Practical Exercises in English
Huber Gray Buehler

Part 4 out of 4

preposition only. We may say, "All went _except_ me," but we may not say,
"_Except_ you go with me, I will stay at home." Another word not in good
use as a conjunction, but often heard instead of "unless," is _without_.

[141] "Foundations," p. 152.
[142] See page 109.


_Insert the proper word in each blank:_--

1. Do ---- I do.
2. She fears a chicken ---- you fear a snake.
3. Thin bushy hair falls down on each side of his face somewhat ----
Longfellow's hair did in his later life.
4. I wish I could sing ---- she can.
5. I will be a lawyer ---- my father.
6. I will be a lawyer ---- my father was.
7. She looks ---- (if) she were crying.
8. He acted ---- (if) he were guilty.
9. Our snow-tunnel looked ---- we imagined Aladdin's cave looked.
10. He treated me ---- a cat treats a mouse.
11. Seventy-five cents a day will not feed those men ---- they wish to be
12. The lines in this stanza are not forced ---- in other stanzas.
13. If I were a boy ---- Ralph is, I would try to stop the thing.

14. I do not know how my horse got away ---- somebody untied him.
15. Do not come ---- you hear from me.
16. I will not go ---- father is willing.
17. I will not go ---- father's consent.
18. ---- you study better, you will be dropped.
19. It will be cool to-morrow ---- a hot wave comes.
20. I cannot go ---- money.
21. I cannot go ---- father sends me some money.
22. I will be there promptly ---- I hear from you.
23. Do not write ---- you feel in the mood for it.
24. She has no fault ---- diffidence.
25. She has no fault ---- it be diffidence.
26. He cannot enlist ---- with his guardian's consent.

MISUSED CONJUNCTIONS.[143]--Conjunctions are few in number and are more
definite in their meanings than prepositions. Most errors in using them
spring from confused thinking or hasty writing. "A close reasoner and a
good writer in general may be known by his pertinent use of

AND.--_And_ has, generally speaking, the meaning of "in addition to."

BUT.--_But_ implies some exception, opposition, or contrast.
Equivalent, or nearly equivalent, expressions are "however," "on the other
hand," "yet," "nevertheless."

AS.--"_As_ has so many meanings that it is better, when possible, to
use a conjunction that covers less ground."[145]

BECAUSE, FOR, SINCE.--The difference between these words is chiefly a
difference in emphasis. "We will not go, _because_ it is raining" is the
strongest way of expressing the relation of cause and effect. In "_Since_
it is raining, we will not go," the emphasis is shifted from the cause to
the effect, which becomes the prominent idea. In "We will not go, _for_ it
is raining," the reason, "it is raining," is announced as itself a bit of
news. Often the choice between these words is decided by the ear.

HOW.--_How_ properly means "in what manner" or "to what extent." It
is often misused for "that" to introduce an object clause.

NOR, OR.--_Nor_ is the correlative of _neither_, sometimes of other
negatives. _Or_ is the correlative of _either_.

THEREFORE, SO.--In the sense of "for this reason," _therefore_ is
preferable to _so_, since _so_ has other meanings.

THOUGH.--_Though_ means "notwithstanding," "in spite of the fact

AS IF, AS THOUGH.--"_As if_ is, on the whole, preferable to _as

WHEN, WHILE.--_When_ means "at the time that;" _while_, "during the
time that," "as long as." "_When_ fixes attention on a date or period;
_while_ fixes attention on the lapse of time."[147]

[143] "Foundations," p.152.
[144] Coleridge: Table Talk. Quoted by A.S. Hill in Principles of
[145] "Foundations," p. 153.
[146] "Foundations," p. 156.
[147] Ibid., p. 157.


_Insert the proper conjunction in each blank, if a conjunction is
needed. Do not confine your choice to those mentioned above:_--

