Putnam's Word Book
Louis A. Flemming

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Putnam's Word Book

A Practical Aid in Expressing Ideas through the Use of an Exact and
Varied Vocabulary


Louis A. Flemming

Copyright, 1913
G. P. Putnam's Sons

(Under the title _Synonyms, Antonyms, and Associated Words_)


The purpose of this book, as conceived by the author, is not to attempt to
create or to influence usage by pointing out which words should or should
not be used, nor to explain the meaning of terms, but simply to provide in
a form convenient for reference and study the words that can be used,
leaving it to those who consult its pages to determine for themselves,
with the aid of a dictionary if necessary, which words supply the
information they are looking for or express most accurately the thoughts
in their minds. The questions, therefore, that were constantly in the
author's mind while he was preparing the manuscript were not, _is_ this
word used? nor _should_ it be used? but is it a word that some one may
want to know as a matter of information or to use in giving expression to
some thought? When the word in question seemed to be one that would be of
service it was given a place in the collection to which it belongs.
Believing the book would be consulted by students and workers in special
fields, the author incorporated into it many words, including some
technical terms, that might, in the case of a work of more restricted
usefulness, have been omitted.

It happens frequently that the word which one thinks of first does not
express the exact shade of thought one desires to express and some other
word of similar meaning is necessary. For this reason there is, for those
who want to write and speak with precision and effectiveness, an important
use for collections of synonyms. Throughout this book synonyms means words
that are similar in meaning or which express the same general idea with
shades of difference. Those who use this work should bear in mind that all
words that are classified as synonyms cannot be used interchangeably; that
there are differences in meaning between them; and that, before using an
unfamiliar word, they should ascertain its meaning and usage in a
dictionary. Antonyms are words that are opposed to another word in
meaning. Such words are helpful when it is desired to express contrasted
or conflicting ideas or thoughts. In many instances, however, a list of
antonyms is unnecessary. For example, no antonyms of _good_ are found
after the synonyms of that word because one thinks of _bad_ instantly when
considering the opposite of _good_; and under _bad_ numerous synonyms,
which are also the antonyms of _good_, are found.

It is not an infrequent occurrence for a word to be required that is
neither a synonym nor an antonym of a familiar term but merely associated
with it in meaning and usage. Such a word cannot when unknown or
momentarily forgotten be easily found in a dictionary. In this volume
collections of such words are found after the general terms with which
they are associated. This feature of the book will be of service as a
memory-help when a word cannot be recalled and also, which is perhaps of
greater importance, by enabling writers and students to learn of words
objectively or through their associations.

By turning to the word that is thought of first or to the word with which
the term that is wanted is associated and reading the collections there
presented, any word that may be desired will be found.

The author spared no effort to make his work as complete as possible; and
he believes that it will be appreciated for its comprehensiveness,
modernity, and practical usefulness. He will be pleased to receive from
those who use his book any suggestions relative to changes, corrections,
or additions that might make the work more useful. He may be addressed in
care of the publishers.

L. A. P.

List of Abbreviations Used in This Book

a. stands for adjective.
adv. " " adverb.
Amer. Ind. " " American Indian.
Astron. " " Astronomy.
Bot. " " Botany.
Cen. Amer. " " Central America.
Chem. " " Chemistry.
Civ. Law. " " Civil Law.
Colloq. " " Colloquial.
conj. " " conjunction.
Eccl. " " Ecclesiastical.
Fr. " " French.
Ger. " " German.
Gram. " " Grammar.
Gr. Antiq. " " Greek Antiquity.
Heb. " " Hebrew.
Med. " " Medicine.
Mil. " " Military.
Mus. " " Music.
n. " " noun.
pl. " " plural.
p.p. " " past participle.
prep. " " stands for preposition.
R.R. " " Railroad.
sing. " " singular.
Sp. " " Spanish.
Sp. Amer. " " Spanish America.
Theol. " " Theology.
v. " " verb.

Note.--A number of words with their synonyms and related terms that are
not found in the body of the book will be found in the Addenda beginning
on page 615.

Putnam's Word Book


Abandon, v. desert, forsake, forego, discard, relinquish, repudiate,
waive, renounce, abdicate. Antonyms: retain, maintain, continue,

abandon, n. unrestraint, wantonness.

abandoned, a. forsaken, deserted, derelict, castaway, rejected;
depraved, reprobate, incorrigible, arrant, graceless, irreformable.

abandonment, n. desertion, relinquishment, dereliction, reprobation,
surrender, evacuation, rejection, abdication. Antonyms: retention,
continuance, maintenance, persistence.

abase, v. humble, degrade, dishonor, reduce, humiliate.

abasement, n. humiliation, reduction, dishonor, degradation,

abash, v. disconcert, confuse, discomfit, discompose, chagrin,
mortify, embarrass.

abashment, n. discomfiture, confusion, mortification, chagrin,

abate, v. moderate, assuage, subside, diminish, intermit. Antonyms:
See increase.

abatement, n. moderation, diminution, reduction, subsidence,

a b c. alphabet, symbols; rudiments, elements, first principles.

a b c book. primer, hornbook.

abdomen, n. belly, paunch. Associated words: abdominal, ventral,
paunchy, abdominous, peritoneum, peritonitis, celiac, laparotomy, groin,
eventration, abdominoscopy, hypogastric, hypogastrium.

abduction, n. kidnapping, child-stealing, man-stealing, defiliation.
Associated words: abduct, abductor.

aberration, n. wandering, deviation; abnormity, irregularity;
madness, mania.

abet, v. instigate, encourage, incite, egg on, foment, uphold.

abetment, n. instigation, incitement, encouragement.

abeyance, n. suspension, indetermination.

abhor, v. abominate, loathe, hate, detest.

abhorrence, n. detestation, loathing, repugnance, abomination.

abhorrent, a. repugnant, detestable, loathsome, repulsive.

abide, v. dwell, stay, sojourn, continue, remain; acquiesce, conform

abiding, a. continuing, lasting, stable.

ability, n. competence, efficiency, aptitude, capacity, skill,
proficiency, capability. Antonyms: inability, incapability.

abject, a. degraded, groveling, servile, ignoble, contemptible base.
Antonyms: noble, lofty, dignified, exalted.

able, a. competent, qualified, capable, talented, clever, gifted,
efficient; effective, cogent, telling, potent. Antonyms: unable,
incompetent, incapable, inefficient ineffective, impotent.

able-bodied, a. stalwart, brawny, robust, sturdy, strapping muscular.

abnormal, a. anomalous, irregular, exceptional, aberrant, erratic,
unusual. Antonyms: See normal.

abnormality, n. variation, irregularity, anomaly, abnormity.
Antonyms: regularity, naturalness.

abnormity, n. irregularity, abnormality, monstrosity, anomaly.

abode, n. residence, habitation, dwelling, domicile, sojourn.

abolish, v. annul, nullify, abrogate, invalidate, repeal, revoke,
rescind, disannul, set aside, destroy. Antonyms: confirm, establish.

abolition, n. annulling, abrogation, destruction, abolishment,
disestablishment, cancellation, extinction, nullification, rescission,

abominable, a. odious, execrable, detestable, loathsome, abhorrent,

abomination, n. detestation, execration, abhorrence, loathing,
aversion, odiousness.

abortion, n. miscarriage, failure, frustration; castling, mooncalf,

abortive, a. unsuccessful, unavailing, miscarrying, frustrate,
ineffectual; rudimentary, undeveloped, sterile, imperfect.

abound, v. be plentiful, teem, swarm.

abounding, a. rife, plentiful, abundant, galore.

about, prep. concerning, anent, relative to, with regard to.

abridge, v. shorten, diminish, curtail; epitomize, condense.

abridgment, n. diminution, lessening, reduction, curtailment,
condensation; epitome, compend, synopsis, digest, summary, breviary.

abrogate, v. annul, repeal, revoke, abolish, rescind, nullify,

abrogation, n. repeal, abolition, revocation, annulment, defeasance.

