Of Captain Mission
Daniel Defoe

Produced by David Starner, Deirdre Menchaca,
Ted Garvin and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.




Richard C. Boys, _University of Michigan_ Ralph Cohen, _University of
California, Los Angeles_ Vinton A. Dearing, _University of California,
Los Angeles_ Lawrence Clark Powell, _Clark Memorial Library_


W. Earl Britton, _University of Michigan_


Emmett L. Avery, _State College of Washington_ Benjamin Boyce, _Duke
University_ Louis Bredvold, _University of Michigan_ John Butt,
_University of Edinburgh_ James L. Clifford, _Columbia University_
Arthur Friedman, _University of Chicago_ Louis A. Landa, _Princeton
University_ Samuel H. Monk, _University of Minnesota_ Ernest C. Mossner,
_University of Texas_ James Sutherland, _University College, London_
H.T. Swedenberg, Jr., _University of California, Los Angeles_


Edna C. Davis, _Clark Memorial Library_


Defoe has been recognized as the author of _A General History of the
Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates_ since 1932 when
John Robert Moore suggested that the supposed author, Captain Charles
Johnson, like Andrew Moreton, Kara Selym or Captain Roberts, was merely
another mask for the creator of _Robinson Crusoe_. Although most of the
first volume is of minor literary importance, the second section which
appeared in 1728 as _The History of the Pyrates_ commenced with a life
"Of Captain Misson and His Crew," one of Defoe's most remarkable and
neglected works of fiction. In much the same manner and at the same time
that John Gay was satirizing Walpole's government in _The Beggar's
Opera_, Defoe began to use his pirates as a commentary on the injustice
and hypocrisy of contemporary English society. Among Defoe's gallery of
pirates are Captain White, who refused to rob from women and children;
Captain Bellamy, the proletarian revolutionist; and captain North, whose
sense of justice and honesty was a rebuke to the corruption of
government under Walpole. But the fictional Captain Misson, the founder
of a communist utopia, is by far the most original of these creations.

If we were to accept the view of nineteenth-century critics, that Defoe
was one of the earliest exponents of _laissez faire_, his creation of a
communist utopia would seem remarkable indeed. But paradoxes fascinated
Defoe, and his ideas can seldom be reduced to unambiguous platitudes. He
was especially fascinated by the comparison between businessmen and
thieves. In 1707 he urged the government to pardon the Madagascar
pirates if they agreed to stop their crimes, pay a large sum of money
and "become honest Freeholders, as others of our _West-India_ Pyrates,
_Merchants I should have said_, have done before them." And he noted
that "it would make a sad Chasm on the _Exchange of London_, if all the
Pyrates should be taken away from the Merchants there."[1] Twelve years
later just before the start of the South Sea Bubble, Defoe attacked
stock-jobbing as "a Branch of Highway Robbing."[2]

Although these attacks were directed mainly at "trade thieves" and
corruptions in business practices, they reflect Defoe's growing concern
with problems of poverty and wealth in England. In his preface to the
first volume of the _General History of the Pyrates_, Defoe argued that
the unemployed seaman had no choice but to "_steal or starve_." When the
pirate, Captain Bellamy, boards a merchant ship from Boston, he attacks
the inequality of capitalist society, the ship owners, and most of all,
the Captain:

_damn ye, you are a sneaking Puppy, and so are all those who will submit
to be governed by Laws which rich Men have made for their own Security,
for the cowardly Whelps have not the Courage otherwise to defend what
they get by their Knavery; but damn ye altogether: Damn them for a Pack
of crafty Rascals, and you, who serve them, for a Parcel of hen-hearted
Numskuls. They villify us, the Scoundrels do, when there is only this
Difference, they rob the Poor under the Cover of Law, forsooth, and we
plunder the Rich under the Protection of our own Courage._[3]

Bellamy asks the crew of the captured ship to abandon the slavery of
working for low wages under severe captains for the complete economic
and political equality of life on a pirate ship.

Government on Captain Misson's ship, the _Victoire_, and in the colony
of Libertalia is partially an idealization of the pirate's creed. But
two other elements which must be considered are, first, the concept of
government in the state of nature, and secondly, the ideal of the
socialist utopia. Most political theorists of Defoe's time postulated a
state of nature in which man lived either entirely free from government
or under loose patriarchal control, from which he was removed either by
the invention of money, the discovery of agriculture or by some crime.
To a certain extent, Misson's pirate government may be regarded as a
stage in the evolution of government. In _The Farther Adventures of
Robinson Crusoe_, Defoe showed how government evolved from the anarchy
of the state of nature. Both Crusoe's colony and Libertalia are
eventually forced to establish government, private property and criminal
laws, but Libertalia, which retains its egalitarian and democratic
character, is overthrown by its failure to account for human evil and

A second influence on Captain Misson's ideology is Plutarch's
description of the laws of Sparta and Rome. Even during the "Anti-
Communist Period" which followed the Glorious Revolution, the well-
regulated state of the Lacedemonians remained the norm for Utopias. The
influence of Plutarch pervades the biographies in the _General History
of the Pyrates._ Lycurgus' laws echo throughout Misson's attacks on
luxury and the unequal distribution of wealth, while Plutarch's study of
Spartacus, which is mentioned in Defoe's preface, may well have been the
model for his hero.

But neither the desire to regain the purity of the state of nature nor
an admiration for Spartan simplicity entirely explain Misson's vigorous
demand for freedom and his attacks on the corruption of the ruling
class. By refusing to fly the pirate flag, Misson dramatizes the growing
revolt of the poor against a useless nobility. The crew of the
_Victoire_ are, prophetically enough, French. Their aspiration is for a
society following the precepts of _la carriere ouverte aux talents_;
their revolt is that of a few courageous men unafraid to engage in the
pirate's "war against mankind" while those of lesser courage "dance to
the Musick of their Chains."

Defoe's study of Misson is different from the Utopias of More, Bacon or
Campanella in so far as there is no discovery of an ideal civilization.
Libertalia is a Utopia which reflects a direct reaction to the abuses of
the time--abuses of economic, political and religious freedom.
Anticipating Beccaria's criticism of the death penalty by almost forty
years, Carracioli argues that since man's right to life is inalienable,
no government can have the power of capital punishment.[4] Misson's
belief in equality is extended to include the negro slaves the
_Victoire_ takes at sea as well as the natives of Madagascar. After
asking the negroes to join his crew, Misson tells his men that

the Trading for those of our own Species, could never be agreeable to
the Eyes of divine Justice: That no Man had Power of the Liberty of
another; and while those who profess'd a more enlightened Knowledge of
the Deity, sold men like Beasts; they prov'd that their Religion was no
more than Crimace...: For his Part he hop'd, he spoke the Sentiments of
all his brave Companions, he had not exempted his Neck from the galling
Yoak of Slavery, and asserted his own Liberty to enslave others.

Slavery is banished from Misson's ship, and the negroes are schooled in
the principles of freedom.

Perhaps the most difficult problem in discussing the principles of
Misson and Carracioli is to attempt an explanation of why Defoe, a
Presbyterian, should have made his protagonists into deists. Defoe
attacks Carracioli's deistic arguments through his narrator, Captain
Johnson, who remarks that such ideas are pernicious only to "weak Men
who cannot discover their Fallacy." But since similar ideas appear in
Robert _Drury's Journal_ published a year later, it may be assumed that
the arguments of the deists held a certain fascination for Defoe at this
time. Carracioli's deism also has a dramatic function in the story. That
on a voyage to Rome a young man like Misson should be converted to deism
by a disillusioned "lewd" priest was in harmony with the traditional
English belief in the dangers of Italy.[5] That Carracioli should
combine the rebellion against organized religion with the revolt against
monarchy is indicative of Defoe's keen apprehension of the future course
of history.

Considered as a short novel, the history "Of Captain Misson and his
Crew" reveals many of the same techniques which Defoe used in his longer
works. To gain a sense of verisimilitude the narrator pretends to be
working from a manuscript, a device which Defoe also employed in his
_Memoirs of a Cavalier_. As in _Colonel Jack_ real historical figures
and events from the War of the Spanish Succession are woven into the
adventures of the _Victoire_. Captain Misson and his crew sink the
Winchelsea, an English ship lost in the West Indies at the end of
August, 1707, and they barely escape from Admiral Wager's fleet which
fought a famous battle there in 1708. Even the name of Misson's ship,
the _Victoire_; was undoubtedly familiar to Defoe as the vessel
commanded by the famous French corsair, Cornil Saus.[6] So convincing is
Defoe that although his hero is shown meeting a real freebooter, Captain
Tew, ten years after Tew's death, Misson is still included in the
histories of piracy.[7]

Also typical of Defoe's fiction is the relationship between Captain
Misson, the leader, and his intellectual mentor, Carracioli. Colonel
Jack and his tutor, Moll Flanders and her Governess and particularly,
Captain Singleton and William Walters form similar groups. Just as
William Walters, a Quaker, reminds Captain Singleton and the crew that
their business is not fighting but making money, so Carracioli addresses
lengthy speeches to the crew, converting everyone on the _Victoire_ to
democracy and deism. Misson's Libertalia takes root in Madagascar, where
Singleton wanted to establish a colony, while both Carracioli and
Walters adapt the secular aspects of their religion to piracy. But
whereas Walters eventually converts Singleton into an honest Christian,
Carracioli leads Misson into piracy.

In the history "Of Captain Misson and his Crew," Defoe decided to pursue
the same method of third person narrative as in his brief biographies of
real pirates. The result is that he merely provides a sketch of
political theories rather than a study of human beings. Of course there
are good reasons for this. Defoe was more interested in dramatizing
proletarian utopian ideals than in developing the inner workings of
Misson's mind. The novelette is unified by its epic theme, not by its
study of character or its episodic plot.

Although Defoe toyed with radical notions throughout _The History of the
Pyrates_, he had little faith in their practicality. Libertalia must be
understood as Defoe's best expression of political and social ideals
which he admired but considered unworkable. The continuation of Misson's
career in the section "Of Captain Tew" depicts the decline and fall of
the utopia and the hero's tragic death as a disillusioned idealist.
This, however, is another story, a story which suggested that private
property was necessary, equality impossible and slavery a useful
expedient for colonization. It was a far more comforting message for the
Augustan Age, but it could not silence the tocsins of the French
Revolution which sound throughout the speeches of Misson and Carracioli.

Maximillian E. Novak University of Michigan

Bibliographical Note

The text of "Of Captain Misson and His Crew" has been reproduced from
the Henry E. Huntington Library's first edition copy of the second
volume of _A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most
Notorious Pyrates_ which appeared under the title _The History of the

Notes to the Introduction

[Footnote 1: Daniel Defoe, _A Review of the Affairs of France_, ed. A.
W. Secord (New York, 1938), IV, 424a.]

[Footnote 2: _The Anatomy of Exchange--Alley_ (London, 1719), p. 8.]

[Footnote 3: _A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most
Notorious Pyrates_ (London, 1728), II, 220.]

[Footnote 4: See Cesare Beccaria, _An Essay on Crimes and Punishments_
(Stanford, 1953), pp. 97-99.]