1. Roland was mild and modest, ---- Charles was coarse and boastful.
2. ---- they were without provisions, they thought they should starve.
3. In Addison's day innumerable vices were prevalent, ---- chief among them
was the custom of drinking.
4. Charles was a large, brawny fellow, ---- Orlando was a slender youth.
5. When the barn was full of people, the doors were suddenly shut and
bolted ---- the barn was set on fire.
6. Hereward's men wanted booty, ---- Hereward took them to the Golden
7. He read a short ---- interesting account of "Theobald's."
8. Longfellow received a good education ---- he was not a poor boy.
9. He was disappointed in the speed of his yacht, ---- he had expected her
to be very fast.
10. The man said "to sell" was not needed on the sign ---- no one would
expect the hats to be given away.
11. There is no doubt ---- the earth is spherical.
12. I know very little about the "Arabian Nights" ---- I have never read
that book.
13. When Gulliver began to pull, the ships would not move ---- their
anchors held them.
14. He had to be cautious in using his Bible ---- at that time reading it
was prohibited; ---- he fastened it with tapes on the underside of
a stool.
15. The Liberal Arts Building at Chicago had twice as much iron in its
frame ---- the Brooklyn Bridge.
16. The lumbermen must keep open a road to the railroad, ---- all their
provisions must be brought from the city.
17. Scarcely had I thrown in my line ---- I felt a nibble.
18. The fly seems to have been created for no other purpose ---- to purify
the air.
19. At first you wonder where the boats are, ---- on entering the grove you
can see only a small cabin.
20. I do not doubt ---- he will succeed.
21. I cannot deny ---- he is honest.
22. He was dismissed, not so much because he was too young ---- because he
was indolent.
23. The land is equally adapted to farming ---- to pasturage.
24. Proportion is ---- simple ---- compound.
25. I wonder ---- he will come.
26. The last of the horses had scarcely crossed the bridge ---- the head of
the third battalion appeared on the other side.
27. He looked as ---- he could play football.
28. ---- I saw her, she was young ---- beautiful.
29. Bruce spoke of himself as being neither Scotch ---- English.
30. I could ---- buy ---- borrow it.
31. He has no love ---- veneration for his superiors.
32. There was no place so hidden ---- so remote ---- the plague did
not find it.
33. We need not, ---- do not, complain of our lot.
34. He could not deny ---- he had borrowed money.
35. There is no question ---- the universe has bounds.
36. A corrupt government is nothing else ---- a reigning sin.
37. She thinks, I regret to say, of little else ---- clothes.
38. O fairest flower, no sooner blown ---- blasted.
39. There is no other hat here ---- mine.
40. ---- you have come, I will go with you.
41. ---- Virgil was the better artist, Homer was the greater genius.
42. He has not decided ---- he will let me go to college.
43. Sheep are white ---- black.
44. The King has no arbitrary power; your Lordships have not ---- the
Commons; ---- the whole Legislature.
45. No tie of gratitude ---- of honor could bind him.
46. She had no sooner arrived ---- she prepared to go boating.
47. Scarcely had she left the house ---- she returned.
48. He was punished, ---- he was guilty.
49. He was punished, ---- he was not guilty.
50. We cannot go ---- we finish our task.
51. ---- the rain came down in torrents, we started for the lake.
52. She could ---- dance ---- sing, ---- she played the piano.
53. I do not know ---- I shall walk ---- ride.
54. Hardly had he left the room ---- the prisoner attempted to escape.
55. The chances are ten to one ---- he will forget it.
56. Stand up so ---- you can be seen.

OMITTED CONJUNCTIONS.--Careless writers sometimes omit conjunctions
that are necessary either to the grammar or to the sense. A common form of
this fault is illustrated in "This is as good if not better than that"--a
sentence in which "as" is omitted after "as good." The best way to correct
the sentence is to recast it, thus: "This is as good as that, if not


_Correct the faults in these sentences:_--

1. Ralph is as young or younger than Harry.
2. Cedar is more durable but not so hard as oak.
3. I never heard any one speak more fluently or so wittily as he.
4. She is fairer but not so amiable as her sister.
5. Though not so old, he is wiser than his brother.

REDUNDANT CONJUNCTIONS.--[148] Careless writers sometimes insert
conjunctions that are useless or worse than useless.
A common form of this fault is the use in certain cases of "and" or "but"
before the words "who," "which," "when," or "where," which are themselves
connectives: as, "The challenge was accepted by Orlando, a young man
little known up to that time, _but_ to _whom_ Rosalind had taken a great
liking." If the relative clause introduced by "who," "which," "when," or
"where" is to be joined to a preceding relative clause, the conjunction is
proper: as, "The challenge was accepted by Orlando, a young man _who_ was
little known at that time, _but_ to whom Rosalind had taken a great

[148] See "Foundations," pp. 208-211.


_Which conjunctions in these sentences are redundant_?--

1. I have again been so fortunate as to obtain the assistance of Dr.
Jones, a teacher of great experience, and whose ideas are quite in
harmony with my own.
2. Franklin had noticed for some time the extreme dirtiness of the
streets, and especially of the street that he lived on.
3. This animal was considered as irresistible.
4. But how to get him there was a problem. But it was decided to convey
him on one of the wagons used in carrying the Emperor's men-of-war from
the woods, where they were made, to the water.
5. He forgot to pay for the wine--a shortness of memory common with such
men, and which his host did not presume to correct.
6. Next came Louis, Duke of Orleans, the first prince of the blood royal,
and to whom the attendants rendered homage as the future king.
7. So from all this you can see that such things are not impossible.
8. Her expression of countenance induced most persons to address her with
a deference inconsistent with her station, and which nevertheless she
received with easy composure.
9. Our escort consisted of MacGregor, and five or six of the handsomest,
best armed, and most athletic mountaineers of his band, and whom he had
generally in immediate attendance upon his own person.
10. The little town of Lambtos, Mrs. Gardiner's former home, and where
she had lately learned that some acquaintance still remained.
11. He spoke in a deep and low tone, but which nevertheless was heard from
one end of the hall to the other.

MISPLACED CORRELATIVES.--When conjunctions are used as correlatives,
as "both-and," "either-or," each of the correlated words should be so
placed as to indicate clearly what ideas are to be connected in thought.
This principle is violated in "He _not only_ visited Paris, _but_ Berlin
_also._" In this sentence the position of "not only" before the verb
"visited" leads one to expect some corresponding verb in the second part
of the sentence; in fact, however, the two connected words are "Paris" and
"Berlin;" "visited" applies to both. This meaning is clearly indicated by
putting "not only" before "Paris:" thus, "He visited _not only_ Paris,
_but_ Berlin _also_." As a rule the word after the first correlative
should be the same part of speech as the word after the second


_Correct the errors of position in_--

1. Few complaints were made either by the men or the women.
2. Search-lights are not useful only on ships, but also on land.
3. Adversity both teaches to think and to be patient.
4. My uncle gave me not only the boat, but also taught me to row it.
5. The prisoner was not only accused of robbery, but of treason.
6. The wise ruler does not aim at the punishment of offenders, but at the
prevention of offences.
7. The king was weak both in body and mind.
8. He either is stupid or insolent.
9. He worked not to provide for the future, but the present.
10. Every composition is liable to criticism both in regard to its design
and to its execution.
11. The gods are either angry or nature is too powerful.
12. We are neither acquainted with the Doctor nor with his family.
13. In estimating the work of Luther, we must neither forget the temper of
the man nor the age in which he lived.
14. The wise teacher should not aim to repress, but to encourage his
15. Such rules are useless both for teachers and pupils.
16. Her success is neither the result of cleverness nor of studiousness.



