Observations on the Mussulmauns of India
Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali

Part 9 out of 10

[2] For cases of witches sucking out the vitals of their victims, see
W. Crooke, _Popular Religion and Folklore of N. India_, ii. 268 ff.

[3] _Mazdurni_, a day labourer.

[4] On the efficacy of shaving or plucking out hair from a witch in order
to make her incapable of bewitching people, see W. Crooke, _Popular
Religion and Folklore of N. India_[2], ii. 250 f.

[5] _Mantra_.

[6] _Ta'wiz_, see p. 214.


Memoir of the life of Meer Hadjee Shah.--His descent.--Anecdote of a
youthful exploit.--His predilection for the army.--Leaves his home to
join the army of a neighbouring Rajah.--Adventures on the way.--Is
favourably received and fostered by the Rajah.--His first pilgrimage
to Mecca.--Occurrences during his stay in Arabia.--Description of a
tiger-hunt.--Detail of events during his subsequent pilgrimages.--The
plague.--Seizure by pirates.--Sketch of the life of Fatima, an
Arabian lady.--Relieved from slavery by Meer Hadjee Shah.--He marries
her.--Observations on the piety of his life.--Concluding
remarks...Page 400

The name of Meer Hadjee Shah has so often occurred in my Letters, that I
feel persuaded a brief sketch of his life may be acceptable here, more
particularly as that venerated man presented to my immediate observation a
correct picture of the true Mussulmaun. I can only regret my inability to
do justice to the bright character of my revered father-in-law, whose
conduct as a devout and obedient servant to his Maker, ruled his actions
in every situation of life, and to whom my debt of gratitude is boundless,
not alone for the affectionate solicitude invariably manifested for my
temporal comforts, but for an example of holy living, which influences
more than precept. This much valued friend of mine was the mouth of wisdom
to all with whom he conversed, for even when intending to amuse by
anecdotes, of which his fund was inexhaustible, there was always a moral
and religious precept attached to the relation, by which to benefit his
auditor, whilst he riveted attention by his gentle manners and
well-selected form of words.

Before we met, I had often heard him described by his dutiful son, but
with all that affection had prompted him to say of his father, I was not
prepared to expect the dignified person I found him,--a perfect model of
the patriarchs of old to my imagination, nor could I ever look at him
through our years of intimacy, without associating him in my mind with
Abraham, the father of his people.

His form was finely moulded, his height above six feet, his person erect,
even in age, his fine cast of countenance beamed with benevolence and
piety, and his dark eye either filled with tears of sympathy or
brightening with joy, expressed both superior intelligence and intensity
of feeling. His venerable flowing beard gave a commanding majesty to the
figure before me, whilst his manners were graceful as the most polished
even of European society. Raising his full eyes in pious thankfulness to
God (whose mercy had thus filled his cup of earthly happiness to the brim),
he embraced us both with a warmth of pressure to his throbbing heart, that
pronounced more than his words, the sincerity of our welcome. Never have I
forgotten the moment of our meeting. The first impression lasted through
our long acquaintance, for he proved indeed a real solace during my
pilgrimage in a strange land.

The subject of my present Letter, Meer Mahumud Hadjee Shah, was a native
of Loodeeanah,[1] the capital city of the Punjaab territory, so called
from the five rivers which water that tract of country, and derived from
punje (five), aab (water). He descended through a long line of pure Syaad
blood, from Mahumud, many of his ancestors having been remarkable for
their holy lives, and his grandsire in particular, a singularly devout
Durweish, of whom are related in the family many interesting incidents and
extraordinary escapes from peril which distinguished him as a
highly-favoured mortal. On one occasion, when attacked by a ravenous tiger,
his single blow with a sabre severed the head from the carcase: the sabre
is still retained in the family with veneration, as the instrument by
which the power and goodness of God was manifested to their sire.

The father of Meer Hadjee Shah was a Kauzy (Judge) of the city of
Loodeeanah, a man greatly admired for his extensive knowledge of the
Mahumudan law, respected for his general worthiness, and venerated for his
holy life. He had a large family, of whom the subject before me was the
eldest son; his father designed to instruct and prepare him as his
successor in the same honourable employment, whenever old age or
infirmities should render his own retirement from the office necessary.
But,--as the son always regretted when talking over the circumstance, with
becoming remorse that his mind was differently swayed,--through an
enterprising spirit he preferred the adventurous to the more sober calling
for which his father had originally destined him.

To illustrate the temper of his youth, his often repeated anecdote of an
event which occurred when he was but twelve years old may here be

'After our hours of study, boys of my own age were allowed to meet
together for exercise and amusement, without the controlling presence of
our Maulvees (tutors). Many an enterprising feat had been performed during
our hours of play, but none that has impressed me with so keen a
remembrance of my youthful follies as the one I am about to relate. We had
long observed the wild pigeons, which owned not any earthly master, take
refuge for the night in an old and dilapidated well outside the town; a
plan was laid between my companions and myself to possess ourselves of
some of these pigeons, and one evening we assembled by agreement to put
our project in force.

'A strong rope was procured, to which we fastened a piece of board, so as
to form a seat; a bag was provided, into which the game was to be
deposited as fast as it was caught; and a thick stick, with which to
ascertain in the holes the situation of each pigeon, which was to be
seized by the neck when thus discovered. Everything was arranged when,
"Who will be lowered first?" was inquired by the head of our party. Meer
Mahumud was not a little pleased when it was suggested, that he was the
bravest boy among them; and with a proud feeling of ecstasy my young heart
bounded whilst I seated myself on the board and was lowered from the
summit for several yards down the well, my young companions holding fast
the rope outside from which I was suspended; the bag conveniently slung
across my left shoulder, with the open mouth in front, to enable me to
deposit my gleanings without delay.

'I had collected several pigeons in this way; and, at last, my stick was
presented to search in a new aperture, where it seemed to be resisted by
something more than the soft feathers of a bird; fearless as I was, my
young hand was thrust into the hole, and I caught at something with a firm
grasp, which at once convinced me could not be a pigeon; but I resolved
not to part from my prize very readily, and drawing my hand and arm from
the hole with great difficulty (putting all my youthful strength and
energy to the task), I discovered my prize was a living snake of rather a
large size.

'Fearful to announce the nature of my present prisoner to the youngsters,
at whose mercy I then was, lest they, through terror, should let the rope
go, and thus precipitate me to the bottom of the well, I called out, "Draw
up! draw up quickly! delay not, brothers!" and I was soon brought to the
mouth of the well with the snake coiled round my arm, and firmly grasped
just under the head, so that it could not extricate itself or injure me.
The boys soon assisted me off the top of the well, and brought pieces of
stone, with which they bruised the snake's head until I was relieved from
its pressure on my arm by its death. I should remark, that I had presence
of mind to rub the head against the wall on my ascent, which had
considerably lessened the snake's pressure on my arm, and I believe it was
more than half dead before I had reached the top.

'My arm pained me dreadfully, but still my greatest agony was for fear my
father should hear of my exploit, which I felt convinced would not only
excite his present anger, but be the means of preventing my having another
opportunity of enjoying the society and amusements of my young companions.
Strict secrecy was therefore enjoined by my command upon the whole party;
and returning to my home, I thought to disguise my real feelings by
seeking repose instead of the evening dinner which was prepared for me. My
affectionate mother had no suspicion that I was ill, although she was much
distressed that play had destroyed the appetite of her son. I had dozed
for some hours, when the agony of my arm awoke me as from an uneasy dream;
I could hardly recollect the last evening's adventure, for my mind seemed
much bewildered. My groans, however, brought my mother to my bed-side,
whose tender care was exercised in fomenting my arm, which she found much
swollen and inflamed.

'The secret of my enterprize was never divulged by me until the news of my
sudden illness was reported in the neighbourhood; when some of my young
friends told the tale, and it was conveyed by one of the gossiping old
women, of the city to the zeenahnah of my mother. My arm was for a long
period rendered useless, and I was under the care of doctors for many
months; the whole skin peeled off, and left me cause for remembering the
circumstance, although it did not cure me of that preference for
enterprize, which afterwards drew me from my home to visit other places,
and to search for new adventures. Often did I remonstrate with my father
on the subject of my future profession: how often did I declare my
disinclination to pursue those studies (deemed essential to fit me for the
office I was in due time to be appointed to), and avow my predilection for
a military life!'

At that period of Indian History, the Punjaab district was disturbed by
the depredations of the Mahrattas.[2] Hordes of those lawless banditti
were in the habit of frequent encroachments on the Mussulmaun possessions,
committing frightful enormities in their predatory excursions against
towns and villages, spreading terror and desolation wherever they
approached. On this account military ardour was encouraged by the heads of
families, and the youth of respectable Mussulmauns were duly instructed in
the use of defensive weapons, as a measure of prudence by which they were
enabled, whenever called upon, to defend the lives and property of their
neighbours as well as of their individual families.

In describing this period of his life, I have often heard Meer Hadjee Shah
confess with remorse, that he was wont to pay far greater attention to his
military instructors than to the Maulvee's lectures on law or other dry
subjects of books, as he then often thought them, and at fourteen years
old he was perfect master of the sabre, spear, matchlock, and the bow;
able even then to defend himself against an enemy, or take the palm of
victory, when practising those arts with the youth of his own standing.

At seventeen, his love of enterprize drew him from the calm study of his
tutors under the parental roof, to seek amongst strangers employment
better suited to his inclination. His early adventures were attended with
many vicissitudes and trials, which would (however interesting to those
who have loved him) appear tedious to the general reader; I shall,
therefore, but digress occasionally with such anecdotes as maybe generally
interesting. One which presents him in the early part of his career
amongst strangers in a position which marks the bravery of his youth, I
shall take the liberty of introducing in his own words:--

'After a good night's repose, I was desirous of pursuing my march, and
prepared to take leave of my hospitable entertainer (a Kauzy of the
village), from whom I had received the utmost attention and civility. This
kind-hearted man was unwilling to allow of my journeying alone, and
insisted that two of his menservants should accompany me that day's march
at least. I had no fears, nor much to lose beside my life, and for some
time resisted the offer, but without avail. The men therefore accompanied
me, and after six hours' walk, I prevailed on them to take refreshment and
rest at the serai of the village, through which we had to pass, with leave
to retrace their way home afterwards with my duty to their master.