[Footnote 5: In the previous year Defoe had written that "it was the
most dangerous thing in the World for a young Gentleman, sober and
virtuous, to venture into _Italy_, till he was thoroughly grounded in
Principle, ... for that nothing was more ordinary, than for such either
to be seduc'd, by the Subtlety of the Clergy, to embrace a false
Religion, or by the Artifice of a worse Enemy, to give up all Religion,
and sink into _Scepticism_ and _Deism_, or, perhaps, _Atheism_." _A New
Family Instructor_ (London, 1727), p. 17.]

[Footnote 6: See Ruth Bourne, _Queen Anne's Navy in the West Indies_
(New Haven, 1939), pp. 63, 169-172; and _Manuscripts of the House of
Lords_, New Series (London, 1921), VII, 117-119.]

[Footnote 7: See Philip Gosse, _The History of Piracy_ (New York, 1934),
p. 194; and Patrick Pringle, _Jolly Roger_ (London, 1953), pp. 136-138.]

_Omne tulit punctum, qui miscuit utile dulci_. Hor.



We can be somewhat particular in the Life of this Gentleman, because, by
very great Accident, we have got into our Hands a _French_ Manuscript,
in which he himself gives a Detail of his Actions. He was born in
_Provence_, of an ancient Family; his Father, whose true Name he
conceals, was Master of a plentiful Fortune; but having a great Number
of Children, our Rover had but little Hopes of other Fortune than what
he could carve out for himself with his Sword. His Parents took Care to
give him an Education equal to his Birth. After he had passed his
Humanity and Logick, and was a tolerable Mathematician, at the Age of
Fifteen he was sent to _Angiers_, where he was a Year learning His
Exercises. His Father, at his Return home, would have put him into the
Musketeers; but as he was of a roving Temper, and much affected with the
Accounts he had read in Books of Travels, he chose the Sea as a Life
which abounds with more Variety, and would afford him an Opportunity to
gratify his Curiosity, by the Change of Countries Having made this
Choice, his Father, with Letters of Recommendation, and every Thing
fitting for him, sent him Voluntier on board the _Victoire_, commanded
by Monsieur _Fourbin_, his Relation. He was received on Board with all
possible Regard by the Captain, whose Ship was at _Marseilles_, and was
order'd to cruise soon after _Misson's_ Arrival. Nothing could be more
agreeable to the Inclinations of our Voluntier than this Cruize, which
made him acquainted with the most noted Ports of the _Mediterranean_,
and gave him a great Insight into the practical Part of Navigation. He
grew fond of this Life, and was resolved to be a compleat Sailor, which
made him always one of the first on a Yard Arm, either to Hand or Reef,
and very inquisitive in the different Methods of working a Ship: His
Discourse was turn'd on no other Subject, and he would often get the
Boatswain and Carpenter to teach him in their Cabbins the constituent
Parts of a Ship's Hull, and how to rigg her, which he generously paid
'em for; and tho' he spent a great Part of his Time with these two
Officers, yet he behaved himself with such Prudence that they never
attempted at a Familiarity, and always paid the Respect due to his
Family. The Ship being at _Naples_, he obtained Leave of his Captain to
go to _Rome_, which he had a great Desire to visit. Hence we may date
his Misfortunes; for, remarking the licentious Lives of the Clergy (so
different from the Regularity observ'd among the _French_
Ecclesiasticks,) the Luxury of the Papal Court, and that nothing but
Hulls of Religion was to be found in the Metropolis of the Christian
Church, he began to figure to himself that all Religion was no more than
a Curb upon the Minds of the Weaker, which the wiser Sort yielded to, in
Appearance only. These Sentiments, so disadvantageous to Religion and
himself, were strongly riveted by accidentally becoming acquainted with
a lewd Priest, who was, at his Arrival (by meer Chance) his Confessor,
and after that his Procurer and Companion, for he kept him Company to
his Death. One Day, having an Opportunity, he told _Misson_, a Religious
was a very good Life, where a Man had a subtle enterprising Genius, and
some Friends; for such a one wou'd, in a short Time, rise to such
Dignities in the Church, the Hopes of which was the Motive of all the
wiser Sort, who voluntarily took upon them the sacerdotal Habit. That
the ecclesiastical State was govern'd with the same Policy as were
secular Principalities and Kingdoms; that what was beneficial, not what
was meritorious and virtuous, would be alone regarded. That there were
no more Hopes for a Man of Piety and Learning in the Patrimony of St.
_Peter_, than in any other Monarchy, nay, rather less; for this being
known to be real, that Man's rejected as a Visionary, no way fit for
Employment; as one whose Scruples might prove prejudicial; for its a
Maxim, that Religion and Politicks can never set up in one House. As to
our Statesmen, don't imagine that the Purple makes 'em less Courtiers
than are those of other Nations; they know and pursue the _Reggione del
Stato_ (a Term of Art which means Self-Interest) with as much Cunning
and as little Conscience as any Secular; and are as artful where Art is
required, and as barefaced and impudent when their Power is great enough
to support 'em, in the oppressing the People, and aggrandizing their
Families. What their Morals are, you may read in the Practice of their
Lives, and their Sentiments of Religion from this Saying of a certain
Cardinal, _Quantum Lucrum ex ista fabula Christi!_ which many of 'em may
say, tho' they are not so foolish. For my Part, I am quite tir'd of the
Farce, and will lay hold on the first Opportunity to throw off this
masquerading Habit; for, by Reason of my Age, I must act an under Part
many Years; and before I can rise to share the Spoils of the People, I
shall, I fear, be too old to enjoy the Sweets of Luxury; and, as I am an
Enemy to Restraint, I am apprehensive I shall never act up to my
Character, and carry thro' the Hypocrite with Art enough to rise to any
considerable Post in the Church. My Parents did not consult my Genius,
or they would have given me a Sword instead of a Pair of Beads.

_Misson_ advised him to go with him Voluntier, and offer'd him Money to
cloath him; the Priest leap'd at the Proposal, and a Letter coming to
_Misson_ from his Captain, that he was going to _Leghorn_, and left to
him either to come to _Naples_, or go by Land; he chose the latter, and
the _Dominican_, whom he furnish'd with Money, clothing himself very
Cavalierly, threw off his Habit, and preceeded him two Days, staying at
_Pisa_ for _Misson_; from whence they went together to _Leghorn_, where
they found the _Victoire_, and Signor _Caraccioli_, recommended by his
Friend, was received on Board. Two Days after they weigh'd from hence,
and after a Week's Cruize fell in with two _Sally_ Men, the one of
twenty, the other of twenty four Guns; the _Victoire_ had but thirty
mounted, though she had Ports for forty. The Engagement was long and
bloody, for the _Sally_ Man hop'd to carry the _Victoire_; and, on the
contrary, Captain _Fourbin_, so far from having any Thoughts of being
taken, he was resolutely bent to make Prize of his Enemies, or sink his
Ship. One of the _Sally_ Men was commanded by a _Spanish_ Renegade,
(though he had only the Title of a Lieutenant) for the Captain was a
young Man who knew little of Marine Affairs.

This Ship was called the _Lyon_; and he attempted, more than once, to
board the _Victoire_, but by a Shot betwixt Wind and Water, he was
obliged to sheer off, and running his Guns, &c. on one Side, bring her
on the careen to stop his Leak; this being done with too much
Precipitation, she overset, and every Soul was lost: His Comrade seeing
this Disaster, threw out all his small sails, and endeavour'd to get
off, but the _Victoire_ wrong'd her, and oblig'd her to renew the Fight,
which she did with great Obstinacy, and made Monsieur _Fourbin_ despair
of carrying her if he did not board; he made Preparations accordingly.
Signior _Caraccioli_ and _Misson_ were the two first on board when the
Command was given; but they and their Followers were beat back by the
Despair of the _Sally_ Men; the former received a Shot in his Thigh, and
was carried down to the Surgeon. The _Victoire_ laid her on board the
second time, and the _Sally_ Men defended their Decks with such
Resolution, that they were cover'd with their own, and the dead Bodies
of their Enemies. _Misson_ seeing one of 'em jump down the Main-Hatch
with a lighted Match, suspecting his Design, resolutely leap'd after
him, and reaching him with his Sabre, laid him dead the Moment he going
to set Fire to the Powder. The _Victoire_ pouring in more Men, the
_Mahometans_ quitted the Decks, finding Resistance vain, and fled for
Shelter to the Cook Room, Steerage and Cabbins, and some run between
Decks. The _French_ gave 'em Quarters, and put the Prisoners on board
the _Victoire_, the Prize yielding nothing worth mention, except Liberty
to about fifteen Christian Slaves; she was carried into and sold with
the Prisoners at _[text unreadable]_. The Turks lost a great many Men,
the _French_ not less than 35 in boarding, for they lost very few by the
great Shot, the _Sally_ Men firing mostly at the Masts and Rigging,
hoping by disabling to carry her. The limited Time of their Cruize
being out, the _Victoire_ returned to _Marseilles_, from whence
_Misson_, taking his Companion, went to visit his Parents, to whom the
Captain sent a very advantageous Character, both of his Courage and
Conduct. He was about a Month at home when his Captain wrote to him,
that his Ship was ordered to _Rochelle_, from whence he was to sail for
the _West-Indies_ with some Merchant Men. This was very agreeable to
_Misson_ and Signior _Caraccioli_, who immediately set out for
_Marseilles_. This Town is well fortified, has four Parish Churches, and
the Number of Inhabitants is computed to be about 120,0000; the Harbour
is esteemed the safest in the _Mediterranean_, and is the common Station
for the _French_ Gallies.

Leaving this Place, they steer'd for _Rochelle_, where the _Victoire_
was dock'd, the Merchant Ships not being near ready. _Misson_, who did
not Care to pass so long a Time in Idleness, proposed to his Comrade the
taking a Cruize on board the _Triumph_, who was going into the _English
Channel_; the _Italian_ readily contented to it.

Between the Isle of _Guernsey_ and the _Start Point_ they met with the
_Mayflower_, Captain _Balladine_ Commanded, a Merchant Ship of 18 Guns,
richly laden, and coming from _Jamaica_. The Captain of the _English_
made a gallant resistance, and fought his Ship so long, that the
_French_ could not carry her into Harbour, wherefore they took the
Money, and what was most valuable, out of her; and finding she made more
Water than the Pumps could free, quitted, and saw her go down in less
than four Hours after. Monsieur _le Blanc_, the _French_ Captain,
received Captain _Balladine_ very civilly, and would not suffer either
him or his Men to be stripp'd, saying, _None but Cowards ought be
treated after that Manner; that brave Men ought to treat such, though
their Enemies, as Brothers; and that to use a gallant Man (who does his
Duty) ill, speaks a Revenge which cannot proceed but from a Coward
Soul._ He order'd that the Prisoners should leave their Chests; and when
some of his Men seem'd to mutter, he bid 'em remember the Grandeur of
the Monarch they serv'd; that they were neither Pyrates nor Privateers;
and, as brave Men, they ought to shew their Enemies an Example they
would willingly have follow'd, and use their Prisoners as they wish'd to
be us'd.