abrupt, a. precipitous, steep, craggy, jagged, rugged;
unceremonious, hasty, brusque, rough, rude, curt, discourteous;

abscess, n. aposteme, imposthume, ulcer, fester.

absence, n. nonattendance; want, destitution, privation, lack;
inattention, absent-mindedness. Associated Words: furlough, parole.

absent-minded, a. preoccupied, distrait, inattentive, unmindful,

absent-mindedness, n. preoccupation, abstraction, inattention.

absolute, a. unconditional, unrestricted, uncontrolled, supreme;
consummate, faultless, ideal; actual, real; self-existent, self-sufficing;
autocratic, despotic.

absolution, n. forgiveness, remission, discharge, pardon.

absolutism, n. autocracy, despotism.

absolve, v. release, remit, pardon, exonerate, acquit, exculpate.

absorb, v. engulf, overwhelm, swallow up; imbibe, suck up,
assimilate; engross, occupy, monopolize.

absorbent, a. absorbtive, absorbing, bibulous.

absorbing, a. engrossing, engaging, fascinating.

absorption, n. imbibition; engrossment. Associated Word:

absquatulate, v. (Jocular) decamp, go away, depart.

abstain, v. forbear, refrain, withhold, deny one's self. Antonym:

abstaining, n. abstention, abstinence.

abstemious, a. abstinent, temperate, self-denying, frugal.

abstinence, n. forbearance, temperance, self-denial, abstemiousness.

abstinent, a. abstemious, temperate, continent. Antonyms: sensual,
wanton, self-indulgent, intemperate.

abstract, n. summary, epitome, compendium, synopsis, brief, compend.

abstracted, a. separated, disconnected, withdrawn; absent-minded,

abstraction, n. separation, disconnection, withdrawal; inattention,
absent-mindedness, preoccupation, musing; defiliation; purloining,
seizure, stealing.

abstruse, a. recondite, obscure, incomprehensible.

absurd, a. ridiculous, preposterous, nonsensical, incongruous,
foolish, irrational, inconsistent.

absurdity, n. inconsistency, fallacy, irrationality, ineptitude,

abundance, n. sufficiency, plenty, profusion, copiousness,
exuberance, plenteousness, overflow. Antonyms: deficiency, dearth,
scarcity, poverty.

abundant, a. plentiful, copious, exuberant, galore, ample, lavish,
plenteous, teeming, bountiful. Antonyms: deficient, inadequate,

abuse, v. misapply, misuse, pervert, desecrate, violate, profane;
maltreat, mistreat; revile, reproach, vilify, vituperate, malign, traduce;
violate, ravish, rape.

abuse, n. misuse, misapplication, perversion, profanation,
desecration; injury, maltreatment, mistreatment, outrage, offense;
invective, contumely, reproach, scurrility, opprobrium, tirade,
billingsgate, vilification; violation, rape.

abusive, a. reviling, scurrilous, opprobrious, reproachful,
vituperative, insulting, rffensive, contumelious, outrageous.

abut, v. project, terminate, be contiguous, meet;--with _on_, _upon_,
or _against_.

accent, n. stress, ictus; modulation, accentuation.

accent, v. emphasize, accentuate.

acceptance, n. approval, favorable reception; acceptableness.
Antonyms: rejection, refusal.

accessory, a. accompanying, accessary, contributory, subservient,

accident, n. casualty, mishap, contretemps, mischance, contingency.

accidental, a. casual, fortuitous; incidental, nonessential,

accidentally, adv. unintentionally, casually, fortuitously.
Antonyms: intentionally, advisedly, deliberately.

acclimate, v. acclimatize.

acclimation, n. acclimatization.

accommodate, v. adapt, conform, adjust; oblige, favor.

accommodating, a. obliging, complaisant.

accommodation, n. adaptation, adjustment; complaisance; favor,

accompaniment, n. concomitant.

accompany, v. escort, attend, convoy; chaperon.

accomplice, n. abettor, ally, accessory, confederate, _particeps

accomplish, v. achieve, effectuate, execute, complete, effect.

accomplished, a. completed, effected; practised, proficient.

accomplishment, n. completion, fulfillment, execution, effectuation;
attainment, acquirement, acquisition, grace.

accord, n. agreement, concurrence, harmony, sympathy. Antonyms:
variance, disagreement, inharmony.

accordance, n. conformity, unanimity, harmony, accord, rapport,

according to. agreeably to, in accordance with, in conformity with,

accost, v. greet, address, salute, hail.

accoucheur, n. obstetrician.

accoucheuse, n. midwife.

account, n. reckoning, computation, calculation, record, tab;
registry, register; recital, relation, narrative, report, delineation,
description, portrayal, explanation; reason, ground, consideration,
motive, sake; estimate, valuation, judgment, estimation, opinion;
importance, consequence, value, worth, reputation.

accountability, n. amenability, liability.

accountable, a. answerable, liable, amenable, responsible.
Antonyms: unaccountable, irresponsible, exempt.

accumulation, n. accretion, hoard, aggregation, accrument,

accumulative, a. cumulative.

accuracy, n. exactness, fidelity, correctness, precision. Antonyms:
inaccuracy, incorrectness, error.

accurate, a. correct, exact, just, true, literal. Antonyms:
inaccurate, incorrect, erroneous.

accusation, n. crimination, charge, indictment, impeachment,
arraignment, allegation, incrimination.

accusative, a. incriminatory, inculpatory, accusatory.

accuse, v. indict, charge, impeach, incriminate, arraign, criminate.

accuser, n. complainant, plaintiff, informant, prosecutor.

accustom, v. habituate, familiarize, inure.

accustomed, a. customary, wonted, habitual, usual. Antonyms:
unaccustomed, unfamiliar, unwonted.

achieve, v. accomplish, effectuate, realize, effect, attain.

achievement, n. accomplishment, attainment, effectuation feat,

acknowledge, v. admit, avow, concede, own, confess. Antonyms:
repudiate, deny, disavow.

acknowledgment, n. admittance, avowal, concession, recognition.

acme, n. culmination, top, zenith, climax, apex, pinnacle.

acorns, n. pl. mast. Associated Words: balaniferous, balanoid,
cupule, cupuliferous, quercite, racahout.

acquaint, v. familiarize, inform, tell, apprise, notify.

acquaintance, n. familiarity; kith. Antonyms: ignorance,
unfamiliarity, unacquaintance.

acquirement, n. acquisition, attainment.

acquit, v. discharge, release, exculpate, exonerate.

acquittal, n. release, discharge, exoneration, exculpation.

acrid, a. pungent, biting, corrosive, caustic.

acridity, n. pungency, bitterness, causticity, acrimony.

acrimonious, a. caustic, sarcastic, censorious, virulent, rancorous.

acrimony, n. asperity, bitterness, virulence, causticity, rancor,

acrobat, n. equilibrist, tumbler, funambulist, vaulter.

across, prep. and adv. athwart, crosswise, traverse

act, n. performance, feat, stunt (Colloq.), exploit, achievement,
deed, action, procedure, turn; decree, edict, law, statute, enactment,

act, v. behave, deport one's self; play, personate, impersonate,
mimic; feign, counterfeit, simulate, dissemble.

acting, n. personation, impersonation, simulation, feigning,
stage-playing, histrionicism, histrionism, affectation mimicry, pantomime
(acting without speaking).

action, n. agency, operation, movement, activity; pl. conduct,
behavior, deportment, deeds; (Law) lawsuit, litigation, suit.
Antonyms: inaction, stagnation, inactivity, inertia.

active, a. brisk, nimble, agile, sprightly, spirited; strenuous,
diligent, enterprising; operative, efficacious, drastic; effective;
transitive. Antonyms: inactive, passive, latent, quiescent, sedentary.

activity, n. operation, action; liveliness, briskness, agility,
sprightliness, strenuousness. Antonyms: inactivity, passiveness,

actor, n. doer, participant, performer; comedian; tragedian;
thespian; impersonator, personator, mime, mimic; pantomimist; barnstormer;
hamfatter; supernumerary.

actress, n. tragedienne; comedienne; ingenue, soubrette, understudy;

actual, a. real, veritable. Antonyms: potential, nominal,

actuality, n. reality, veritableness.

actuate, v. instigate, impel, incite.

actuation, n. instigation, incitement, animation.

acumen, n. astuteness, shrewdness, discernment, sharpness.
Antonyms: dullness, stupidity, short-sightedness.

adage, n. See saying.