'Released from their guardianship, I felt my own independence revive, and
bounded on as lively as the antelope, full of hope that I might yet reach
the Rajah's territory by nightfall, who, I had heard, was willing to give
employment to the enterprising youth of Loodeeanah, in the army he was
then raising. I must have walked since the morning near twenty koss (forty
miles) without food or water; but I neither felt hunger nor fatigue, so
deeply was my heart engaged in the prospect of a military life. At length
hunger awakened me to a sense of my forlorn condition, for I had left home
without a coin in my possession; and although I passed through many
inhabited villages where relief would have been gladly tendered, if I had
only applied for it, yet my pride forbade the humble words of supplicating
for a meal; hungry as I was, death even would have been preferable at that
time to breathing out a want amongst strangers.

'I was overjoyed on approaching a cultivated tract of country to find a
field of wheat, ripe for the harvest, evincing the great Creator's
bountiful hand, and hesitated not, without a scruple, to possess myself of
an occasional handful as I passed along, rubbing the ears and eating as I
went, to save that time I deemed so precious; for my anxiety to reach the
Rajah and employment, increased as the day advanced. I had traversed near
thirty koss on foot, scarcely having halted since the dawning day; this to
a young man who had been through life indulged by the luxury of a horse
for exercise, whilst under the parental roof, may be imagined to have been
no trifling undertaking. But buoyant youth, filled with hopes of honour
and preferment is regardless of those difficulties which must subdue the
indolent or less aspiring spirit.

'At the extremity of a large field through which I had to pass, my eye
rested on a man with two oxen, certain indications, I imagined, of a well
of water being adjacent for the purpose of irrigation, towards whom I
approached sufficiently near to inquire if a draught of pure water could
be obtained for a thirsty traveller. The sturdy farmer-looking man seemed
to view me with scrutiny, without deigning to reply; my question was
repeated with civility, but no answer was given, and I then fancied his
looks foreboded no good meaning; he held in his hand a large heavy stick
studded at the top with iron rings (in common use with the lower orders of
people as a weapon of defence against robbers, tigers, wolves, or
reptiles), but as I stood far enough off to be out of immediate danger of
a sudden attack, if such was premeditated, the surly look of his
countenance gave me little concern until he called out in a commanding
tone, "Youngster! off with your garments; lay down those bow and arrows
instantly, or I will fell you to the earth with this staff that is in my
hand!" which he raised in a position to prove himself in earnest.

'My surprise was great, but it did not put me off my guard, and I replied
with courage, that his insolent demand would not meet with a willing
compliance; I was able to defend myself, young as I was, against his
treacherous intentions on an unoffending traveller; and I prepared my bow
in the expectation that he would either be deterred, or leave me no
alternative but to use it in self-defence. Two arrows were promptly
prepared, one placed in my bow, the other in my girdle, as he advanced
repeating his demand, with the countenance of a ruffian, and his club
elevated; he no doubt fancied that the bow was a plaything in the hand of
a mere ignorant stripling. I warned him repeatedly not to advance, or my
bow should teach him that my young arm was well instructed.

'He however dared my vengeance, and advanced still nearer, when seeing I
had no alternative, I aimed at his legs, not desiring to revenge but to
deter my enemy; the arrow entered his thigh, passing completely through:
he was astonished and stood like a statue. I then desired him to throw
down his club, with which I walked away, or rather ran a sufficient
distance to relieve myself from further expectation of annoyances from my
enemy or the villagers.

'Much time had been spent in that contest, which had left me the victor; I
waited not however to witness his further movements, but with hastened
steps in half an hour I reached the Rajah's palace. Several soldiers were
guarding outside the gate, where stood, as is usual, charpoys for their
use, on one of which, uninvited, I seated myself, fatigued by my long and
unusual exercise. The men with great civility offered me water and their
hookha, and when refreshed I answered their many inquiries, founded very
naturally on my appearance, my youth, and travelling without an attendant.

'I frankly told them that the Rajah's famed liberality had drawn me from
Loodeeanah to seek employment as a soldier under his command. One of my
new acquaintance recommended my immediately going into the palace, where
the Rajah was seated in Durbar (holding his Court) for the express purpose
of receiving applicants for the army now raising, under the expectation of
a hostile visit from the Sikhs. I followed my guide through several
avenues and courts until we arrived at the Baarah Daree[3] (twelve doors),
or state apartments.'

I must, however, here abstain from following Meer Hadjee Shah through the
whole detail of his intimacy with the Rajah, which continued for some
years, and by whom he was fostered as a favourite son; he accompanied the
Rajah to the field against the Sikhs, whose singular habits and manners,
both in battle and in their domestic circle, he has often amused his
friends by relating.

His first pilgrimage to Mecca was undertaken whilst a very young man,
travelling the whole way by land, and enduring many trials and hardships
in what he deemed 'The road of God'. On one occasion he was beset by
wolves whilst on foot; but as he always confessed his preservation was by
the power and goodness of Divine Providence, so in the present instance
the wolves even ran from the blows of his staff, howling to their dens.

During his stay in Arabia, when on his pilgrimage, his funds were
exhausted, and he had no knowledge of a single individual from whom he
could condescend to borrow, but as he always put his sole trust in God, a
way was made for his returning prosperity in rather a singular and
unexpected manner.

A rich Begum, the widow of a wealthy Arab merchant, had long suffered from
a severe illness, and had tried every medical prescription within her
reach without relief. On a certain night she dreamed that a Syaad pilgrim
from India, who had taken up his abode at the serai outside the town,
possessed a medicine which would restore her to health. She had faith in
her dream, and sent a polite message to the Syaad, who was described
minutely by the particulars of her dream. Meer Hadjee Shah attended the
summons, but assured the lady who conversed with him, that he was not
acquainted with medicine; true, he had a simple preparation, which enabled
him to benefit a fellow pilgrim, when by circumstances no better adviser
could be found: he then offered her the powder, giving directions how to
use it, and left her. In the evening a handsome dinner was conveyed by
this lady's orders to Meer Hadjee Shah, which he accepted with gratitude
to God, and for several days this was repeated, proving a sensible benefit
to him, and to others equally destitute of the means of present provision,
who were abiding at the serai.

In the course of a week he was again summoned to attend the Begum, who was
entirely cured of her long illness, which she attributed solely to the
medicine he had left with her, and she now desired to prove her gratitude
by a pecuniary compensation. He was too much gratified at the efficacy of
his simple remedy, to require further recompense than the opportunity he
had enjoyed of rendering himself useful to a fellow-creature, and would
have refused the reward tendered, but the lady had resolved not to be
outdone in generosity; and finding how he was circumstanced by another
channel, she made so many earnest appeals, that he at last consented to
accept as much as would defray his expenses for the journey to the next
place he was on the point of embarking for, where he expected to meet with
his Indian friends, and a supply of cash.

On one occasion, he was exposed to danger from a tiger, but, to use his
own words, 'as my trust was placed faithfully in God, so was I preserved
by Divine favour'. The anecdote relative to that event, I cannot pass over,
and therefore I relate it, as near as I recollect, in his own words:--'I
was at Lucknow during the reign of the Nuwaub, Shujah ood Dowlah,[4] who
delighted much in field sports; on one occasion it was announced that he
intended to hunt tigers, and orders were issued to the nobility and his
courtiers, requiring their attendance on elephants, to accompany him on a
certain day. The preparations were made on a grand scale, and excited a
lively interest throughout the city. I had never been present at a tiger
hunt, and I felt my usual ambition to share in the adventures of that day
too irresistible to be conquered by suggestions of prudence; and
accordingly I went, on horseback, accompanied by a friend about my own age,
falling into the rear of the Nuwaub's cavalcade which was far more
splendid than any thing I had before witnessed, the train of elephants
richly caparisoned, on which were seated in their gold or silver howdahs,
the whole strength of the Court in rich dresses.

'The hunting party had penetrated the jungle a considerable distance
before a single trace of a tiger could be discovered, when, at length it
was announced to the Nuwaub that the sheekaarees[5] (huntsmen) had reason
to believe one at least was concealed in the high grass near which the
party approached. The order was then given to loosen the led buffaloes,
and drive them towards the grass which concealed the game, a practice at
that time common with Native sportsmen to rouse the ferocious animal, or
to attract him, if hungry, from his lurking place; but it seemed as if the
buffaloes were scared by the number of elephants, for with all the goading
and whipping, which was dealt to them unsparingly, they could not be
pressed into the service for which they were provided.

'The Nuwaub was remarkable for bravery, and prided himself on his
successful shot; he therefore caused his elephant to advance to the edge
of the high grass, that he might have the satisfaction of the first fire,
when the animal should be roused. Some delay in this, induced the Nuwaub
to order the dunkah-wallah (kettle-drummer) on horseback to be guarded on
each side by soldiers with drawn sabres, to advance in front and beat his
drums. The first sounds of the dunkah roused the tiger: this being
instantly perceived, the horsemen wheeled round, and were in a second or
two cleared from danger. The tiger sprang towards the elephant, but was
instantly thrown back by her trunk to a good distance, the Nuwaub taking
aim at the same instant, fired and slightly wounded the animal, only
however sufficiently to add to its former rage.

'My friend and myself were at this time (attracted by our eagerness to
witness the sports) not many paces from the spot, when perceiving our
dangerous position, retreat was the thought of the moment with us both: my
friend's horse obeyed the signal, but mine was petrified by fear; no
statue ever stood more mute and immoveable; for a second I gave myself up
for lost, but again my heart was lifted up to the only Power whence safety
proceeds, and drawing my sabre as the tiger was springing towards me (the
same sabre which had been the instrument of safety to my grandsire in a
like danger) as my arm was raised to level the blow, the animal curved his
spring as if in fear of the weapon, brushed close to my horse's nose, and
then stuck its sharp talons in the neck of another horse on which a
Pattaan soldier was seated: his horse plunged, kicked, threw his rider on
the ground with a violence that left him senseless, his open sabre falling
on the handle, which, like a miracle, was forced into the earth leaving
the point upwards in a slanting position, just clearing his neck by a few

'The tiger turned on the man with fury and wide-extended jaw, but was met
by the sabre point, and the Pattaan's red turban, which fell at the
instant; the tiger endeavouring to extricate himself from the entanglement,
the sabre entered deeper through his jaw, from which he had but just
released himself, when a ball from the Nuwaub's rifle entered his side and
he slank into the grass, where he was followed and soon dispatched.'

