Pastoral Poetry and Pastoral Drama
Walter W. Greg
Part 9 out of 10
_Bergerie de Juliette_
Blosio, _see_ Pallai delia Sabina, Biagio.
Boiardo, Matteo Maria
Bois, P. B. Du
Bonarelli della Rovere, Guidubaldo
Bond, R. W.
Boni, Giovanni de
Bonnivard, Francois de
Bono de Monteferrato, Manfrido
Boscan Almogaver, Juan
Brackley, Viscount, _see_ Egerton
Bridgewater, Earl of, _see_ Egerton.
_Brief Discourse about Baptism_
_Broom of Cowdenknows_
Buc, Sir George
Buck, George, _Gent._
_Bucolicorum Autores XXXVIII_
Bullen, A. H.
Buonarroti, Michelangelo, the younger
Caccia, G. A., _see_ Cazza, G. A.
_Caccia col falcone_
_Caccia d' amore_
Calderon de la Barca, Pedro
_Calendar of Shepherds_
Canello, Ugo Angelo
Camoens, Luis de
_Capitolo pastorale_ (Machiavelli)
Carlton, Sir Dudley
Carlo emanuele, _Duke of Savoy_
_Carmen bucolicum_ (Endelechius)
Carretto, Galeotto Del
_Carte du Tendre_
Cassio da Narni
_Castle of Labour_
Catharine of Austria
Catherine of Siena, _Saint_
Cazza, Giovanni Agostino
Cecco di Mileto
_Cefalo y Pocris_
_Celos aun del aire matan_
_Cent Nouvelles nouvelles_
Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de
Chambers, E. K.
Chetwood, W. R.
Child, F. J.
_Chloris and Ergasto_
Claudio of Savoy
_Clorys and Orgasto_
_Citizen and Uplondishman_
Clement VI, _Pope_
Coleridge, S. T.
_Colin Clout's come home again_
Colisano, Count of
Collier, J. P.
Colonna, Giovanni, _Cardinal_ (at Avignon)
Colonna, Giovanni, _Cardinal_ (at Rome)
_Columbia University Studies in Literature_
_Compendio della poesia tragicomica_
_Conflictus veris et hiemis_
_Coplas de Mingo Revulgo_
Correggio, Niccolo da
Count Palatine (Frederick V, Elector Palatine)
Courthope, W. J.
_Cowdenknows,_ see _Broom of Cowdenknows._
Crescimbeni, G. M.
Crusca, Accademia della
Cuchetti, Giovanni Donato
_Cuestion de amor_
_Cupid and Psyche_
_Danza di Venere_
_Daphnis and Chloe_
[Greek: Da/phnis Polyste/phanos]
Davenant, Sir William
Davies, Sir John
_Defense de la langue francaise_
_Defence of Poesy_
_Defence of Rime_
Delaval, Lady Elizabeth
Denny, Sir William
Denham, Sir John
Denores, Giasone, _see_ Nores, Giasone de.
_De Remedio Amoris_
Derby, Countess Dowager of
Dering, Sir E.
Devonshire, Duke of
_De Vulgari Eloquio_
_Dialogo di tre ciechi_
_Dialogue at Wilton_
_Dialogue in Praise of Astrea_
_Dialogues and Dramas_
Diane de Poitiers
_Dictionary of National Biography_
Digby, Sir Kenelm
Digby, Lady Venetia
_Discorso intorno alla commedia_
_Discourse of English Poetry_
_Discourse on Pastoral_
_Dispraise of a Courtly Life_
_Dodsley's Old Plays_
_Donald of the Isles_
_Dorastus and Fawnia_
Dorset, Earl of
Drake, Sir Francis
Du Bartas, Seigneur (Guillaume de Salluste)
Dunlop, J. C.
Dyer, Sir Edward
Dymocke, Sir Edward
Early English Text Society
Ebsworth, J. W.
_Ecloga di amicizia_
_Ecloga di justizia_
_Ecloga duarum sanctimonialium_
_Eclogue au Roi_ (Marot)
_Eclogue Gratulatory_ (Peele)
_Eclogue, ou Chant pastoral_(I. D. B.)
_Eclogues sacrees_ (Belleau)
Edward IV, _King of England_
Edward V, _King of England_
Edward VI, _King of England_
Egerton, Lady Alice
Egerton, John (first Earl of Bridgewater)
Egerton, John (third Viscount Brackley and second Earl of Bridgewater)
Egerton, Sir Thomas (Baron Ellesmere and first Viscount Brackley)
Egerton, Thomas (son of John, first Earl of Bridgewater)
Elizabeth, _Queen of England_
Elizabeth, _Duchess of Urbino, see_ Gonzaga, Elizabeta.
Encina, Juan del
Encinas, Pedro de
Endelechius, Severus Sanctus
_England's Mourning Garment_
_English Grammar_ (Jonson)
Enrique IV, _King of Spain_
_Entertainment at Althorp_
_Entertainment at Elvetham_
_Entertainment at Kenilworth_
_Entertainment at Richmond_
Epicuro de' Marsi
Erythraeus, Janus Nicius
Essex, Earl of
Este, House of (Estensi)
Este, Alfonso d' (Alfonso I), _Duke of Ferrara_
Este, Alfonso d' (Alfonso II), _Duke of Ferrara_
Este, Ercole d' (Ercole I), _Duke of Ferrara_
Este, Ercole d'(Ercole II), _Duke of Ferrara_
Este, Francesco d'
Este, Ippolito d', _Cardinal_
Este, Laura Eustoccia d'
Este, Leonora d'
Este, Lucrezia d' (wife of Annibale Bentivogli)
Este, Lucrezia d' (daughter of Ercole II)
Este, Luigi d', _Cardinal_ (son of Ercole II)
Este, Renata d' (wife of Ercole II, and daughter of Louis XII of France)
Fanshawe, Sir Richard
_Feast of Adonis_
Ferdinand I, _King of Naples_
FF. Anglo-Britannus (_pseud._)
_Fig for Momus_
_Figlia di Iorio_
_Figliuoli di Aminta e Silvia e di Mirtillo ed Amarilli_
Figueroa, Cristobal Suarez de
Figueroa, Francisco de
_Filli di Sciro_
_Filli di Sciro_ (Bonarelli), English translations:
_Five Plays in One_
Fleay, F. G.
Fletcher, Giles, the elder
_Flower of Fidelity_
Fontenelle, Bernard le Bovier de
_Forbonius and Prisceria_
Francois I, _King of France_.
Frederick of Aragon, _King of Naples_
Furness, H. H.