The following suggestions are made in answer to many inquiries from
teachers who perceive the rare excellence of the "Foundations of
Rhetoric," but who do not clearly see, because of the novel method of the
book, how to turn its merits to account in their class-rooms. The
suggestions outline one way in which the book has been used to great

It should never be forgotten that the illustrative sentences in the
"Foundations" have no value except as they help the student to grasp a
principle that he can apply in his own use of language. In every case the
emphasis should be laid on the principle which is announced or
illustrated. Merely learning the corrected sentences by heart is useless
and should not be permitted.

In taking a class over PART I., which treats of words, it is the writer's
practice to assign a short lesson--from one to three pages--in connection
with every recitation in English. The leading ideas and most typical
sentences in each lesson are privately marked in the teacher's book with
colored pencil, so that they may readily catch his eye, and from five to
twelve minutes of each recitation period are taken up with a rapid
questioning on these leading ideas and typical sentences. Corrections or
answers unaccompanied by reasons are not accepted. Attention is always
fixed, not on the form of the illustrative sentence, but on the principle
of usage under discussion. Pupils would rather commit to memory the
sentences than trouble themselves about reasons; but they will master
reasons when they find they must. After principles have been mastered,
exercises in the choice of forms and words are needed in order that
knowledge may be converted into habit.

In PARTS II. and III. the lessons are equally short and the emphasis is
unceasingly laid on the question "Why?" If the subject is difficult, it is
desirable, at the time that the lesson is assigned, to lead the class over
the text and some of the illustrative sentences in order to open, as it
were, the eyes of the pupils. Since these parts of the book treat not of
single words, but of sentences and paragraphs, recitations on them seem to
call for the use of pencil or chalk. One successful teacher conducts the
recitation with books open, requiring her pupils to cover the correct
sentences with a strip of paper while they explain and correct the faults
in the incorrect sentences. The writer's practice is to paste the faulty
sentences on cards of convenient size and thickness--the arrangement of
columns is such that the sentences can all be cut from _one_ old book--and
to distribute them among eight or ten pupils at the beginning of the
recitation hour. While other matters are being attended to, these pupils
write the sentences in correct form on the blackboard, and, when the time
comes, give their reasons for the changes which they have made. Their work
is discussed, if necessary, by the whole class. Reviews and written tests
should be frequent. As fast as the various principles explained and
illustrated in PARTS II. and III. are studied, the attention of pupils
should be immediately turned to their own writing. It will be far more
profitable for them to correct their own offences against clearness,
force, ease, and unity than to correct similar offences committed by
others. For this reason the PRACTICAL EXERCISES IN ENGLISH contains no
exercises on the subjects discussed in PARTS II. and III. of the


_A, an_, or _the_, 12.
_Abbot_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
Abbreviations, 22.
_Ability, capacity_, distinguished, 29.
_Abundance, plenty_, distinguished, 32.
_Accept, except_, distinguished, 99.
_Acceptance, acceptation_, distinguished, 25.
_Access, accession_, distinguished, 25.
_Accredit, credit_, distinguished, 92.
_Actor_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Acts, actions_, distinguished, 25.
_Adherence, adhesion_, distinguished, 29.
ADJECTIVES, 109-133; defined, 109; vulgarisms in the use of, 109-113;
singular and plural, 110; adjective or adverb, 113-116; redundant, 117-118;
misused, 119-129; use of the comparative and superlative degrees, 129-131;
adjectives incapable of comparison, 131-132; misplaced, 132-133.
_Admit, confess_, distinguished, 95.
_Advance, advancement_, distinguished, 25.
ADVERBS, 109-133; defined,109; vulgarisms in the use of, 109-113;
adverb or adjective, 113-116; redundant, 117-118; misused, 119-129;
use of the comparative and superlative degrees, 129-131;
adverbs incapable of comparison, 131-132; misplaced, 132-133;
between _to_ and the infinitive, 133.
_Advise_ distinguished from _advertise_, 99;
from _persuade_, 100.
_Affect, effect_, distinguished, 99.
_Affirm, claim, maintain_, distinguished, 94-95.
_Afraid, scared_, distinguished, 124.
_Aggravating, irritating_, distinguished, 119.
_Ain't_, 71.
Alienisms, defined, 10.
_Alight, light_, distinguished, 62.
_All_ distinguished from _the whole_, 23;
from _each_, 56; after comparatives, 129.
_Allege, affirm, assert_, etc., distinguished, 94.
_Alleviate, relieve_, distinguished, 99.
_Allow, admit, think_, distinguished, 99.
_Allude_ to, _refer_ to, _mention_, distinguished, 99.
_Allusion, illusion, delusion_, distinguished, 25.
_Almost, most_, distinguished, 109.
_Alone, only_, distinguished, 116.
_Alumnus, alumna_, plural of, 20.
Americanisms, defined, 10.
_Among, between_, distinguished, 134.
_Amount, quantity, number_, distinguished, 29.
_Analysis_, plural of, 20.
_And_, 143.
Anglicisms, defined, 10.
_Angry, mad_, distinguished, 123.
_Antagonize, oppose_, distinguished, 94.
_Anticipate, expect, suspect_, distinguished, 101.
_Any_, with comparatives and superlatives, 129.
_Any one_, number of, 58; distinguished from _either_, 55-56.
_Apparently, evidently, manifestly_, distinguished, 122.
_Appear, materialize_, distinguished, 95.
_Apt, likely, liable_, distinguished, 119.
Archaic, defined, 10.
_Aren't_, 71.
_Argue, augur_, distinguished, 99.
_Argument, plea_, distinguished, 29.
_Arise, rise_, distinguished, 92.
ARTICLES, 12-15; meaning of, 12; generic, 12; superfluous and omitted, 13.
_As_, clause after, often omitted in part, 45 note 2; a relative
pronoun, 54; distinguished from _that_ after _same_, 54;
from so when correlative with as, 119-120; from _like_, 142.
_As if_ preferred to _as though_, 144.
_As well as_, words joined to the subject by, 89.
_Ask, demand_, distinguished, 95.
_Assert, allege, declare_, etc., distinguished, 94-95.
_Assertion, statement_, distinguished, 23.
_At, in_, before names of places, distinguished, 134.
_Augur, argue_, distinguished, 99.
Auxiliary verbs, defined, 72.
_Average, ordinary_, distinguished, 122.
_Avocation, vocation_, distinguished, 25.
_Awake_, principal parts of, 61.
_Awful_, 124.