In his travels Meer Hadjee Shah had often been exposed to the dangerous
consequences of the plague; but (as he declares), he was always preserved
from the contagion through the same protecting care of Divine Providence
which had followed him throughout his life. He has been often in the very
cities where it raged with awful violence, yet neither himself nor those
who were of his party, were ever attacked by that scourge. On one occasion,
he was, with a large party of pilgrims, halting for several days together
at a place called Bundah Kungoon[6] (the word Bundah implies the
sea-shore), preparatory to commencing their projected journey to Shiraaz;
he relates, that the mules and camels were provided, and even the day fixed
for their march; but, in consequence of a dream he had been visited with,
he was resolved to change his course, even should his fellow-travellers
determine on pursuing their first plan, and thereby leave him to journey
alone in an opposite direction.

He made his new resolution known to the pilgrims, and imparted to them the
dream, viz., 'Go not to Shiraaz, where thou shalt not find profit or
pleasure, but bend thy steps towards Kraabaallah. His companions laughed
at his wild scheme, and as their minds were fixed on Shiraaz, they would
have persuaded Meer Hadjee Shah to accompany them; but, no, his dream
prevailed over every other argument, and he set out accompanied by two
poor Syaads and fifteen mendicant pilgrims, embarking at Kungoon on a
small vessel for Bushire, which by a favourable wind they reached on the
third day. Here they first learned the distressing intelligence that the
plague had raged with frightful consequences to the population; and during
their few days' sojourn at Busserah, he says, many victims fell by that
awful visitation. The city itself was in sad disorder, business entirely
suspended, and many of the richer inhabitants had fled from the scene of
terror and dismay. No accommodation for travellers within his means could
be procured by Meer Hadjee Shah, and he was constrained to set out on foot
with his companions, after providing themselves with provisions for a few

Unused to walk any great distance of late, and the effects of the short
voyage not being entirely removed, he grew weary ere the first day's march
was ended; 'But here', he says, 'I found how kind my Creator was to me,
who put it into the hearts of my companions to take it by turns to carry
me, until we arrived within sight of Feringhee Bargh[7] (Foreigners'
Garden), where we found many of the healthy inhabitants from Bushire had,
with permission, taken refuge, some in tents, others without a shelter;
and in their haste to flee from danger, had forsaken all their possessions,
and neglected provision for present comfort; a change of garments even had
been forgotten in their haste to escape from the pestilential city.

'Never', he says, 'shall I forget the confusion presented at this place
nor the clamorous demands upon us, whom they esteemed religious men, for
our prayers and intercessions that the scourge might be removed from them.
I could not help thinking and expressing also, "How ready weak mortals are
to supplicate for God's help when death or affliction approaches their
threshold, who in prosperity either forget Him entirely or neglect to seek
Him or to obey His just commands."

'The next day our march led us to the vicinity of a large populated town.
We halted near a plantation of date-trees, and one of our mendicant
pilgrims was dispatched with money to purchase bread and dates for our
sustenance, with instructions to conceal, if possible, our numbers and our
halting-place, fearing that the inhabitants might assail us with stones if
it were suspected that we came from the infected city. The quantity of
food, however, required for so large a party excited suspicion, but our
preservation was again secured by Divine interference.

'A Dirzy[9] from the city visited our resting-place, and finding we were
pilgrims, asked permission to travel with us to Kraabaallah, which was
readily agreed to, and when a host of men were observed issuing from the
town, this man, who was an inhabitant, ran towards them, explained that we
were all healthy men, and interested several Arab-Syaads to come forward
and befriend me and my party, which they readily assented to on finding
that brother Syaads were in danger. The Kauzy of the town hearing all the
particulars attending us, came to the spot which we had selected for our
halt, presented his nuzza of twenty-one dinars to me, entreated pardon for
the intended assault he had in ignorance authorized, obliged me to accept
his proffered civilities, and we remained several days in the enjoyment of
hospitality in that town, where we had at first such strong reasons to
anticipate violence and persecution; but this could not be whilst the arm
of the Lord was raised to shelter His confiding servants. To Him be the
praise and the glory for every preservation I have been favoured with! and
many were the perils with which I was surrounded in my walk through life,
yet, always safely brought through them, because I never failed putting my
trust in His mercy and protection who alone could defend me.'

On one occasion of his pilgrimage to Mecca, Meer Hadjee Shah, with all his
companions on board a trading ship, off the coast of Arabia, were attacked
by pirates, and taken prisoners; but, as he always declared, the goodness
of Divine Providence again preserved him and those with him from the hands
of their enemies. In the event in question, he undertook to speak for all
his party to the Arab chief, before whom they were taken prisoners, and
having a thorough knowledge of the Arabic language, he pleaded their joint
cause so effectually, that the chief not only liberated the whole party,
but forced presents upon them in compensation for their inconvenient

The most interesting, if not the most remarkable incident which occurred
to Meer Hadjee Shah in his journey through life, remains to be told. The
story has been so often related by his own lips, that I think there will
be little difficulty in repeating it here from memory. It may be deemed
prolix, yet I should not do justice by a farther abridgement.


'Fatima was the daughter of Sheikh Mahumud,[9] an Arab, chief of a tribe,
dwelling in the neighbourhood of Yumen, who was a wealthy man, and much
esteemed amongst his people. His wife died when Fatima, their only child,
was but six years old, and two years after her father also was taken from
this world, leaving his whole estate and possessions to his daughter, and
both to the guardianship of his own brother, Sheikh ----, who was tenderly
attached to the little girl, and from whom she received the fostering care
of parental solicitude.

'This uncle was married to a lady of no very amiable temper, who seized
every opportunity of rendering the orphan daughter of his brother as
comfortless as possible, but her uncle's affection never slackened for an
instant, and this consoled her whenever she had trials of a domestic
nature to distress her meek spirit.

'When Fatima had reached her sixteenth year, an eligible match being
provided by her uncle, it was intended to be immediately solemnized; for
which purpose her uncle went over to Yumen to make preparations for the
nuptials, where he expected to be detained a few days; leaving with his
niece the keys of all his treasuries, whether of money or jewels.

'On the very day of his departure from home, a brother of his wife's
arrived at the mansion, and required, in Fatima's presence, a loan of five
hundred pieces of silver. This could only be obtained by Fatima's consent,
who firmly declared her resolution not to betray the trust her uncle had
reposed in her. The wife was severe in her censures on her husband's
parsimony, as she termed his prudence, and reviled Fatima for being the
favoured person in charge of his property. This woman in her rage against
the unoffending girl, struck her several times with violence. Situated as
their residence was, apart from a single neighbour, she feared to stay
during her uncle's absence, and left the house not knowing exactly where
to seek a temporary shelter; but recollecting a distant relation of her
mother's resided at Bytool Faakere,[10] no great distance off (within a
walk as she imagined), she left her home without further reflection,
unattended by a single servant.

'When within a mile of her destined place of refuge, she was observed by a
party of Bedouin robbers, who descended from their hill to arrest her
progress, by whom she was conveyed to their retreat, almost in a state of
insensibility from terror and dismay. Arriving at their hut, however, she
was cheered by the sight of females, one of whom particularly struck her
as being very superior to her companions, and in whose countenance
benevolence and pity seemed to indicate a sympathizing friend in this hour
of severe trial. The women were desired to relieve the prisoner Fatima of
her valuables, which were, in accordance with their station, very costly
both in pearls and gold ornaments.

'Fatima overheard, during the night, some disputes and debates between the
robbers, about the disposal of her person, one of whom was single, and
declared his willingness to marry the girl, and so retain her with them;
but Fatima had, when she was seized, recognized his countenance, having
seen him before, and knew that his connexions lived in the town of Bytool
Faakere, which she had unguardedly declared. The robbers, therefore,
dreaded detection if her life was spared; they were not by nature
sanguinary, but in this case there seemed no medium between their
apprehension and the death of Fatima.

'The female, however, who had at first sight appeared so amiable and
friendly, fulfilled the poor girl's impressions, by strenuously exerting
her influence, and eventually prevailed, in saving the orphan Fatima from
the premeditated sacrifice of life; and as no better arrangement could be
made to secure the robbers from detection, it was at length agreed she
should be sold to slavery. This decided on, the swiftest camel in their
possession was prepared at an early hour, a few short minutes only being
allowed to Fatima, to pour out her gratitude to God, and express her
acknowledgements to her humane benefactress, when she was mounted on the
camel's back, with the husband of that kind-hearted female.

'With the prospect of continued life, poor Fatima ceased to feel acute
agony, and bore the fatigue of a whole day's swift riding without a murmur,
for the Bedouin's behaviour was marked with respect. Towards the evening,
as they drew near to a large town, the Bedouin halted by the margin of a
forest, and the long night was passed in profound silence, with no other
shelter than that which the forest afforded; and at the earliest dawn the
march was again resumed, nor did he slacken his speed, until they were in
sight of Mocha, where he designed to dispose of his victim. She was there
sold to a regular slave-merchant, who was willing to pay the price
demanded when he saw the beautiful face and figure of the poor girl,
expecting to make a handsome profit by the bargain.

'The Bedouin made his respectful obedience and departed in haste, leaving
poor Fatima in almost a state of stupor from fatigue. Left however to
herself in the slave-merchant's house, she seemed to revive, and again to
reflect on the past, present, and future. Her escape from death called
forth grateful feelings, and she felt so far secure that the wretch who
had bought her, had an interest in her life, therefore she had no further
fear of assassination. But then she reverted to her bonds; painful indeed
were the reflections, that she who had been nobly born, and nursed in the
lap of luxury, should find herself a slave, and not one friendly voice to
soothe her in her bondage. She resolved however (knowing the privilege of
her country's law) to select for herself a future proprietor.

'Her resolution was soon put to the test; she was summoned to appear
before a fisherman, who had caught a glimpse of her fine figure as she
entered Mocha, and who desired to purchase her to head his house. The poor
girl summoned all her courage to meet this degrading offer with dignity. A
handsome sum was offered by the fisherman, as she appeared before him to
reject the proposal. "Here is your new master, young lady," said the
slave-merchant; "behave well, and he will marry you."