_Gammer Gurton's Needle_
Garcia de Toledo
Garcilaso de la Vega
Gardner, E. G.
Ginguene, P. L.
_Giornale storico della letteratura italiana_
Giovanni del Virgilio
Giraldi _Cintio_, Giovanni Battista
Giunta, Filippo di
_God's Revenge against Murder_
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang
_Golden Age_ (Graham)
_Golden Age_ (Heywood)
Gonzaga, Elisabetta (wife of Guidubaldo II of Urbino)
Gonzaga, Gianvincenzo, _Cardinal_
Gosse, E. W.
Gozze, Gauges de
Gravina, Gian Vincenzo
Gregory XI, _Pope_
Greville, Fulke (Lord Brooke)
Grimaldi, Bartolommeo Ceva, _Duke of Telese_
Grimani, Marin, _Doge_
_Gripus and Hegio_
Grosart, A. B.
Guidubaldo I, _see_ Montefeltro, G.
Guidubaldo II, _see_ Rovere, G. della.
Gustavus Adolphus, _King of Sweden_
Halliwell-Phillipps, J. O.
_Harmony of the Church_
_Havelok the Dane_
Hazlitt, W. C
Henneman, J. B.
Henry VIII, _King of England_
Herbert, Sir Henry
Herford, C. H.
Hiero of Syracuse
_Histoire des satyres et nymphes de Diane_
_Hospital of Lovers_
_House of Fame_
Howard, Sir Edward
_Hunting of Cupid_
_Hymn to Pan_
_Hymns in honour of Love and Beauty_
Index, Congregation of the
_Index Librorum Prohibitorum_
_Inedited Poetical Miscellany_
_Inner Temple Masque_
Innocent VIII, _Pope_
_Intrichi d' amore_
Intronati, academy at Siena
_Iphis and Ianthe_
Isauro, Fileno di (_pseud._)
_Isle of Dogs_
_Isle of Gulls_
James I, _King of England_
James, M. R.
Jauregui, Juan de
Jeanne de Laval
Jennaro, Pietro Jacopo de
John of Bologna, _see_ Giovanni del Virgilio.
_Jupiter and Io_
Jusserand, J. J.
Ker, Robert (Earl of Roxburgh)
Ker, W. P.
Klein, J. L.
_Knave in Grain_
_Knight and the Shepherd's Daughter_
_Knight of the Burning Pestle_
_Lady of May_
La Fayette, Comtesse de
_Lagrime di San Pietro_
_Lamentations of Amyntas_
_Lamenta di Cecco da Varlungo_
_Laune des Verliebten_
Lee, Margaret L.
Lee, S. L.
Lee Priory Press
Legacci dello Stricca, Piero Antonio
Leicester, Earl of
Leo X, _Pope_
L'Estrange, Sir Roger
_Literaturblatt fuer germanische und romanische Philologie_
Logan, W. H.
_Love Crowns the End_
_Love in its Ecstasy_
_Love's Changelings' Change_
_Love's Labour's Lost_
_Love's Mistress_, 407.
Loyse de Savoye
Luca di Lorenzo
Lungo, Isidore del
Mahaffy, J. P.
Malacreta, Giovan Pietro
_Man in the Moon_
Manso, Giovanni Battista
Caius College, Cambridge
Cambridge University Library
Emmanuel College, Cambridge
Trinity College, Cambridge
Manwood, Sir Peter
Margaret of Navarre
Marsi, E., _see_ Epicuro de' Marsi.
Martin Mar-prelate (_pseud._)
Martino da Signa
Mason, I. M.
_Materialien zur Kunde des alteren Englischen Dramas_
McKerrow, R. B.
Medici, Eleonora de'
Medici, Ferdinando de' (Ferdinando I), _Grand Duke of Florence_
Medici, Giuliano de' (brother of Lorenzo)
Medici, Giuliano de' (son of Lorenzo)
Medici, Lorenzo de', _Il Magnifico_
Mendoza, Inigo de
_Menina e moca_
_Merry Wives of Windsor_
Meung, Jean de
_Midsummer Night's Dream_
_Mirror for Magistrates_
_Modern Language Association of America, Publications of the_
_Modern Language Notes_
_Modern Language Quarterly_
_Modern Language Review_
Molza, Francesco Maria
Montefeltro, Guidubaldo (Guidubaldo I), _Duke of Urbino_
Montemayor, Jorge de
Moore, Sir Thomas
Moorman, F. W.
_Morte del Danese_
_Morte della Nencia_
_Mother Hubberd's Tale_
_Muses' Looking Glass_
_Nencia da Barberino_
_Never too Late_
_New English Dictionary_
Nicolas de Montreux
Nores, Giasone de
Norris of Rycote, Baron
Northampton, Earl of
Northumberland, Earl of
Notker the German
_Novelle de Novizi_
_Old Wives' Tale_
Ollenix du Mont-Sacre
_Otranto, Castle of_
Paglia, Francesco Baldassare
Pallai delia Sabina, Biagio
_Pan his Syrinx_
_Parthenophil and Parthenope_
Pasqualigo, Luigi (Alvisi)
_Passionate Shepherd to his Love_
Paston, Sir William
_Pastor fido_ (Guarini), English translations:
_Pastoral ending in a Tragedy_
_Pastores de Balue_
_Paul et Virginie_
Pembroke, Countess of
_Pembroke's Arcadia, Countess of_, see _Arcadia_ (Sidney).
_Pembroke's Ivychurch, Countess of_, see _Ivychurch_.
_Perimedes the Blacksmith_
Perth, Earl of
Perugino (Pietro Vespucci)
Petit de Julleville, L.
_Phillida and Corin_
_Phillida and Corydon_
_Phillida flouts me_
_Phillis of Scyros_, see _Filli di Sciro_.
Piccolomini, Aeneas Silvius, _see_ Pius II.
Pico delia Mirandola, Giovanni
Pius II, _Pope_
_Poems Lyric and Pastoral_
Poliziano (Angelo Ambrogini)
Pollard, A. W.
Polo, Gaspar Gil
_Princesse de Cleves_
Puteanus (Hendrik van der Putten)
_Quetten und Forschungen_
Raleigh, Sir Walter
Reid, J. S.
Reinolds, _see_ Reynolds.
_Reliques of Ancient English Poetry_
Rene of Anjou
Rennert, H. A.