They running up the _English_ Channel as high as _Beachy Head_, and, in
returning, fell in with three fifty Gun Ships, which gave Chace to the
_Triumph_; but as she was an excellent Sailor, she run 'em out of Sight
in seven Glasses, and made the best of her Way for the _Lands-End_ they
here cruized eight Days, then doubling Cape _Cornwall_, ran up the
_Bristol_ Channel, near as far as _Nash Point_, and intercepted a small
Ship from _Barbadoes_, and stretching away to the Northward, gave Chase
to a Ship they saw in the Evening, but lost her in the Night. The
_Triumph_ stood then towards _Milford_ and spying a Sail, endeavour'd to
cut her off the Land, but found it impossible; for she got into the
Haven, though they came up with her very fast, and she had surely been
taken, had the Chase had been any thing longer.

Captain _Balladine_, who took the Glass, said it was the _Port Royal_, a
_Bristol_ Ship which left _Jamaica_ in Company with him and the
_Charles_. They now return'd to their own Coast, and sold their Prize at
_Brest_, where, at his Desire, they left Captain _Balladine_, and
Monsieur _le Blanc_ made him a Present of Purse with 40 _Louis's_ for
his Support; his Crew were also left here.

At the Entrance into this Harbour the _Triumph_ struck upon a Rock, but
receiv'd no Damage: This Entrance, called _Genlet_, is very dangerous on
Account of the Number of Rocks which lie on each Side under Water,
though the Harbour is certainly the best in _France_. The Mouth of the
Harbour is defended by a strong Castle; the Town is well fortified, and
has a Citadel for its farther Defence, which is of considerable
Strength. In 1694 the _English_ attempted a Descent, but did not find
their Market, for they were beat off with the Loss of their General, and
a great many Men. From hence the _Triumph_ return'd to _Rochel_, and in
a Month after our Voluntiers, who went on board the _Victoire_, took
their Departure for _Martineco_ and _Guadalupe_; they met with nothing
in their Voyage thither worth noting.

I shall only observe, that Signior _Caraccioli_, who was as ambitious as
he was irreligious, had, by this Time, made a perfect Deist of _Misson_,
and thereby convinc'd him, that all Religion was no other than human
Policy, and shew'd him that the Law of _Moses_ was no more than what
were necessary, as well for the Preservation as the Governing of the
People; for Instance, said he, the _African_ Negroes never heard of the
Institution of Circumcision, which is said to be the Sign of the
Covenant made between God and this People, and yet they circumcise their
Children; doubtless for the same Reason the _Jews_ and other Nations do,
who inhabit the Southern Climes, the Prepuce consolidating the perspired
Matter, which is of a fatal Consequence. In short, he ran through all
the Ceremonies of the _Jewish_, Christian and _Mahometan_ Religion, and
convinced him these were, as might be observed by the Absurdity of many,
far from being Indications of Men inspired; and that _Moses_, in his
Account of the Creation, was guilty of known Blunders; and the Miracles,
both in the New and Old Testament, inconsistent with Reason. That God
had given us this Blessing, to make Use of for our present and future
Happiness, and whatever was contrary to it, notwithstanding their School
Distinctions of _contrary_ and _above_ Reason, must be false. This
Reason teaches us, that there is a first Cause of all Things, an _Ens
Entium_, which we call God, and our Reason will also suggest, that he
must be eternal, and, as the Author of every Thing perfect, he must be
infinitely perfect.

If so, he can be subject to no Passions, and neither loves nor hates; he
must be ever the fame, and cannot rashly do to Day what he shall repent
to Morrow. He must be perfectly happy, consequently nothing can add to
an eternal State of Tranquillity, and though it becomes us to adore him,
yet can our Adorations neither augment, nor our Sins take from this

But his Arguments on this Head are too long, and too dangerous to
translate; and as they are work'd up with great Subtlety, they may be
pernicious to weak Men, who cannot discover their Fallacy; or, who
finding 'em agreeable to their Inclinations, and would be glad to shake
off the Yoke of the Christian Religion, which galls and curbs their
Passions, would not give themselves the Trouble to examine them to the
Bottom, but give into what pleases, glad of finding some Excuse to their
Consciences. Though as his Opinion of a future State has nothing in it
which impugns the Christian Religion, I shall set it down in few Words.

That reasoning Faculty, says he, which we perceive within us, we call
the Soul, but what that Soul is, is unknown to us. It may die with the
Body, or it may survive. I am of Opinion its immortal; but to say that
this Opinion is the Dictate of Reason, or only the Prejudice of
Education, would, I own, puzzle me. If it is immortal, it must be an
Emanation from the Divine Being, and consequently at its being separated
from the Body, will return to its first Principle, if not contaminated.
Now, my Reason tells me, if it is estranged from its first Principle,
which is the Deity, all the Hells of Man's Invention can never yield
Tortures adequate to such a Banishment.

As he had privately held these Discourses among the Crew, he had gained
a Number of Proselytes, who look'd upon him as a new Prophet risen up to
reform the Abuses in Religion; and a great Number being _Rochellers_,
and, as yet, tainted with _Calvinism_, his Doctrine was the more readily
embrac'd. When he had experienced the Effects of his religious
Arguments, he fell upon Government, and shew'd, that every Man was born
free, and had as much Right to what would support him, as to the Air he
respired. A contrary Way of arguing would be accusing the Deity with
Cruelty and Injustice, for he brought into the World no Man to pass a
Life of Penury, and to miserably want a necessary Support; that the vast
Difference between Man and Man, the one wallowing in Luxury, and the
other in the most pinching Necessity, was owing only to Avarice and
Ambition on the one Hand, and a pusillanimous Subjection on the other;
that at first no other than a Natural was known, a paternal Government,
every Father was the Head, the Prince and Monarch of his Family, and
Obedience to such was both just and easy, for a Father had a
compassionate Tenderness for his Children; but Ambition creeping in by
Degrees, the stronger Family set upon and enslaved the Weaker; and this
additional Strength over-run a third, by every Conquest gathering Force
to make others, and this was the first Foundation of Monarchy. Pride
encreasing with Power, Man usurped the Prerogative of God, over his
Creatures, that of depriving them of Life, which was a Privilege no one
had over his own; for as he did not come into the World by his own
Election, he ought to stay the determined Time of his Creator: That
indeed, Death given in War, was by the Law of Nature allowable, because
it is for the Preservation of our own Lives; but no Crime ought to be
thus punished, nor indeed any War undertaken, but in Defence of our
natural Right, which is such a Share of Earth as is necessary for our

These Topicks he often declaimed on, and very often advised with
_Misson_ about the setting up for themselves; he was as ambitious as the
other, and as resolute. _Caraccioli_ and _Misson_ were by this expert
Mariners, and very capable of managing a Ship: _Caraccioli_ had founded
a great many of the Men on this Subject, and found them very inclineable
to listen to him. An Accident happen'd which gave _Caraccioli_ a fair
Opportunity to put his Designs in Execution, and he laid Hold of it;
they went off _Martinico_ on a Cruize, and met with the _Winchelsea_, an
_English_ Man of War of 40 Guns, commanded by Captain _Jones_; they made
for each other, and a very smart Engagement followed, the first
Broadside killed the Captain, second Captain, and the three Lieutenants,
on Board the _Victoire_ and left only the Master, who would have struck,
but Misson took up the Sword, order'd _Caraccioli_ to act as Lieutenant,
and encouraging the Men fought the Ship six Glasses, when by some
Accident, the _Winchelsea_ blew up, and not a Man was saved but
Lieutenant _Franklin_, whom the _French_ Boats took up, and he died in
two Days. None ever knew before this Manuscript fell into my Hands how
the _Winchelsea_ was lost; for her Head being driven ashore at
_Antegoa_, and a great Storm having happend a few Days before her Head
was found, it was concluded, that she founder'd in that Storm. After
this Engagement, _Caraccioli_ came to Misson and saluted him Captain,
and desired to know if he would chuse a momentary or a lasting Command,
that he must now determine, for at his Return to _Martinico_ it would be
too late; and he might depend upon the Ship he fought and saved being
given to another, and they would think him well rewarded if made a
Lieutenant, which Piece of Justice he doubted: That he had his Fortune
in his Hands, which he might either keep or let go; if he made Choice of
the latter, he must never again expect she would court him to accept her
Favours: That he ought to let before his Eyes his Circumstances, as a
younger Brother of a good Family, but nothing to support his Character;
and the many Years he must serve at the Expence of his Blood before he
could make any Figure in the World; and consider the wide Difference
between the commanding and being commanded: That he might with the Ship
he had under Foot, and the brave Fellows under Command, bid Defiance to
the Power of _Europe_, enjoy every Thing he wish'd, reign Sovereign of
the Southern Seas, and lawfully make War on all the World, since it
would deprive him of that Liberty to which he had a Right by the Laws of
Nature: That he might in Time, become as great as _Alexander_ was to the
_Persians_; and by encreasing his Forces by his Captures, he would every
Day strengthen the Justice of his Cause, for who has Power is always in
the Right. That _Harry_ the Fourth and _Harry_ the Seventh, attempted
and succeeded in their Enterprizes on the Crown of _England_, yet their
Forces did not equal his. _Mahomet_ with a few Camel Drivers, founded
the _Ottoman_ Empire and _Darius_, with no more than six or seven
Companions got Possession on of that of _Persia_.

In a Word he said so much that _Misson_ resolved to follow his Advice,
and calling up all Hands, he told them, 'That a great Number of them had
resolved with him upon a Life of Liberty, and had done him the Honour to
create him Chief: That he designed to force no Man, and be guilty of
that Injustice he blamed in others; therefore, if any were averse to the
following his Fortune, which he promised should be the same to all, he
desired they would declare themselves, and he would set them ashore,
whence they might return with Conveniency;' having made an End, they one
and all cryed, _Vive le Capitain_ Misson _et son Lieutenant le Seavant_
Caraccioli, God bless Capt. _Misson_ and his learned Lieutenant
_Caraccioli_. _Misson_ thanked them for the Honour they conferr'd upon
him, and promised he would use the Power they gave for the publick Good
only, and hoped, as they had the Bravery to assert their Liberty, they
would be as unanimous in the preserving it, and stand by him in what
should be found expedient for the Good of all; that he was their Friend
and Companion, and should never exert his Power, or think himself other
than their Comrade, but when the Necessity of Affairs should oblige him.

They shouted a second Time, _vive le Capitain_; he, after this, desired
they would chuse their subaltern Officers, and give them Power to
consult and conclude upon what might be for the common Interest, and
bind themselves down by an Oath to agree to what such Officers and he
should determine: This they readily gave into. The School-Master they
chose for second Lieutenant, _Jean Besace_ they nominated for third, and
the Boatswain, and a Quarter-Master, named _Matthieu le Tondu_, with the
Gunner, they desired might be their Representatives in Council.

