No. 14. p. 211.).--These lines do _not_ occur
in the reprint of the _Musarum Deliciae_ (Lond. 1817, 8vo. 2 vols.).
Lowndes (_Bibliogr. Manual_) states that they are to be found in the
2nd ed. of the work (London, 1656. 12mo.).


_Topography of Foreign Printing Presses_ (No. 18. p. 277.)--About
twelve years ago, Valpy published a vol. of Supplements to
_Lempriere's Dictionary_, by E.H. Barker. One of these contained
a complete list of all the foreign towns in which books had been
printed, with the Latin names given to them in alphabetical order.

W. and N.

Your correspondent "P.H.F." will find in _Cotton's Typographical
Gazetteer_ (8vo. Clarendon Press, 1831), every information he will
ordinarily require.


Islington, March 7. 1850

_Dr. Hugh Todd's MSS._ (No. 18. p. 282.).--The only MS. in the library
of University College, Oxford, is that mentioned by "F.M."; and it
is described in the Catalogue, compiled by the Rev. H.O. Coxe, of
the MSS. belonging to the College, p. 47. No. clxx. There is a note
stating it was "ex dono Hugonis Todd, Socii, A.D. 1690."


* * * * *{341}


_Burnet_.--In addition to the opinions expressed in favour of or
opposed to Burnet's "History," (No. 3. p. 40., and No. 8. p. 120.),
I may also refer to Dr. King's _Anecdotes_; he says,

"I knew Burnet; he was a furious party-man, and easily imposed
on by any lying spirit of his own faction; but he was a better
pastor than any man who is now seated on the Bishop's bench."

Dryden's chastisement of Burnet--"the noble Buzzard"--in his _Hind and
Panther_ must be familiar to your readers. It was given as "adequate
retaliation" for the Bishop's censure of the immorality of Dryden's
plays. Applied to Burnet's _Sketches of Characters_, Dryden says:

"His praise of foes is venomously nice,
So touch'd, it turns a virtue to a vice."

Scott's note on this passage well merits perusal.



* * * * *



Newton, the light of each succeeding age,
First learned his letters from a female sage.
But thus far taught--the alphabet once learn'd--
To loftier use those elements he turn'd.
Forced th' unconscious signs, by process rare,
Known quantities with unknown to compare;
And, by their aid, profound deductions drew
From depths of truth his teacher never knew.
Yet the true authoress of all was she!--
Newton's Principia were his _a_, _b_, _c_.


* * * * *

_Prince Madoc_ (No. 4. p. 56.; No. 18. p. 282.).--In the darkness
superinduced by the absence of historical evidence on the Welsh
settlement in America, I beg leave to offer a few remarks on some
ethnological subjects involved in this question.

In reference to the specimen of a Welsh-Indian Vocabulary in Catlin's
_N.A. Indians_, which "Gomer" opposes to Prof. Elton's proposition
on this subject (No. 15. p. 236.), were the instances of similarity
to exhibit the influence of opinion, of government, or of commerce,
on the language of the tribe, the origin of such words would be as
indisputable as that of those introduced by the English into the
various countries of the East where they have factories; e.g.
governor, council, company. But these and numerous other traces of the
Celtic language which have been found in Florida and Darien are not
indicative of such impressions; most of them, from their universality,
bespeak themselves to be primitive; and who can assure us that some
may not have reached them before the twelfth century, through "Walsh
or strangers," "a race mightier than they and wiser," by whom they
may have been instructed in the arts which have excited so much

The glass beads, erroneously called Druid's beads, furnish Catlin
with another proof of affiliation, which, however, is invalidated by
the well-ascertained facts of glass-manufactories having, in remotest
antiquity, existed in Egypt, and of glass beads having been dispersed
by the Phoenicians among the nations which they visited. (See Tassie's
_Gems_, introd.--Here, by the by, are mentioned celebrated emeralds,
which have turned out to be only lumps of green glass!)