Fellow of New College
author of _God's Revenge_
Reynolds, Sir John, Colonel
_Rhodon and Iris_
_Risposta al Malacreta_
_Robene and Makyne_
Robert of Sicily
_Robin Hood and Little John_
_Robins et Marion_
Rodrigues de Lobo, Francisco
_Roman de la Rose_
_Romeo and Juliet_
Ronsard, Pierre de
Rossi, Giovanni Vittorio
Rovere, Francesco Maria delia
Rovere, Guidubaldo delia (Guidubaldo II), _Duke of Urbino_
Rozzi, Congrega dei
_Rural Sports of the Nymph Oenone_
J. (translater of the _Filli di Sciro_)
S., J. (author of _Andromana_)
Sa de Miranda, Francisco de
_Sacrifizio_ (Intronati masque)
Saint-Pierre, Jacques Henri Bernardin de
Samson, M. W.
Sandys, J. E.
San vitale, Gualtiero
Schlegel, A. W. von
Schoenherr, J. G.
Schucking, L. L.
Scott, Mary A.
Scott, Sir Walter
_Scyros_, see _Filli di Sciro_
_Selva d' amore_
_Selva sin amor_
_Session of the Poets_
_Shadow of Sannazar_
Shepherd Tony _(pseud.)_
_Shepherds' Holiday_ (Angel Day)
_Shepherds' Holiday_ (Denny)
_Shepherds' Holiday_ (Rutter)
_Shepherd's Wife's Song_
Sherburne, Sir Edward
_Ship of Fools_
Shuckburgh, E. S.
Sidney, Sir Philip
_Siglo de Oro_
Sincerus, Actius, _see_ Sannazzaro, Jacopo.
_Sir Clyomon and Sir Clamydes_
_Sirena_, see _Shepherds' Sirena._
Skeat, W. W.
Smith, G. C. M.
Smith, William, 124.
Solisy Rivadeneira, Antonio de
Sommer, H. O.
_Somnium Puteani (Cornus, sive Phagesiposia Cimeria)_
_Song of Solomon_
Southampton, Earl of
_Speeches at Bisham, &c._
Spencer, Sir John
Spinelli, A. G.
Stanley, Ferdinando (Lord Strange)
Steele, Sir Richard
Stevenson, R. L.
Stiefel, A. L.
Strange, Lord, _see_ Stanley, F.
Suckling, Sir Thomas
_Summer's Last Will and Testament_
Surrey, Earl of (Henry Howard)
_Sweet Sobs and Amorous Complaints_
Swinburne, A. C.
Symonds, J. A.
Talbot, Sir George
_Tale of Troy_
_Tarlton's News out of Purgatory_
_Tears of the Muses_
Texeda, Jeronimo de
Thorndike, A. H.
_Titirus and Galathea_
_Triumph of Beauty_
_Triumph of Peace_
_Triumph of Virtue_
Turnbull, W. B.
_Tivo Gentlemen of Verona_
_Two Noble Kinsmen_
Ulloa, Alonzo de
_Under der linden_
Underhill, J. G.
Uniti, Accademia degli
Urfe, Honore d'
_Valle tenebrosa_ (_Vallis Opaca_)
Valle, Cesare della
Valois, House of
Vega, Lope de
_Venus and Adonis_
Vergna, Maria della, _see_ La Fayette, Comtesse de
Vida, Marco Girolamo
_Vuelta de Egypto_
Waldron, F. G.
Walsingham, Sir Francis
Walther von der Vogelweide
_War without Blows and Love without Suit (? Strife)_
Ward, A. W.
Watson, Thomas, III
Web, William, _Lord Mayor_
Weber, H. W.
Wicksteed, P. H.
Wolsey, Thomas, _Cardinal_
_Woman in the Moon_
_Wonder of Women_
Wood, Anthony a
Wotton, Sir John
Wotton, Sir Henry
Wyatt, Sir Thomas, the elder
Wynkyn de Worde
Yong (or Young), Bartholomew
Oxford: Horace Hart, Printer to the University.
 The often cited pastoralism of the _Song of Solomon_ resolves itself
on investigation into an occasional simile. These argue familiarity with
the scenes of pastoral life, but equally reveal the existence of the
contrast in the mind of the writer. It was on the orthodox interpretation
of this love-song that Remi Belleau founded his _Eclogues sacrees_, but
they contain little or nothing of a pastoral nature. The same may be said
of Drayton's paraphrase, included in his _Harmony of the Church_ in 1591,
which is chiefly remarkable for the evident and honest pleasure with which
he rendered the unsophisticated meaning of the original. It is, however,
just possible that the Hebrew poem may have had some influence on pastoral
poetry in Italy. There is a monograph on the subject by A. Abbruzzese, _Il
Cantico dei Cantici in alcune parafrasi poetiche italiane: contributo alla
storia del dramma pastorale_, which, however, I have not seen. With regard
to possible Greek predecessors of Theocritus, it must be borne in mind
that there were singing contests between shepherds at the Sicilian
festival of Artemis, and it is possible that the competitors may have been
sufficiently influenced by other orders of civilization to have given a
definitely pastoral colouring to their songs. Little is known of their
nature beyond the fact that they probably contained the motive of the
lament for Daphnis, which appears to be as old as Stesichorus. They have
perished all but two lines which are found prefixed by way of motto to the
[Greek: de/xai ta\n a)gatha\n ty/chan, de/xai ta\n y(gi/eian
a(\n phe/romen para\ ta~s theoy~, a(\n e)kale/ssato te/na]
What I have wished to emphasize above is the fact that because shepherds
sang songs we have no reason to assume that these were distinctively
pastoral. In later times the pastoral generally acknowledged a theoretical
dependence on rustic song, and the popular compositions did actually now
and again affect literary tradition. But this was rare.
 Details concerning the conception of the golden age will be found in
Moorman's _William Browne_, p. 59.
 The tendency to form an ideal picture of his own youth is common both
to mankind and man. The romance of childhood is the dream with which age
consoles itself for the disillusionments of life. This it is that gives a
peculiar appropriateness to the title of Mr. Graham's pictures of
childhood in _The Golden Age_, a work of the profoundest insight and
genius, as delightful as it is unique. I am not aware that there has ever
been another author in English who could have written thus intimately of
children without once striking a false note.
 There is some truth in the charge. Even Symonds wrote of Theocritus,
possibly with Fontenelle's words in his mind: 'As it is, we find enough of
rustic grossness on his pages, and may even complain that his cowherds and
goatherds savour too strongly of their stables.' (_Greek Poets_, ii. p.
 Landscapes as decoration may be seen on the walls of the so-called
Casa Nuova at Pompeii. It should be remarked that one idyl is addressed to
Hiero, ruler of Syracuse, and it is quite possible that Theocritus may
have been a frequent visitor there.
 Theocritus flourished in the first half of the third century B.C. Some
authorities place the younger poets more than a hundred years later.