Fatima looked up, with all her native pride upon her brow; "He shall never
be my master!" she replied, with so much firmness, that (astonished as
they were) convinced the bargainers that Fatima was in earnest. The
merchant inquired her objection, us she had betrayed no unwillingness to
be sold to him; she answered firmly, whilst the starting tear was in her
eye, "My objection to that man is our inequality: I am of noble birth. My
willingness to become your slave, was to free me from the hands of those
who first premeditated my murder; and sooner than my liberty should be
sold to the creature I must detest, this dagger", as she drew one from her
vest, "shall free me from this world's vexations".

'This threat settled the argument, for the slave-merchant calculated on
the loss of three hundred dinars he had paid to the Bedouin; and Fatima,
aware of this, without actually intending any violence to herself, felt
justified in deterring the slave-merchant from further importunities.
Several suitors came to see, with a view to purchase the beautiful Arab of
noble birth, but having acted so decidedly in the first instance, the
merchant felt himself obliged to permit her to refuse at will, and she
rejected all who had made their proposal.

'Meer Hadjee Shah, in the fulfilment of his promise to his wife at parting,
to take home a slave for her attendant, happening at that time to be
passing through Mocha, inquired for a slave-merchant: he was conducted to
the house where Fatima was still a prisoner with many other less noble,
but equally unhappy females. Fatima raised her eyes as he entered the hall;
she fancied by his benevolent countenance that his heart must be kind; she
cast a second glance and thought such a man would surely feel for her
sufferings and be a good master. His eye had met hers, which was instantly
withdrawn with unaffecting modesty; something prepossessed him that the
poor girl was unhappy, and his first idea was pity, the second her
liberation from slavery, and, if possible, restoration to her friends.

'When alone with the slave-merchant, Meer Hadjee Shah inquired the price
he would take for Fatima. "Six hundred pieces of silver (dinars),"[11] was
the reply.--"I am not rich enough," answered the pilgrim; "salaam, I must
look elsewhere for one:" and he was moving on.---"Stay," said the merchant,
"I am anxious to get that girl off my hands, for she is a stubborn subject,
over whom I have no control; I never like to buy these slaves of high
birth, they always give me trouble. I paid three hundred dinars to the
Bedouin for her, now if she will agree to have you for her master (which I
very much doubt, she has so many scruples to overcome), you shall add
fifty to that sum, and I will be satisfied."

'They entered the hall a second time together, when the merchant addressed
Fatima. "This gentleman desires to purchase you; he is a Syaad of India,
not rich, he says, but of a high family, as well as a descendant of the
Emaums."--"As you will," was all the answer Fatima could make. The money
was accordingly paid down, and the poor girl led away from her
prison-house, by the first kind soul she had met since she quitted her
benefactress in the Bedouins' retreat.

'Fatima's situation had excited a lively interest in the heart of Meer
Hadjee Shah, even before he knew the history of those sufferings that had
brought her into bondage, for he was benevolent, and thought she seemed
unhappy; he wanted no stronger inducement than this to urge him to release
her. Many a poor wretched slave had been liberated through his means in a
similar way, whilst making his pilgrimages; and in his own home I have had
opportunities of seeing his almost paternal kindness invariably exercised
towards his slaves, some of whom he has, to my knowledge, set at liberty,
both male and female, giving them the opportunity of settling, or leaving
them to choose for themselves their place of future servitude.

'But to return to Fatima. On taking her to his lodgings, he tried to
comfort her with the solicitude of a father, and having assured her she
was free, inquired where her family resided, that she might be forwarded
to them. The poor girl could scarce believe the words she heard were
reality and not a dream; so much unlooked for generosity and benevolence
overpowered her with gratitude, whilst he addressed her as his daughter,
and explained his motives for becoming her purchaser, adding, "Our laws
forbid us to make slaves of the offspring of Mussulmauns of either sex;
although be it confessed with sorrow, unthinking men do often defy the law,
in pursuance of their will; yet I would not sell my hopes of heaven for
all that earth could give. I again repeat, you are free; I am not rich,
but the half of my remaining funds set apart to take me to my home in
India, shall be devoted to your service, and without any delay I will
arrange for your return to Yumen, under safe convoy" (and seeing she was
about to express her gratitude to him): "Forbear, as you respect me, a
single word of acknowledgement; if any thanks are due, it is to that good
Providence who hath preserved you from greater evils, to Whom be offered
also my humble praises, that through His mercy my steps were directed
through Mocha, at such a time as this, when an unprotected female required
fatherly protection."

'Fatima was in tears during this speech of her true friend, and when he
paused, she said, "Heaven, indeed, sent you to my aid; you seem like a
guardian angel. Much, much I fear to be separated from one so pious and so
bountiful. May I not again be thrown into similar scenes to those your
generosity has been exercised to release me from? Who but yourself and my
own dear uncle could ever feel that lively interest for my preservation?"

'Meer Hadjee Shah would willingly have conveyed the poor girl to her uncle'
s residence near Yumen, had it been possible; but his arrangements were
made to sail by an Arab ship to Bombay, which if many days postponed would
detain him nearly another year from India, where he was aware his return
was expected by his wife and family; and he was not willing to give them
cause for uneasiness, by any further delay; he however went out to make
inquiries at Mocha for some safe means of getting Fatima conveyed to her

'In the meantime she resolved in her mind the several circumstances
attending her actual situation in the world, and before the next morning
had well dawned, she had resolved on urging her kind protector to take her
with him to India, before whom she appeared with a more tranquil
countenance than he had yet witnessed. When they were seated, he said,
"Well, Fatima, I propose to devote this day to the arrangement of all
things necessary for your comfort on your journey home, and to-morrow
morning the kaarawaun[12] sets out for Yumen, where I heartily pray you
may be conducted in safety, and meet your uncle in joy. Have no fears for
your journey, put your entire trust in God, and never forget that your
safety and liberation were wrought out by His goodness alone."

'"Huzerut[13] (revered Sir)," she replied, "I have weighed well the
advantages I should derive by being always near to you, against the
prospects of my home and wealth in Arabia, which I am resolved to
relinquish if you accede to my proposal. Let me then continue to be your
slave, or your servant, if that term is more agreeable to my kind master.
Slavery with a holy master is preferable to freedom with wealth and
impiety. You must have servants, I will be the humblest and not the least
faithful in my devoted services."

'The pious man was surprised beyond measure; he attempted to dissuade her,
and referred to his wife and children in India. "Oh! take me to them," she
cried with energy; "I will be to them all you or they can desire," This
arrangement of Fatima's was rather perplexing to him; her tears and
entreaties, however, prevailed over his preference, and he quieted her
agitation by agreeing to take her to India with him.

'After maturely weighing all the circumstances of the voyage by sea, and
the long journey by land from Bombay to Lucknow, he came to the
determination of giving Fatima a legal claim to his protection, and
thereby a security also from slanderous imputations either against her or
himself, by marrying her before they embarked at Mocha; and on their
arrival at Lucknow, Fatima was presented to his first wife as worthy her
sympathy and kindness, by whom she was received and cherished as a dear
sister. The whole family were sincerely attached to the amiable lady
during the many years she lived with them in Hindoostaun. Her days were
passed in piety and peace, leaving not an instance to call forth the
regrets of Meer Hadjee Shah, that he had complied with her entreaties in
giving her his permanent protection. Her removal from this life to a
better was mourned by every member of the family with equal sorrow as when
their dearest relative ceased to live.'

It is my intention (if I am permitted), at some future period, to write a
more circumstantial account of Meer Hadjee Shah's adventures through life,
than my present limits allow. In the meantime, however, I must satisfy
myself by a few remarks founded on a personal observation and intimacy
during the last eleven years of his eventful life. His example and precept
kept pace with each other, 'That this world and all its vanities, were
nothing in comparison with acquiring a knowledge of God's holy will, and
obeying Him, in thought, in word, and deed.'

He was persuaded by the tenets of his religion that by exercising the body
in the pilgrimage to Mecca, the heart of man was enlightened in the
knowledge and love of God. He found by obeying the several duties of the
religion he professed, and by enduring the consequent trials and
privations of a pilgrimage without regard to any feelings of selfish
gratification or indulgent ease, that, his nature being humbled, his love
to God was more abundant.

His law commanded him to fast at stated periods, and although he was
turned of seventy when I first saw him, yet he never failed, as the season
of Rumzaun approached, to undergo the severity of that ordinance day by
day during the full period of thirty days; and it was even a source of
uneasiness to my venerated friend, when, two years prior to his decease,
his medical friends, aided by the solicitude of his family, urged and
prevailed on him to discontinue the duty, which by reason of his age was
considered dangerous to health, and perhaps to life. Prayer was his
comfort; meditation and praise his chief delight. I never saw him
otherways than engaged in some profitable exercise, by which he was
drawing near to his Creator, and preparing himself for the blessedness of
eternity, on which his soul relied.

During our eleven years' constant intercourse, I can answer for his early
diligence; before the day had dawned his head was bowed in adoration to
his Maker and Preserver. At all seasons of the year, and under all
circumstances, this duty was never omitted. Even in sickness, if his
strength failed him, his head was bowed on a tray of earth, to mark his
dutiful recollection of the several hours appointed for prayer. The
Psalmist's language has often been realized to my view, in him, 'Seven
times a day do I praise thee, O Lord,' and 'at midnight I will rise to
give thanks unto Thee,' when witnessing his undeviating observance of
stated prayer duties; and when those duties were accomplished, even his
amusements were gleaned from devotional works, visits of charity, and acts
of benevolence. I never saw him idle; every moment was occupied in prayer
or in good works. His memory was retentive, and every anecdote he related
was a lesson calculated to lead the mind of his auditor to seek, trust,
and obey God, or to love our neighbour as ourselves.

The many hours we have passed in profitable discourses or readings from
our Holy Scripture and the lives of the Prophets have left on my memory
lasting impressions.

I was, at first, surprised to find Meer Hadjee Shah so well acquainted
with the prominent characters of our Scripture history, until the source
from whence his knowledge had been enlarged was produced and read aloud by
my husband every evening to our family party. The 'Hyaatool Kaaloob' (a
work before alluded to) occupied us for a very long period, each passage
being verbally translated to me by my husband.

When that work was finished, our Holy Scripture was brought forward, which,
as I read, each passage was again translated by my husband, either in
Persian or Hindoostaunic, as best suited the understanding of our party at
the time. So interesting was the subject, that we have been five or six
hours at, a time engaged without tiring or even remembering the flight of
those moments which were devoted, I trust, so beneficially to us all.