_Bachelor_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Back of_, 134.
_Bacterium_, plural of, 20.
_Balance, rest, remainder_, distinguished, 29.
Barbarism, defined, 10.
_Barge_, for _omnibus_, 4.
_Beau_, plural of, 21.
_Because, for, since_, distinguished, 143.
_Began, begun_, distinguished, 61.
_Begin_, principal parts of, 61; distinguished from
_commence, start_, 100-101.
_Beseech_, principal parts of, 61.
_Beside, besides_, distinguished, 134.
_Between, among_, distinguished, 134.
BIBLE, quoted, 3.
_Bid_, principal parts of, 61.
_Blow_, principal parts of, 61.
_Bound, determined_, distinguished, 122.
_Both, each, every_, distinguished, 119.
_Break_, principal parts of, 61.
_Bring, fetch, carry_, distinguished, 94.
_Broke, broken_, distinguished, 61.
_Buck_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Bullock_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Burglarize_, 10.
_Burst_, principal parts of, 61.
_But_, 143.
_By, with_, distinguished, 134.

_Calculate, intend_, distinguished, 94.
_Can_ or _may_, 71.
_Can't_, 71.
_Canto_, plural of, 18.
_Capacity, ability_, distinguished, 29.
_Captivate, capture_, distinguished, 92.
_Carry, fetch, bring_, distinguished, 94.
Case, possessive, of nouns, 17; of pronouns, 43;
nominative or objective, 43-50.
_Centre, middle_, distinguished, 30.
CENTURY DICTIONARY, quoted, 25, 26, 32, 54, 92, 99, 116.
_Champion, support_, distinguished, 94.
Change of pronoun, 56-58.
_Character, reputation_, distinguished, 30.
CHAUCER, quoted, 72.
_Cherub_, plural of, 21.
_Choose_, principal parts of, 61.
_Claim, assert, allege_, etc., distinguished, 94-95.
COLERIDGE, S.T., quoted, 143.
Colloquialisms, defined, 10.
_Come_, principal parts of, 61.
_Commence, begin, start_, distinguished, 100-101.
_Common, mutual_, distinguished, 119.
_Compare with, compare to, contrast_, distinguished, 99.
Comparative and superlative, use of the, 129-131.
Comparison, adjectives and adverbs incapable of, 131-132.
_Complement, compliment_, distinguished, 30.
_Completion, completeness_, distinguished, 26.
Compound nouns, possessive of, 16; plural of, 18.
Conditional mood, 85; sentences, 85-86.
_Confess, admit_, distinguished, 95.
CONJUNCTIONS, 142-149; vulgarisms in the use of, 142--143; misused, 143-146;
omitted, 146.; redundant, 146-148; misplaced correlatives, 148-149.
_Conscience, consciousness_, distinguished, 30.
_Construe, construct_, distinguished, 99.
_Continual, continuous_, distinguished, 122.
Contractions, 43, 71.
_Contrast, compare to, compare with_, distinguished, 99.
Conversation and good use, 7.
_Convince, convict_, distinguished, 99.
_Could_, distinguished from _might_, 71-72;
tense of the infinitive with, 79.
_Council, counsel_, distinguished, 30.
_Countess_, masculine corresponding to, 21.
_Credit, accredit_, distinguished, 92.
_Crisis_, plural of, 21.
_Curriculum_, plural of, 21.
_Custom, habit_, distinguished, 30.
_Czar_, feminine corresponding to, 21.