 Familiar to English readers through Matthew Arnold's translation.
 Suidas says that Moschus came from Sicily, and some authorities speak
of him as a Syracusan. But in his 'Lament' he alludes to his 'Ausonian'
song, apparently as distinguished from that of Theocritus 'of Syracuse.'
The passage, however, is rendered obscure by an hiatus. Another tradition
made Theocritus a native of the island of Cos. More probably it was
between the time of his leaving Syracuse and that of his settling at
Alexandria that he was the pupil of the Coan poet and critic, Philetas.
 Ernest Myers' version from Andrew Lang's delightful volume in the
Golden Treasury Series.
 Placing the romance, that is, in the third century A.D. Authorities
assign it to various dates from the second to the sixth centuries,
according as they regard it as a model or an imitation of Heliodorus'
 A similar use of [Greek: a)nagno/risis] is very frequent in the
Italian pastoral drama, where, however, it is more probably derived from
 This was not the first Italian version of Longus. _Daphnis and Chloe_
had been translated directly from the Greek by Annibale Caro in the
 Two poems, written in close imitation of Theocritus' natural manner,
and entitled respectively _Moretum_ and _Copa_, have sometimes, but
wrongly, been attributed to Vergil.
 _Greek Poets_, ii. p. 265.
 Symonds speaks strongly on the point. 'Virgil not only lacks his
[Theocritus'] vigour and enthusiasm for the open-air life of the country,
but, with Roman bad taste, he commits the capital crime of allegorising.'
(_Greek Poets_, ii. p. 247.)
 Seyffert's classical dictionary, as revised by Nettleship and Sandys
(1899), definitely assigns Calpurnius to the middle of the first century.
In that case the amphitheatre mentioned was no doubt the wooden structure
that preceded the Colosseum.
 See, in Conington and Nettleship's _Virgil_, 1881, the essay on 'The
Later Bucolic Poets of Rome,' in which will be found a detailed account of
this very intricate controversy.
 It would appear that the two founders of the renaissance eclogue
deliberately chose the Vergilian form as that best suited to their
purpose. Petrarch calls attention to the advantages offered by the
pastoral for covert reference to men and events of the day, since it is
characteristic of the form to let its meaning only partially appear. He
was therefore perfectly aware of the allegorical nature of the Vergilian
eclogue, and adopted it for definite purposes of utility. Boccaccio is
even more explicit, and I cannot do better than transcribe the very
interesting summary of the history of pastoral verse down to his day,
given in a letter addressed by him to Martino da Signa, which I shall
again have occasion to mention in dealing with his own contributions to
the kind. He writes: 'Theocritus Syracusanus Poeta, ut ab antiquis
accepimus, primus fuit, qui Graeco Carmine Buccolicum escogitavit stylum,
verum nil sensit, praeter quod cortex verborum demonstrat. Post hunc
Latine scripsit Virgilius, sed sub cortice nonnullos abscondit sensus,
esto non semper voluerit sub nominibus colloquentium aliquid sentiremus.
Post hunc autem scripserunt et alii, sed ignobiles, de quibus nil curandum
est, excepto inclyto Praeceptore meo Francisco Petrarca qui stylum praeter
solitum paululum sublimavit et secundum Eclogarum suarum materias continue
collocutorum nomina aliquid significantia posuit. Ex his ego Virgilium
secutus sum quapropter non curavi in omnibus colloquentium nominibus
sensum abscondere.' _Lettere di G. Boccaccio_, ed. Corazzini, 1877, p.
 Line 1228. See Skeat's note in the _Athenaeum_, March 1, 1902.
 On all points connected with these compositions see the elaborate
monograph by Wicksteed and Gardner.
 Dante's poems do not stand altogether isolated in this respect. It
would be possible to cite eclogues formerly ascribed to Mussato, as also
some from the pens of Giovanni de Boni of Arezzo and Cecco di Mileto, in
support of the above remarks. It is significant of their independence of
medieval pastoralism, that Giovanni del Virgilio repeatedly speaks of
Dante as the first to write bucolic poetry since Vergil, thus ignoring the
whole production from Calpurnius to Metellus.
 Boccaccio was of course acquainted with Dante's eclogues, and in his
life of the poet he allows them considerable beauty. It seems never to
have occurred to him, however, to regard them as serious contributions to
pastoral literature, for, as we have already seen, he stigmatizes all
bucolic writers between Vergil and Petrarch as _ignobiles_. I do not think
this attitude was due to the influence of Petrarch having lessened his
admiration of Dante, as maintained by Wicksteed and Gardner, but simply to
his recognition of the absolute unimportance of the poems in question from
the historical point of view.
 In this connexion it will be remembered that Dante places Brutus and
Cassius, the betrayers of Julius, in company with Judas, the betrayer of
Christ, as arch-traitors in the innermost circle of hell (_Inferno_,
xxxiv). He was no doubt influenced in this by his philosophical Ghibelline
 The evolution of this idea, suggested of course by John X. II, can be
clearly traced in the mosaics at Ravenna.
 So Hortis (_Scritti inediti di F. Petrarca_, pp. 221, &c.), who
combats A. W. von Schlegel's view that the Epy of Eclogue VII stands for
 This spelling was current for some centuries, Spenser among others
adopting it. Indeed, _egloghe_ is still the prevalent form among Italian
 One other was discovered and published from MS. by Hortis, in his
_Studi sulle opere latini_, p. 351.
 It is not impossible that Boccaccio may have begun composing eclogues
before his acquaintance with Petrarch, since the influence of the poems
sent by Dante to Giovanni del Virgilio has been traced in the eclogue
printed by Hortis, and in an early version of the _Faunus_, as well as in
the work of Boccaccio's correspondent, Cecco di Mileto.
 So Aeneas Sylvius, in his _De Remedio Amoris_, after a particularly
virulent tirade against women, explained: 'De his loquor mulieribus quae
turpes admittunt amores.'
 'Syncerius' is the form used, but there can be little doubt who was
 In the days when it was fashionable for men of learning to discuss
the laws of pastoral composition, a certain northern giant fell foul of
the Neapolitan's piscatory eclogues on somewhat theoretical grounds.
Having never seen the blue smile of the bay of Naples, he suggested that
the sea was an object of terror; forgetful of the monotonous setting of
pastoral verse, he complained that the piscatory life offered little
variety; finally, he contended that the technicalities of the craft were
unfamiliar to readers--but are we to suppose that the learned author of
the _Rambler_ was competent to tend a flock?