Meer Hadjee Shah's views of worldly enjoyments resembled the Durweish's in
principle; for he thought it unworthy to heap up riches, to swell his
wardrobe, or to fare on sumptuous diet; but his delight consisted in
sharing the little he could at any time command with those who needed it.
He possessed an intelligent mind, highly cultivated by travel, and a heart
beaming with tenderness and universal charity: so tempered were his
affections by a religious life, that the world was made but a place of
probation to him whilst looking forward with joy to the promises of God in
a happy eternity. His purity of heart and life has often realized to my
imagination that 'Israelite in whom (our Redeemer pronounced) there was no

I must here draw my Letters to a conclusion, with many an anxious wish
that my gleanings in the society of the Mussulmauns of Hindoostaun may
afford profitable amusement to my friends and to those persons who may
honour my work with a perusal, humbly trusting that the people whose
character, manners, habits, and religion, I have taken upon me to pourtray,
may improve in their opinion by a more intimate acquaintance.

In my attempt to delineate the Mussulmauns, I have been careful to speak
as I have found them, not allowing prejudice to bias my judgment, either
on the side of their faults or virtues. But I deem it incumbent to state,
that my chief intimacy has been confined to the most worthy of their
community; and that the character of a true Mussulmaun has been my aim in
description. There are people professing the faith without the principle,
it is true; but such persons are not confined to the Mussulmaun persuasion;
they are among every class of worshippers, whether Jew or Gentile
throughout the world.

Of my long sojourn in the society of the Mussulmauns of Hindoostaun, I
need here but remark, that I was received amongst them without prejudice,
and allowed the free usage of my European habits and religious principles
without a single attempt to bias or control me; that by respecting their
trifling prejudices as regards eating and drinking, their esteem and
confidence were secured to me; and that by evincing Christian charity,
(which deters the possessor from proud seeming), I believe, I may add,
their affection for me was as sincere, as I trust it will be lasting.

It may be regretted, with all my influence, that I have not been the
humble instrument of conversion. None can lament more than myself that I
was not deemed worthy to convince them of the necessity, or of the
efficacy of that great Atonement on which my own hopes are founded. Yet
may I not, without presumption, hope my sojourn, with reference to a
future period, may be the humble means of good to a people with whom I had
lived so many years in peace? I must for many reasons be supposed to
entertain a lively interest in their welfare, and an earnest desire for
their safety, although at the present moment I can distinguish but one
advantage accruing from our intimacy, namely, that they no longer view the
professors of Christianity as idolaters. They have learned with surprise
that the Christian religion forbids idolatry,--thus the strong barrier
being sapped, I trust it may be thrown down by abler servants of our Lord;
for the Mussulmauns are already bound by their religion to love and
reverence Christ as the Prophet of God: may the influence of his Holy
Spirit enlighten their understandings to accept Him as their Redeemer!

Like the true Christian, they are looking forward to that period when
Jesus Christ shall revisit the earth, and when all men shall be of one
faith. How that shall be accomplished, they do not pretend to understand,
but still they faithfully believe it, because it has been declared by an
authority they reverence, and deem conclusive. Often, during my
acquaintance with these people, have I felt obliged to applaud their
fidelity, although, in some points, I could not approve of the subject on
which it was displayed--their zeal at Mahurrum, for instance, when they
commemorate the martyrdom of the grandchildren of their Prophet,--I have
thought 'had they been favoured with the knowledge we possess, what
zealous Christians would these people be, who thus honour the memory of
mere holy men.'

The time, I trust, is not very far distant when not one nation in the
whole world shall be ignorant of the Saviour's efficacy, and His
willingness to receive all who cast their burden at the foot of His cross.
My heart's desire for the people I have dwell amongst is that which St.
Paul in the Epistle to the Romans declares to be his prayer to God for
Israel, 'that they might be saved!' and I know not any way in which I
could better testify my regard for the Mussulmauns collectively, or my
gratitude individually, than by recommending the whole of the tenth
chapter of the Romans to the serious consideration of those persons who
possess such influence, us that the gospel of peace may be preached to
them effectually by well-chosen and tried servants of our Lord, who are
duly prepared both in heart and speech, to make known the glad tidings to
their understandings that 'God so loved the world, that He gave His only
begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have
everlasting life;' that 'If any man sin we have an Advocate with the
Father, Jesus Christ the righteous;' and that 'He is the propitiation for
our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world.'

Should the view I have conscientiously given of their character be the
humble means of removing prejudice from the Mussulmauns of Hindoostaun, so
that they may be sought and won by brotherly kindness, my humble heart
will rejoice that my labours, as an observer and detailer, have been
successful through the merciful orderings of Divine Providence.

[1] Ludhiana, a city, not the capital of the Panjab: 'the land of
five rivers' _(panj-ab)._

[2] Under the Peshwas, Baji Rao I and Balaji Rao
(A.D. 1720-61) the incursions of the Mahrattas extended as far north
as the Panjab.

[3] _Barahdari_, a room nominally with twelve doors.

[4] Shuja-ud-daula, son of Mansur 'Ali Khan, Safdar Jang,
Governor of Oudh: born A.D. 1731; succeeded his father, 1753. He was
present at the battle of Panipat in 1761: became Wazir of the
Emperor Shah 'Alam: defeated by the British at the battle of
Buxar, 1764: died at Faizabad, then his seat of government, 1775.

[5] _Shikari_.

[6] Bandar [harbour] Kangun, a port on the west side of the Persian
Gulf, about 100 miles west of Gombroon.

[7] Firangi Bagh, Franks' Garden.

[8] Darzi, a tailor.

[9] Shaikh Muhammad.

[10] Baitu'l-faqir, 'house of a holy man'.

[11] _Dinar_, Lat. _denarius_, a coin of varying value: see Yule,
_Hobson-Jobson_[2], 317 f.

[12] _Karwan_, a caravan.

[13] _Hazrat_.


* * * * *



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Beale, T.W. _An Oriental Biographical Dictionary_, London, 1894.

Burton, Sir R.F. _The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night_, 12 vols.,
London, 1894.

Burton, Sir R.F. _A Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Mecca_, 2 vols.,
London, 1893.

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2 vols., Westminster, 1896.

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North-Western Provinces and Oudh_, Allahabad, 1891.

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India_, trans. G.A. Herklots, Madras, 1863.

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_Koran, The_, trans. J.M. Rodwell, Everyman's Library, London, _n.d._;
by G. Sale, London, 1844.

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_Mishcat-ul Masabih_, by Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allah, trans. A.N.
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Oudh, in 1849-1850_, 2 vols., London, 1858.

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Calcutta, 1889-93.

Yule, Col. H., Burnell, A.C. _Hobson-Jobson_, 2nd ed., London, 1903.

* * * *


Aameen, Ameen, Ami, Amen
Aaroon, Aaron
Abass Ali, 'Abbas, nephew of Husain;
Abass Ali Huzerut ke Durgah, Hazrat 'Abbas 'Ali ki dargah
Aboubuker, Abubakr, the Caliph
Abraham, sacrifice of Ishmael;
his title
Abstinence during the Muharram festival
Adam, his burial-place;
his title;
image of
Affrine Khaun, Afrin Khan, a eunuch
Afthaadah, _aftabgir_, a sun-shade
Agha Mir, minister in Oudh
Ahmud Kaabeer, Sayyid Ahmad Kabir, a saint
Akbhar Shah, Akbar Shah II, King of Delhi
Akbar, the Moghul Emperor, his capture of Chitor
Alexandria, alleged destruction of the library at
Ali, 'Ali, son-in-law of Muhammad;
murder of;
imparted knowledge to the Sufis
Ali Reezah, Ar-Raza
Ali Ul Hoodah, 'Ali ul Huda
Al-kauloek, _alkhalaq_, a coat with sleeves
Allah Khareem, Al-Karim, 'the generous one'
Allah wo uckbaar, _Allah u akbar_, 'God is most great'
Alligators, caught by monkeys
Allum, _'alam_, a standard
Allumgeer, 'Alamgir, the Emperor Aurangzeb
Al Mauss Ali Khaun, Almas 'Ali Khan, a eunuch
Almsgiving at the Muharram festival
Alrouschid, Harun-al-Rashid, the Caliph
Amulets for children
Amusements of children
Angels, the attendant
Animal, fights at the Court of Oudh;
mode of slaughtering by Musalmans;
life, sanctity of
Antelopes, hunted by leopards
sugar laid near their nests;
Arg, _arka_, the fire plant
Arms, polishers of
Arrack, _'araq,_ spirits
Artoojee, _ustadji_, a teacher
Artush-baajie, _atishbazi_, fireworks
'Ashura, the last day of the Muharram festival
Asof ood Duolah, Nawab Asaf-ud-daula;
his proclamation against infanticide
Asthma, a cure for
Ausmaun, 'Usman, the Caliph
Ausur namaaz, _'asr ki namaz_, prayer at the third watch of the day
Ayah, _aya_, a nurse
Ayashur, Ayishah, wife of Muhammad