_Daresn't_, 71.
_Datum_, plural of, 21.
_Deadly, deathly_, distinguished, 122.
_Deception, deceit_, distinguished, 30.
_Declare, assert, claim_, etc., distinguished, 94-95.
_Decided, decisive_, distinguished, 122.
_Delusion, illusion, allusion_, distinguished, 25.
_Demand, ask_, distinguished, 95.
Dependent clauses, _will_ or _shall_ in, 73; tenses in, 78.
_Depreciate, deprecate_, distinguished, 92-93.
_Detect, discriminate_, distinguished,99.
_Determined, bound_, distinguished, 122.
Dictionaries, usefulness of, 9; quoted, see CENTURY and MURRAY.
_Die_ (noun), plurals of, 19.
_Different from, different to_, 134.
_Disclose, discover_, distinguished, 99.
_Discover, invent_, distinguished, 31.
_Discriminate, detect_, distinguished, 99.
_Dive_, principal parts of, 61.
_Do_, principal parts of, 61.
_Doe_, masculine corresponding to, 21.
_Doesn't_, 71.
_Dominate, domineer_, distinguished, 99.
_Don't_, 71.
_Drake_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Drank, drunk_, distinguished, 62.
_Drive_, principal parts of, 61; distinguished from _ride_, 99.
_Duck_, masculine corresponding to, 21.
_Duke_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Dumb, stupid_, distinguished, 122.
_Duodecimo_, plural of, 18.

_Each_, distinguished from _all_, 56; from _every and both_, 119;
number of, 58, 89.
_Earl_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
EARLE, JOHN, quoted, 82.
_Eat_, principal parts of, 61.
_Effect, affect_, distinguished, 99.
_Egoists, egotists; egoism, egotism_, distinguished, 30.
_Either_, distinguished from _any one,_ 55-56; number of, 58, 89.
_Either_--_or_, number of the verb with singular subjects
connected by, 89.
_Electrocute_, 10.
_Elegant_, 124.
_Elicit, eliminate_, distinguished, 100.
EMERSON, R.W., quoted, 124.
_Emigration, immigration_, distinguished, 30.
_Eminent, prominent_, distinguished, 123.
_Enormity, enormousness_, distinguished, 30.
_Enthuse_, 10.
_Esteem, estimate, estimation_, distinguished, nouns, 30; verbs, 100.
_Every_, number of, 58, 89; distinguished from _each_ and _both_, 119.
_Everywheres_, 110.
_Evidently, apparently, manifestly_, distinguished, 122.
_Ewe_, masculine corresponding to, 21.
_Except, accept_, distinguished, 99.
_Except, without, unless_, distinguished, 142.
_Existing, extant_, distinguished, 122.
_Expect, suspect, anticipate_, distinguished, 101.
_Expose, expound_, distinguished, 100.
_Extant, existing_, distinguished, 122.

_Falsity, falseness_, distinguished, 31.
_Fetch, bring, carry_, distinguished, 94.
_Fewer, less, smaller_, distinguished, 109.
Figures, plural of, 19.
_Find, locate_, distinguished, 100.
_Fish_, plurals of, 19.
_Flee_, principal parts of, 61.
_Fled, flew, flown_, distinguished, 61.
_Fly_, principal parts of, 61.
_For, because, since_, distinguished, 143-144.
_For, on_, after _wait_, distinguished, 135.
Foreign origin, plural of nouns of, 20-21.
Foreignisms, defined, 10.
_Forget_, principal parts of, 61.
quoted, 6, 17, 54, 67, 61, 62, 113, 119, 133, 134, 135, 136, 143, 144.
_Frances, Francis_, distinguished, 21.
_Freeze_, principal parts of, 61.
_Frighten_, 100.
_Froze, frozen_, distinguished, 61.
_Funny, odd_, distinguished, 122.

Gallicisms, defined, 10.
_Gander_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
Gender, nouns of different, 21.
_Genius_, plural of, 21.
_Genus_, plural of, 21.
Gerunds, 50-51.
_Get_, principal parts of, 61.
_Go_, principal parts of, 61.
Good reading, the foundation of good writing and speaking, 8.
GOOD USE, 3-11; defined, 6; conversation and, 7; newspapers and, 7;
not to be learned from any one book or writer, 7; to be learned
from good reading, 8; and from dictionaries, 9; and from books
like the "Foundations of Rhetoric," 9.
_Good, well_, distinguished, 109.
_Goose_, masculine corresponding to, 21.
_Gorgeous_, 124.
_Gotten_ for _got_, 61.
_Grand_, 124.
_Gums_ for _overshoes_, 4.

_Habit, custom_, distinguished, 30.
_Halo_, plural of, 18.
_Hang_, principal parts of, 61.
_Happen, transpire_, distinguished, 96.
_Hart_, feminine of, 21.
_He, him, himself_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_He, his, him_, for mankind in general, 58.
_Healthy, healthful, wholesome_, distinguished, 122-123.
_Heifer_, masculine corresponding to, 21.
_Her, herself, she_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Hero_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
HILL, A.S., quoted, 6, 8, 17, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 54, 61, 62, 74,
89, 92, 95, 99, 100, 113, 119, 122, 123, 133, 134, 135, 140, 143, 144.
_Him, his_, before verbal nouns, 61.
_Him, himself, he_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Hind_, masculine corresponding to, 21.
_Hire, let, lease_, distinguished, 95.
_His, him_, before verbal nouns, 51.
_Home_, distinguished from _house_, 23; preposition before, 140.
_How_, 144.
_Human, humane_, distinguished, 123.
_Hung, hanged_, distinguished, 61.
_Hypothesis_, plural of, 21.