The Choice was approved, and that every Thing might pass methodically,
and with general Approbation, they were called into the great Cabbin,
and the Question put, what Course they should steer? The Captain
proposed the _Spanish_ Coast as the most probable to afford them rich
Prizes: This was agreed upon by all. The Boatswain then asked what
Colours they should fight under, and advised Black as most terrifying;
but _Caraccioli_ objected, that they were no Pyrates, but Men who were
resolved to assert that Liberty which God and Nature gave them, and own
no Subjection to any, farther than was for the common Good of all: That
indeed, Obedience to Governors was necessary, when they knew and acted
up to the Duty of their Function; were vigilant Guardians of the Peoples
Rights and Liberties; saw that Justice was equally distributed; were
Barriers against the Rich and Powerful, when they attempted to oppress
the Weaker; when they suffered none of the one Hand to grow immensely
rich, either by his own or his Ancestors Encroachments; nor on the
other, any to be wretchedly miserable, either by falling into the Hands
of Villains, unmerciful Creditors, or other Misfortunes. While he had
Eyes impartial, and allowed nothing but Merit to distinguish between Man
and Man; and instead of being a Burthen to the People by his luxurious
life, he was by his Care for, and Protection of them, a real Father, and
in every Thing acted with the equal and impartial Justice of a Parent:
But when a Governor, who is the Minister of the People, thinks himself
rais'd to this Dignity, that he may spend his Days in Pomp and Luxury,
looking upon his Subjects as so many Slaves, created for his Use and
Pleasure, and therefore leaves them and their Affairs to the
immeasurable Avarice and Tyranny of some one whom he has chosen for his
Favourite, when nothing but Oppression, Poverty, and all the Miseries of
Life flow from such an Administration; that he lavishes away the Lives
and Fortunes of the People, either to gratify his Ambition, or to
support the Cause of some neighbouring Prince, that he may in Return,
strengthen his Hands should his People exert themselves in Defence of
their native Rights; or should he run into unnecessary Wars, by the rash
and thoughtless Councils of his Favourite, and not able to make Head
against the Enemy he has rashly or wantonly brought upon his Hands, and
buy a Peace (which is the present Case of _France_, as every one knows,
by supporting King _James_, and afterwards proclaiming his Son) and
drain the Subject; should the Peoples Trade be wilfully neglected, for
private Interests, and while their Ships of War lie idle in their
Harbours, suffer their Vessels to be taken; and the Enemy not only
intercepts all Commerce, but insults their Coasts: It speaks a generous
and great Soul to shake off the Yoak; and if we cannot redress our
Wrongs, withdraw from sharing the Miseries which meaner Spirits submit
to, and scorn to yield to the Tyranny. Such Men are we, and, if the
World, as Experience may convince us it will, makes War upon us, the Law
of Nature empowers us not only to be on the defensive, but also on the
offensive Part. As we then do not proceed upon the same Ground with
Pyrates, who are Men of dissolute Lives and no Principles, let us scorn
to take their Colours: Ours is a brave, a just, an innocent, and a noble
Cause; the Cause of Liberty. I therefore advise a white Ensign, with
Liberty painted in the Fly, and if you like the Motto, _a Deo a
Libertate_, for God and Liberty, as an Emblem of our Uprightness and

The Cabbin Door was left open, and the Bulk Head which was of Canvas
rowled up, the Steerage being full of Men, who lent an attentive Ear,
they cried, _Liberty, Liberty; we are free Men_: Vive _the brave
Captain_ Misson _and the noble Lieutenant_ Caraccioli. This short
Council breaking up, every Thing belonging to the deceased Captain, and
the other Officers, and Men lost in the Engagement, was brought upon
Deck and over-hawled; the Money ordered to be put into a Chest, and the
Carpenter to clap on a Padlock for, and give a Key to, every one of the
Council: Misson telling them, all should be in common, and the
particular Avarice of no one should defraud the Publick.

When the Plate Monsieur _Fourbin_ had, was going to the Chest, the Men
unanimously cried out avast, keep that out for the Captain's Use, as a
Present from his Officers and Fore-mast Men. _Misson_ thanked them, the
Plate was returned to the great Cabbin, and the Chest secured according
to Orders: Misson then ordered his Lieutenants and other Officers to
examine who among the Men, were in most Want of Cloaths, and to
distribute those of the dead Men impartially, which was done with a
general Content and Applause of the whole Crew: All but the wounded
being upon Deck. _Misson_ from the Baracade, spoke to the following
Purpose, 'That since they had unanimously resolved to seize upon and
defend their Liberty, which ambitious Men had usurped, and that this
could not be esteemed by impartial Judges other than a just and brave
Resolution, he was under an Obligation to recommend to them a brotherly
Love to each other; the Banishment of all private Piques and Grudges,
and a swift Agreement and Harmony among themselves: That in throwing off
the Yoak of Tyranny of which the Action spoke an Abhorrence, he hoped
none would follow the Example of Tyrants, and turn his Back upon
Justice; for when Equity was trodden under Foot, Misery, Confusion, and
mutual Distrust naturally followed.'--He also advised them to remember
there was a Supream; the Adoration of which, Reason and Gratitude
prompted us, and our own Interests would engage us (as it is best to be
of the surest Side, and after-Life was allowed possible) to conciliate.
--That he was satisfied Men who were born and bred in Slavery, by which
their Spirits were broke, and were incapable of so generous a Way of
thinking, who, ignorant of their Birth-Right, and the Sweets of Liberty,
dance to the Musick of their Chains, which was, indeed, the greater Part
of the Inhabitants of the Globe, would brand this generous Crew with the
insidious Name of Pyrates, and think it meritorious, to be instrumental
in their Destruction.--Self-Preservation therefore, and not a cruel
Disposition, obliged him to declare War against all such as should
refuse him the Entry of their Ports, and against all, who should not
immediately surrender and give up what their Necessities required; but
in a more particular Manner against all _European_ Ships and Vessels, as
concluded implacable Enemies. _And I do now,_ said he, _declare such
War, and, at the same time, recommend to you my Comrades a humane and
generous Behaviour towards your Prisoners; which will appear by so much
more the Effects of a noble Soul, as we are satisfied we should not meet
the same Treatment should our ill Fortune, or more properly our
Disunion, or want of Courage, give us up to their Mercy._

After this, he required a Muster should be made, and there were able
Hands two Hundred, and thirty five sick and wounded; as they were
muster'd they were sworn. After Affairs were thus settled, they shaped
their Course the _Spanish West-Indies,_ but resolved, in the Way, to
take a Week or ten Days Cruize in the Windward Passage from _Jamaica,_
because most Merchant Men, which were good Sailors and did not slay for
Convoy, took this as the shorter Cut for _England._

Off St. _Christophers_ they took an _English_ Sloop becalmed, with their
Boats; they took out of her a couple of Puncheons of Rum, and half a
dozen Hogsheads of Sugar (she was a _New England_ Sloop, bound for
_Boston_) and without offering the least Violence to the Men, or
stripping them, they let her go. The Master of the Sloop was _Thomas
Butler,_ who owned, he never met with so candid an Enemy as the _French_
Man of War, which took him the Day he left St. _Christophers;_ they met
with no other Booty in their Way, till they came upon their Station,
when after three Days, they saw a Sloop which had the Impudence to give
them Chace; Captain _Misson_ asked what could be the Meaning that the
Sloop stood for them? One of the Men, who was acquainted with the _West-
Indies,_ told him, it was a _Jamaica_ Privateer, and he should not
wonder, if he clapp'd him aboard. I am, said he, no Stranger to their
Way of working, and this despicable Fellow, as those who don't know a
_Jamaica_ Privateer may think him, it is ten to one will give you some
Trouble. It now grows towards Evening, and you'll find as soon as he has
discovered your Force, he'll keep out of the Reach of your Guns till the
12 a-Clock Watch is changed at Night, and he'll then attempt to clap you
aboard, with Hopes to carry you in the Hurry: Wherefore Captain, if you
will give me Leave to advise you, let every Man have his small Arms; and
at twelve, let the Bell ring as usual; and rather more Noise than
ordinary be made, as if the one Watch was turning in, and the other out,
in a Confusion and Hurry, and I'll engage he will venture to enter his
Men. The Fellow's Advice was approved and resolved upon, and the Sloop
work'd, as he said she would, for upon coming near enough to make
distinctly the Force of the _Victoire_, on her throwing out _French_
Colours, she, the Sloop, clapp'd upon a Wind, the _Victoire_ gave Chace,
but without Hopes of gaining upon her; she went so well to Windward,
that she cou'd spare the Ship some Points in her Sheet, and yet wrong
her: At Dusk of the Even, the _French_ had lost Sight of her, but about
Eleven at Night, they saw her hankering up their Windward Bow, which
confirmed the Sailors Opinion, that she would attempt to board them, as
she did at the pretended Change of the Watch; there being little or no
Wind, she lashed to the Bow-Sprit of the _Victoire_ and enter'd her Men,
who were very quietly taken, as they enter'd and tumbled down the
Forehatch, where they were received by others, and bound without Noise,
not one of the Privateers killed, few hurt, and only one _Frenchman_
wounded. The _Victoire_ the better Part of the Sloop's Men secured, they
boarded in their Turn, when the Privateer's suspecting some Stratagem,
were endeavouring to cut their Lashing and get off:

Thus the Englishman caught a Tartar. The Prisoners being all secured,
the Captain charged his Men not to discover, thro' a Desire of
augmenting their Number, the Account they were upon.

The next Morning Monsieur _Misson_ called for the Captain of the
Privateer, he told him, he could not but allow him a brave Fellow, to
venture upon a Ship of his Countenance, and for that Reason he should
meet Treatment which Men of his Profession seldom afforded the Prisoners
they made. He asked him how long he had been out, what was his Name, and
what he had on Board? He answered he was but just come out, that he was
the first Sail he had met with, and should have thought himself
altogether as lucky not to have spoke with him' that his Name was _Harry
Ramsey_, and what he had on Board were Rags, Powder, Ball, and some few
half Anchors of Rum. _Ramsey_ was ordered into the Gun-Room, and a
Council being held in the publick Manner aforesaid, the Bulk Head of the
great Cabbin rowled up. On their Conclusion, the Captain of the
Privateer was called in again, when Captain _Misson_ told him, he would
return him his Sloop, and restore him and his Men to their Liberty,
without stripping or plundering of any Thing, but what Prudence obliged
him to, their Ammunition and Small-Arms, if he would give him his Word
and Honour, and his Men to take an Oath, not to go out on the Privateer
Account in six Months after they left him: That he did not design to
continue that Station above a Week longer, at the Expiration of which
Time he would let them go.

_Ramsey_, who had a new Sloop, did not expect this Favour, which he
thanked him for, and promised punctually to comply with the Injunction,
which his Men as readily swore to, tho' they had no Design to keep the
Oath. The Time being expired, he and his Men were put on Board their own
Sloop. At going over the Ship's Side _Ramsey_ begg'd Monsieur _Misson_
would allow him Powder for a salute, by way of Thanks; but he answered
him, the Ceremony was needless, and he expected no other Return than
that of keeping his Word, which indeed _Ramsey_ did. Some of his Men had
found it more to their Advantage to have been as religious.