Lhuyd relates that the cross was honoured in N. America before the
arrival of the Spaniards, and Sir R. Manley (_Turk. Spy_, vol.
viii.) states that they found crucifixes also. Unfortunately for this
hypothesis, it has been shown, by G. Becanus (_Hierogl._, see Index),
Olaus Wormius (_De Danicis Monumentis_, see Index), M. Ficinus (_De
Vita coelitus Propaganda_, l. iii. c. 18.), and Kircherus (_Prodromus
Coptus_, p. 163.), that in various countries the cross was, before
the Christian era, an object of veneration, and symbolled the genius
of their religion. In the event of crucifixes having been found (for
which, however, Sir R. Manley supplies no authority) we need not be
surprised that the Christian topography was so far extended, since
the Christianity of China, between the seventh and the thirteenth
century, has been invincibly proved; and simultaneously, perhaps,
the aborigines of America received the symbol, [Greek: Eros mou
hestaurotai], which is peculiar to the Christian religion.

In conclusion, permit me to cite Southey _versus_ Catlin:--"That
country," says the author of _Madoc_ "has now been fully explored;
and wherever Madoc may have settled, it is now certain that no Welsh
Indians are to be found upon any branches of the Missouri" (Preface,
note written in 1815).

Since I wrote the above, I have met with a work, by Mr. George
Jones, entitled _The History of Ancient America anterior to the Time
of Columbus_, vol. i.: "The Tyrian AEra." In the second, not yet
published, he promises to give "The Introduction of Christianity into
the Western Hemisphere by the Apostle St. Thomas."


_Mistake in Gibbon_.--Those of your readers, who are, like myself,
occasional verifiers of references, will perhaps thank me for pointing
out a false reference, that I have just discovered in one of Gibbon's

"Capitolinus gives us the particulars of these tumultuary
votes, which were moved by one senator, and repeated, or
rather chanted, by the whole body."--_Hist. August._ p. 52.

See Gibbon's _Decline and Fall_, chap. 4, note {342} under marginal
lemma, "The memory of Commodus declared infamous."

These "tumultuary votes" are recorded, _not_ by Capitolinus, but by
AElius Lampridius, in his _Life of Commodus_. Vide _Historiae Augustae
Scriptores. AElii Lampridii Commodus Antoninus_, capita 18, 19.

Capitolinus wrote the life of his _immediate_ successor, Pertinax;
hence perhaps the mistake, "Egregio in corpore naevus!" Let those who
wish to know what passion really is, read the tiger-like yells of the
Roman senate in _Lampridius_!

C. Forbes.

Temple, Feb. 27.

_Jew's Harp_.--The late Mr. Douce always maintained that the proper
name of this instrument was the _Jaw's Harp_, and that the Jews had
no special concern with either its invention or its use.


_Havior_.--The word "havior" is probably of a hybrid character; partly
of Anglo-Saxo, and partly of British origin. If so, the first syllable
is obvious enough, "half" being generally pronounced as if the liquid
were considered an evanescent quantity, "ha'f, heif, hav'," &c., and
"iwrch" is the British word for a roe-buck. Dropping the guttural
termination, therefore, and writing "ior" instead of "iwrch," we
have the significant designation of the animal described by Lord
Braybrooke, whose flesh, like that of the capon, may afford a
convenient variety among the delicacies of the season, if well cooked
according to the recondite mysteries of the gastronomic art.


Trinity College, Oxford, Feb 14.

N.B. "Heifer" has already been explained as "heif-ker, half-cre,"
A.-S., "anner," Br.

_Haviour, Haver, Hyfr_ (No. 15. p. 230, and No. 17. p. 269.).--If I
may throw out a question where I cannot give an explanation, I would
ask, are we not approaching very near to the word "heifer" (from the
Saxon) in these, but especially in the last of the above terms? They
seem to me to be identical. The introduction of the sound of _y_
between the sounds of _v_ and _ur_, is not uncommon in the vernacular
or corrupted pronunciation of many words; nay, it is sanctioned by
general usage, in "behaviour" from "behave," "Saviour" from "save,"
&c. If the words are identical, still the history of the appropriation
of the one to male animals of the class described, and of the other to
females, must be curious and worth investigating. May not the _aver_
and _averium_, like _irreplegibilia_ and other barbarous law terms, be
framed (rather than derived) from one of our English terms, as well as
from the French _avoir_?


_America known to the Ancients_.--I have a note of the following
references, as illustrating the passage quoted by "C." (No. 7. p.
107.), and countenancing the idea that the existence of America was
at least suspected by the ancients. As I have not had an opportunity
of consulting the authorities myself, I cannot tell how far they may
affect the point in question; and I fear the references are not as
accurate as might be wished, but I shall be truly glad if they prove
at all useful:--Diodorus Siculus, _Bibl._ lib. iv. pp. 299, 300 edit.
Rhodoman; Apuleius, _De Mund. Oper._ vol. ii. p. 122.; _Avitus in
Senec. Suasor._; Horn, _De Origin. Americ._ lib. i. c. 10. p. 57.

