Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases: Body

Part 5 out of 14

death, at death's door, at the last gasp; near one's end, given over,
booked; with one foot in the grave, tottering on the brink of the
stillborn; mortuary; deadly &c (killing) 361.
Adv. post obit, post mortem [Lat.].
Phr. life ebbs, life fails, life hangs by a thread; one's days are
numbered, one's hour is come, one's race is run, one's doom is sealed;
Death knocks at the door, Death stares one in the face; the breath is
out of the body; the grave closes over one; sic itur ad astra [Lat.]
[Vergil]; de mortuis nil nisi bonum [Lat.]; dulce et decorum est pro
patria mori [Lat.] [Horace]; honesta mors turpi vita potior [Lat.]
[Tacitus]; in adamantine chains shall death be bound [Pope]; mors
ultima linea rerum est [Lat.] [Girace]; ominia mors aequat [Lat.]
[Claudianus]; Spake the grisly Terror [Paradise Lost]; the lone couch
of this everlasting sleep [Shelley]; nothing is certain but death and

361. [Destruction of life; violent death.] Killing -- N. killing &c v.;
homicide, manslaughter, murder, assassination, trucidation^, iccusion^;
effusion of blood; blood, blood shed; gore, slaughter, carnage,
butchery; battue^.
massacre; fusillade, noyade^; thuggery, Thuggism^.
deathblow, finishing stroke, coup de grace, quietus; execution &c
(capital punishment) 972; judicial murder; martyrdom.
butcher, slayer, murderer, Cain, assassin, terrorist, cutthroat,
garroter, bravo, Thug, Moloch, matador, sabreur^; guet-a-pens; gallows,
executioner &c (punishment) 975; man-eater, apache^, hatchet man [U.S.],
highbinder [U.S.].
regicide, parricide, matricide, fratricide, infanticide, feticide,
foeticide^, uxoricide^, vaticide^.
suicide, felo de se^, hara-kiri, suttee, Juggernath^; immolation,
auto da fe, holocaust.
suffocation, strangulation, garrote; hanging &c v.; lapidation^.
deadly weapon &c (arms) 727; Aceldama^.
[Destruction of animals] slaughtering; phthisozoics^; sport,
sporting; the chase, venery; hunting, coursing, shooting, fishing; pig-
sticking; sportsman, huntsman, fisherman; hunter, Nimrod;
slaughterhouse, meat packing plant, shambles, abattoir.
fatal accident, violent death, casualty.
V. kill, put to death, slay, shed blood; murder, assassinate, butcher,
slaughter, victimize, immolate; massacre; take away life, deprive of
life; make away with, put an end to; despatch, dispatch; burke, settle,
do for.
strangle, garrote, hang, throttle, choke, stifle, suffocate, stop
the breath, smother, asphyxiate, drown.
saber; cut down, cut to pieces, cut the throat; jugulate^; stab,
run through the body, bayonet, eviscerate; put to the sword, put to the
edge of the sword.
shoot dead; blow one's brains out; brain, knock on the head;
stone, lapidate^; give a deathblow; deal a deathblow; give a quietus,
give a coupe de grace.
behead, bowstring, electrocute, gas &c (execute) 972.
hunt, shoot &c n.. cut off, nip in the bud, launch into eternity,
send to one's last account, sign one's death warrant, strike the death
knell of.
give no quarter, pour out blood like water; decimate; run amuck;
wade knee deep in blood, imbrue one's hands in blood.
die a violent death, welter in one's blood; dash out one's brains,
blow out one's brains; commit suicide; kill oneself, make away with
oneself, put an end to oneself, put an end to it all.
Adj. killing &c v.; murderous, slaughterous; sanguinary, sanguinolent^;
blood stained, blood thirsty; homicidal, red handed; bloody, bloody
minded; ensanguined^, gory; thuggish.
mortal, fatal, lethal; dead, deadly; mortiferous^, lethiferous^;
unhealthy &c 657; internecine; suicidal.
sporting; piscatorial, piscatory^.
Adv. in at the death.
Phr. assassination has never changed the history of the world

362. Corpse -- N. corpse, corse^, carcass, cadaver, bones, skeleton, dry
bones; defunct, relics, reliquiae [Lat.], remains, mortal remains,
dust, ashes, earth, clay; mummy; carrion; food for worms, food for
fishes; tenement of clay this mortal coil.
shade, ghost, manes.
organic remains, fossils.
Adj. cadaverous, corpse-like; unburied &c 363; sapromyiophyllous^.