Adam, n. Associated Words: Adamic, adamite, preadamic, preadamite,

adapt, v. adjust, conform.

adaptable, a. conformable, adjustable.

adaptation, n. adjustment, conformability.

add, v. sum up, foot up; append, supplement, subjoin, affix, adjoin,
superadd, annex. Antonyms: subtract, deduct, detract, remove.

addict, v. habituate, accustom.

addition, n. annexation, annex, appendage, supplement, appendix,
postscript, wing, augmentation, adjunct, rider. Antonyms: subtraction,
deduction, detraction.

additional, a. supplemental, adscititious, supplementary.

addle, v. muddle, confuse; spoil, rot.

address, n. discourse, speech, lecture, oration, allocution;
direction, superscription, delivery. Associated Word: vocative.

address, v. accost, speak to; direct, superscribe.

adept, n. See expert.

adequacy, n. sufficiency. Antonyms: inadequacy, insufficiency.

adequate, a. sufficient, commensurate, equal, proportionate.
Antonyms: inadequate, insufficient.

adjacent, a. adjoining, contiguous.

adjoining, a. contiguous, adjacent, neighboring.

adjustment, n. adaptation, regulation, settlement.

admissible, a. allowable, permissible. Antonym: inadmissible.

admit, v. acknowledge, confess, concede; allow, permit. Antonyms:
repulse, reject, refuse.

admittance, n. admission.

ado, n. fuss, bustle, stir, excitement, pother.

adolescence, n. nonage, juniority, minority, youth.

adopt, v. father, affiliate; espouse, support, maintain.

adoption, n. affiliation, fathering; espousal.

adorn, v. decorate, beautify, embellish, deck, ornament, grace,
garnish, bedizen, bedeck, bestud, beset, emblazon. Antonyms: disfigure,
mar, deform.

adornment, n. ornamentation, decoration. Antonyms: disfigurement,

adrift, a. and adv. drifting, derelict, lost.

adulterate, v. sophisticate.

adulterated, a. adulterate, impure, sophisticated.

adulteration, n. sophistication.

adultery, n. infidelity, criminal conversation.

advance, n. progress, progression, march, advancement, promotion,
preferment, elevation, appreciation, enhancement; overture, tender,
proposal, proffer, offer. Antonyms: retreat, retrogression, decline,
retrogradation, deterioration.

advance, v. progress, increase; promote, elevate; enhance, augment.
Antonyms: retreat, retrograde, decline, deteriorate.

advance guard. vanguard, van.

advancement, n. progress, progression; promotion, preferment,
exaltation, aggrandizement, furtherance.

advantage, n. vantage-ground; superiority, mastery, ascendency;
benefit, avail, profit. Antonym: disadvantage.

adventurous, a. adventuresome, temerarious, venturous.

adversary, n. enemy, foe, antagonist, opponent.

adversity, n. misfortune, buffeting, disaster, affliction, reverses,

advertise, v. announce, publish, proclaim, trumpet.

advertisement, n. announcement.

advice, n. counsel, admonition, monition, recommendation;
information, tidings, report. Associated Words: admonitory, mentorial,

advisable, a. expedient, desirable, befitting. Antonym:

advise, v. counsel, admonish, warn; apprise, inform, notify,
acquaint, tell; advise with, consult, confer.

advisedly, adv. purposely, intentionally, designedly, deliberately,

advisement, n. consideration, deliberation, consultation.

adviser, n. counselor, mentor, monitor, admonitor.

advocate, n. defender, apologist, vindicator, propagandist, upholder,

aërial, a. atmospheric; aëriform, vaporous, ethereal, empyreal,

affability, n. courteousness, civility, complaisance, sociability,

affable, a. courteous, sociable, gracious, cordial, benign,
complaisant, accessible. Antonyms: inaffable, discourteous.

affect, v. act upon, move, touch, influence, melt; concern, bear
upon, interest; dispose, turn, incline.

affectation, n. mannerism, pretension, puppetry, simulation.

affected, a. assumed, feigned, simulated, unnatural. Antonyms:
unaffected, sincere, natural, unfeigned.

affecting, a. touching, moving, pathetic, piteous.

affectionate, a. devoted, fond, loving, ardent.

affidavit, n. deposition. Associated Words: affiant, deponent,
jurant, depose.

affiliation, n. adoption, connection, association.

affirm, v. assert (positively), aver, asseverate, state.

affirmation, n. assertion, averment, asseveration.

affirmative, a. confirmative, ratifying, approving.

affix, v. subjoin, annex, append.

afflict, v. persecute, distress, scourge, trouble, harass.

affliction, n. tribulation, adversity, trouble, buffeting,
bereavement, hardship, visitation, scourge, distress, misfortune.

affront, n. indignity, insult, outrage, contumely, offense.

aflutter, a. agitated, perturbed, discomposed, excited. Antonyms:
calm, composed.

aforethought, a. designed, prepense, premeditated, deliberate,

aforethought, n. premeditation.

afraid, a. alarmed, fearful, timid, timorous, apprehensive, scared,
diffident. Antonyms: fearless, unafraid, intrepid, bold, undaunted,

afresh, adv. again, anew, _de novo_, newly.

after, a. next, subsequent, succeeding, following, later.

after all. nevertheless.

afterbirth, n. secundines; heam (afterbirth of a beast).

after-birth, a. post-natal.

after-death, a. post-mortem, posthumous.

after-dinner, a. post-prandial.

after-marriage, a. post-nuptial, post-connubial.

aftermath, n. rowen, eddish, lattermath, eagrass, etch rowett.

afternoon, a. post-meridian.

after the flood. post-diluvian, post-diluvial.

after the war. post-bellum.

age, n. maturity, seniority; epoch, period, time; century; eon;
climacteric; old age, dotage, senescence, senility, decrepitude,
superannuation; longevity. Associated Words: nostology, geratology,
geromorphism, coetaneous, coeval, contemporaneous.

agency, n. instrumentality, operation, action, mediation, means.

agent, n. representative, canvasser, substitute, deputy, factor,
procurator, syndic, go-between, commissioner, proctor, emissary, envoy,
solicitor, negotiator. Antonyms: principal, chief.

aggrandize, v. exalt.

aggrandizement, n. exaltation.

aggravate, v. intensify, heighten, enhance, increase; exasperate,
irritate, provoke.

aggravation, n. enhancement, heightening; (Colloq.) exasperation,
provocation, irritation.

aggregate, n. mass, whole, total.

aggregation, n. collection, accumulation, mass.

aghast, a. astounded, terrified, dismayed, horror-struck.

agile, a. nimble, spry, active, lively.

agility, n. spryness, nimbleness, activity.

agitate, v. disturb, shake, unsettle; excite, perturb, disconcert;
discuss, consider.

agitation, n. commotion, disturbance, perturbation, excitement,
flustration, discomposure, unrest, turmoil, estuation; discussion,

agitator, n. incendiary, firebrand.

agree, v. concur, accord, chime, acquiesce, harmonize; accede,
comply, assent, consent, grant; stipulate, promise, compromise;
correspond, coincide, comport, tally, conform, match. Antonyms:
disagree, differ, higgle, chaffer. See disagree.

agreeable, a. pleasant, grateful, gratifying, pleasurable, enjoyable,
congenial; suitable, conformable to, compatible, consonant, befitting.
Antonyms: See disagreeable.