 They were at least the first to appear in print. The contributors
were Girolamo Benivieni, of Florence, and Francesco Arsocchi and Fiorino
Boninsegni, of Siena. The first possibly deserves mention as having
introduced Pico della Mirandola as a character in his eclogues: some of
the poems of the last are noteworthy as having been composed as early as
1468. There exists a poem by Luca Pulci on the story of Polyphemus and
Galatea in the form of an eclogue. Luca died in 1470. Leo Battista
Alberti, the famous architect, who died in 1472, also left a poem, which
was published from MS. in 1850, with the heading 'Egloga.' This, however,
proves not to be strictly pastoral. Among other early ventures were ten
Italian eclogues in _terza rima_, by Boiardo. These, and also his ten
Latin eclogues, will be found printed from MS. in his _Poesie volgari e
latine_ (ed. A. Solerti, Bologna, 1894), while full accounts of both will
be found in the essays contributed by G. Mazzoni and A. Campani to the
_Studi su M. M. Boiardo_, edited by N. Campanini (Bologna, 1894). There
can be no doubt that the court of Lorenzo was full of pastoral experiments
in the vernacular for some time before the publication mentioned above.
 Having regard to the general character of the _Ameto_, I am not sure
that it might not be possible to find some hidden meaning in the poem in
question, if one were challenged to do so. The allegory is, however,
mostly of the abstract kind, and the eclogue can hardly conceal allusions
to any actual events.
 A very useful and representative, though of course by no means
complete, collection is that by G. Ferrario, in the 'Classici italiani.'
 Castiglione also figured among the Latin eclogists of his day, and
the influence of his _Alcon_ is even traced by Saintsbury in _Lycidas_
(_Earlier Renaissance_, p. 34).
 It is said to have been by way of penance for having written the
_Vendemmiatore_ that he later undertook the composition of the _Lagrime di
San Pietro_, a lengthy religious poem, which remained unfinished at his
death in 1568.
 _La Beca_ is ascribed by mistake to Luca Pulci in the first edition
of Symonds' _Renaissance_.
 The best imitation is said to be the _Lamento di Cecco da Varlungo_
by Francesco Baldovini (1643-1700), which is graceful, though rather more
satiric in tone than its model.
 It differs, however, from most poems of the sort, in that the
langnage of the fisher craft in Italy was capable of the same wantonly
double meaning as was suggested to English writers by the name and terms
of the noble art of venery. This serves to differentiate it from the style
of pastoral, and suggests that we should rather class it along with such
works as Berni's _Caccia d'amore._
 It is occasionally traceable in the French _pastourelles_, but that
form of courtly composition never became popular south of the Alps. Its
vogue passed completely with the decline of Provencal tradition. D'Ancona
quotes one Italian example of the thirteenth century, the work of a
Florentine, Ciacco dell' Anguillaja. It begins gracefully enough:
O gemma leziosa,
Che se' piu virtudiosa
Che non se ne favella,
Per la virtude ch' hai
Per grazia del Signore,
Aiutami, che sai
Che son tuo servo, amore.
 Further evidence of the popularity of this poem will be found in the
existence of a religious parody beginning:
O vaghe di Gesu, o verginelle,
Dove n' andate si leggiadre e belle?
(_Laude spirituali di Feo Belcari_, &c., Firenze, 1863, p. 105.) It is
founded on the fourteenth ceutury, not on the popular, version.
 The foregoing remarks follow very closely Symonds' treatment in the
third chapter of his _Italian Literature_. In point of fact, I lit on
Donati's poem quite accidentally, before reading the chapter in question,
but I have made no scruple of availing myself of his guidance wherever it
was to be had.
 Symonds has some very severe strictures on these songs from the moral
point of view. Judging from the actual songs themselves his remarks would
appear somewhat exaggerated, but if we take into consideration the
historical circumstances they are probably amply justified.
 It is perhaps worth putting in a word of warning against the possible
confusion of this poem with Politian's Latin composition bearing the same
title. Ambra was a rustic resort in the neighbourhood of Florence, to
which Lorenzo was much attached. By the lover Lauro the author seems to
have meant himself. At least this is rendered probable by some lines near
the end of Politian's poem, in which the villa is again personified as a
Et nos ergo illi grata pietate dicamus
Hanc de Pierio contextam flore coronam,
Quam mihi Caianas inter pulcherrima nymphas
Ambra dedit patriae lectam de gramine ripae:
Ambra mei Laurentis amor, quam corniger Vmbro,
Vmbro senex genuit domino gratissimus Arno:
Vmbro suo tandem non erupturus ab alneo.
(_Opera,_ Basel, 1553, p. 581.)
 He was born at Montepulciano in 1454, and died, at the age of forty,
two years after Lorenzo.
 Symonds, _Renaissance_, iv. p. 232, note 3.
 It has been sometimes thought that the description of Mars in the lap
of Venus, in stanzas 122-3, suggested Botticelli's picture in the National
Gallery; but, though the lines are worthy of having inspired even a more
successful example of the painter's art, the resemblance is in this case
too general to warrant any such conclusion.
 A favourite phrase of his. 'What has been well called _la volutta
idillica_--the sensuous sensibility to beauty, finding fit expression in
the Idyll--formed a marked characteristic of Renaissance art and
literature.' _Renaissance_, v. p. 170.
 The similar alternation of verse and prose found in the French and
Provencal _cante-fables,_ notably in _Aucassin et Nicolette,_ is of a
different nature, for in them the prose served properly to explain and
connect the verse-passages which contained the actual story, and it
probably formed no part of the original composition.
 I quote from the handy edition of Boccaccio's _Opere minori_ in the
'Biblioteca classica economica.' The passages cited above will be found on
pp. 246 and 250, or in the _Opere volgari_, 1827-34. xv. pp. 186 and 194.
 It is probably no accident that, like Dante's poem, Boccaccio's
romance is styled a 'comedy.' Both represent, in allegorical form, the
ascent of the human soul from sin, through purgation, to the presence of
 It has been suggested that there is a gradual spiritualization in the
motives of the tales; but this would appear to be a somewhat fanciful
 Proemio, _Opere minori_, p. 145; _Opere volgari_, xv. p. 4.
 _Opere minori_, p. 176, _Opere volgari_, xv. p. 60.
 While greatly shortening the passage, and taking considerable
liberties in the way of paraphrase, I have endeavoured, as far as
possible, to preserve the style and diction of the original. This will be
found in the _Opere minori_, pp. 213, &c., _Opere volgari_, xv. pp. 126,
 The description of the spring is from Ovid, _Metamorphoses_, III,
407, &c. No doubt a great deal more could be traced to Latin sources.