363. Interment -- N. interment, burial, sepulture^; inhumation^;
obsequies, exequies^; funeral, wake, pyre, funeral pile; cremation.
funeral, funeral rite, funeral solemnity; kneel, passing bell,
tolling; dirge &c (lamentation) 839; cypress; orbit, dead march,
muffled drum; mortuary, undertaker, mute; elegy; funeral, funeral
oration, funeral sermon; epitaph.
graveclothes^, shroud, winding sheet, cerecloth; cerement.
coffin, shell, sarcophagus, urn, pall, bier, hearse, catafalque,
cinerary urn^.
grave, pit, sepulcher, tomb, vault, crypt, catacomb, mausoleum,
Golgotha, house of death, narrow house; cemetery, necropolis; burial
place, burial ground; grave yard, church yard; God's acre; tope,
cromlech, barrow, tumulus, cairn; ossuary; bone house, charnel house,
dead house; morgue; lich gate^; burning ghat^; crematorium, crematory;
dokhma^, mastaba^, potter's field, stupa^, Tower of Silence.
sexton, gravedigger.
monument, cenotaph, shrine; grave stone, head stone, tomb stone;
memento mori [Lat.]; hatchment^, stone; obelisk, pyramid.
exhumation, disinterment; necropsy, autopsy, post mortem
examination [Lat.]; zoothapsis^.
V. inter, bury; lay in the grave, consign to the grave, lay in the
tomb, entomb, in tomb; inhume; lay out, perform a funeral, embalm,
mummify; toll the knell; put to bed with a shovel; inurn^.
exhume, disinter, unearth.
Adj. burried &c v.; burial, funereal, funebrial^; mortuary, sepulchral,
cinerary^; elegiac; necroscopic^.
Adv. in memoriam; post obit, post mortem [Lat.]; beneath the sod.
Phr. hic jacet [Lat.], ci-git [Fr.]; RIP; requiescat in pace [Lat.];
the lone couch of his everlasting sleep [Shelley]; without a grave-
unknell'd, uncoffin'd, and unknown [Byron]; in the dark union of
insensate dust [Byron]; the deep cold shadow of the tomb [Moore].
2. Special Vitality

364. Animality -- N. animal life; animation, animality^, animalization^;
animalness, corporeal nature, human system; breath.
flesh, flesh and blood; physique; strength &c 159.
Adj. fleshly, human, corporeal.

365. Vegetability^ -- N. vegetable life; vegetation, vegetability^;
V. vegetate, grow roots, put down roots.
Adj. rank, lush; vegetable, vegetal, vegetive^.

366. Animal -- N. animal, animal kingdom; fauna; brute creation.
beast, brute, creature, critter [U.S.]; wight, created being;
creeping thing, living thing; dumb animal, dumb creature; zoophyte.
[major divisions of animals] mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian,
fish, crustacean, shellfish, mollusk, worm, insect, arthropod, microbe.
[microscopic animals] microbe, animalcule &c 193.
[reptiles] alligator, crocodile; saurian; dinosaur (extinct);
snake, serpent, viper, eft; asp, aspick^.
[amphibians] frog, toad.
[fishes] trout, bass, tuna, muskelunge, sailfish, sardine,
[insects] ant, mosquito, bee, honeybee.
[arthropods] tardigrade, spider.
[classification by number of feet] biped, quadruped; [web-footed
animal] webfoot.
flocks and herds, live stock; domestic animals, wild animals;
game, ferae naturae [Lat.]; beasts of the field, fowls of the air,
denizens of the sea; black game, black grouse; blackcock^, duck, grouse,
plover, rail, snipe.
[domesticated mammals] horse &c (beast of burden) 271; cattle,
kine^, ox; bull, bullock; cow, milch cow, calf, heifer, shorthorn;
sheep; lamb, lambkin^; ewe, ram, tup; pig, swine, boar, hog, sow; steer,
stot^; tag, teg^; bison, buffalo, yak, zebu, dog, cat.
[dogs] dog, hound; pup, puppy; whelp, cur, mongrel; house dog,
watch dog, sheep dog, shepherd's dog, sporting dog, fancy dog, lap dog,
toy dog, bull dog, badger dog; mastiff; blood hound, grey hound, stag
hound, deer hound, fox hound, otter hound; harrier, beagle, spaniel,
pointer, setter, retriever; Newfoundland; water dog, water spaniel;
pug, poodle; turnspit; terrier; fox terrier, Skye terrier; Dandie
Dinmont; collie.
[cats--generally] feline, puss, pussy; grimalkin^; gib cat, tom
[wild mammals] fox, Reynard, vixen, stag, deer, hart, buck, doe,
roe; caribou, coyote, elk, moose, musk ox, sambar^.
[birds] bird; poultry, fowl, cock, hen, chicken, chanticleer,
partlet^, rooster, dunghill cock, barn door fowl; feathered tribes,
feathered songster; singing bird, dicky bird; canary, warbler; finch;
aberdevine^, cushat^, cygnet, ringdove^, siskin, swan, wood pigeon.
[undesirable animals] vermin, varmint [U.S.], pest.
Adj. animal, zoological equine, bovine, vaccine, canine, feline, fishy;
piscatory^, piscatorial; molluscous^, vermicular; gallinaceous,
rasorial^, solidungulate^, soliped^.