_I, me, myself_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Identity, identification_, distinguished, 31.
_Illusion, allusion, delusion_, distinguished, 25.
_Illy_, 110.
_Immigration, emigration_, distinguished, 30.
_Import, importance_, distinguished, 81.
Improprieties, defined, 10.
_Impugn, impute_, distinguished, 93.
_In, at, into, on_, distinguished, 134-135.
_In addition to_, words joined to the subject by, 89.
_Index_, plurals of, 19.
Indicative, use of the perfect, 78; indicative or subjunctive, 82-89.
Infinitive, tenses of the, 78-79; adverbs between _to_ and the, 133.
_Inquire, investigate_, distinguished, 100.
_Insure, secure_, distinguished, 100.
_Intend, calculate_, distinguished, 94.
_Invent, discover_, distinguished, 31.
_Investigate, inquire_, distinguished, 100.
_It, its_, before verbal nouns, 51.

_Junto_, plural of, 18.

_Laid, lay, lain_, distinguished, 61-62.
_Lasso_, plural of, 18.
_Last, latest_, distinguished, 123.
_Lay, lie, laid, lain_, distinguished, 61-62.
_Learn, teach_, distinguished, 95.
_Lease, let, hire_, distinguished, 95.
_Leave, let_, distinguished, 100.
_Lend, loan_, distinguished, 93.
_Lengthy, long_, distinguished, 123.
_Less, fewer, smaller_, distinguished, 109.
_Lesser_, 110.
_Let, leave_, distinguished, 100.
_Let, lease, hire_, distinguished, 95.
Letters, plural of, 19.
_Liable, likely, apt_, distinguished, 119.
_Lie, lay_, distinguished, 61-62; principal parts of, 62.
_Light, alight_, distinguished, 62.
_Light-complected_, 110.
_Lighted, lit_, distinguished, 62.
_Like, as_, distinguished, 142.
_Like, likely, probably_, distinguished, 109.
_Like, love_, distinguished, 95.
_Likely, liable, apt_, distinguished, 119.
_Limit, limitation_, distinguished, 31.
_Lion_, feminine of, 21.
_Loan, lend_, distinguished, 93.
_Locate, find_, distinguished, 100.
_Long, lengthy_, distinguished, 123.
_Lot, number_, distinguished, 31.
_Love, like_, distinguished, 95.
_Lovely_, 124.

_Mad, angry_, distinguished, 128.
_Magnificent_, 124.
_Manifestly, evidently, apparently_, distinguished, 122.
_Maintain, assert, allege_, etc., distinguished, 94-95.
_Majority, plurality_, distinguished, 31.
_Man after man_, number of, 58.
_Many, much_, distinguished, 119.
_Many a_, number of, 89.
_Marquis_, feminine of, 21.
_Materialize, appear_, distinguished, 95.
_May, can_, distinguished, 71.
_Me, myself, I_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Me, my_, before verbal nouns, 51.
_Memento_, plural of, 18.
_Mention, refer_ to, _allude_ to, distinguished, 99.
_Middle, centre_, distinguished, 30.
_Might_, distinguished from _could_, 71;
tense of the infinitive with, 79.
Misplaced adjectives and adverbs, 132-133; correlatives, 148-149.
Misused nouns, 22-42; verbs, 92-108; adjectives and adverbs, 119-129;
prepositions, 134-139; conjunctions, 143-146.
_Monk_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Most, almost_, distinguished, 109.
_Much, many_, distinguished, 119.
_Muchly_, 110.
MURRAY'S DICTIONARY, quoted, 54, 94, 101, 119.
_Must_, tense of the infinitive with, 78-79.
_Mutual, common_, distinguished, 119.
_My, me_, before verbal nouns, 51, 52.
_Myself, me, I_, proper choice among, 43-45.

National use, 4-6.
_Near, nearly_, distinguished, 109.
_Need_, tense of the infinitive with, 78-79.
_Negligence, neglect_, distinguished, 31.
_Neither_, number of, 58, 89; distinguished from _no one_, 55-66.
_Neither_--_nor_, number of the verb
with singular subjects joined by, 89.
_New, novel_, distinguished, 123.
Newspapers and good use, 7.
_Nobody_, number of, 58.
Nominative or objective, 43-50.
_No one, neither_, choice between,55-56.
_Nor, or_, choice between, 144.
Notional verbs, defined, 72.
Nouns, 16-42; form of the possessive case, 16-17; use and misuse of the
possessive case, 17-18; singular and plural, 18-21; plural forms of
foreign origin, 20; gender, 21; abbreviations, 22; misused, 22-42;
gerunds and verbal nouns, 50-51.
_Novel, new_, distinguished, 123.
_Novice, novitiate_, distinguished, 31.
_Nowhere near_, 110.
Number, singular and plural, of nouns, 18-21; of pronouns, 58-60;
of verbs, 89-92; of adjectives, 110.
_Number_, distinguished from _quantity_ and _amount_, 29;
from _lot_, 81.
_Number, quantity, amount_, distinguished, 29.
_Nun_, masculine corresponding to, 21.

_Oasis_, plural of, 21.
Objective case, 43-50.
_Observance, observation_, distinguished, 26.
Obsolete, defined, 4,
_Octavo_, plural of, 18.
_Odd, funny_, distinguished, 122.
_Of_ after verbal nouns, 51.
_Of which, whose_, choice between, 54.
Omitted articles, 13; pronouns, 60; adverbs, 117; prepositions, 140;
conjunctions, 146.
_On, in_, before names of streets, distinguished, 135.
_On, for_, after _wait_, distinguished, 135.
_One_, possessive and reflexive of, 56-57.
_Only_, distinguished from _alone_, 116; position of, 132.
_Onto_, 135.
_Oppose, antagonize_, distinguished, 94.
_Or, nor_, use of, 144.
_Oral, verbal_, distinguished, 123.
_Ordinary, average_, distinguished, 122.
_Organism_, organization, distinguished, 31.
_Other_, with comparatives and superlatives, 129.
_Ought_, tense of the infinitive with, 78-79.
_Our, us_, before verbal nouns, 51.
_Ourselves, we, us_, proper choice among, 43-46.