Baalee Peer, Bala Pir
Baaraat, _barat_. the procession of the bridegroom
Baarah Daree, _barahdari_ a room with twelve doors
Babool, _babul_, the tree _acacia arabica_
Bacherkaunie, _baqirkhani_, a kind of bread
Ba daanah, _bedanah_, seedless grapes
Baer, _ber_, the tree _Zizyphus Jujuba_
Bahadhoor, _bahadur_, 'a champion', a title of honour
Baittee, _beti_, a daughter
uses of;
flowering of;
set on fire by friction
Banner of Husain (see ALLUM)
Bareheaded people not allowed in a house
Basun, _besan_, pulse flour
Bazars described
Beards worn by Musalmans;
dyeing of
Bearer caste, the
Beeby Sahib, _bibi sahiba_, an English lady
Beggar, a famous, in Lucknow
Begum, _begam_, a title of a Sayyid lady
Biles and blains
catchers of;
released in time of sickness
Birth rites,
scanty rejoicings at birth of a girl;
first dose of medicine;
bathing of child;
forty days' impurity after childbirth;
gifts made to the child;
birthday celebrations;
child carried to the Dargah
Bis ma Allah, _bi'smi'llah_, 'in the name of Allah'
Bleeding, procedure at
Blistering, flies used for
Blood-spitting; cure for
Blue stone, a remedy for snakebites
Boats set adrift in honour of Khwaja Khizr
Bodice, the
Bohue Begum, _Bahu Begum_, a daughter-in-law
Bootkhanah, _butkhanah_, an idol temple
Borehaun, _burhan_, the critical days of fever
Bows and arrows, use of
Brahmanical cords burnt
Bread, varieties of
Bricks, ancient
the peculium of;
modes of selecting;
dress of
Bridegroom, veil worn by
Brushes for hair and teeth
Buckaria, Bokhara
Buckrah Eade, the _baqarah id_, festival;
gifts sent at
Budgerow, a kind of boat
Bull-bull, _bulbul_, the nightingale
Bundah Kungoon, Bandar Kangun
Bunyah, Baniya, a corn merchant
Buraq, the animal on which Muhammad flew to Mecca
Burbut, _bargat_, the banyan tree
Burghutt, caste, regard for animal life
Burial rites, purification after touching the corpse; see DEATH.
Burkhundhar, _barqandaz_, a man armed with a matchlock
Burqa', a woman's veil
Burrhsaatie, _barsati_ a disease of horses
Burruff wallah, _barfwala_ a seller of ice
Bushire, a town on the Persian Gulf
Bussorah, Basra, a town on the Shatt el Arab in Asiatic Turkey
Bussund, _basant_, the spring festival
Butcher bird, the
Buttaire, _bater_, a quail
Butter sellers
Buttooah, _batua_, ornamented bag
Bytool Faakere, _baitu'l-faqir,_ 'the house of a holy man'

Cain, reputed founder of Kanauj
Caliphas, _khalifah_, of Shi'ahs and Sunnis;
a head of a trade or profession
Camphor, used in treating cholera;
in burial rites
Cardimun, the cardamom
Cards, the game of
Carounder, _karaunda, Carissa Carandas_
Castanets, see CHUCKIE
Catechu, used with betel
Cattle, slaughter of, objected to by Hindus
Chaff, thrown on the head in mourning
Chain at the Ka'bah;
of justice, put up by Jahangir
Chair, right to use
Chapaatie, _chapata_, a griddle cake
Charaagh, _chiragh_, a lamp
Charity, a religious duty;
among Musalmans
Charpoy, _charpai_, a kind of bed
Chatnee, _chatni_, a kind of relish
Chattah, _chhata_, an umbrella
Cheek, _chiq_, a door screen
Cheetah, _chita_, a hunting leopard
Children, fasting of
Chillum, _chilam_, the bowl of a water-pipe, the tobacco used to
fill it
Chillumchee, _chilamchi_, a wash-hand basin
Chilubdhaar, _chalapdar_, a cymba player
China vessels, use of
Chirrya wallah, _chiryawala_, a bird-catcher
Chitcherah, _chichra_, the _Achryanthes aspera_ tree
Chitlah, _chitra_, a kind of melon
Chobdhaah, Chobdhaar, _chobdar_, a mace-bearer
Chokeedhar, _chaukidar_, a watchman
cures for
Chowrie, Chowry, _chauri_, a yak tail fan
Chowsah, _chausa_, four-sided, of dice
Chubbaynee, _chabena_, parched grain
Chuckie, Chuckee, _charkhi_, a kind of castanets;
_chakki_, a grindstone
Chuddah, Chudha, _chadar_, a sheet
Chuhsah, _chhahsa_, six-sided, of dice
Chumund, _chaman_, a flower bed
Chundole, _chandol_, a kind of sedan chair
Chupha, _chhappar_, a thatched shed
Chupkund, _chapkan_, a kind of coat
Cider, made from melon juice
Clepsydra, used to mark time
Cloak, hooded, worn by women
Coel, _koil_, a kind of cuckoo
Cookery, in Musalman families
Cooking, prohibited in the house of mourning
Cord, Brahmanical, burned
Cossum, Qasim, nephew of Husain;
model of his tomb taken in procession
Courtie, _kurti_, a woman's jacket
Cowry shells
Cream sellers
Cries of hawkers
Crown of the King of Oudh
Crows, impudence of
Cummerbund, _kamarband_, a waist-cloth, girdle
Curd sellers.
Currie, _karhi_
Cuttie, _khatai_, soured milk;
kath, gum used with pan

Daak, _dak_, the letter post
Daaood, Daud, David, his mother's prayer
Dacca cloths
Damascus fig, the
Dancing, considered degrading;
Dates, eating of
Dead, food for the;
period of mourning for
Death rites
Debt, imprisonment for, said to be forbidden
Decca, Dacca
Delhi described
Deluge, said not to be known in India
Deputtah, _dopatta_, a double sheet
Devotees, Musalman.
Dhall, _dal_, pulse
Dhaullie, _dali_, a basket of fruit and vegetables
Dhie, _dahi_, curds
Dhie mudgelluss, _dah majlis_, the ten days of the Muharram festival
Dhobie, _dhobi_, a washerman
Dholle, _dhol_, a drum
Dhollie, a 'dooly', a litter;
Dhome, a drum
Dhull Dhull, Duldul, the mule of Muhammad
Dhurzie, darzi, the tailor caste
Dice, games played with
Dimishk, Dimashq, Damascus
Dinar, _dinar_, denarius, a coin
Dinners provided in time of mourning
Dirzy; see DHURZIE
Divination in selecting a bride
Dog, an impure animal
Domenie, Domni, a singing woman
Dooar prayer, _du'a_, supplication
Doob grass, _dub, Cynodon Dactylon_
Dowry of bride, how fixed
Draughts, the game of
Dress, not changed during the Muharram festival;
of a bride
Duffelee, _dafali_, the drummer caste
Dukhaun, _dukan_, a shop
Dulhaun, _dalan_, the hall, entrance of a house
Dullha, _dulha_, a bridegroom
Dullun, _dulhin_, a bride
Dunkah, _danka_, a kettle-drum;
dunkah wallah, _dankawala,_ a drummer
Dunyah, _dhaniya_, coriander
Durbar, _darbar_, a court
Durgah, _dargah_, a saint's shrine;
processions to, at Lucknow
Durwaun, _darwan_, a doorkeeper
Durweish, _darvesh_ a beggar, a religious mendicant;
pretenders to the title
Dustha-khawn, _dastarkhwan_, a table-cloth
Dustoor, _dastur_, custom,
the percentages on purchases taken by native servants

Eade, _'Id_, a festival;
eade-gaarh, _'Idgah_,
the place where the festival rites are performed
Ear cleaners
Earwax, human, administered to elephants
follow a flight of locusts;
Kanauj damaged by
Eclipse observances
Eggs sent at the Nauroz festival
Elephant trained to march in time;
carriages drawn by;
beggar riding on;
etiquette on meeting the king
Elias ky kishtee, _Ilyas ki kishti_,
boats set adrift in honour of Khwaja Khizr
Elijah, Elisha, the prophet
Emaum, _Imam_, leaders of the faithful;
Jaffur Saadick, Ja'far as-Sadiq
Emaum baarah, _Imambara_,
the place where the Muharram rites are performed
Emaum zamunee, _imam zamini_,
a charm to secure safety in a journey
English women not visiting the Lucknow bazar
Esaee, _'Isa 'l-Masih_, Jesus Christ, the Messiah
Eshaa namaaz, _salatu 'l-'Isha_, the night prayer
Etiquette in the zenanah;
at the Court of Oudh
Eunuchs, their power in the Court of Oudh;
tale of a pilgrim
Eve, the grave of
Execution of criminals
Exercise, modes of, used by young men
Exorcism of evil spirits
Eyes decorated with antimony

Faakeer, _faqir_, a beggar, holy man
Fahteeah, _al Fatihah_, the first chapter of the Koran
Falsah, _phalsa, falsa_, the fruit _Grewia asiatica_
exemptions from
Fat, not eaten by Musalmans
Fatima, Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad;
an Arab girl purchased
Feringhee Bargh, _Farangi Bagh_, 'the Franks' Garden
Fierdowsee, Firdausi, the poet;
translations of;
on slavery
Fig, the
Fire, jumping into, and walking through
Fireworks at the Shab-i-Bara'at festival;
Firing guns at the birth of a boy
Fish, use of;
varieties prohibited for use as food;
a symbol at the Court of Oudh
Flags, in use at the Court of Oudh
Flies, inconvenience from;
a variety which produces blisters
Flower gardens, neglect of;
in Moghul palaces
Flowers, scent of, the food of aerial spirits
Folk tales, told in the zenanah;
tale reciters;
tale of Daaood;
of the Prophet;
of pilgrims;
of a charitable Arab;
of Syaad Harshim;
of a saint changing the course of a river;
of an ungrateful snake;
of a king who longed for a fruit
Food, for the dead;
not cooked in a house of mourning;
lawful for Musalmans
Fraught, Furat, the river Euphrates
Friday, the Musalman Sabbath
Fruit, use of;
sellers of
Furniture in the zenanah
Furrukhabaad, Farrukhabad, Nawab of

Gabriel, the Angel;
inspires the Koran
Games played by boys;
in the zenanah
Gaming prohibited
Genii, the Jinn
Ghauzee ood deen, Ghazi-ud-diu, King of Oudh
Ghee, _ghi_, clarified butter
Ghurrie, _ghari_, a space of about twenty minutes
Glass, _gilas_, a cherry
Glass, vessels, use of;
use in windows
Goatah chandnie, _gola chandni_, lace
Goattur, _gota_, a substitute for betel, at the Muharram
God, ninety-nine names of
Golard, Goulard water
Gooderie, _gudri_, a quilt
Goolbudden, _gulbadan_, a silk fabric
Goolistaun, Gulistan of Sa'adi
Goomtie, the river Gumti
Gootlie, _guthli_, the first dose given to a baby
Grain, threshing and winnowing of
Gram, a kind of chick pea, _Cicer arietinum_
Green, the colour preferred by Sayyids;
symbolizing Hasan
Grief, exhibition of, at the Muharram festival
Guaver, the guava fruit
Guinah, _genda_, the marigold
Gurdonie, _gardani_, a neck ring
Gurhum dahnie, _garm dahani_ prickly heat