 For details concerning tree-lists see Moorman's _William Brown_, p.
 Dunlop's notion of the verse being the important part, and the prose
only written to connect the varions eclogues, is clearly wrong. Verse
started by being subordinate in Boccaccio's romance, and remained so in
all subsequent examples.
 _Prosa_ VIII. The whole passage was versified in Spanish by
Garcilaso, whence a portion found its way into Googe's eclogues. Among
other ingenions devices Sannazzaro mentions that of pinning down a crow by
the extremity of its wings and waiting for it to entangle its fellows in
its claws. If any reader should be tempted to imagine that the author has
been drawing on a fertile imagination, let him turn to the adventures of
one Morrowbie Jukes, as related by Mr. Rudyard Kipling, for a description
of this identical method of crow-catching as practised on the banks of an
 It may be well to point out that at times, as in Carino's invocation
to the Dryads, Symonds has infused into his version a beauty of diction of
which Sannazzaro appears to be innocent.
 The _Arcadia_ must have been extant in its original form as early as
1481, when it served as model for the eclogues of Pietro Jacopo de
Jennaro. The earliest known MS. dates from 1489, and contains the first
ten _Prose_ and _Ecloghe_. In this form it was surreptitiously printed in
1502; the complete work first appeared in 1504. The earliest commentary,
that of Tommaso Porcacchi, appeared in 1558, and went through several
editions. An elaborate variorum edition was printed at Padua in 1723. I
have followed the text in the 'Classici italiani.'
 Arcadia had been called 'the mother of flocks' in the Homeric _Hymn
to Pan_, and Polybius had described the softening effects of music upon
its rude inhabitants. See some interesting remarks on the snbject by J. E.
Sandys, in his lectures on the _Revival of Learning_, Cambridge, 1905;
also J. P. Mahaffy, _Rambles and Studies_, ch. xii.
 Having had occasion in the course of the following pages to call
attention to certain inaccuracies of Ticknor's, I should like in this
place to record my indebtedness to what still remains the standard history
of Spanish literature. I have likewise made free use of
Fitzmaurice-Kelly's admirable monograph.
 _Don Quixote_, pt. ii. ch. 62.
 Calderon wrote an early play on the tale of Cephalus and Procris,
which met, it is said, with success. It was entitled _Celos aun del aire
matan_, and was styled a 'fiesta cantada.' Later in life he parodied it in
the 'comedia burlesca' entitled _Cefalo y Pocris_ (sic). Neither play
appears to have any connexion with the _Cefalo_ of Niccolo da Correggio
(_v. post_, ch. iii). Both are printed in the third volume of Calderon's
comedies in the 'Biblioteca de autores espanoles,' 1848-50. The _Pastor
fido_ will be found in vol. iv.
 Mr. Gosse has protested against the use of such terms as 'exotic' in
connexion with products of literary art, and no doubt the word has been
not a little abused. I employ it in its strict sense of 'introduced from
abroad, not indigenons,' and without implying any critical censure.
 Though a Portuguese, and one of the most notable poets in his own
dialect, much of his poetical work is in Castillan.
 So, at least, Theophilo Braga interprets what he calls 'o drama
amoroso das Eclogas,' in his monograph on _Bernardim Ribeiro e o
bucolismo_. Porto, 1897.
 Ticknor is responsible for an unfortunate error, and much consequent
confusion, respecting this date. Some one had cited an imaginary edition
of 1545. Of this Ticknor confessed ignorance, but stated that he had in
his possession a copy consisting of 112 quarto leaves, printed at Valencia
in 1542. This description applies exactly to the earliest edition extant
in the British Museum, except in the matter of the date. There can be no
doubt that this is a mistake. The date 1542 is intrinsically impossible.
Fitzmaurice-Kelly, who himself dates the work 1558-9, points out that one
of the songs refers to events which took place in 1554. The sudden crop of
reprints, dated 1561 and 1562, proves the _Diana_ to have been then a new
book, and inclines me to place the actual publication somewhat after the
date suggested by Kelly. I may mention that Ticknor is also in error over
the date of Ribeiro's work, which he assigns to 1557.
 See the collection of Latin student songs, _Gaudeamus! Carmina
uagorum selecta in usum laetitiae_, Leipzig, 1879, p. 124.
 The novels alluded to will be found in the _Ecatommiti_, I. i, _Cent
Nouvelles nouvelles_, No. 82, and _Novelle de' Novizi_, No. 12.
 _Knight of the Burning Pestle_, II. viii. (Dyce, ii. p. 172), and
_The Pilgrim_, IV. ii. (Dyce, viii. p. 66).
 B. M., Roxburghe, III. 160, also II. 30.
 References are best given to F. J. Child's monumental collection, in
five volumes, where all variants are printed. _Cowdenknows_ and the _Bonny
May_ are No. 217; _The Knight and the Shepherd's Daughter_ 110, the _Bonny
Ilynd_ 50, _Child Waters_ 63, _The Laird of Drum_ 236, _Lizie Lindsay_
226, _Lizie Baillie_ 227, _Glasgow Peggie_ 228, and _Johnie Faa_ 200. No
doubt further examples might be collected.
 Similar shepherd-scenes are found not only in French but even in
Italian miracle plays. The tendency they indicate, however, is not
traceable in later pastoral, as it is with us. That such representations
as those of the Sienese 'Rozzi' formed no exception to this general
statement I shall have to show later.
 For the literary history of the Wakefield cycle, see A. W. Pollard's
admirable introduction to the edition published by the Early English Text
 They also criticize the angels' singing in curiously technical
 Towneley Plays, XII. l. 377, &c., and l. 386, &c., cf. Vergil,
_Bucolics_, IV. 6.
 It is perhaps necessary to define the above use of 'idealization' as
that modification of photographie reality observable in all true art. It
is only when the methods of art have become self-conscious that realism
can become an end in itself.
 _An English Garner_: Fifteenth Century Prose and Verse, ed. A. W.
Pollard, 1903, p. 87. The carol is from a MS. at Balliol College.
 The poem will be found in Arber's edition of the 'Miscellany,' p.
138, and in A. H. Bullen's reprint of _England's Helicon_, p. 56. In
dealing with isolated poems I have quoted, wherever possible, from
Bullen's reprints of the song books, &c.
 Forst = cared for.
 It first appeared as 'The Ploughman's Song' in the 'Entertainment at
Elvetham' in 1591. This has been recently claimed for Lyly. Without
expressing any opinion in this place as to the likelihood of such an
ascription for the bulk of the piece, it may be remarked that the song in
question is as like the rest of Breton's work in style as it is unlike
anything to be found in Lyly's writings.