At parting Ramsey gave the Ship three Chears, and _Misson_ had the
Complaisance to return one, which _Ramsey_ answering with three more,
made the best of his Way for _Jamaica_, and at the East End of the
Island met with the _Diana_, who, upon Advice, turn'd back.

The _Victoire_ steer'd for _Carthagene_, off which Port they cruised
some Days, but meeting with nothing in the Seas, they made for _Porto
Bello_; in their Way they met with two _Dutch_ Traders, who had Letters
of Mart, and were just come upon the Coast, the one had 20, the other 24
Guns; _Misson_ engaged them, and they defended themselves with a great
Deal of Resolution and Gallantry; and as they were mann'd a Peak, he
darst not venture to board either of them, for fear of being at the same
Time boarded by the other. His Weight of Mettal gave him a great
Advantage over the _Dutch_, though they were two to one; besides, their
Business, as they had Cargoes, was to get off, if possible, wherefore
they made a running Fight, though they took Care to stick close to one

They maintained the Fight for above six Hours, when _Misson_, enraged at
this Obstinacy, and fearing, if by Accident they should bring a Mast, or
Top-Mast, by the board, they would get from him. He was resolved to sink
the larger Ship of the two, and accordingly ordered his Men to bring all
their Guns to bear a Midship, then running close along Side of him, to
raise their Mettal; his Orders being punctually obey'd, he pour'd in a
Broad Side, which open'd such a Gap in the _Dutch_ Ship, that she went
directly to the Bottom, and every Man perish'd.

He then mann'd his Bowsprit, brought his Sprit-sail Yard fore and aft,
and resolved to board the other, which the _Dutch_ perceiving, and
terrified with the unhappy Fate of their Comrade, thought a farther
Resistance vain, and immediately struck. _Misson_ gave them good
Quarters, though he was enraged at the Loss of 13 Men killed outright,
beside 9 wounded, of which 6 died. They found on board a great Quantity
of Gold and Silver Lace, brocade Silks, Silk Stockings, Bails of Broad-
Cloath, bazes of all Colours, and _Osnabrughs_.

A Consultation being held, it was resolved Captain _Misson_ should take
the Name of _Fourbin_, and returning to _Carthagene_, dispose of his
Prize, and set his Prisoners ashoar. Accordingly they ply'd to the
Eastward, and came to an Anchor between _Boca Chieca_ Fort, and the
Town, for they did not think it expedient to enter the Harbour. The
Barge was manned, and _Caraccioli_, with the Name of _D'Aubigny_, the
first lieutenant, who was killed in the Engagement with the
_Winchelsea_, and his Commission in his Pocket, went ashore with a
Letter to the Governor, sign'd _Fourbin_, whose Character, for fear of
the worst, was exactly counterfeited. The Purport of his Letter was,
that having discretionary Orders to cruize for three Months, and hearing
the _English_ infested his Coast, he was come in search of 'em, and had
met two _Dutch_ Men, one of which he had sunk, the other he made Prize
of. That his limited Time being near expired, he should be obliged to
his Excellency, if he would send on board him such Merchants as were
willing to take the Ship and Cargoe off his Hands, of which he had lent
the _Dutch_ Invoice. Don _Joseph de la Zerda_, the then Governor,
received the Lieutenant (who sent back the Barge at landing) very
civilly, and agreed to take the Prisoners ashoar, and do every Thing was
required of him; and ordering fresh Provisions and Sallading to be got
ready as a Present for the Captain, he sent for some Merchants who were
very ready to go on board, and agree for the Ship and Goods; which they
did, for two and fifty thousand Pieces of Eight. The next Day the
Prisoners were set ashoar; a rich Piece of Brocade which was reserv'd,
sent to the Governor for a Present, a Quantity of fresh Provision bought
and brought on board, the Money paid by the Merchants, the Ship and
Goods deliver'd, and the _Victoire_, at the Dawn of the following Day,
got under Sail. It may be wonder'd how such Dispatch could be made, but
the Reader must take Notice, these Goods were sold by the _Dutch_
Invoice, which the Merchant of the Prize affirmed was genuine. I shall
observe, by the by, that the _Victoire_ was the _French_ Man of War
which Admiral _Wager_ sent the _Kingston_ in search of, and being
afterwards falsly inform'd, that she was join'd by another of seventy
Guns; and that they cruiz'd together between the Capes, order'd the
_Severn_ up to Windward, to assist the _Kingston_, which had like to
have prov'd very fatal; for these two _English_ Men of War, commanded by
Captain _Trevor_ and Captain _Padnor_, meeting in the Night, had
prepared to engage, each taking the other for the Enemy. The
_Kingston's_ Men not having a good Look-out, which must be attributed to
the Negligence of the Officer of the Watch, did not see the _Severn_
till she was just upon them; but, by good Luck, to Leeward, and plying
up, with all the Sail she could crowd, and a clear Ship. This put the
_Kingston_ in such Confusion, that when the _Severn_ hal'd, no answer
was retun'd, for none heard her. She was got under the _Kingston's_
Stern, and Captain _Padnor_ ordered to hale for the third and last Time,
and if no answer was return'd, to give her a Broadside. The Noise
onboard the _Kingston_ was now a little ceas'd, and Captain Trevor, who
was on the poop with a speaking Trumpet to hale the _Severn_, by good
Luck heard her hale him, answering the _Kingston_, and asking the Name
of the other ship, prevented the Damage.

They cruised together some time, and meeting nothing which answer'd
their Information, return'd to _Jamaica_, as I shall to my Subject,
begging Pardon for this, as I thought, necessary Digression.

Don _Juan de la Zevda_ told the Captain in a Letter, that the St.
_Joseph_, a Gallion of seventy Guns, was then lying at _Port a Bello_,
and should be glad he could keep her Company till she was off the Coast.
That she would sail in eight or ten Days for the _Havana_; and that, if
his Time would permit him, he would send an Advice-Boat. That she had on
board the Value of 800,000 Pieces of Eight in Silver and Bar Gold.
_Misson_ return'd Answer, that he believ'd he should be excus'd if he
stretched his Orders, for a few Days; and that he would cruize off the
Isle of _Pearls_, and Cape _Gratias a Dios_, and give for Signal to the
Gallion, his spreading a white Ensign in his Fore-Top-Mast Shrouds, the
cluing up his Fore-sail, and the firing one Gun to Windward, and two to
Leeward, which he should answer by letting run and hoisting his Fore-
Top-Sail three times, and the firing as many Guns to Leeward. Don
_Joseph_, extreamly pleased with this Complaisance, sent a Boat express
to advise the St. _Joseph_, but she was already sailed two Days,
contrary to the Governor of _Carthagene's_ Expectation, and, this Advice
Captain _Misson_ had from the Boat, which returning with an Answer, saw
the _Victoire_ in the Offin, and spoke to her. It was then resolved to
follow the _St. Joseph_, and accordingly they steer'd for the _Havanna_,
but by what Accident they did not overtake her is unknown.

I forgot to tell my Reader, on Board the _Dutch_ Ship were fourteen
_French_ Hugonots, whom _Misson_ thought fit to detain, when they were
at Sea. _Misson_ called 'em up, and proposed to 'em their taking on;
telling them at the same Time, he left it to their Choice, for he would
have no forc'd Men; and that if they all, or any of them, disapproved
the Proposal, he would either give 'em the first Vessel he met that was
fit for 'em, or set 'em ashoar on some inhabited Coast; and therefore
bid 'em take two Days for Consideration before they returned an Answer;
and, to encourage 'em, he called all Hands up, and declar'd, that if any
Man repented him of the Course of Life he had chosen, his just Dividend
should be counted to him, and he would set him on Shoar, either near the
_Havanna_, or some other convenient Place; but not one accepted the
Offer, and the fourteen Prisoners unanimously resolved to join in with
'em; to which Resolution, no doubt, the Hopes of a good Booty from the
_St. Joseph_, and this Offer of Liberty greatly contributed.

At the Entrance of the Gulph they spied and came with a large Merchant
Ship bound for _London_ from _Jamaica_; she had 20 Guns, but no more
than 32 Hands, that its not to be wonder'd at she made no Resistance,
besides, she was deep laden with Sugars. Monsieur _Misson_ took out of
her what Ammunition she had, about four thousand Pieces of Eight, some
Puncheons of Rum, and ten Hogsheads of Sugar; and, without doing her any
further Damage, let her proceed her Voyage. What he valued most in this
Prize was the Men he got, for she was carrying to _Europe_ twelve
_French_ Prisoners, two of which were necessary Hands, being a Carpenter
and his Mate. They were of _Bourdeaux_, from whence they came with the
_Pomechatraine_, which was taken by the _Maremaid_ off _Petit Guavers_,
after an obstinate Resistance, in which they lost forty Men; but they
were of Opinion the _Maremaid_ could not have taken 'em, having but four
Guns less than she had, which was made amends for, by their having about
thirty Hands. On the contrary, had not the _Guernsey_ come up, they
thought of boarding and carrying the _Maremaid_. These Men very
willingly came into Captain _Misson's_ Measures.

These Men, who had been stripp'd to the Skin, begg'd Leave to make
Reprisals, but the Captain would not suffer them, though he told the
Master of the Prize, as he protected him and his Men, he thought it
reasonable these _French_ should be cloathed: Upon this the Master
contributed of his own, and every Man bringing up his Chest, thought
themselves very well off in sharing with them one half.

Though _Misson's_ Ship pass'd for a _French_ Man of War, yet his
Generosity in letting the Prize go, gave the _English_ Grounds to
suspect the Truth, neither the Ship nor Cargoe being of Use to such as
were upon the grand Account.

When they had lost all Hopes of the St. _Joseph_, they coasted along the
North-Side of _Cuba_, and the _Victoire_ growing now foul, they ran into
a Landlock'd Bay on the East North-East Point, where they hove her down
by Boats and Guns, though they could not pretend to heave her Keel out;
however, they scraped and tallowed as far as they could go; they, for
this Reason, many of them repented they had let the last Prize go, by
which they might have careened.

When they had righted the Ship, and put every Thing on Board, they
consulted upon the Course they should steer. Upon this the Council
divided. The Captain and _Caraccioli_ were for stretching over to the
_African_, and the others for the _New-England_ Coast, alledging, that
the Ship had a foul Bottom, and was not fit for the Voyage; and that if
they met with contrary Winds, and bad Weather, their Stock of Provision
might fall short; and that as they were not far from the _English_
Settlement of _Carolina_, they might either on that or the Coast of
_Virginia, Maryland, Pensylvania, New-York_, or _New-England_, intercept
ships which traded to the Islands with Provisions, and by that Means
provide themselves with Bread, Flower, and other Necessaries. An Account
of the Provisions were taken, and finding they had Provisions for four
Months. Captain _Misson_ called all Hands upon Deck, and told them, as
the Council differed in the Course they should steer, he thought it
reasonable to have it put to the Vote of the whole Company. That for his
Part, he was for going to the Coast of _Guiney_, where they might
reasonably expect to meet with valuable Prizes; but should they fail in
their Expectation one Way, they would be sure of having it answered
another; for they could then throw themselves in that of the _East-
India_ Ships, and he need not tell them, that the outward bound dreined
_Europe_ of what Money they drew from America. He then gave the
Sentiments of those who were against him, and their Reasons, and begg'd
that every one would give his Opinion and Vote according as he thought
most conducive to the Good of all. That he should be far from taking it
ill if they should reject what he had proposed, since he had no private
Views to serve. The Majority of Votes fell on the Captain's Side, and
they accordingly shaped their Course for the Coast of Guiney, in which
Voyage nothing remarkable happened. On their Arrival on the Gold-Coast,
they fell in with the _Nieuwstadt_ of _Amsterdam_, a Ship of 18 Guns,
commanded by Capt. _Blacs_, who made a running Fight of five Glasses:
This Ship they kept with them, putting on Board 40 Hands, and bringing
all the Prisoners on Board the _Victoire_, they were Forty three in
Number, they left _Amsterdam_ with Fifty six, seven were killed in the
Engagement, and they had lost six by Sickness and Accidents, one falling
overboard, and one being taken by a Shark going overboard in a Calm.