agreement, n. concurrence, consensus, harmony, compatibility,
acquiescence, accord, concord, conformity, coincidence, unanimity, unison,
corroboration, correspondence; contract, treaty, stipulation, protocol,
compact, collusion, cartel (Mil.). Antonyms: disagreement, dissension,
discrepancy, variance, opposition, incompatibility.

agriculture, n. husbandry, farming, terra-culture, geoponics,

agriculturist, n. husbandman, farmer, agriculturalist, agronomist.

aground, adv. stranded.

aid, n. assistance, coöperation, succor, relief, furtherance, help,
subsidy, subvention, patronage; assistant, helper; aid-de-camp.

aid, v. assist, succor, coöperate, befriend, promote, abet, help.

aider, n. assistant, coadjutor, auxiliary, accessory, abettor,
coöperator, helper.

ailment, n. malady, disorder, complaint, illness.

aim, n. object, purpose, design, aspiration, end, goal.

aimless, a. drifting, purposeless, random, objectless, desultory.

air, n. atmosphere. Associated Words: oxygen, nitrogen, carbon
dioxide, ether, aërology, aërologist, aërometry, aëroscopy, aërometer,
aërography, aëriferous, aërodynamics, aërial, aërophobia, azote,
barograph, barometer, cyanometry, hermetic, hermetically, meteorology,
ozone, neon, pneumatic, aërator, pneumatics, pneumotherapy, hygrometry,
pneumatology, xenon, ventilator, aërostat, ariel, aëronautics,

air, n. melody, tune, descant, aria, song; publicity, vent;
appearance, look, bearing, mien, demeanor, aspect, deportment; semblance,

air, v. ventilate; aërate, aërify; display, expose, flaunt.

airhole, n. vent, vent hole, bung, spile hole; spiracle.

airiness, n. aëriality, unsubstantiality; gayety, vivacity, buoyancy,

airing, n. ventilation; aëration, aërification; display, flaunting,

air plant. aërophyte epiphyte.

airy, a. aërial, aëriform, ethereal, atmospheric, pneumatic,
unsubstantial; breezy, windy, ventilated; visionary, unreal; vivacious,
sprightly; garish, jaunty, flaunting.

akin, a. (Used after the noun) consanguineous, kindred, cognate,
agnate, related, congenial.

alarm, v. terrify, frighten, scare, appall, daunt, unnerve,

alarm, n. warning, signal; apprehension, terror, consternation
trepidation, fright, panic, dismay.

alarm-bell, n. tocsin, alarum.

alarming, a. startling, ominous, terrifying, frightful. Antonym:

albinoism, n. albinism, leucopathy.

alcohol, n. ethyl alcohol, methol, spirit of wine, rectified spirit.
Associated Words: alcoholism, spirituous, alcoholic, vinification,
vinificator, methilepsia, dipsomania, dipsomaniac, fusel, methyl,
methylate, methylated.

ale inspector. aleconner, aletaster.

alert, a. vigilant, watchful, wary, attentive.

alien, n. foreigner.

alien, a. foreign; adverse, inconsistent, unallied, incongruous

alienate, v. transfer, demise, assign; estrange, disaffect, wean.

alienation, n. transfer (of title), demise; estrangement,

alight, v. dismount.

alike, a. similar, analogous, homogeneous, resemblant uniform,

alimentary canal. enteron.

alive, a. living, quick, animated, instinct.

alkali flat. playa.

all, n. the whole, totality, aggregate, total, entirety.

allay, v. appease, alleviate, pacify, mollify, mitigate, moderate,
assuage, soothe, temper, palliate, abate, lessen, reduce, ease.
Antonyms: intensify, aggravate, heighten, rouse.

all-creating, a. omnific.

all-devouring, a. omnivorous.

allegiance, n. fealty, loyalty, devotion, fidelity.

alleviate, v. mitigate, mollify, lessen, allay, assuage moderate,

alleviation, n. mitigation, palliation, assuagement, relief,

alleviative, a. palliative, mitigative, assuasive.

alley, n. passage; lane, byway; cul-de-sac (blind alley).

all hollow. (Slang) completely, entirely.

alliance, n. union, coalition, federation, confederacy, league;
affinity, affiliation, connection, relationship.

all-knowing, a. omniscient.

allot, v. apportion, mete out, assign.

allotment, n. apportionment, assignment.

allow, v. permit, consent to; tolerate, suffer, endure.

allowable, a. permissible, admissible.

allowance, n. permission, concession, admittance, authorization,
sanction, tolerance, sufferance, connivance, leave, assent; extenuation;
discount, rebate, deduction, annuity, tontine; stipend; alimony.
Antonyms: disallowance, prohibition, refusal, injunction, embargo.

alloy, n. amalgam, alloyage; adulteration.

all-powerful, a. omnipotent, almighty.

all-producing, a. omniferous, omniparient, omniparous.

all-seeing, a. omnispective.

allspice, n. pimento.

allude, v. refer, advert, suggest.

allure, v. entice, lure, tempt, decoy, seduce, tweedle.

allurement, n. enticement, lure, temptation, seduction, decoy,

alluring, a. charming, tempting, seductive, attractive, fascinating.
Antonyms: repellent, repugnant, unattractive.

ally, n. confederate, co-worker, auxiliary, abettor, assistant.

ally, v. associate, confederate, join.

almanac, n. ephemeris (Astron.).

almightiness, n. omnipotence.

almighty, a. omnipotent.

alms, n. dole, charity. Associated Words: eleemosynary, almoner,
almonry, corban.

alone, a. (Used after the noun) single, solitary, isolated,
unaccompanied, companionless; unique, unmatched, incomparable. Antonyms:
accompanied, in company.

aloud, adv. audibly. Antonyms: inaudibly, _sotto voce_.

alphabet, n. symbols, letters, crossrow; rudiments, elements, a b c.
Associated Words: abecedary, alphabetic, alphabetism, alphabetize,
primer, abecedarian.

Alps, n. pl. Associated Words: Alpine, cisalpine, trans-alpine,
alpenstock, alpestrine.

also, adv. besides, too, further, in addition, furthermore, moreover.

altar, n. Associated Words: reredos, altarage, mensa, retable,
chancel, ciborium, pyx, dorsal, dossal, piscina, antependium, baldachin,
hagioscope, predella, frontal.

alter, v. See change; (Colloq.) geld, castrate.

altogether, adv. wholly, completely, unconditionally, thoroughly,
utterly, entirely, totally, _in toto_; in the aggregate, _en masse_,

always, adv. perpetually, continually, forever, everlastingly,
evermore, unceasingly, for aye; invariably, constantly, uniformly.
Antonyms: intermittently, occasionally, periodically.

amanuensis, n. secretary.

amass, v. accumulate, collect, gather, heap up.

amaze, v. astonish, astound, surprise, stagger, dumfound,

amazement, n. astonishment, confusion, surprise, flabbergastation.

amazing, a. astonishing, striking, astounding, marvelous, wonderful.

ambassador, n. plenipotentiary, legate, envoy, minister (of the
highest rank).

ambiguous, a. indefinite, delphic, equivocal, vague, doubtful.

ambition, n. aspiration, emulation.

ambitious, a. aspiring, emulous, desirous; showy, pretentious,
ostentatious. Antonyms: unambitious, indifferent.

amenable, a. answerable, accountable, responsible; submissive,
tractable, responsive. Antonyms: unamenable, unaccountable, disobedient,

amends, n. pl. reparation, indemnification, restitution, atonement,
redress, indemnity.

amenity, n. agreeableness, amiability, pleasantness, graciousness.

amiable, a. gracious, good-natured, benign, obliging, benignant,
affable. Antonyms: See unamiable.

amicable, a. friendly, peaceable, harmonious.

amiss, adv. improperly, incorrectly, wrongly.

amity, n. friendship, harmony, comity, good will.

amount, n. total, sum.

ample, a. spacious, extensive, roomy; abundant, copious, plentiful;
diffusive, prolix, protracted.