 Of all pedestrian, not to say reptilian, metres, this is perhaps the
most intolerable; indeed, it was not until touched to new life by the
genius of Blake that it deserved to be called a metre at all.
 See R. B. McKerrow's articles on the Elizabethan 'classical metres' in
the _Modern Language Quarterly_ for December, 1901, and April, 1902, iv.
p. 172, and v. p. 6.
 Eclogues i-iv were printed by Pynson, and the fifth by Wynkyn de
Worde early in the century; i-iii were twice reprinted about 1550. Barclay
died in 1552.
 Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, afterwards Pope Pius II. I suppose that
it is on account of this statement of Barclay's that English critics have
constantly referred to the work as pastoral. It is nothing but a prose
invective against court life.
 See Dyce's _Skelton_, Introduction, p. xxxvi.
 'Eglogs Epytaphes, and Sonettes. Newly written by Barnabe Googe:
1563. 15. Marche.' Reprinted by Professer Arber from the Huth copy.
 The title of the collection as originally published is obviously
ambiguous--is Shepheardes' to be considered as singular or plural? There
is a tendency among modern critics to evade the difficulty in such cases
by quoting titles in the original spelling. I confess that this practice
seems to me both clumsy and pedantic. In the present case there can be
little doubt that the title of Spenser's work was suggested by the
_Calender of Shepherds_. On the other hand, I think it is likewise clear
that the poet, in adopting it, was thinking particularly of Colin
Clout--that he intended, that is, to call his poems 'the calender of the
shepherd' (see first line of postscript), rather than 'the calender for
shepherds.' I have therefore adopted the singular form. 'Calender' is, I
think, a defensible spelling.
 The alternative view, which would make Spenser his own commentator,
is not without supporters both in Germany and in this country. Even were
the question, however, one of greater importance from our point of view,
the 'proofs' so far adduced do not constitute sufficient of an _a priori_
case to justify discussion here.
 _Anglia_, iii. p. 266, and ix. p. 205.
 At the end of the _Calender_ Spenser placed as his motto 'Merce non
mercede'--as merchandise, not for reward.
 On all questions relating to the _Shepherd's Calender_ see C. H.
Herford's edition, to which I gratefully acknowledge my indebtedness. So
far as I am aware, we possess no more admirable edition of any monument of
 Cf. the titles of Drayton's _Idea_ and Basse's MS. eclogues, _infra_.
 _Discoveries_, 1640 (-41), p. 116 (Gifford, 1875; Sec. cxxv). The
'ancients,' as appears from the context, are Chaucer and Gower.
 _Apology for Poetry_, 1595; Arber's edition, p. 63.
 Even Sidney's authorities break down to some extent. Theocritus
certainly modified the literary dialect in his pastoral idyls, and we may
recall that when Vergil began his third eclogue with the line--
Die mihi, Damoeta, cuium pecus? an Meliboei?
a wit of Rome retorted:
Die mihi, Damoeta, 'cuium pecus?' anne Latinum?
Or again it may be asked whether Lorenzo de' Medici is not as good a name
to conjure by as Jacopo Sannazzaro.
 Some of the eclogues are mucn more pronouncedly dialectal than
others, but even within the limits of a single one, literary and dialectal
forms may often be found used indiscriminately. See Herford's remarks on
 'February,' l. 33, &c. Lines 35-6 contain one of the few direct
reminiscences of Chaucer. Cf. _House of Fame_, II. 1225-6. Spenser
repeated the imitation, _Faery Queen_, VI. ix. 43-5, and was followed by
Fletcher, _Faithful Shepherdess_, V. v. 183-4.
 _Pastime of Pleasure_, xxxv. 6, from the edition of 1555 (Percy
Soc., 1845, p. 113).
 In the above instance the rime is sacrificed, and I do not mean that
all anomalous lines in Spenser's measure become strict decasyllables when
done into ME.; indeed, they do so of course only by accident. My point is
that Chaucer's verse as read by the sixteenth-century editors must have
often contained just such unmetrical lines as Spenser's. The view I have
indicated above is that accepted by W. J. Courthope (_History of English
Poetry_, ii. p. 253). Herford, on the other hand, while having recourse to
Chancer's influence to explain Spenser's anomalies, regards the metre in
question as derived from the old alliterative line. From this view I am
reluctantly forced to dissent. The alliterative line may be readily traced
in the mystery cycles, and later influenced the verse of the interludes
and such comedies as _Royster Doyster_; and this tradition may have
affected the verse of the later poets of the school of Lydgate, and even
the popular ideas concerning Chaucer's metre. But as to the actual origin
of Spenser's four-beat line there can surely be no doubt.
 The late A. B. Grosart, in a passage which is a masterpiece of
literary casuistry _(Spenser_, iii. p. lii.), put forward the truly
astounding theory that the discussions on the evils of the clergy and
similar subjects, put into the mouths of shepherds in the _Calender_ and
elsewhere, are 'in nicest keeping with character.' Such a theory ignores
the essence of the question, for, even supposing that shepherds had done
nothing else but discuss the corruption of the Curia since there was a
Curia to be corrupted, it is still utterly beside the mark. Apart from his
own observation of ecclesiastical manners, Spenser's compositions have for
their sole origin the similar discussions of the humanistic eclogues,
while these in their turn did but cast the individual opinions of their
authors into a conventional mould inherited from the classical poets.
Thus, so far as actual shepherds are connected with Spenser's eclogues at
all, they belong to an age when the Curia and all its sins were happily
 The MS. is now in the library of Caius College, Cambridge, and is
contained in the volume numbered 595 in the catalogue. It is entitled
_Poimenologia_. The dedication to William James, Dean of Christ Church,
fixes the date as between 1584 and 1596. Dove became Master of Arts in
1586, and since he does not describe himself as such, the translation
probably belongs to an earlier date. I am indebted for knowledge of and
information concerning this MS. to the kindness of Prof. Moore Smith, and
of Dr. J. S. Reid, Librarian of Caius College.
 Winstanley (_Lives of the English Poets_, 1687, p. 196) ascribes it
to Sir Richard Fanshawe; but he was no doubt confusing it with the Latin
version of the _Faithful Shepherdess_.
 _Faery Queen_, VII. vi. 349, &c.
 Somewhat similar episodes occur both in the _Orlando_ and the
_Gerusalemme_, to the imitation of which, indeed, certain passages in
Spenser can be directly referred.
 See A. H. Bullen's edition, two vols., 1890-91. The poems in question
will be fonnd in vol. i, pp. 48, 58, 63 and 76.