The _Nieuwstadt_ had some Gold-Dust on Board, to the Value of about 2000
l. Sterling, and a few Slaves to the Number of Seventeen, for she had
but begun to Trade; the Slaves were a strengthening of their Hands, for
the Captain order'd them to be cloathed out of Dutch Mariners Chests,
and told his Men, 'That the Trading for those of our own Species, cou'd
never be agreeable to the Eyes of divine Justice: That no Man had Power
or the Liberty of another; and while those who profess'd a more
enlightened Knowledge of the Deity, sold Men like Beasts; they prov'd
that their Religion was no more than Grimace, and that they differ'd
from the _Barbarians_ in Name only, since their Practice was in nothing
more humane: For his Part, and he hop'd, he spoke the Sentiments of all
his brave Companions, he had not exempted his Neck from the galling Yoak
of Slavery, and asserted his own Liberty, to enslave others. That
however, these Men were distinguish'd from the _Europeans_ by their
Colour, Customs, or religious Rites, they were the Work of the same
omnipotent Being, and endued with equal Reason: Wherefore, he desired
they might be treated like Freemen (for he wou'd banish even the Name of
Slavery from among them)' and divided into Messes among them, to the End
they might the sooner learn their Language, be sensible of the
Obligation they had to them, and more capable and zealous to defend that
Liberty they owed to their Justice and Humanity.

This Speech of _Misson_'s was received with general Applause, and the
Ship rang with _vive le Capitain_ Misson. Long live Capt. _Misson_.--The
Negroes were divided among the _French_, one to a Mess, who, by their
Gesticulations, shew'd they were gratefully sensible of their being
delivered from their Chains. Their Ship growing very foul, and going
heavily through the Water, they run into the River of _Lagoa_, where
they hove her down, taking out such Planks as had suffer'd most by the
Worms, and substituting new in their Room.

After this they careened the Prize, and so put out to Sea, steering to
the Southward, and keeping along the Coast, but met with Nothing. All
this while, the greatest Decorum and Regularity was observed on Board
the _Victoire_; but the _Dutch_ Prisoners Example began to lead 'em into
Swearing and Drunkenness, which the Captain remarking, thought it was
best to nip these Vices in the Bud; and calling both the _French_ and
_Dutch_ upon Deck, he address'd himself to the former, desiring their
Captain, who spoke French excellently well, to interpret what he said to
those who did not understand him. He told them, 'before he had the
Misfortune of having them on Board, his Ears were never grated with
hearing the Name of the great Creator prophaned, tho' he, to his Sorrow,
had often since heard his own Men guilty of that Sin, which administer'd
neither Profit nor Pleasure, and might draw upon them a severe
Punishment: That if they had a just Idea of that great Being, they wou'd
never mention him, but they wou'd immediately reflect on his Purity and
their own Vileness. That we so easily took Impression from our Company,
that the _Spanish_ Proverb says, _let a Hermit and a Thief live
together, the Thief wou'd become Hermit, or the Hermit Thief_: That he
saw this verified in his Ship, for he cou'd attribute the Oaths and
Curses he had heard among his brave Companions, to nothing but the
odious Example of the _Dutch_: That this was not the only Vice they had
introduced, for before they were on Board, his Men were Men, but he
found by their beastly Pattern they were degenerated into Brutes, by
drowning that only Faculty, which distinguishes between Man and Beast,
_Reason_. That as he had the Honour to command them, he could not see
them run into these odious Vices without, a sincere Concern, as he had a
paternal Affection for them; and he should reproach himself as
neglectful of the common Good, if he did not admonish them; and as by
the Post which they had honour'd him, he was obliged to have a watchful
Eye over their general Interest; he was obliged to tell them his
Sentiments were, that the _Dutch_ allured them to a dissolute Way of
Life, that they might take some Advantage over them: Wherefore, as his
brave Companions, he was assured, wou'd be guided by Reason, he gave the
_Dutch_ Notice, that the first whom he catch'd either with an Oath in
his Mouth or Liquor in his Head, should be brought to the Geers, whipped
and pickled, for an Example to the rest of his Nation: As to his
Friends, his Companions, his Children, those gallant, those generous,
noble, and heroick Souls he had the Honour to command, he entreated them
to allow a small Time for Reflection, and to consider how little
Pleasure sure, and how much Danger, might flow from imitating the Vices
of their Enemies; and that they would among themselves, make a Law for
the Suppression of what would otherwise estrange them from the Source of
Life, and consequently leave them destitute of his Protection.'

It is not to be imagined what Efficacy this Speech had on both Nations:
The _Dutch_ grew continent in Fear of Punishment, and the _French_ in
Fear of being reproach'd by their good Captain, for they never mentioned
him without this Epithet. Upon the Coast of _Angola_, they met with a
second Dutch Ship, the Cargo of which consisted of Silk and Woolen
Stuffs, Cloath, Lace, Wine, Brandy, Oyl, Spice, and hard Ware; the Prize
gave Chase and engaged her, but upon the coming up of the _Victoire_ she
struck. This Ship opportunely came in their Way, and gave full Employ to
the Taylors, who were on Board, for the whole Crew began to be out at
Elbows: They plundered her of what was of Use to their own Ship, and
then sunk her.

The Captain having about ninety Prisoners on Board, proposed the giving
them the Prize, with what was necessary for their Voyage, and sending
them away; which being agreed to, they shifted her Ammunition on Board
the _Victoire_, and giving them Provision to carry them to the
Settlements the Dutch have on the Coast, _Misson_ called them up, told
them what was his Design, and ask'd if any of them was willing to share
his Fortune: Eleven _Dutch_ came into him, two of which were Sail-
makers, one an Armourer, and one a Carpenter, necessary Hands; the rest
he let go, not a little surprised at the Regularity, Tranquillity, and
Humanity, which they found among these new fashioned Pyrates.

They had now run the Length of _Soldinia_ Bay about ten Leagues to the
Northward of _Table_ Bay. As here is good Water, safe Riding, plenty of
Fish and fresh Provision, to be got of the Natives for the Merchandize
they had on Board, it was resolved to stay here some little Time for
Refreshments. When they had the Bay open, they spied a tall Ship, which
instantly got under sail, and hove out _English_ Colours. The _Victoire_
made a clear Ship, and hove out her _French_ Ensign, and a smart
Engagement began. _The English_ was a new Ship built for 40 Guns, though
she had but 32 mounted, and 90 Hands. _Misson_ gave Orders for boarding,
and his Number of fresh Men he constantly poured in, after an obstinate
Dispute obliged the _English_ to fly the Decks, and leave the _French_
Masters of their Ship, who promised, and gave them, good Quarters, and
stripp'd not a Man.

They found on Board the Prize some Bales of _English_ Broad-Cloath, and
about 60000 l. in _English_ Crown Pieces, and _Spanish_ Pieces of Eight.
The _English_ Captain was killed in the Engagement, and 14 of his Men:
The _French_ lost 12, which was no small Mortification, but did not,
however provoke them to use their Prisoners harshly. Captain _Misson_
was sorry for the Death of the Commander, whom he buried on the Shoar,
and one of his Men being a Stone-Cutter, he raised a Stone over his
Grave with these Words, _Icy gist un brave Anglois_, Here lies a gallant
_English_ Man; when he was buried he made a tripple Discharge of 50
small Arms, and fired Minute Guns.

The _English_, knowing whose Hands they were fallen into, charm'd with
_Misson_'s Humanity, 30 of them, in 3 Days Space, desired to take on
with him. He accepted 'em, but at the same Time gave 'em to understand,
that in taking on with him they were not to expect they should be
indulged in a dissolute and immoral Life. He now divided his Company
between the two Ships, and made _Caraccioli_ Captain of the Prize,
giving him Officers chosen by the publick Suffrage. The 17 Negroes began
to understand a little _French_, and to be useful Hands, and in less
than a Month all the _English_ Prisoners came over to him, except their

He had two Ships well mann'd with resolute Fellows; they now doubled the
Cape, and made the South End of _Madagascar_, and one of the _English_
Men telling Captain _Misson_, that the _European_ Ships bound for
_Surat_ commonly touch'd at the Island of _Johanna_, he sent for Captain
_Caracciola_ on Board, and it was agreed to cruise off that Island. They
accordingly sailed on the West-Side of _Madagascar_ and off the Bay _de
Diego_. About half Seas over between that Bay and the Island of
_Johanna_, they came up with an _English East-India_ Man, which made
Signals of Distress as soon as she spy'd _Misson_ and his Prize; they
found her sinking by an unexpected Leak, and took all her Men on Board,
though they could get little out of her before she went down. The
_English_, who were thus miraculously saved from perishing, desired to
be set on Shoar at _Johanna_, where they hop'd to meet with either a
_Dutch_ or _English_ Ship in a little Time, and the mean while they were
sure of Relief.

They arrived at Johanna, and were kindly received by the Queen-Regent
and her Brother, on account of the _English_ on the one Hand, and of
their Strength on the other, which the Queen's Brother, who had the
Administration of Affairs, was not able to make Head against, and hoped
they might assist him against the King of _Mohila_, who threaten'd him
with a Visit.

This is an Island which is contiguous, in a manner, to _Johanna_, and
lies about N. W. and by N. from it. _Caraccioli_ told _Misson_ he might
make his Advantage in widening the Breach between these two little
Monarchies, and, by offering his Assistance to that of _Johanna_, in a
manner rule both, For these would count him as their Protector, and
those come to any Terms to buy his Friendship, by which Means he would
hold the Ballance of Power between them. He followed this Advice, and
offered his Friendship and Assistance to the Queen, who very readily
embraced it.

I must advise the Reader, that many of this Island speak _English_, and
that the _English_ Men who were of _Misson's_ Crew, and his
Interpreters, told them, their Captain, though not an _Englishman_, was
their Friend and Ally, and a Friend and Brother to the _Johanna_ Men,
for they esteem the _English_ beyond all other Nations.

They were supplied by the Queen with all Necessaries of Life, and
_Misson_ married her Sister, as _Caraccioli_ did the Daughter of her
Brother, whose Armory, which consisted before of no more than two rusty
Fire-Locks, and three Pistols, he furnish'd with thirty Fuzils, as many
Pair of Pistols, and gave him two Barrels of Powder, and four of Ball.