G. William Skyring.

_Error in Meyrick's Ancient Armour_ (No. 17. p. 266.).--In the second
edition of Meyrick's _Armour_, the error pointed out by Mr. Hudson
Turner has not been corrected. The passage is, "Item a gamboised coat
with a rough surface of gold embroidered on the nap of the cloth;" and
with the note, "Like a thicket."


_Nomade_.--The last Indian mails brought me the following derivation
of the word _Nomade_, in a letter from a friend, who was, when he
wrote, leading a nomade life among the Ryots of Guzerat:--

"Camp, Kulpore, Jan. 30. 1850.

"The natives use [for their tents] a sort of woollen stuff,
about half an inch thick, called 'numbda.' * * * * * * By the
bye, this word 'numbda' is said to be the origin of the word
_nomade_, because the nomade tribes used the same material for
their tents. When I was at school, I used to learn _nomde_,
from [Greek: nemo]."


* * * * *


A view of the Exhibition of the Works of Ancient and Mediaeval Art has
convinced us that fame had done no more than justice to its merits and
interest. We dare not attempt to enumerate one tithe of the gems in
Glass, Enamel, Metalwork, Carving in Wood and Ivory, Porcelain, &c.,
now gathered together in the Adelphi to justify the enthusiasm of the
antiquary, and to show, in the words of Marlowe,

"Oh! what a world of profit and delight,
Of power, of honour, of omnipotence,
Is promis'd to the studious artizan?"

and how small, after all, is our boasted advance. We must therefore
be content with recommending our readers to visit, again and again,
this matchless collection. Mr. Hailstone, the originator of the
exhibition, must be highly gratified at the manner in which, thanks
to the liberality of the owners, and the zeal and good taste of the
committee, his idea has been carried out. If, too, at this time, when
there is so much unemployed labour among us, this exhibition should
have the {343} effect of creating a demand for articles which can be
produced by the hand and mind of a skilful workman only, and not by
machinery, however costly and elaborate, an enormous benefit, beyond
that originally contemplated, must result from the exhibition--namely,
that of supplying fresh fields for the labour and ingenuity of our

It is with great satisfaction that we are enabled to announce that
there is at length a prospect of our seeing the monument which
Nicholas Brigham erected, in Poet's Corner, to the memory of Geoffrey
Chaucer properly restored. Arrangements are making for collecting
subscriptions for that purpose, to be limited to five shillings each,
that more may have the pleasure of assisting in the good work. We hope
to give further particulars of this right and necessary step in the
course of a week or two.

We have received John Petheram's (94. High Holborn) Catalogue of Old
and New Books, No. 109., being No. 3. for 1850;--from Thomas Cole (15.
Great Turnstile, Holborn) his Catalogue of Cheap Books, No. 25.; and
from John Russell Smith, (4. Old Compton Street, Soho) Part 2. for
1850 of his Catalogue of Choice, Useful, and Curious Books. We have
also received from Messrs. Puttick and Simpson, of 191. Piccadilly,
a Catalogue of a Six-Days' Sale of Miscellaneous Books, chiefly
Theological and Classical, but comprising also much General
Literature, which commences this day (Saturday).

* * * * *




Caussinus, Nicolas, De Symbolica AEgyptiorum Sapentia. Caussinus,
Polyhistor Symbolicus.

_Odd Volume and Plate_.

Hutchins' Dorset, 2nd Edition, 1803, Vol. II. Horsley's Britannia
Romana, The Map which faces page 1.

***Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_,
to be sent to Mr. Bell, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186 Fleet

* * * * *


DISS.--The sanction of the authorities was first duly obtained in the
matter to which our correspondent refers.

A.G.'s hint will not be lost sight of.

The present Number will, we trust, furnish a satisfactory reply to our
correspondent at Godalming.

_Notes and Queries_ may be procured of any Bookseller or Newsman
if previously ordered. Gentlemen residing in the country, who may
find a difficulty in procuring it through any bookseller in the
neighbourhood, may be supplied regularly with the _stamped_ edition,
by giving their orders direct to the publisher, Mr. George Bell, 186.
Fleet Street, accompanied by a Post Office order, for a quarter (4s.
4d.); a half year (8s. 8d.); or one year (17s. 4d.)