amuse, v. entertain, divert, beguile, recreate, please.

amusement, n. diversion, entertainment, beguilement, recreation,
relaxation, pastime, merriment, fun, sport, pleasure.

amusing, a. pleasing, diverting, laughable, entertaining, farcical,
droll, divertive.

analogy, n. resemblance, similarity, parallelism, agreement,

analyze, v. decompound, decompose.

anathema, n. denunciation, malediction, curse, execration,

anathematize, v. curse, denounce, comminate, maledict.

anatomy, n. dissection; body, structure, skeleton; somatology.

ancestor, n. forefather, progenitor, primogenitor, forbear.
Associated Words: atavic, atavism, lineal, collateral, hereditary,
heredity, genealogy, genealogist.

ancestral, a. patrimonial, hereditary.

ancestry, n. lineage, descent, pedigree, stock, family: ancestors,

anchor, n. (small) kedge, grapnel, grapline, killock.

anchorage, n. mooring.

ancient, a. old, antiquated, archaic, antique, pristine, primitive,

ancient writings. Associated Words: diplomatics, paleography,
paleographer, paleographist, hieroglyph, hieroglyphic.

angel, n. seraph, cherub, eudemon, archangel, spirit. Associated
words: angelology, angelophany, dulia, angelhood, angelize, angelolatry,

angelic, a. seraphic, cherubic, celestial, angelical, heavenly,

anger, n. indignation, fury, rage, wrath, exasperation, dudgeon, ire,
animosity, umbrage, resentment, passion, choler, displeasure, vexation,
grudge, pique, flare-up, spleen, tiff, fume, offense, frenzy, tantrum,

anger, v. enrage, incense, irritate, displease, ruffle, offend,
exasperate, infuriate, madden, inflame, vex, provoke.

angle, v. fish; intrigue, scheme.

angle-worm, n. earthworm, dewworm, _lumbricus_.

angry, a. enraged, wroth, furious, passionate, incensed, exasperated,
raging, infuriated, piqued, choleric, wrathful, hot, irate, indignant,
provoked, resentful, ireful, in high dudgeon.

anguish, n. agony, distress, torture, misery, pang, remorse.

animal, a. brute, beastly, brutal, brutish, bestial; carnal,
physical, fleshly.

animal, n. being, creature; brute, beast. Associated Words:
zoölogy, zoölogist, zoögraphy, zoöpathology, zoölatry, zoöphilist,
zoöphily, zoötomy, zoiatrics, zoölogical, zoo, warren, taxidermy,
taxidermist, veterinarian, veterinarianism, menagerie, pound, animalism,
animalize, animalization.

animals, n. pl. (of an area or epoch) fauna.

animals, n. pl. (invisible or nearly so) animalcules.

animals, n. pl. vermin (noxious little animals).

animal spirits. health and energy, frolicsomeness, sportiveness,
vivacity, life.

animate, v. vitalize, vivify, quicken, inspirit, stimulate, rouse.

animated, a. lively, spirited, vigorous, vivacious, gay, brisk.

animation, n. vitalization, spiritedness, vivacity, life, gayety,

animosity, n. malignity, rancor, hatred, virulence.

animus, n. spirit, mind, temper.

ankle, n. tarsus. Associated Word: tarsal.

ankle bone. astragalus, tarsale.

annals, n. pl. records (historical), archives, chronicles, rolls,
history, registers.

announce, v. proclaim, publish, blazon, advertise, trumpet, noise
abroad, promulgate, herald. Antonyms: suppress, reserve, withhold,
secrete, hush up.

announcement, n. proclamation, publication, advertisement,
promulgation, manifesto, notice, pronunciamento annunciation. Antonyms:
suppression, reservation, secretion.

announcer, n. proclaimer, herald.

annoy, v. molest, trouble, plague, hector, bother, vex, pester,
aggravate, chafe.

annoyance, n. molestation, vexation, irritation, harassment; plague,
nuisance, bore, torment, infliction, trouble, thorn.

annoying, a. troublesome, vexatious, carking.

annul, v. abrogate, nullify, rescind, invalidate, abolish, reverse,
disannul, revoke.

annulment, n. abrogation, nullification, abolition, invalidation,

anointment, n. anointing, embrocation, unction; ointment, unguent.

anomalous, a. abnormal, irregular, aberrant, unnatural, exceptional.

anomaly, n. irregularity, abnormity, deviation.

another, n. Associated Words: vicarious, deputy, substitute,
delegate, proxy, delegation.

answer, n. reply, response, rescript, repartee, rescription,
rejoinder, retort; refutation, defense; solution.

answer, v. reply, respond, rejoin, retort.

answerable, a. liable, amenable, accountable, responsible; refutable.
Antonyms: unanswerable, unaccountable, irrefutable.

answering, a. responsive, responsory, redditive (Gram.).

ant, n. emmet, pismire, formican; termite (white ant).

antagonist, n. opponent, foe, adversary, assailant, rival, foeman.

antagonistic, a. contradictory, repugnant, conflicting, renitent,

antecedence, n. priority, precedence, anteriority. Antonym:

antecedent, a. anterior, preceding, prior, previous. Antonym:

anterior, a. prior, before, antecedent, previous.

antetype, n. prototype.

antic, n. caper, dido, trick, gambol, prank; clown, zany, harlequin,

anticipate, v. expect, forestall, preclude, obviate.

anticipation, n. expectation, preclusion, preoccupation, foretaste,
antepast, forethought.

antidote, n. counterpoison, alexipharmic, alexiteric; corrective,
remedy, cure.

antipathy, n. aversion, enmity, dislike, hatred; contrariety,

antiquarian, n. antiquary, archæologist.

antiquated, a. archaic, antique, obsolete, ancient, old-fashioned.

antique, a. archaic, old, antiquated, ancient.

antiquity, n. Associated Words: archæology, paleography,
paleology, paleontology.

antler, n. Associated Words: deciduous, troching, croche, burr,
fraying, tyne, velvet.

antonym, n. counterterm.

anxiety, n. solicitude, apprehension, disquietude, foreboding.
Antonyms: assurance, indifference, calmness, satisfaction, unconcern.

anxious, a. solicitous, apprehensive, concerned, worried. Antonyms:
unconcerned, assured, indifferent.

apathetic, a. passionless, unfeeling, unconcerned, indifferent.

apathy, n. dispassion, indifference, unconcern, insensibility.

ape, n. simian, pongo; gorilla, chimpanzee, orang-outang, baboon,
troglodyte. Associated Words: simian, simial, pithecoid, pithecan.

ape, v. imitate, mimic.

aphis, n. puceron, aphidian, plant louse; pl. aphides, aphidæ.
Associated Words: aphidian, aphidivorous, aphidophagous.

aplomb, n. self-possession, assurance.

apologizer, n. apologist, vindicator, defender, advocate.

apology, n. justification, extenuation, defense, vindication, _amende
honorable_; makeshift, substitute, excuse.

apostasy, n. defection, unfaithfulness, renunciation, desertion

apostate, n. deserter, pervert, renegade, turncoat, backslider,

apparent, a. visible, perceptible; palpable, manifest, obvious,
evident; seeming, ostensible, specious.

apparition, n. specter, ghost, phantom, wraith, phantasm, illusion,
chimera, shade.

appeal, n. entreaty, application, petition; resort, recourse.
Associated Words: appellant, appellate, appellancy, appellatory,
appellee, appellor.

appealing, a. imploring, beseeching, entreating, supplicating.

appear, v. emerge; seem, look, loom, resemble.

appearance, n. emersion, emergence; phenomenon, phase, aspect,
presence, look, air, semblance.

appeasable, a. placable, pacifiable, forgiving. Antonyms:
unappeasable, implacable.

appease, v. conciliate, pacify, tranquilize, calm, propitiate,
assuage, mollify, reconcile, placate, mitigate.

appeasement, n. pacification, propitiation, conciliation,
reconciliation, placation.