Several of his Men took Wives, and some requited their Share of the
Prizes, which was justly given them, they designing to settle in this
Island, but the Number of these did not exceed ten, which Loss was
repaired by thirty of the Crew (they had saved from perishing) coming in
to him.

While they past their Time in all manner of Diversions the Place would
afford them, as hunting, feasting, and visiting the Island, the King of
_Mohila_ made a Descent, and alarm'd the whole Country. _Misson_ advised
the Queen's Brother not to give him any Impediment, but let him get into
the Heart of the Island, and he would take Care to intercept their
Return; but the Prince answered, should he follow his Advice the Enemy
would do him and the Subjects an irreparable Damage, in destroying the
Cocoa Walks, and for that Reason he must endeavour to stop his Progress.
Upon this Answer he asked the _English_ who were not under his Command,
if they were willing to join him in repelling the Enemies of their
common Host, and one and all consenting, he gave them Arms, and mixed
them with his own Men, and about the same Number of _Johannians_, under
the Command of _Caraccioli_ and the Queen's Brother, and arming out all
his Boats, he went himself to the Westward of the Island, where they
made their Descent. The Party which went by Land, fell in with, and beat
the _Mohilians_ with great Ease, who were in the greatest Consternation,
to find their Retreat cut off by _Misson_'s Boats. The _Johannians_,
whom they had often molested, were so enraged, that they gave Quarter to
none, and out of 300 who made the Descent, if _Misson_ and _Caraccioli_
had not interposed, not a Soul had escaped; 113 were taken Prisoners by
his Men, and carried on Board his Ships. These he sent fate to _Mohila_,
with a Message to the King, to desire he would make Peace with his
Friend and Ally the King of _Johanna_; but that Prince, little affected
with the Service done him in the Preservation of his Subjects, sent him
Word he took Laws from none, and knew when to make War and Peace without
his Advice, which he neither asked nor wanted. _Misson_, irritated by
this rude Answer, resolved to transfer the War into his own Country, and
accordingly set sail for _Mohila_, with about 100 _Johanna_ Men. The
Shoar, on Sight of the Ships, was filled with Men to hinder a Descent if
intended, but the great Guns soon dispersed this Rabble, and under their
Cover he landed the _Johannians_, and an equal Number of _French_ and
_English_. They were met by about 700 _Mohilians_, who pretended to stop
their Passage, but their Darts and Arrows were of little avail against
_Misson_'s Fuzils; the first Discharge made a great Slaughter, and about
20 Shells which were thrown among them, put them to a confus'd Flight.
The Party of _Europeans_ and _Johannians_ then marched to their
Metropolis, without Resistance, which they reduced to Ashes, and the
_Johannians_ cut down all the Cocoa Walks that they could for the Time,
for towards Evening they returned to their Ships, and stood off to Sea.

At their Return to _Johanna_ the Queen made a Festival, and magnified
the Bravery and Service of her Guests, Friends, and Allies. This Feast
lasted four Days, at the Expiration of which Time the Queen's Brother
proposed to Captain _Misson_ the making another Descent, in which he
would go in Person, and did not doubt subjecting the _Mohilians_; but
this was not the Design of _Misson_, who had Thoughts of fixing a
Retreat on the North West Side of _Madagascar_, and look'd upon the
Feuds between these two Islands advantageous to his Views, and therefore
no way his Interest to suffer the one to overcome the other; for while
the Variance was kept up, and their Forces pretty much upon a Level, it
was evident their Interest would make both Sides caress him; he
therefore answer'd, that they ought to deliberate on the Consequences,
for they might be deceived in their Hopes, and find the Conquest less
easy than they imagined. That the King of _Mohilia_ would be more upon
his Guard, and not only intrench himself, but gall them with frequent
Ambuscades, by which they must inevitably lose a Number of Men; and, if
they were forced to retire with Loss, raise the Courage of the
_Mohilians_, and make them irreconcilable Enemies to the _Johannians_,
and intirely deprive him of the Advantages with which he might now make
a Peace, having twice defeated them: That he could not be always with
them, and at his leaving _Johanna_ he might expect the King of _Mohilia_
would endeavour to take a bloody Revenge for the late Damages. The Queen
gave intirely into _Misson's_ Sentiments.

While this was in Agitation four _Mohilians_ arrived as Ambassadors to
propose a Peace. They finding the _Johannians_ upon high Terms, one of
them spoke to this Purpose; O ye Johannians, _do not conclude from your
late Success, that Fortune will be always favourable; she will not
always give you the Protection of the_ Europeans, _and without their
Help its possible you might now sue for a Peace, which you seem averse
to. Remember the Sun rises, comes to its Meridian Height, and stays not
there, but declines in a Moment. Let this admonish you to reflect on the
constant Revolution of all sublunary Affairs, and the greater is your
Glory, the nearer you are to your Declension. We are taught by every
Thing we see, that there is no Stability in the World, but Nature is in
continual Movement. The Sea, which o'er flows the Sands has its Bounds
set, which it cannot pass, which the Moment it has reached, without
abiding, returns back to the Bottom of the Deep. Every Herb, every Shrub
and Tree, and even our own Bodies, teach us this Lesson, that nothing is
durable, or can be counted upon. Time passes away insensibly, one Sun
follows another, and brings its Changes with it. To-Day's Globe of Light
sees you strengthened by these_ Europeans _elate with victory, and we,
who have been used to conquer you, come to ask a Peace. To Morrow's Sun
may see you deprived of your present Succours, and the_ Johannians
_petitioning us; as therefore we cannot say what to Morrow may bring
forth, it would be unwise on uncertain Hopes to forego a certain
Advantage, as surely Peace ought to be esteem'd by every wise Man_.

Having said this, the Ambassadors withdrew, and were treated by the
Queen's Orders. After the Council had concluded, they were again call'd
upon, and the Queen told them, that by the Advice of her good Friends,
the _Europeans_, and those of her Council, she agreed to make a Peace,
which she wish'd might banish all Memory of former Injuries That they
must own the War was begun by them, and that she was far from being the
Agressor; she only defended her self in her own Kingdom, which they had
often invaded, though, till within few Days, she had never molested
their Coasts. If then they really desired to live amicably with her,
they must resolve to send two of the King's Children, and ten of the
first Nobility, as Hostages, that they might, when they pleased, return,
for that was the only Terms on which she would desist prosecuting the
Advantages she now had, with the utmost Vigour.

The Ambassadors returned with this Answer, and, about ten Days after,
the two Ships appearing upon their Coasts, they sent off to give Notice,
that their King comply'd with the Terms proposed, would send the
Hostages, and desired a Cessation of all Hostility, and, at the same
Time, invited the Commanders on Shoar. The _Johanna_ Men on Board
disswaded their accepting the Invitation; but _Misson_ and _Caraccioli_,
fearing nothing, went, but arm'd their Boat's Crew. They were received
by the King with Demonstrations of Friendship, and they dined with him
under a Tamerane Tree; but when they parted from him, and were returning
to their Boats, they were inclosed by, at least, 100 of the _Mohilians_,
who set upon them with the utmost Fury, and, in the first Flight of
Arrows, wounded both the Captains, and killed four of their Boat's Crew
of eight, who were with them; they, in return, discharged their Pistols
with some Execution, and fell in with their Cutlasses; but all their
Bravery would have stood them in little Stead, had not the Report of
their Pistols alarm'd and brought the rest of their Friends to their
Assistance, who took their Fuzils, and coming up while they were
engaged, discharged a Volley on the Back of the Assailants, which laid
twelve of them dead on the Spot. The Ships hearing this Fire, sent
immediately the Yawls and Long-Boats well mann'd. Though the Islanders
were a little damp'd in their Courage by this Fire of the Boats Crew,
yet they did not give over the Fight, and one of them desperately threw
himself upon _Caraccioli_, and gave him a deep Wound in his Side, with a
long Knife, but he paid for the Rashness of the Attempt with his Life,
one of the Crew cleaving his Skull. The Yawls and Long-Boats now
arrived, and being guided by the Noise, reinforced their Companions, put
the Traytors to Flight, and brought off their dead and wounded. The
_Europeans_ lost by this Treachery seven slain outright, and eight
wounded, six of which recovered.

The Crew were resolved to revenge the Blood of their Officers and
Comrades the next Day, and were accordingly on the Point of Landing,
when two Canoes came off with two Men bound, the pretended Authors of
this Treason, without the King's Knowledge, who had sent 'em that they
might receive the Punishment due to their Villany. The _Johanna_ Men on
Board were call'd for Interpreters, who having given this Account,
added, that the King only sacrificed these Men, but that they should not
believe him, for he certainly had given Orders for assassinating the
_Europeans_; and the better Way was to kill all the _Mohilians_ that
came in the Canoes as well as the two Prisoners; go back to _Johanna_,
take more of their Countrymen, and give no Peace to Traytors; but
_Misson_ was for no such violent Measures, he was averse to every Thing
that bore the Face of Cruelty and thought a bloody Revenge, if Necessity
did not enforce it, spoke a groveling and timid Soul; he, therefore,
sent those of the Canoes back, and bid them tell their King, if before
the Evening he sent the Hostages agreed upon, he should give Credit to
his Excuse, but if he did not, he should believe him the Author of the
late vile Attempt on his Life.

The Canoes went off but returned not with an Answer, wherefore, he bid
the _Johanna_ Men tell the two Prisoners that they should be set on
Shore the next Morning, and order'd them to acquaint their King, he was
no Executioner to put those to Death whom he had condemn'd, but that he
should find, he knew how to revenge himself of his Treason. The
Prisoners being unbound, threw themselves at his Feet, and begg'd that
he would not send them ashore, for they should be surely put to Death,
for the Crime they had committed, was, the dissuading the barbarous
Action of which they were accused as Authors.

Next Day the two Ships landed 200 Men, under the Cover of their Canon;
but that Precaution of bringing their Ships close to the Shore they
found needless; not a soul appearing, they march'd two Leagues up the
Country, when they saw a Body of Men appear behind some Shrubs;
_Caraccioli's_ Lieutenant, who commanded the right Wing, with fifty Men
made up to them, but found he had got among Pit Falls artificially
cover'd, several of his Men falling into them, which made him halt, and
not pursue those _Mohilians_ who made a feint Retreat to ensnare him,
thinking it dangerous to proceed farther; and seeing no Enemy would face
them, they retired the same Way they came, and getting into their Boats,
went on Board the Ships, resolving to return with a strong
Reinforcement, and make Descents at one and the same Time in different
Parts of the Island. They ask'd the two Prisoners how the Country lay,
and what the Soil was on the North Side the Island; and they answer'd it
was morass, and the most dangerous Part to attempt, it being a Place
where they shelter on any imminent Danger.