_Parenthesis_, plural of, 21.
_Part, portion_, distinguished, 31.
Participle, defined, 50.
_Partly, partially_, distinguished, 119.
Parts of verbs, principal, 61-62.
_Party, person_, distinguished, 23.
_Penny_, plurals of, 19.
Perfect indicative, 78; infinitive, 78-79.
Person, change from one to another in pronouns, 56-57.
_Person, party_, distinguished, 23.
_Persuade, advise_, distinguished, 100.
_Phenomenon_, plural of, 21.
_Piano_, plural of, 18.
_Pitiable, pitiful_, distinguished, 123.
_Plea, argument_, distinguished, 29.
_Plead_, principal parts of, 62.
_Plenty_, distinguished from _abundance_, 32;
as adjective and adverb, 109-110.
Plural of nouns, 18-21; of pronouns, 58-60; of verbs, 89-92;
of adjectives, 110.
_Plurality, majority_, distinguished, 31.
_Portion, part_, distinguished, 31.
Possessive case, of nouns, 16; of pronouns, 43.
_Practicable, practical_, distinguished, 123.
_Predicate, predict_, distinguished, 100.
_Predominance, prominence_, distinguished, 32.
PREPOSITIONS, 134-141; misused, 134-139; omitted, 140; redundant, 140.
_Prescribe, proscribe_, distinguished, 100.
Present use, 3-4.
Principal parts of verbs, 61-62.
_Probably, likely, like_, distinguished, 109.
_Produce, product, production_, distinguished, 32.
_Prominence, predominance_, distinguished, 32.
_Prominent, eminent_, distinguished, 123.
PRONOUNS, 43--60; possessive case of, 43, 56; in "self," 44-45;
before verbal nouns, 50-61; choice of relative, 53-55;
omission of, 53-54; change of, 56-57; singular or plural, 58;
omitted, 60; redundant, 60.
Proper nouns, plural of, 18; 19 note 3.
_Proposal, proposition_, distinguished, 26.
_Propose, purpose_, distinguished, 100.
_Proscribe, prescribe_, distinguished, 100.
_Prove_, principal parts of, 62.
Provincialisms, defined, 10.
_Proviso_, plural of, 18.
Punctuation of relative clauses, 53.
_Purpose, propose_, distinguished, 100.

_Quantity, number, amount_, distinguished, 29.
_Quarto_, plural of, 18.
_Quite, very_, distinguished, 119.

_Raise_, principal parts of, 62; distinguished from _rise_, 62.
_Ram_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Rang, rung_, distinguished, 62.
_Real, really, very_, distinguished, 124.
_Receipt, recipe_, distinguished, 32.
_Recourse, resource, resort_, distinguished, 32.
Redundant articles, 13; pronouns, 60; adjectives and adverbs, 117;
prepositions, 140; conjunctions, 146-147.
_Refer_ to, _allude_ to, _mention_, distinguished, 99.
Reflexive pronouns, 45, 57.
_Relation, relationship_, distinguished, 26.
_Relative, relation_, distinguished, 32.
Relative pronouns, 53-54.
_Relieve, alleviate_, distinguished, 99.
_Remainder, rest, balance_, distinguished, 29.
_Repel, repulse_, distinguished, 100.
Reputable use, 6.
_Reputation, character_, distinguished, 30.
_Requirement, requisite, requisition_, distinguished, 32.
_Resort, resource, recourse_, distinguished, 32.
_Rest, remainder, balance_, distinguished, 29.
_Ride_, principal parts of, 62; distinguished from _drive_, 4, 99.
_Rise_, principal parts of, 62; distinguished from _raise_, 62;
from _arise_, 92.
_Run_, principal parts of, 62.