Notes and Queries may also be procured in Monthly Parts at the end
of each month, Part I. price 1s., Part II., price 1s. 3d., have been
reprinted, and may now be had, together with Parts III, price 1s., and
Part IV., price 1s. Part V., price 1s., will be ready next week.

* * * * *

Post 8vo. Cloth, 10s. 6d.

THE HISTORY OF JUNIUS AND HIS WORKS, and a Review of the Controversy
respecting Junius, with an Appendix, containing Portraits and
Sketches, by Junius, selected from the Letters. By John Jaques.

"This is a very able book; well arranged in its plan, and
complete in its matter. To those who are interested in the
controversy, or even to any readers of Junius who wish for
further information than the common editions furnish, we
strongly recommend this volume. They will find it full,
without being overcharged; and it possesses an advantage
even over Woodfall's edition, in only containing what is
essential to the point, besides exhibiting much which does not
appear in that elaborate publication. The 'History of Junius
and his Works' is an essential companion to the 'Letters of
Junius.'"--_Spectator_, March 4, 1843.

London: George Bell, 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

In One Volume, square crown 8vo. price 18s. cloth.


Edited by Mr. Southey's Son-in-Law, the Rev. John Wood Warter,
B.D. Second Series, being SPECIAL COLLECTIONS, and forming a Volume
complete in itself.

"This volume [SPECIAL COLLECTIONS] is a monument of industry
such as few could pile, and affords striking evidence of the
indomitable perseverance and varied learning of Southey....
The oftener we dip into these massive pages, the profounder
grows our surprise that such a mass of information could
have been thrown together by one man.... It is just the book
to dive into for the spare half hour, assured of finding
amusement and information in every page.... The index is so
ample and well arranged, that any particular paragraph may be
turned to without difficulty. Altogether it is a massive and
elegant volume, got up without regard to expense, and as well
adapted for the shelves of the mechanic's library, as for the
study-table of the literary man."--_Eclectic Review_.

Also a New Edition, in One Volume, price 18s.

with "Collections for the History of English Manners and Literature,"
and forming a Volume complete in itself.

London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans.

* * * * *

In the Press and will be published immediately, in 1 vol. 8vo.
Illustrated with a Map of the town in 1763, and Engravings by Basire,
Le Keux, Hunter, and Childs, from Drawings by the late Richard
Stileman, Esq., Buck, Blore, Hooper, S. Prout, T. Ross, Stephens, and
A.D. Gough, and Woodcuts of Arms and Seals. Price, to subscribers, 5s.


(Ancient and Modern,) in the County of Sussex, by William Durrant
Cooper, F.S.A.

Subscribers' names will be received by the Publishers, John Russell
Smith, 4. Old Compton Street, Soho, London; and Henry Osborne, 55.
George Street, Hastings.

* * * * *

Early Antiquities of England Illustrated.


By J.J.A. Worsaae, M.R.S.A., of Copenhagen. Translated and applied to
the Illustration of similar Remains in England, by William J. Thoms,
Esq., F.S.A., Secretary of the Camden Society. Illustrated with
numerous Woodcuts. 8vo. 10s. 6d.

"This is the best antiquarian handbook we have ever met
with--so clear is its arrangement, and so well and so plainly
is each subject illustrated by well-executed engravings,
that confusion for the future is impossible upon a variety of
points on which the most grievous mistakes have hitherto been
made by anxious and zealous antiquarians. * * * It is the
joint production of two men who have already distinguished
themselves as authors and antiquarians. It is a book of which
it may be said, that in every sentence is to be found an
interesting fact, and that every page teems with instructions,
and may be regarded as a sure guide to all antiquarians in
their future archaeological inquiries."--_Morning Herald_.

See also _Gentleman's Magazine_ for February, 1850.

John Henry Parker, Oxford, and 377. Strand, London.

* * * * *{344}


from highly-finished Drawings of ORIGINAL PICTURES, existing in
various Galleries and Family Collections throughout the country, made
with scrupulous accuracy by Mr. G.P. Harding; the greater portion
never having been previously engraved.

M.M. HOLLOWAY, having purchased the whole of the impressions and
plates, now offers the Sets in a Folio Volume, bound in cloth, and
including Biographical Letter-press to each subject, at the greatly
reduced price of L2 12s. 6d., and L4 4s. 0d. for Proofs before
Letters, of which but 18 copies remain.