The Ships return'd to _Johanna_, where the greatest Tenderness and Care
was shown for the Recovery and Cure of the two Captains and of their
Men; they lay six Weeks before they were able to walk the Decks, for
neither of them would quit his Ship. Their _Johanna_ Wives expressed a
Concern they did not think them capable of, nay, a Wife of one of the
wounded Men who died, stood some Time looking upon the Corpse as
motionless as a Statue, then embracing it, without shedding a Tear,
desired she might take it ashore to wash and bury it; and at the same
Time, by an Interpreter, and with a little Mixture of _European_
Language, she had, begg'd her late Husband's Friends would take their
Leave of him the next Day.

Accordingly a Number went ashore, and carried with them the Dividend,
which fell to his Share, which the Captain order'd to be given his
Widow; when she saw the Money, she smil'd, and ask'd if all, all that
was for her? Being answered in the affirmative, and what Good will all
that shining Dirt do me, if I could with it purchase the Life of my
Husband, and call him back from the Grave, I would accept it with
Pleasure, but as it is not sufficient to allure him back to this World,
I have no Use for it; do with it what you please. Then she desired they
would go with her and perform the last Ceremonies to her Husband's dead
Body, after their Country Fashion, least he should be displeased, that
she could not stay with them, to be a Witness, because she was in haste
to go and be married again. She startled the _Europeans_ who heard this
latter Part of her Speech so dissonant from the Beginning; however, they
followed her, and she led them into a Plantane Walk, where they found a
great many _Johanna_ Men and Women, sitting under the Shade of
Plantanes, round the Corpse, which lay (as they all sate) on the Ground,
covered with Flowers. She embraced them round, and then the _Europeans_,
one by one, and after these Ceremonies, she poured out a Number of
bitter Imprecations against the _Mohila_ Men, whose Treachery had
darken'd her Husband's Eyes, and made him insensible of her Caresses,
who was her first Love, to whom she had given her Heart, with her
Virginity. She then proceeded in his Praises, calling him the Joy of
Infants, the Love of Virgins, the Delight of the old, and the Wonder of
the young, adding, he was strong and beautiful as the Cedar, brave as
the Bull, tender as the Kid, and loving as the Ground Turtle; having
finished this Oration, not unlike those of the _Romans_, which the
nearest Relation of the deceas'd used to pronounce from the Rostrum, she
laid her down by the Side of her Husband, embracing him, and sitting up
again, gave herself a deep Wound under the left Breast with a Bayonet,
and fell dead on her Husband's Corpse.

The _Europeans_ were astonished at the Tenderness and Resolution of the
Girl, for she was not, by what Her Mien spoke her, past seventeen; and
they now admired, as much as they had secretly detested her, for saying
she was in haste to be married again, the Meaning of which they did not

After the Husband and Wife were buried, the Crew return'd on Board, and
gave an Account of what had pass'd; the Captains Wives (for _Misson_ and
his were on Board the _Bijoux_, the Name they had given their Prize from
her Make and Gilding) seem'd not in the least surprized, and
_Caraccioli's_ Lady only said, she must be of noble Descent, for none
but the Families of the Nobility had the Privilege allowed them of
following their Husbands on pain, if they transgressed, of being thrown
into the Sea, to be eat by Fish; and they knew, that their Souls could
not rest as long as any of the Fish, who fed upon them, lived. _Misson_
asked, if they intended to have done the same Thing had they died? We
should not, answer'd his Wife, have disgraced our Families; nor is our
Tenderness for our Husbands inferior to hers whom you seem to admire.

After their Recovery, _Misson_ proposes a Cruize, on the Coast of
_Zangueber_, which being agreed to, he and _Caraccioli_ took Leave of
the Queen and her Brother, and would have left their Wives on the
Island, but they could by no Means be induced to the Separation; it was
in vain to urge the Shortness of the Time they were to Cruize; they
answer'd it was farther than _Mohila_ they intended to go, and if they
were miserable in that short Absence, they could never support a longer;
and if they would not allow them to keep them Company the Voyage, they
must not expect to see them at their Return, if they intended one.

In a Word they were obliged to yield to them, but told them, if the
Wives of their Men should insist as strongly on following their Example,
their Tenderness, would be their Ruin, and make them a Prey to their
Enemies; they answer'd the Queen should prevent that, by ordering no
Woman should go on board, and if any were in the Ships, they should
return on Shore: This Order was accordingly made, and they set Sail for
the River of _Mozembique_. In about ten Days Cruize after they had left
_Johanna_, and about 15 Leagues to the Eastward of this River, they fell
in with a stout _Portuguese_ Ship of 60 Guns, which engaged them from
Break of Day till Two in the Afternoon, when the Captain being killed,
and a great Number of Men lost, she struck: This proved a very rich
Prize, for she had the Value of 250000 _L_. Sterling on Board, in Gold-
Dust. The two Women never quitted the Decks all the Time of the
Engagement, neither gave they the least Mark of Fear, except for their
Husbands: This Engagement cost them thirty Men, and _Caraccioli_ lost
his right Leg; the Slaughter fell mostly on the _English_, for of the
above Number, twenty were of that Nation: The _Portuguese_ lost double
the Number. _Caraccioli's_ Wound made them resolve to make the best of
their Way for _Johanna_ where the greatest Care was taken of their
wounded, not one of whom died, tho' their Number amounted to Twenty

_Caraccioli_ kept his Bed two Months, but _Misson_ seeing him in a fair
way of Recovery, took what Hands could be spar'd from the _Bijoux_,
leaving her sufficient for Defence, and went out, having mounted ten of
the _Portuguese_ Guns, for he had hitherto carried but thirty, though he
had Ports for forty. He stretched over to _Madagascar_, and coasted
along this Island to the Northward, as far as the most northerly Point,
when turning back, he enter'd a Bay to the northward of _Diego Suares_.
He run ten Leagues up this Bay, and on the larboard Side found it
afforded a large, and safe, Harbour, with plenty of fresh Water. He came
here to an Anchor, went ashore and examined into the Nature of the Soil,
which he found rich, the Air wholesome, and the Country level. He told
his Men, that this was an excellent Place for an Asylum, and that he
determined here to fortify and raise a small Town, and make Docks for
Shipping, that they might have some Place to call their own; and a
Receptacle, when Age or Wounds had render'd them incapable of Hardship,
where they might enjoy the Fruits of their Labour, and go to their
Graves in Peace. That he would not, however, set about this, till he had
the Approbation of the whole Company; and were he sure they would all
approve this Design, which he hoped, it being evidently for the general
Good, he should not think it adviseable to begin any Works, lest the
Natives should, in his Absence, destroy them; but however, as they had
nothing upon their Hands, if they were of his Opinion, they might begin
to fall and square Timber, ready for the raising a wooden Fort, when
they return'd with their Companions.

The Captain's Motion was universally applauded, and in ten Days they
fell'd and rough hew'd a hundred and fifty large Trees, without any
Interruption from, or seeing any of, the Inhabitants. They fell'd their
Timber at the Waters Edge, so that they had not the Trouble of hawling
them any way, which would have employ'd a great deal more Time: They
returned again, and acquainted their Companions with what they had seen
and done, and with the Captain's Resolution, which they one and all came

Captain _Misson_ then told the Queen, as he had been serviceable to her
in her War with the Island of _Mohila_, and might continue to be of
farther Use, he did not question her lending him Assistance in the
settling himself on the Coast of _Madagascar_, and to that end, furnish
him with 300 Men, to help in his Buildings; the Queen answered, she
could do nothing without Consent of Council, and that she would assemble
her Nobility, and did not question their agreeing to any Thing he could
reasonably define, for they were sensible of the Obligations the
_Johanians_ had to him. The Council was accordingly called, and
_Misson_'s Demand being told, one of the eldest said, he did not think
it expedient to comply with it, nor safe to refuse; that they should in
agreeing to give him that Assistance, help to raise a Power, which might
prove formidable to themselves, by the being so near a Neighbour; and
these Men who had lately protected, might, when they found it for their
Interest, enslave them. On the other hand, if they did not comply, they
had the Power to do them great Damage. That they were to make choice of
the least of two possible Evils, for he could prognosticate no Good to
_Johanna_, by their settling near it. Another answered, that many of
them had _Johanna_ Wives, that it was not likely they would make Enemies
of the _Johanna_ Men at first settling, because their Friendship might
be of Use to them; and from their Children there was nothing to be
apprehended in the next Generation, for they would be half their own
Blood; that in the mean while, if they comply'd with the Request, they
might be sure of an Ally, and Protector, against the King of _Mohila_;
wherefore, he was for agreeing to the Demand.

After a long Debate, in which every Inconvenience, and Advantage, was
maturely considered, it was agreed to send with him the Number of Men he
required, on Condition he should send them back in four Moons, make an
Alliance with them, and War against _Mohila_; this being agreed to, they
staid till _Caraccioli_ was thoroughly recovered, then putting the
_Johannians_ on board the _Portuguese_ Ship with 40 _French_ and
_English_ and 15 _Portuguese_ to work her, and setting Sail, they
arrived at the Place where _Misson_ designed his Settlement, which he
called _Libertalia_, and gave the Name of _Liberi_ to his People,
desiring in that might be drown'd the distingush'd Names of _French_,
_English_, _Dutch_, _Africans_, &c.

The first Thing they sat about was, the raising a Fort on each Side the
Harbour, which they made of an octogon Figure, and having finished and
mounted them with 40 Guns taken out of the _Portuguese_, they raised a
Battery on an Angle of ten Guns, and began to raise Houses and Magazines
under the Protection of their Forts and Ships; the _Portuguese_ was
unrigg'd, and all her Sails and Cordage carefully laid up. While they
were very busily employed in the raising a Town, a Party which had often
hunted and rambled four or five Leagues off their Settlement, resolved
to venture farther into the Country. They made themselves some Huts, at
about 4 Leagues distance from their Companions, and travell'd East South
East, about 5 Leagues farther into the Country, when they came up with a
Black, who was arm'd with a Bow, Arrows, and a Javelin; they with a
friendly Appearance engaged the Fellow to lay by his Fear and go with
them. They carried him to their Companions, and there entertained him
three Days with a great Deal of Humanity, and then returned with him
near the Place they found him, made him a Present of a Piece of scarlet
Baze, and an Ax; he appeared overjoy'd at the Present, and left them
with seeming Satisfaction.

The Hunters imagined that there might be some Village not far off, and
observing that he look'd at the Sun, and then took his Way direct South,
they travell'd on the same Point of the Compass, and from the Top of a
Hill they spied a pretty large Village, and went down to it; the Men
came out with their Arms, such as before described, Bows, Arrows, and
Javelins, but upon two only of the Whites advancing, with Presents of
Axes, and Baze in their Hands, they sent only four to meet them. The
Misfortune was, that they could not understand one another, but by their
pointing to the Sun, and holding up one Finger, and making one of them
go forward, and return again with shewing their Circumcision, and
pointing up to Heaven with one Finger, they apprehended, they gave them
to understand, there was but one God, who had sent one Prophet, and
concluded from thence, and their Circumcision they were _Mahometans_;
the Presents were carried to their Chief, and he seem'd to receive them
kindly, and by Signs invited the Whites into their Village; but they,
remembring the late Treachery of the _Mohilians_, made Signs for
Victuals to be brought them where they were.

_More of the History of these Adventurers in another Place._


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