Haafiz, Hafiz, the Persian poet
Haarh, _har_, a necklace;
Hackery, _chhakra_, a bullock carriage
Hadge, _hajj_, pilgrimage to holy places
Hadjee, _hajji_, a pilgrim
Hafiz, a man who has learned the Koran by heart
Hafsah, the wife of Muhammad
Hair, mode of dressing;
let loose at the Muharram festival;
not shaven in mourning
Hand, spread, a symbol;
left, not used in eating
Harrh, _har_, a necklace;
Harshim Syaad, Sayyid Hashim, tale of
Hasan, the martyr;
Hasan ul Ushkeree, Hasan al-Askari
Hatim Tai
Haundhee, _audhi_, a dust storm
Haverdewatt. avadavat, the bird _estrelda amadara_;
Heifer, sacrifice of
Herbs used in cooking
Hindu gods, images of
Holie, the Holi festival
Hookha, _huqqah_, the water-pipe;
etiquette in use of;
makers of 'snakes' for
Horse racing at Lucknow
Horses, food of;
use of heel ropes;
marks on;
paces of;
shoes fixed on doors;
tails and legs dyed;
tails not docked;
use of in carriages
Hosein, Husain, the martyr;
disposal of his head
Howdah, _haudah_, a seat fixed on an elephant
Hudeeth, _hadis_, the sayings of the Prophet
Hummoomaun, the monkey god Hanuman
Hummoon Shah, Hamun Shah
Hurkaarah, _harkara_, a footman, messenger
Hurrh, al-Hurr, the Shami leader
Hurrundh, _arand_, the castor-oil plant
Hurth Maaree, the scene of the slaughter of the martyrs
Husbandmen, life of
Huzerut, _hazrat_, a title of respect
Hydrabaad, Hyderabad
Hydrophobia, a cure for
Hyza, _haiza_, cholera

Ibrahim, son of the Prophet;
Ibraahim Mukhaun, Ibrahim Makan,
'the place of Abraham', at Mecca
Idolatry prohibited to Musalmans
Infanticide among Musalmans
Ishmael, son of the Prophet;
sacrifice of
Islaaim, Islam

Ja'adah poisons Hasan
Jaffur Saadick, the Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq
Jahaun-punah, _jahan panah_, a title of honour, 'asylum of the world'
Jahmun, Jamun, _jaman, jamun_, the fruit _Eugenia Jambolana_;
Jains, their tenderness for animal life
Jarmun, see JAHMUN
Jaullie, _jali_, netting
Jerusalem, pilgrimage to
Jessamine tree, the
Jesus Christ, the Musalman title of;
His Nativity;
His Coming
Jewellery, craving of women for;
put aside at the Muharram festival
Jhaawn namaaz, _ja'e namaz_, a prayer carpet
Jhammah, _jama_, a long gown
Jhaumdanie, _jamdani_, an ornamented bag
Jhanngeer, the Emperor Jahangir, his chain of justice
Jhewl, _jhul_, the trappings of an elephant
Jhillmun, _jhilmil_, venetian shutters for doors and windows
Jhy Singh, Raja Jai Singh, his observatories
Jillewdhar, _jilaudur_, an attendant on a man of rank
Jinn, the
Joel, the Prophet
Jonk, a leech
Joshun, _joshan_, an ornament worn by women on the upper arm
Judee, Mount
Jumma musjid, Jumna musjid, _Jame' masjid_, a congregational mosque
Justice, administration of in Oudh

Kaabah, _Ka'bah_, the holy place at Mecca;
water spout at
Kaanaut, _qanat_, the side walls of a tent
Kaarawaun, _kawan_, a caravan
Kaareem Zund, Karim Khan Zand, anecdote of;
Kaarjil, _kajal_, lampblack applied to the eyes
Kaawaus, _khawass_, a special female attendant
Kabooza, _kharbuzah_, the melon
Kalipha, _khalifah_, a Caliph, head servant;
Kallonie wallah, _khilauniwala_, a toy-seller
Kannoge, the city of Kanauj;
founded by Cain;
destroyed by an earthquake
Katorah, _katora_, a shallow drinking cup
Kauflaah, _kafilah_, a caravan
Kaullie Nuddee, the Kali Nadi river
Kauzy, _Qazi_, a Musalman law officer
Keebaab, _kabab_, pieces of meat roasted on skewers
Keerah, _kira_, a leech
Ketcherie, _khichri_, rice cooked with pulse and spices
Kettledrum, the;
Khadijah, wife of the Prophet
Khareem Zund;
Khaun, _khan_, 'lord', a title of honour
Khaunce, Kansa, King of Mathura
Khaunie, a folk tale
Kheer, _khir_, milk boiled with rice
Khidmutghar, _khidmatgar_, a table servant
Khillaut, _khil'at,_ a robe of honour
Khodah Afiz, _Khuda hafiz_, 'God be your Protector!'
Khoraan, the Koran, Qur'an;
its history;
not to be translated;
taught to girls;
its doctrine regarding women;
passages of, inscribed as amulets;
learnt by heart;
readers of
Khus-khus, _khaskhas_,
the fragrant root of the grass _Andropogon muricatus_
Khusru Parviz, King of Persia
Khwaja Khizr, the saint
Kiblaah, _qiblah_, the direction assumed in prayer
Killaah, _qal'a qil'a_, a fort
Kirhnee, _kirni_, the fruit _Canthium parviflorum_
Kirrich, _kirch_, a straight thrusting sword
Kishtee, _kishti_, a boat
Kitchens in the zenanah
Koofah, the city Kufah
Kootub, the Qutb Minar pillar at Delhi
Kornea, Kanhaiya, Krishna
Koss, _kos_, a measure of distance, about two miles
Kraabaalah, Kerbela, Karbala, the holy city
Kuffin, _kafn_, a coffin, winding-sheet
Kummeruck, _kamrak_, the fruit _Averrhoa Carambola_
Kungoon, Bandar Kangun in the Persian Gulf
Kurah, _kora_, aloe water
Kurbootah, _kharbuza_, the shaddock fruit
Kutcher, _khichar_, rice boiled with pulse and spices

Labaadah, Labaadh, _labada_, a rain-coat
Labaun, _loban_, frankincense;
Ladies, European, not visiting bazars;
Musalman, conversation of
Lahaaf, _lahaf_, a quilt
Lahbaun, see LABAUN
Lampblack, applied to the eyes
Lance, exercises with the
Leopards trained for sport
Leech vendors
Leechie, _lichi_, the fruit _Nephelium Lichi_
Left hand used for ablution, not for eating with
Letters, dedicated to God
Licenses for marriage unknown
Lights burned before the Taziahs
Lime, applied to wounds
Liquors, fermented, prohibited to Musalmans
used for food
Lollah, _lal_, the bird _Estrelda amandava_;
Loodocanah, the city and district Ludhiana
Looking-glasses in zenanahs;
bride's face first seen in
Lota, a brass water-vessel
Luchmee, Lakshmana, image of
Luggun, _lagan_ a washing pan
Lungoor, _langur_, the ape _Semnopithecus entellus_

Mabaaruck Now-Rose, _Nauroz mubarak_
Maccurrub, _muqarrab_, angel messengers
Madhaar, Madar, the saint
Magic, to bring rain;
to cause fertility
Mahana, _miyana_, a kind of litter
Mahdhaar, _madar_, the tree _Calotropis gigantea_
Mahout, _mahawat_, an elephant driver
Mahrattas, raids of in the Panjab
Mahul, _mahall_ the seraglio
Mahummud, Muhammad, the Prophet, his mission;
his title;
tales regarding;
fixes Friday as the Sabbath;
laws of the pilgrimage;
his rules of conduct;
laws regarding polygamy
Mahummud Baakur, Muhammad Baqir
Mahurrum, the Muharram festival;
date of;
ornaments laid aside at;
immense expenditure on;
second day observances;
fifth day observances;
last day observances;
clothes given away;
inauspicious for marriages;
objected to by Sunnis
Majoob Soofies, _majzub_, 'abstracted'
Mango tree, the
Marriage, forced, prohibited;
age for;
settlements unknown;
exorbitant expenditure on
Matunjun, _muttajjan_, meat boiled with sugar and spices;
Maulvee, _maulavi,_ a doctor of the law
Mautunjun, see MATUNJUN
Mayllah, _mela_, a fair, a religious assemblage
Mayndhie, _mendhi_,
the shrub _Lawsonia alba_, apllied to hands and feet;
smeared on bride and bridegroom;
procession of;
sent to bridegroom by bride;
smeared on horses;
rite at marriage
Mayvour, _mewa_, fruit
Mazoor, Mazoorie, _mazdur, mazdurni_, a day labourer
Meals, among Musalmans
Meat, use of by Musalmans
Mecca, the holy city;
the Holy House;
life held sacred at;
Black Stone at;
Medicine, native system of
Medina, the holy city
Meer, _mir_, a title of Sayyids
Meer Eloy Bauxh, Mir Ilahi Bakhsh
Meer Hadjee Shah, Mir Haji Shah, his life;
makes his own winding sheet;
listens to the reading of the Bible;
views on fasting;
tea drinking;
describes the Hajj;
describes Mecca;
life at Ludhiana;
adventure with a snake;
adventures with tiger;
his pilgrimage to Arabia;
cures an Arab lady;
attacked by pirates;
purchases Fatimah, an Arab girl
Meer Hasan Ali, husband of the authoress
Meer Hasan Ali, Mrs., the authoress
Meer Nizaam ood deen, Mir Nizam-ud-din
Meer Syaad Mahumud, Mir Sayyid Muhammad
Meetah, meettah, _mitha, mithai_, sweet, sweetmeats
cider made from the juice
Metals transformed into gold
Mhembur, _minbar, mimbar_, the pulpit of a mosque
Mhidie, al Mahdi, 'the Directed One';
signs of his coming;
his birthday
Mina, _maina_, the bird _Gracula religiosa_
Minerals, medicinal use of
Missee, _missi_, a preparation for staining the teeth
Mittie wallah, _mithaiwala_, a sweetmeat vendor
Moat, _moth_, the aconite-leaved kidney bean
Mocha, Mokha, a port on the Red Sea
Moghdhur, _mugdar_, a sort of dumb-bell or club used in athletic exercises
Mohur, a gold coin
and alligators;
affection for their offspring;
and snakes;
and treasure;
use of antidotes for poison
Moollakhaut, _mulaqat_, a mourning assemblage
Mooltanie mittee, _multani mitti_, fuller's earth
Moon, new, festival at;
influence of;
when full auspicious;
drinking the;
influence on wounds
Moonkih, Munkar, Munkir, the Recording Angel
Moonshie, _munshi_, a writer, secretary
Moosa, Musa, Moses;
Musa al-Kazim, the Caliph
Moosul, _musal_, a pestle used for husking rice
Mortem, _matam_, mourning
Moses, Musalman title of;
tale regarding
Moslem, Muslim, cousin of Husain
Mosque, absence of decoration in;
caretakers of;
at Kanauj;
pollution of
Mourning, dress worn during the Muharram festival;
chaff thrown on the head;
head and feet left bare;
for forty days after a death;
shaving forbidden during
Muchullee, _machhli_, fish
Mucka Beg
Muckunpore, Makanpur
Mudgeluss, _majlis_, a mourning assembly
Muggalanie, _Mughlani_, a Moghul woman, a needlewoman
Mugganee, _mangni_, the marriage engagement
Muggrib, _maghrib ki namaz_, sunset prayer
Mukburrah, Mukhburrah, _maqbarah_, a mausoleum
Mukhdoom Jhaunneer, Makhdum Jahaniya Jahangasht, the saint
Mukhun, _makkhan_, butter
Mullie, _malai_, cream
Munall, _munhnal_, a pipe mouth-piece
Muntah, _mantra_, spells, incantations
Murdanah, _mardanah_, the men's quarters in a house
Murseeah, _marsiyah_, a funeral elegy;
Musheroo, _mashru_, silk cloth permitted to be worn at prayer
Mushukh, _mashk_, a skin water-bag
Music in the zenanah
Musnud, _masnad_ a pile of cushions, a throne
Musseah, Musseeah;
Myriam, Maryam, the Virgin Mary
Myrtle, the tree