appendage, n. concomitant, pendicle, adjunct, appanage, appurtenance,
appendix, attachment.

appetite, n. desire for food, hunger; desire, appetency, craving,
passion, appetence. Antonyms: inappetency, indifference, aversion,

appetizer, n. relish, zest, sauce.

applauders, n. pl. claque (hired applauders).

applauding, a. plauditory, plausive, acclamatory, cheering.

applause, n. acclamation, _éclat_, plaudit, acclaim, cheers.
Antonyms: denunciation, decrial, hooting, derision.

apple, n. costard, codling.

apple of the eye. pupil.

apple-shaped, a. pomiform.

apple worm. codling moth.

appliance, n. device, apparatus, facility.

applicable, a. relevant, pertinent, apposite, germane, appropriate,
befitting. Antonyms: inapplicable, irrelevant, inapposite.

applicant, n. candidate, petitioner, aspirant, suitor.

application, n. applying; use, practice, employment, exercise;
relevancy; assiduity, persistency; request, petition, appeal,

apply, v. utilize, employ, practice.

appoint, v. establish, prescribe, ordain, enjoin, assign, allot;
deputize, depute, commission, delegate, nominate

appointment, n. deputation, commissioning, delegation; engagement,
tryst; assignation; equipment, furniture.

apportion, v. allot, partition.

apportionment, n. allotment, partition.

appreciable, a. perceptible, discernible. Antonym: inappreciable.

appreciate, v. value, esteem, prize.

appreciation, n. valuation, estimation, esteem. Antonyms:
depreciation, inappreciation.

apprehend, v. arrest, seize; understand, recognize, consider believe;
anticipate, dread, fear.

apprehension, n. seizure; arrest; opinion, conception, belief,
notion; understanding; fear, dread, anxiety, solicitude, alarm.

apprehensive, a. discerning, apt; fearful, anxious, worried.

approachable, a. accessible. Antonym: unapproachable.

appropriate, a. fitting, proper, applicable, apposite, pertinent,
fit. Antonyms: See inappropriate.

approval, n. approbation, sanction, commendation, liking,
indorsement. Antonyms: See disapproval.

approve, v. commend, sanction, countenance, favor, like.

apron, n. pinafore, tier; boot.

apt, a. fit, relevant, appropriate, germane, applicable, felicitous,
pertinent, _apropos_; likely, liable; clever, intelligent, bright, deft.
Antonyms: See inapt.

aptitude, n. proneness, propensity, leaning, proclivity, inclination.
Antonym: inaptitude.

aptness, n. appropriateness, pertinence; intelligence, cleverness.

arbitrary, a. tyrannical, absolute, imperious, unrestrained,

arbitrator, n. arbiter, umpire, judge, referee.

arbor, n. bower, pergola, trellis.

arch, a. greatest, chief; cunning, roguish, mischievous, sportive.

arch, v. vault, concamerate.--n. concameration, fornication.

archæologist, n. antiquary, antiquarian, paleologist.

archæology, n. paleology.

archbishop, n. primate, metropolitan.

arched, a. vaulted, camerated, forniciform, fornicated.

archery, n. Associated Word: toxophilite.

archives, n. pl. public records, registers, muniments.

ardent, a. zealous, passionate, fervent, warm, enthusiastic,
sanguine, vehement, impassioned; spirituous, alcoholic; fiery, hot,
burning, flagrant, intense.

ardor, n. eagerness, zeal, heartiness, impetuosity, fervor,
vehemence, empressement, intensity, warmth. Antonyms: indifference,

arduous, a. onerous, difficult, laborious, wearisome.

arena, n. amphitheater, ring, field.

arguable, a. debatable, disputable, moot, contestable.

argue, v. reason, plead, remonstrate, expostulate; contend, dispute,
controvert, moot, discuss; prove, evince, betoken, indicate, imply,

arguer n. reasoner, disputant, debater, controversialist.

argument, n. reasoning, controversy, argumentation, discussion,
debate, dispute, disputation, polemic.

argumentative, a. ratiocinative; disputatious, polemical,
controversial, dialectical.

arid, a. dry, barren, unproductive, parched, sterile; uninteresting,
dull, unsuggestive.

aridity, n. dryness, drought, unproductiveness, sterility; dullness,

arise, v. mount, ascend, rise; proceed, issue, spring, originate.

aristocracy, n. peerage, patriciate, nobility, patrician order.
Antonyms: commonalty, yeomanry, proletariate, _bourgeoisie_, peasantry,

aristrocrat, n. patrician, noble, peer, grandee, lord.

aristocratic, a. patrician, noble, titled. Antonyms: plebeian,

arm, n. brachium (upper arm), antibrachium (forearm); (bones of
the arm) humerus, radius, ulna, epipodiale. Associated Words: akimbo,
solen, cradle, triceps, chevron, brassard, pinion, discriminal,
gesticulate, gesticulation, gesture, brachial, chelidon, elbow, biceps.

arm, n. branch; inlet (of the sea), fiord, firth, frith, cove,
estuary; projection.

arm, v. equip (with weapons), fortify, strengthen.

armhole, n. scye (Cutter's term).

armor, n. mail, panoply, armature, armory, cuirass, jambeaux,
corselet, hauberk.

armor-bearer, n. armiger.

armory, n. arsenal.

armpit, n. axilla.

arms, n. pl. weapons, armor, artillery, accoutrements, guns,
ordnance; escutcheon, scutcheon, ensigns armorial, coat-of-arms.

army, n. troops, force, armament; host, legions, throng. Associated
words: militia, military, strategy, logistics, generalship, tactics,
regiment, squad, company, stratography, flank, barracks, bivouac, muster,
caisson, ploy, ployment, deploy, deployment, van, mobilize, mobilization
demobilize, demobilization, etat major, impedimenta, munitions.

army peddler. sutler.

aromatic, a. fragrant, redolent, balmy, spicy, savory.

arouse, v. excite, rouse, animate, stimulate, awaken, revive,

arrange, v. dispose, range, classify, marshal, methodize; prearrange,
devise, contrive, premeditate; adjust, settle, determine.

arrangement, n. disposition, distribution, collocation,
classification; preparation, preconcertion, settlement, adjustment,
agreement; economy, management, regulation. Antonyms: disarrangement,
confusion, chaos.

arrest, v. apprehend; stop, check, restrain; stunt, dwarf.

arrest, n. apprehension, capture, detention; custody, duress;
stoppage, restraint, interruption, hindrance, prevention. Associated
words: capias, warrant.

arrogance, n. hauteur, superciliousness, insolence, haughtiness,
lordliness, contumely.

arrogant, a. See haughty.

arrow, n. dart; matras. Associated Words: barb, ouabain, sagittal,
sagittary, quiver, sheaf, belomancy.

arrowhead, n. Associated Words: cuneiform, sagittate.

arsenal, n. armory, magazine.

art, n. (fine arts) music, painting, sculpture, architecture,
poetry, engraving; (liberal arts) grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic,
geometry, music, astronomy, the sciences, philosophy, history; craft,
dexterity, clevernes, ingenuity, cunning, artifice. Associated Words:
technical, paleotechnics, technics, technic, intransigeant,
intransigeance, artist, artistic, artistry.

artful, a. designing, crafty, diplomatic, disingenuous, ingenious,
dexterous, politic.

article, n. thing, commodity; portion, clause, stipulation, detail,
item; contribution, piece, essay, feature.

articulation, n. joint; utterance, pronunciation, enunciation.

artifice, n. stratagem, finesse, craft, guile, subtlety, wile,
machination, ruse, diplomacy.

artificial, a. factitious; feigned, affected, assumed, fictitious,
counterfeit, spurious.

artisan, n. artificer, craftsman, mechanic, handcraftsman.

artist's workshop. studio, atelier.

artless, a. ingenuous, naïve, guileless, simple, sincere, unaffected,

artlessness, n. ingenuousness, naïveté, guilelessness, sincerity,
candor, innocence.

ascent, n. rising, ascension; elevation, height.

ascetic, n. hermit, recluse, eremite, anchoret, solitary. Antonyms:
voluptuary, sensualist, sybarite, worldling, epicure, gormand.

ascribable, a. attributable, assignable, chargeable, imputable,

ascribe, v. attribute, assign, impute.

ascription, n. attribution, imputation.

ashamed, a. abashed, confused, mortified, disconcerted. Antonyms:
unashamed, brazen-faced.

ashes, n. pl. cinders; lapilli. Associated Words: ashery, mortuary
urn, spodomancy, leach.

ashes of barilla. pulverine.

ashy, a. ashen, cineraceous, cineritious, cinereous.