 It is worth noting that in the last stanza all the early editions
read 'Thenot' instead of 'Wrenock'; Thenot being the corresponding
character in Spenser.
 Perhaps Anne Goodere: but the question is alien to our present
discussion. Some of the allusions in the eclogues are obvious, and
probably all the names, except perhaps the speaker's, conceal real
personalities. In the _Muses' Elizium_, on the other hand, most of the
names and characters appear to me fictitious. In connexion with the name
'Idea,' in which certain critics have wished to see a deep philosophical
meaning, I would suggest that it may be nothing but the feminine of
'Idaeus,' that is, a shepherd of Mount Ida, a name found in the second
eclogue of Petrarch. It is, however, true that the word 'idea' bore the
meaning of 'an ideal,' in which sense, no doubt, we occasionally find it
applied to England.
 Concerning translations of Watson's Latin poems, I may be allowed to
refer to a paper contributed to the _Modern Language Quarterly_, February,
1904, vi. p. 125.
 Cf. the passage from Spenser's October eclogue, quoted on p. 88.
 A certain similarity between this poem and the song in _Love's
Labour's Lost_, beginning:
On a day--alack the day!--
Love, whose month was ever May;
has caused them to be at times ascribed to Shakespeare. They are
subscribed 'Ignoto' in _England's Helicon_, but appeared among the poems
published with Barnfield's _Lady Pecunia_ in 1598, a tail of thirty lines
of very inferior quality being substituted for the singularly perfect and
effective final couplet. The poem appeared again in the following year in
the _Passionate Pilgrim_, this time with both the couplet and the
addition. The _Helicon_ version is certainly by far the best, and not
improbably represents the poem as originally written in imitation of
Shakespeare's. See J. B. Henneman's paper in _An English Miscellany_,
 Gascoigne's _Steel Glass_ is far rather medieval in conception.
 Compare with the lines in _Rosalynd_, beginning 'Phoebe sat, sweet
she sat,' those in _Tarlton's News out of Purgatory_, beginning, 'Down I
sat, I sat down,' and see A. H. Bullen's _Poems from Elizabethan Romances_,
1890, p. xi.
 The copy of _Pan's Pipe_ in the British Museum wants the _Tale_, but
this will be found by itself marked C. 40. e. 68 (2, 3).
 Collier and Hazlitt supposed two William Basses, but the balance of
evidence seems against the theory. See S. L. Lee in _Dic. Nat. Biog_., and
the edition by R. W. Bond, 1893.
 Fleay (_Biographical Chronicle_, i. p. 67) identifies Musidore with
Lodge, and 'Hero's last Musaeus' with H. Petowe. The latter
identification, which had already been proposed by Collier
(_Bibliographical Account_, i. p. 130), is in all probability correct.
 Printed by me in the _Modern Language Quarterly_, July, 1901, iv. p.
 These are missing in most copies of the book; the only one I know
containing them is in the Bodleian.
 I do not know who started the idea. It was mentioned in the
_Retrospective Review_ (ii. p. 180) in 1820, accepted by Sommer, and
elaborated with small success by K. Windscheid. Masson makes no mention of
it in his edition of Milton's poetical works. The author of _Lycidas_ was
probably a reader and admirer of Browne's poems, but of _Britannia's
Pastorals_ rather than of the decidedly inferior eclogues.
 The _Arcadian Princess_, translated by Brathwaite from Mariano
Silesio, a kind of metaphorical manual of judicial polity, is in no way
pastoral. It may be remarked that in 1627 there appeared as the work of
one I. D. B. an 'Eclogue, ou Chant Pastoral,' on the marriage (1625) of
Charles and Henrietta Maria, in which two Scotch Shepherds, Robin and
Jacquet, discourse in French Alexandrines. _Taylor's Pastoral_ of 1624
again, a fanciful treatise of religious and secular history, does not
properly belong to pastoral tradition.
 One of these appeared two years previously, entitled _The Shepherd's
 Appended to the third edition of the _Arcadia_, 1598.
 Appended to the _Arcadia_ in 1613.
 _Arcadia_, 1590, fol. 237 verso.
 _Opera_, Basel, 1553, p. 622.
 The song is said to be between 'two nymphs, each answering other
line for line'; but the simple alternation adopted by Spenser makes
nonsense of the present poem. The above arrangement seems to distribute
the lines best; viz. the first quatrain to Phillis, with interposition of
lines 2 and 4 by Amaryllis, the second quatrain to Amaryllis, with
interposition of line 2 only by Phillis.
 Others in the _Passionate Pilgrim_, 1599, and Walton's _Complete
 So, rather than 'Fair-lined,' as Bullen prints; but query
 This is the text of _England's Helicon_, which is superior to that
in the play, except for the omission of the couplet in brackets, and
possibly in the reading 'hath sworn' for 'is sworn,' in l. 11.
 From E. K. Chambers' _English Pastorals_, p. 113. The date is
uncertain, but a tune of the name was extant in 1603. The earliest
recorded text is a broadside, of about 1650, in the Roxburghe collection
(III. 142). The conjecture of an 'original issue, _circa_ 1600,' is on the
whole plausible. In that case there was, somewhere, a poet capable of
anticipating the particular cadences of _Sirena_ and _Agincourt_, and that
poet is more likely to have been Drayton than another. See Ebsworth's
edition for the Ballad Society (_Roxburghe Ballads_, vi. p. 460).
 _Lycidas_ is almost too familiar, one might suppose, to need
comment, but such irreconcilable views have been held by different
authorities, from Dr. Johnson onwards, that it may not be idle to attempt
to view the work critically in relation to pastoral tradition as a whole.
 When Johnson went on to describe the form of the poem as 'easy,
vulgar, and therefore disgusting,' he was but exhibiting a critical
incapacity which seriously impairs his authority in literary matters.
 For a detailed account of the poem, as well as for a number of
parallel passages--as well as some of doubtful relevance--the reader may
be referred to F. W. Moorman's monograph. I use the text of G. Goodwin's
edition of Browne's poems, with introduction by A. H. Bullen, 2 vols.,
 K. Windscheid professes to discover a different hand in the third
book, and is inclined to ascribe it to some imitator of Browne. Its merit
is certainly not high, but it is no worse than parts of the former books;
and Browne's work is so notoriously unequal that I can see no excuse for
depriving or relieving him of its authorship.
The hatred which they bore was only this,
That every one did hate to do amiss;
Their fortune still was subject to their will;
Their want--O happy!--was the want of ill. (II. iii. 447.)
Many readers may be inclined to pity poor men and women debarred from that
First of all joys that unto sin belong--
The sweet felicity of doing wrong.
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