Naalkie, _nalki_, a kind of litter
Naarah, _nara_, a string
Nadir Shaah, Nadir Shah, King of Persia
Najoom, najoomee, _nujumi_, an astrologer
Nala and Damayanti, tale of
Namaaz, _namaz_, the daily liturgical prayer of Musalmans
Namaazie, _namazi_, one given to prayer, a devotee,
one who calls the people to prayer
Nativity of Jesus Christ, observed by Musalmans
Naunbye, _nanbai_, a bazar baker
Nautch woman;
Nautchunee, _nachni_, a dancer
Neam, _nim_, the tree _Melia Azadirachta_;
see NEEM
Neellah tootee, _nila tutiya_, blue vitriol, medicinal use of
New Moon festival, the
New Year's Day, see NOU-ROSE
Nitre, manufacture of
Nizaam ood deen, Nizam-ud-din, the saint
Noah, Musalman title of;
his place of burial;
ark of, where rested
see NUT
Nou-Rose, _nauroz_ the New Year's Day festival
Nudghiff Usheruff, Nejef, Mashhad 'Ali
Nujeeb, _najib_, a class of infantry
Nusseer ood Deen Hyder, Nasir-ud-din Haidar, King of Oudh
Nut, Nutt, _nath_, a nose-ring
Nuwaub, _nawab_, 'a deputy', title of the rulers of Oudh
Nuzza, _nazr, nazar_, an offering from an inferior to a superior
Nykee, Nakir, the Recording Angel

Omens, at Nauroz festival;
used in selecting a bride;
at marriage
Omir, 'Umar, the second Caliph;
said to have destroyed the Alexandrian library
Ood-ood, _hudhud_, the lapwing, hoopoe
Oostardie, _ustadi_, a teacher;
Orme, _am_, the mango
Orme peach, the peach
Ornaments, use of by women;
Otta, _'itr,_ otto of roses
Oudh, administration of justice in the Nawabi;
Nawabs and Kings of

Paadishah Begum, Padshah Begam, the
Paak, _pak_, pure
Pachisi, the game
Paidshah, _padshah_, a King
Palace, the, at Delhi
Palkie, _palki_, the common palanquin
Pallungh, _palang_, a kind of bed
Paper, written, objection to burning;
made of bamboo
Pataan, one of the Pathan tribe
Pawn, _pan_, betel leaf;
not used during the Muharram festival
Pawndawn, _pandan,_ a box to hold betel leaf
Peach, the
Pedigrees of Sayyids carefully kept
Peer, _pir_, a Musalman saint or holy man
Pellet bow, use of the
Pepul, _pipal_, the sacred fig tree, _Ficus religiosa_
Pickles, use of, and sale
Pigeon flying;
Pilgrims, regulations for;
cloak worn by
Pillau, _pilau_, meat or fowl boiled with rice and spices
Pineapple, the;
Plague, an outbreak of
Poison detected by means of dishes
among Indian kings
Pomegranate, the
Prayer, the call to;
'opening of difficulties';
times of, how announced
Prickly heat
Printing, not practised in Lucknow
Prisoners released to effect a cure of the sick or as a thank-offering
Punkah, _pankah_, a kind of fan;
punkah wala, _punkah wala_, a fan-seller
Pappayah, _papaiya_, the papaw tree, _Carica Papaya_
Purdah, _pardah_, a screen to conceal ladies
Purrh, _pahar_, a watch, a measure of time
Pyjaamah, _paejama_, drawers;
stuff used in making

Quail fighting
Quicksilver, use of in medicine

Racaab puttie, _rikab patthari_, a stone plate
Rain magic
Rainy season, the
Rajpoots, Rajputs, infanticide among
Ravenscroft, G., murder of
Red, the Sunni colour;
of Husain
Reetah, _ritha_ the soapnut, use of in medicine
Resident at Lucknow, the
Resurrection, doctrine of the
Ricketts, Mordaunt, Resident at Lucknow
Right hand used in eating
River, course of changed by a saint
Romall, _rumal_, a handkerchief
Rooey, _rohu_ the carp fish
smelling of, causes colds and sneezing;
rose water;
syrup, seeds, oil, uses of
Roshunie, _roshanai_, ink
Rozedhaar, _rozadar_, one who keeps a fast
Rumzaun, Ramazan, Ramzan, the festival
Rutt, _rath_, a bullock carriage
Ruzzie, _razai_ a quilt
Ryott, _ra'iyat_ a subject, a cultivator

Saabeel, _sabil_,
the place where sherbet is distributed at the Muharram festival
Saadie, Shaikh S'adi, the Persian poet
Saag, _sag,_ herbs of various kinds used in cooking
Saalik, _salik_, a devotee, a kind of Sufi
Saatarah, _sitara_, a guitar
Sabbath, the, among Musalmans
Sacrifice of animals at the Bakrah 'Id festival
Safdar Jang, Nawab of Oudh, tomb of
Sahbaund, Sawan, the fourth Hindu month
Sahib Logue, Sahib Log, Europeans
Saints' tombs at Kanauj
Sainturh, _sentha_ the grass _Saccharum ciliare_;
Sakeena Koobraah, Sakina Kibriya, daughter of Husain
Salaam-oon-ali khoon, _salam 'alai-kum_, 'Peace be with thee'
Sallon, _salan_, a curry of meat, fish, or vegetables
Sampwalla, _sampwala_, a snake-charmer
Sarchuk, _saachaq_, fruits, &c., carried in procession at a marriage
Saulgirrah, _salgirah_, the knot tied to mark a birthday
Scales, the, doctrine of
Scapegoat, released in times of sickness
Scorpio, moon of, inauspicious
Scorpions, mode of repelling
Seclusion of womem, origin of the custom
Secundah, _sarkanda_,
roots of the grass _Saccharum ciliare_, used for mats and screens;
Secungebeen, _sikanjabin_, oxymel, vinegar
Seepie wallah deelie sukha,
_sipi wala gila sukha_, moist or dry cuppers
Seer, _scr_, a weight of about two pounds
Serai, _sarai_, a native inn
Seur, _suar_ a hog, a term of abuse
Seven, a lucky number
Shaah Jhee, Shahji, a beggar
Shaah Nudghiff, Shah Najaf, a shrine at Lucknow
Shaah ood Dowlah, Shah-ud-daula, a darvesh
Shah Allum, Shah 'Alam II, King of Delhi, his grave
Shah Allumgeer, Shah 'Alamgir, the Emperor Aurangzeb
Shah Jahan, the Moghul Emperor
Shahnama, the poem by Firdausi
Shah Nizaam ood deen, Shaikh Nizam ud-din Auliya, the saint
Shah Sherif ood deen Mahmood,
Shah Sharif ud-din Mahmud, a darvesh
Shaving, discontinued during mourning
Shawm, Sham, Syria
Shawmie, Shami, a native of Syria
Sheah, Shiah, the Musalman sect;
quarrels with Sunnis at the Muharram;
their numbers compared with those of Sunnis;
the creed of
Sheah-maul, _shirmal_, a kind of bread; see SHEERMAUL
Sheekaree, _shikari_, a huntsman
Sheermaul, _shirmal_, a kind of bread; see SHEAH-MAUL
Sheikh Mahumud, Shaikh Muhammad
Sherbet, _sharbat_, a drink, how made;
distributed at the Muharram festival;
payment for at marriages
SHERREFAH, SHERREEFHA, _sharifah_, the custard apple
Sheruff, Sharif, the governor of Mecca
Shimeear, Shimar, the chief agent in the murder of Husain
Shiraaz, Shiraz, a city in Persia
Shoes removed in sacred places and in houses;
varieties of
Shooghur Allah, see SHUGGUR ALLAH
Shopkeepers, mode of doing business
Shroff, _sarraf_, a moneychanger
Shroud, the burial
Shubh-burraat, _Shab-i-bara'at_, the night of record, a festival
Shubnum, _shabnam_, 'dew', a kind of fine cloth
Shuggur Allah, _shukr Allah_,
'Praise be to God!'; see SHOOGHUR ALLAH
Shujah ood Dowlah, Shuja ud-daula, Nawab of Oudh
Shutteringhie, _shatranji_, a striped floor-cloth
Sickley ghur, _saikalgar_, a polisher of arms
Sickness, attributed to spirits
Sikhs, the;
campaign against
Silk, wearing of
Sin, repentance of
Singing women
Siraat, _sirat_, the bridge over which the soul passes
Sirrakee, _sirki_, the reed _Saccharum
ciliare_, used for mats, &c
Sita ki Rasoi, a building at Kanauj
Slaves, domestic, condition of;
female in the zenanah;
liberated by or on the death of the owner;
property of reverting to the master
Snake charmers, deception practised by


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