Asia, n. Associated Words: Asiatic, Asiaticism, Eurasian,
Eurasiatic, Asian.

ask, v. inquire, question, interrogate, quiz, catechize; request,
solicit, petition, supplicate, entreat, desire, beg, seek, beseech, crave,
implore, importune, dun, apply; require, demand, expect, challenge, exact,
claim; invite, bid.

askance, adv. sidewise, obliquely, askant, askew, asquint.

asker, n. petitioner, inquirer, questioner, solicitor, solicitant,
suitor, supplicant, postulant.

askew, adv. awry, askance, asquint, obliquely, sidewise, askant.

asking, n. petition, solicitation, inquiry, quiz, interrogation,
question, instance, entreaty, supplication, request, importunity,
application, imploration, invitation.

aslant, adv. obliquely.

aspect, n. appearance, look; view, scene, prospect; position,

aspiring, a. ambitious, emulous, aspirant.

asquint, adv. obliquely, awry, askance, askew.

ass, n. donkey, jackass. Associated Word: bray.

assail, v. attack, assault, oppugn; asperse, defame, vilify, malign.

assailant, n. assailer, aggressor, assaulter, antagonist.

assault, n. onset, onslaught, charge, aggression, assailing,
invasion, incursion.

assault, v. attack, assail.

assaulter, n. assailant.

assay, n. Associated Words: docimology, docimacy, docimastic.

assemble, v. convene, congregate, gather, meet; muster, convoke.

assembly, n. concourse, congregation, assemblage, meeting;
convention, convocation, congress, synod, diet, council, caucus,
consistory, conclave, conventicle, conference; galaxy.

assent, n. consent, agreement, acquiescence, concurrence; placet.
Antonyms: dissent, declension.

assent, v. concur, acquiesce, concede, yield, consent. Antonyms:
dissent, refuse.

assert, v. affirm, state, say, aver, predicate, asseverate, maintain,

assertion, n. affirmation, statement, declaration, averment

assertive, a. positive, peremptory, declaratory, affirmative

assets, n. pl. resources, property, effects, possessions.

assiduity, n. sedulity, diligence, sedulousness, perseverance

assiduous, a. sedulous, diligent, persistent, industrious,

assign, v. allot, apportion, appoint; transfer, make over, convey:
advance, adduce, specify.

assignment, n. transfer, conveyance; apportionment, appointment,
allotment, allocation, emplacement; determination specification, adducing.

assish, a. asinine.

assishness, n. asininity.

assist, v. abet, coöperate with, aid. See help.

assistance, n. aid, succor, relief, coöperation, reinforcement,
collaboration, subservience.

assistant, a. helping, auxiliary, subsidiary, coöperating, adjuvant.

assistant, n. helper, auxiliary, aider, coöperator, collaborator,
coadjutor; abettor, aid, accessory, ally, adjuvant, adjunct, confrère,
accomplice, confederate, subsidiary.

assisting, a. auxiliary, subsidiary, assistant.

associate, v. join, connect, affiliate; fraternize, consort, hobnob.

associate, n. companion, intimate, mate, fellow, consort, comrade,
yoke-fellow, chum, crony, compeer; colleague, confrère, partner,
collaborator, coöperator.

association, n. affiliation, connection, intimacy, conjunction,
combination, participation, collaboration, collusion, coöperation,
coadjuvancy; fraternity, sodality, syndicate, confraternity, league,
corporation, guild. Antonyms: disassociation, disconnection.

assume, v. undertake; presume, presuppose, postulate, take for
granted; arrogate, appropriate; affect, simulate, pretend, feign.

assumed, a. supposed, postulated; make-believe, pretended, feigned.

assuming, a. pretentious, presumptuous.

assurance, n. surety, promise; confidence, conviction, assuredness;
effrontery, audacity, impudence; insurance.

astonish, v. amaze, stagger, astound, overwhelm, flabbergast

astonishing, a. amazing, astounding.

astonishment, n. amazement, surprise, wonder, flabbergastation

astraddle, adv. astride.

asylum, n. retreat, sanctuary.

Athanasian Creed. Quicunque, Quicunque vult.

athlete, n. gymnast, pancratist.

athletic, a. gymnastic, agonistic, pancratic; stalwart, muscular,
able-bodied, brawny, lusty.

athletics, n. pl. gymnastics, athletism. Associated Words:
agonistics, stadium.

atom, n. monad, molecule, particle, bit, iota, grain, scrap,

atomic, a. molecular.

atonable, a. expiable. Antonyms: unatonable, inexpiable.

atone, v. expiate.

atonement, n. expiation, amends, reparation, propitiation.

atoning, a. expiatory, propitiatory.

at short notice. summarily, promptly.

atrocious, a. heinous, flagitious, nefarious, felonious, infamous,

atrocity, n. heinousness, enormity, nefariousness, flagrancy, crime,

attach, v. affix, annex, append, subjoin; distress, distrain, seize.

attachment, n. devotedness, devotion, adherence; adjunct appendage,
appurtenance; seizure, distress.

attack, n. assault, onset, aggression, onslaught, invasion, escalade,
siege, descent, charge, bombardment, fusillade, allonge, oppugnancy;
access, fit.

attack, v. assault, assail, invade, charge, beset, storm, besiege,
bombard, waylay; impugn, censure.

attain, v. achieve, compass, gain.

attainable, a. achievable, compassable, practicable, obtainable.

attainment, n. achievement, culmination, acquisition, accomplishment,

attend, v. guard, look after; accompany, escort; pay regard, heed,

attendant, a. consequent, accompanying, concomitant, attending.

attention, n. heed, regard, advertence, vigilance, circumspection,
consideration, alertness, watchfulness, notice; civility, courtesy,
deference, _devoirs_, addresses. Antonyms: inattention, inadvertence,
slight, disregard.

attentive, a. heedful, observant, intent, mindful, wary, alert,
circumspect, watchful; courteous, deferential, considerate. Antonyms:
See inattentive.

attest, v. corroborate, confirm, authenticate, certify, indorse,

attestation, n. corroboration, witness, authentication, ratification,

at the same time. simultaneous.--adv. simultaneously.

attic, n. garret, loft, cockloft.

attitude, n. posture, position, pose.

attract, v. allure, entice, draw, decoy, interest, engage, induce.
Antonyms: repel, repulse, alienate, deter.

attraction, n. allurement, fascination, charm, inducement, witchery,
magnetism, enticement, lure. Antonyms: repulsion, repellence,
repugnance, antipathy.

attraction, n. chemism, affinity (chemical attraction).

attractive, a. alluring, engaging, enticing, magnetic, prepossessing,
personable, winning, mesmeric, taking, seductive, bewitching. Antonyms:
unattractive, repellent, repulsive, forbidding, repugnant.

attributable, a. ascribable, imputable, referrible, assignable,

attribute, v. ascribe, impute, assign, refer, trace.

attribute, n. characteristic, peculiarity, predicate; symbol.

at variance. bickering, contending, at loggerheads, dissenting.

auction, n. vendue.

audacious, a. presumptuous, impudent, insolent, brazen, unabashed.
See bold.

augur, v. portend, forebode, presage, indicate, betoken.

augury, n. divination, prophecy; omen, portent, auspice, sign.

august a. majestic, sublime, imposing, impressive, grand, pompous.

auspices, n. pl. protection, favor, guidance, patronage, charge.

auspicious, a. propitious. Antonym: inauspicious.