_Same as, same that_, distinguished, 64.
_Sang, sung_, distinguished, 62.
_Sank, sunk_, distinguished, 62.
_Sat, set, sit_, 62.
_Scared, afraid_, distinguished, 124.
_Second, secondly_, distinguished, 110.
_Secreting, secretion_, distinguished, 32.
_Secure, insure_, distinguished, 100.
_See_, principal parts of, 62.
_Self_, pronouns in, 44-45, 57.
Sequence of tenses, 78.
_Seraph_, plural of, 21.
_Series, succession_, distinguished, 23.
_Set_, principal parts of, 62; distinguished from _sit_, 62.
_Sewage, sewerage_, distinguished, 32.
_Shake_, principal parts of, 62.
_Shall or will_, 72-77.
_She, her, herself_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Shoe_, principal parts of, 62.
_Shot_, plurals of, 19.
_Should_ distinguished from _would_, 74, 77;
in sense of ought, tense of the infinitive with, 78-79.
_Show_, principal parts of, 62.
_Shrank, shrunk_, distinguished, 62.
_Since, for, because_, distinguished, 143.
Singular and plural, nouns, 18-21; pronouns, 58-60;
verbs, 89, 92; adjectives, 110.
_Sit_, principal parts of, 62; distinguished from _set_ and _sat_, 62.
_Situation, site_, distinguished, 32.
Slang, defined, 10.
_Slay_, principal parts of, 62.
_Slew, Slain_, distinguished, 62.
_Smaller, fewer Jess_, distinguished, 109.
_So_ or _as_, correlative to as, 119-120.
_So, therefore_, distinguished, 144.
Solecisms, defined, 10.
_Solicitude, solicitation_, distinguished, 26.
_Solo_, plural of, 18.
_Some, somewhat, something_, distinguished, 110.
_Speak_, principal parts of, 62.
_Speciality, specialty_, distinguished, 33.
_Splendid_, 124.
_Spoke, spoken_, distinguished, 62.
_Sprang, sprung_, distinguished, 62.
_Staff_, plurals of, 19.
_Staff_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Start, begin, commence_, distinguished, 100-101.
_State, declare, assert_, etc., distinguished, 94-95.
_Statement, assertion_, distinguished, 23.
_Stay, stop_, distinguished, 95,
_Steal_, principal parts of, 62.
_Stiletto_, plural of, 18.
_Stimulant, stimulation, stimulus_, distinguished, 26.
_Stole, stolen_, distinguished, 62.
_Stop, stay_, distinguished, 95.
_Stratum_, plural of, 21.
_Stupid, dumb_, distinguished, 122.
Subjunctive, 82-89; forms of, 83-84; uses of, 84-86;
in conditional sentences, 85-86; in wishes, 86.
_Succession, scries_, distinguished, 23.
Suggestions to teachers, 151.
_Sultan_, feminine of, 21.
Superfluous articles, 13; pronouns, 60; adjectives and adverbs, 117-118;
prepositions, 140; conjunctions, 146-147.
_Superlative_, use of the, 129-131.
_Support, champion_, distinguished, 94.
_Suspect, expect, anticipate_, distinguished, 101.
_Swam, swum_, distinguished, 62.
Symbols, plural of, 19.

_Tableau_, plural of, 21.
_Take_, principal parts of, 62.
_Teach, learn_, distinguished, 95.
Teachers, suggestions to, 151-152.
Tense, questions of, 78-82; in conditional sentences, 85; in wishes, 86.
_Testimony, verdict_, distinguished, 23.
_Than_, clause after, often omitted in part, 45 note 2.
_That_ distinguished from as after _same_, 54.
_That, those_, 110.
_That, who, which_, as relatives, 53-54.
_The_ or a, 12.
_The_ before verbal nouns, 51.
_Thee, thyself, thou_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Their, them_, before verbal nouns, 51.
_Them, themselves, they_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Therefore, so_, choice between, 144.
_These, this_, 110.
_Thesis_, plural of, 21.
_They, them, themselves_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_This, these_, 110.
_Those, that_, 110.
_Thou, thee, thyself_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Though_, 144; verbs in clauses introduced by, 86.
_Throw_, principal parts of, 62.
_Thyself, thee, thou_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Tiger_, feminine of, 21.
_Together with_, words joined to the subject by, 89.
_Torso_, plural of, 18.
_Transpire, happen_, distinguished, 96.
_Tyro_, plural of, 18.

_Unbeknown_, 110.
_Union, unity_, distinguished, 33.
_Unless_, verbs in clauses introduced by, 86;
distinguished from _without_ and _except_, 142.
_Us_ or _our_ before verbal nouns, 51.
_Us, ourselves, we_, pro per choice among, 43-45.

USE 3-11; defined, 6; conversation and, 7; newspapers and, 7;
no one book or writer decisive of, 7-8; relation of dictionaries to, 9.
Use, present, 3-4; national, 4-6; reputable, 6.

Verbal nouns, construction with, 50-51.
_Verbal, oral_, distinguished, 123.
VERBS, 61-108; principal parts often misused, 61-70; contractions, 71;
_may or can_, 71; _will or shall_, 72-76;
notional and auxiliary, defined, 72; _would_ or _should_, 74-77;
questions of tense, 78-82; indicative or subjunctive, 82-89;
singular or plural, 89-92; misused, 92-108.
_Verdict, testimony_, distinguished, 23.
_Very_, distinguished from _quite_, 119; from _real, really_, 124.
_Visitor, visitant_, 33.
_Vocation, avocation_, distinguished, 25-26.
Vulgarisms, defined, 10; in the use of adjectives and adverbs, 109-113;
of conjunctions, 142-143.

_Wait for, wait on_, distinguished, 135.
_Wake_, principal parts of, 62.
_We, us, ourselves_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Well, good_, distinguished, 109.
WENDELL, BARRETT, quoted, 7-8.
_Went, gone_, distinguished, 61.
_What_ as a relative pronoun, 54.
_When, while_, distinguished, 144.
_Which, who, that_ (relative), proper choice among, 53-55.
_Who, whom_, choice between, 43-45.
_Who, which, that_ (relative), proper choice among, 53-55.
_Whoever, whomever_, choice between, 45.
_Whole, all_, distinguished, 23.
_Wholesome, healthy, healthful_, distinguished, 122-123.
_Whose, of which_, choice between, 54.
_Will_ or _shall_, 72-76.
Wishes, moods and tenses in, 86.
_Witch_, masculine corresponding to, 21.
_With_, words joined to the subject by, 89; distinguished from _by_, 134.
_Without, except, unless_, distinguished 142.
_Wizard_, feminine corresponding to 21.
_Would_ or _should_, 74-77.
_Write_, principal parts of, 62.



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