The Collection consists of the following Portraits:

KING HENRY VIII. and the EMPEROR CHARLES V., from the Original,
formerly in the Strawberry Hill Gallery.

QUEEN KATHARINE OF ARRAGON, from a Miniature by Holbein, in the
possession of the Duke of Buccleugh.

SIR ANTHONY BROWNE, K.G., from the Original in the possession of
Thomas Baylis, Esq., F.S.A.

ANTHONY BROWNE, VISCOUNT MONTAGUE, K.G., from the Collection of the
Marquess of Exeter.

EDWARD VERE, EARL OF OXFORD, from the Original Picture in the
Collection of the Duke of Portland.

the Original Picture in the Collection of the Duke of Bedford.

possession of the Earl of Clarendon.

from the Original Miniature by Peter Oliver.

by Vansomer, formerly in the Strawberry Hill Collection.

Miniature by N. Hilliard, in the possession of Lord De l'Isle and

a Miniature by J. Cooper, in the possession of R.S. Holford, Esq.

the Collection of F. Vernon Wentworth, Esq.

SIR THOMAS BROWNE, M.D., of NORWICH, from an Original Picture in the
College of Physicians, London.

and WILLIAM III., from the Original Picture in the Barber-Surgeons'

FLORA MACDONALD, from the Original by A. Ramsay, 1749, in the Picture
Gallery, Oxford.

M.M. Holloway, 25. Bedford Street, Covent Garden.

* * * * *

Armorial Bearings of the Sovereigns of England, and parallel Tables
of the most important events in British and General History; with an
Explanatory Volume. By Archibald Barrington. Price, Four sheets, in
wrapper, 15s. In French case, or on roller, 21s. Roller, varnished,
26s. Volume of Plain Hints, 4s. in addition.

"A most splendid and elaborate Chart or Scheme, illustrated
with numerous coloured engravings, presenting a synoptical
view of the subjects in the title. A glance or two at such
a plan will sometimes give a truer, a larger, and certainly
a more vivid idea of the subject, than many pages of
reading."--_British Critic_.

POCKET CHART OF BRITISH ARCHITECTURE chronologically arranged, neatly
printed in red and black, and containing seventy-five figures, with
a Descriptive Manual. By Archibald Barrington. Price, on sheet, with
Manual, 2s. In cloth, with Manual, 3s.

above, in red and black, with a Descriptive Manual. By Archibald
Barrington. Price, on sheet, with Manual, 2s. In cloth case, with
Manual, 3s.

DISPLAY of HERALDRY, presenting at one view an Epitome of the Science,
with Descriptive Letter-press. By Archibald Barrington. Price, on
sheet, partly coloured, 8s. In case, or on roller, ditto, 10s. 6d.
On roller, varnished, 12s. 6d. Fully coloured, 4s. 6d. extra.

by which the dates of our Cathedral and other Churches may be easily
known. By Archibald Barrington. Price, with the Manual, on sheet,
4s. In case, 5s. On roller, 7s. 6d. On roller, varnished, 8s. 6d.
The Manual, by itself, 1s.

"By the aid of this little pamphlet, and the 'Tabular Display'
which it accompanies, any person previously unacquainted with
architecture may learn to discriminate the various styles
and dates of Gothic structures. The examples are sufficiently
numerous and characteristic to embrace the peculiarities
of each style, and the text referring to them supplies the
requisite verbal information."--_Spectator_.

an Explanatory Volume, entitled, "Genealogy Simplified, and applied to
the Illustration of British History." By Archibald Barrington. Price
of the sheet, coloured, 6s. In case, or on roller, 9s. Varnished, 11s.
The Explanatory Volume of Genealogy Simplified, 3s. in addition.

"A very clear explanation of the origin and meaning of the
various heraldic devices of British Monarchs, and exhibiting
the lineal descent of Queen Victoria from the Saxon Egbert.
The Chart is set forth in bold characters, and not encumbered
with superfluous details. The source of each line of monarchs
and the events that led to the interruption of the succession
are explained with such simplicity as to be perfectly
intelligible to the youngest readers."--_Spectator_.

London: George Bell, 186. Fleet Street.

* * * * *

Printed by Thomas Clark Shaw, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5.
New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London;
and published by George Bell, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish
of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No.
186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, March 23. 1850.


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