Austrian Parliament. Reichsrath.

authentic, a. genuine, trustworthy, authoritative, credible.

authenticate, v. verify, attest, confirm.

authentication, n. verification, attestation, confirmation.

author, n. creator, originator, father; _littérateur_, writer.

authority, n. dominion, jurisdiction, authorization, right; prestige,
influence, ascendency, supremacy; precedent; justification, warrant;
permission, sanction, permit, license, warranty; credibility, reliability,
trustworthiness. Associated Word: purview.

authorize, v. empower, commission; sanction, warrant, justify,

authorless, a. anonymous.

autocracy, n. absolutism, despotism, dictatorship; self government,

autocratic, a. absolute, despotic, arbitrary.

automatic, a. self-propelling, self-moving; involuntary, mechanical.

autopsy, n. necropsy, post-mortem examination.

auxiliary, n. assistant, coadjutor, helper.

avarice, n. cupidity.

avaricious, a. covetous, greedy.

average, a. medium, ordinary, mediocre, middling.

averse, a. disinclined, indisposed, reluctant, loath.

aversion, n. dislike, antipathy, disinclination, loathing,

avid, a. eager, greedy, desirous.

avidity, n. eagerness, greediness, intense desire.

avoid, v. evade, shun, elude, eschew, shirk, parry.

avoidance, n. evasion, eluding, eschewing, parrying.

awaken, v. wake, awake, rouse, arouse, excite.

aware, a. cognizant, conscious, apprised, mindful.

away, adv. hence, absent, gone, aside, off; (Colloq.) on,

awe, n. veneration, reverence.--v. overawe, intimidate.

awful, a. appalling, terrible, dreadful, frightful, grewsome,
horrible, shocking, heinous, flagrant; awe-inspiring, majestic; (Slang)
immoderate, great, serious, flagrant, egregious, excessive.

awfully, adv. fearfully, dreadfully; (Slang) very, excessively,
extremely, exceedingly.

awkward, a. clumsy, ungraceful, bungling, maladroit, gawky,
inelegant, ungainly, loutish, unskillful, unwieldy, uncourtly;
embarrassing. Antonyms: graceful, dexterous, deft, courtly, elegant,
adroit, clever.

awning, n. sun-shade, canopy, baldaquin, tilt.

awry, a. distorted, wry, crooked, asquint, askant, perverse.

ax, n. adz, mattock, broadax, battleax, dolabra, hatchet, poleax,

axiom, n. truism; postulate.

axle, n. arbor, axletree, spindle (of a wheel), axis; gudgeon.


Baa, n. bleat, bleating.--v. bleat.

babble, v. prattle, gabble; murmur, purl. See talk.

babble, n. prattle, gabble, chatter, prating; murmur, purl.

babbler, n. prater, chatterer, prattler, tattler.

baby, n. infant, babe, suckling, nursling. See child.

baby, v. humor, fondle, indulge, coddle, pet, cosset.

baby, a. infantine, infantile, babyish.

babyhood, n. infancy.

bachelor, n. celibate.

bachelorhood, n. bachelorship, bachelorism, celibacy.

back, n. reverse; posteriors, fundament, buttocks, seat, rump,
breech; ridge. Associated Words: supine, resupine, resupination,
dorsigerous, dorsiferous, crick, dorsiparous, _dos-à-dos_, tergiferous,
lumbago, notalgia, lumbar, aitchbone, loins, dorsicumbent.

back, a. posterior, dorsal, notal, tergal, neural; remote, distant,
frontier; rear, reverse.

back, adv. backward, rearward; in arrear; in return, in restitution,
in requital.

back, v. support, second, maintain, abet, subsidize, coöperate, with;
mount; indorse.

backbite, v. defame (clandestinely), malign, traduce, vilify,
calumniate, scandalize.

backbiter, n. defamer, detractor, maligner, vilifier, slanderer,

backbiting, n. defamation, vilification, traducement, calumny,
slander (secret).

backbone, n. spine, spinal column, rachis, chine. Associated Words:
vertebræ, Vertebrata, vertebra, vertebral spinal. See spine.

backbone, n. moral principle, steadfastness, stability, firmness,

backboned, a. vertebrate, vertebrated. Antonyms: invertebrate,

backdown, n. surrender, recession, withdrawal.

backhouse, n. outhouse, privy, necessary, water-closet, jakes,
latrine (in camp or hospital).

backing, n. support, coöperation, seconding, assistance, subsidy.

backing out. withdrawal, retreat, recession, retirement.

back out. (Colloq.) withdraw, retreat, resile, recede, retire.

backset, n. discouragement, setback, check, repulse, rebuff.

backslide, v. break faith, apostatize, retrograde, relapse, desert,
fall away.

backslider, n. apostate, renegade, deserter, recreant, pervert.

backsliding, n. apostasy, defection, relapse, recidivism, recreancy,

backsliding, a. apostate, renegade, retrogressive, recidivous,
recreant, unfaithful.

backward, a. retrograde, retrogressive, reverse, regressive;
retrospective; reluctant, averse, loath, disinclined, unwilling; dull,
inapt; late, tardy, delayed; undeveloped.

backwardness, n. reluctance, averseness, unwillingness,
disinclination, hesitancy; inaptness, dullness; lateness, tardiness;

bacon, n. Associated Words: lardoon, bard, flitch, gammon, lard.

bad, a. evil, wicked, immoral, iniquitous, arrant, corrupt, depraved,
sinful, base, demoralized, sinister, licentious, unprincipled, abandoned,
graceless, vicious, incorrigible, unscrupulous, miscreant, reprobate,
disreputable, rascal, scoundrel, profligate, knavish, naughty, malevolent,
malicious, unrighteous, degrading, dissolute, libertine, hardened, wanton;
injurious, prejudicial, pernicious, detrimental, baneful, unwholesome,
baleful, deleterious, mischievous, noisome, malign, malignant, noxious,
unpropitious, disadvantageous; offensive, serious, grave, severe, mortal;
defective, imperfect, incompetent, inferior; untoward, depressing,
unwelcome, adverse, grievous, unfavorable, inauspicious; infertile,
inarable; barren, unproductive, worthless; hard, heavy, serious,
irreparable, egregious; nefarious, felonious, infamous, villainous,
heinous, flagrant, atrocious, flagitious.

badge, n. device, cognizance, emblem, ensign, brassard, cordon, star,

badinage, n. raillery (innocent), banter, persiflage, asteism.

badly, adv. poorly, unskillfully, wretchedly, grievously,
imperfectly; very much; greatly.

badness, n. depravity, improbity, unscrupulousness, iniquity,
immorality, turpitude, knavishness, villainy, peccancy, baseness,
profligacy, venality, licentiousness, obliquity, pravity, degeneracy,
viciousness, wantonness, criminality, libertinism, malevolence,
incorrigibility, rascality, malignity, noxiousness, infamy, mischief.

baffle, v. foil, balk, checkmate, disconcert, frustrate, thwart,
circumvent, nonplus.

bafflement, n. frustration, foiling, thwarting, circumvention,
defeat, disconcertion.

baffling, a. disconcerting, frustrating, confusing, perplexing.

bag, n. sack, pouch, wallet, reticule, knapsack, pocket, cul-de-sac,
haversack, portmanteau, poke, scrip, satchel, suitcase, quiver, valise,
sporran, gunny sack; udder; cyst, vesicle, saccule, utricle, bladder.

bag, v. capture, entrap, catch.

baggage, n. luggage, traps.

baggage truck. lorrie, lorry.

baggy, a. unshapely, flabby.

bagpipe, n. doodlesack.

bail, n. security, surety, vadium.

bait, n. lure, enticement, inducement, temptation, decoy, allurement;


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