367. Vegetable -- N. vegetable, vegetable kingdom; flora, verdure.
plant; tree, shrub, bush; creeper; herb, herbage; grass.
annual; perennial, biennial, triennial; exotic.
timber, forest; wood, woodlands; timberland; hurst^, frith^, holt,
weald^, park, chase, greenwood, brake, grove, copse, coppice, bocage^,
tope, clump of trees, thicket, spinet, spinney; underwood, brushwood;
scrub; boscage, bosk^, ceja [Sp.], chaparal, motte [U.S.]; arboretum &c
bush, jungle, prairie; heath, heather; fern, bracken; furze,
gorse, whin; grass, turf; pasture, pasturage; turbary^; sedge, rush,
weed; fungus, mushroom, toadstool; lichen, moss, conferva^, mold;
growth; alfalfa, alfilaria^, banyan; blow, blowth^; floret^, petiole; pin
grass, timothy, yam, yew, zinnia.
foliage, branch, bough, ramage^, stem, tigella^; spray &c 51; leaf.
flower, blossom, bine^; flowering plant; timber tree, fruit tree;
pulse, legume.
Adj. vegetable, vegetal, vegetive^, vegitous^; herbaceous, herbal;
botanic^; sylvan, silvan^; arborary^, arboreous^, arborescent^,
arborical^; woody, grassy; verdant, verdurous; floral, mossy; lignous^,
ligneous; wooden, leguminous; vosky^, cespitose^, turf-like, turfy;
endogenous, exogenous.
Phr. green-robed senators of mighty woods [Keats]; this is the forest
primeval [Longfellow].

368. [The science of animals.] Zoology -- N. zoology, zoonomy^,
zoography^, zootomy^; anatomy; comparative anatomy; animal physiology,
comparative physiology; morphology; mammalogy.
anthropology, ornithology, ichthyology, herpetology, ophiology^,
malacology^, helminthology [Med.], entomology, oryctology^,
paleontology, mastology^, vermeology^; ornithotomy^, ichthyotomy^, &c;
zoologist &c
Adj. zoological &c n..

369. [The science of plants.] Botany -- N. botany; physiological
botany, structural botany, systematic botany; phytography^, phytology^,
phytotomy^; vegetable physiology, herborization^, dendrology, mycology,
fungology^, algology^; flora, romona; botanic garden &c (garden) 371
[Obs.]; hortus siccus [Lat.], herbarium, herbal.
botanist &c; herbist^, herbarist^, herbalist, herborist^,
V. botanize, herborize^.
Adj. botanical &c n.; botanic^.

370. [The economy or management of animals.] Husbandry -- N. husbandry,
taming &c v.; circuration^, zoohygiantics^; domestication, domesticity;
manege [Fr.], veterinary art; farriery^; breeding, pisciculture.
menagerie, vivarium, zoological garden; bear pit; aviary, apiary,
alveary^, beehive; hive; aquarium, fishery; duck pond, fish pond.
phthisozoics &c (killing) 361 [Obs.] [Destruction of animals];
euthanasia, sacrifice, humane destruction.
neatherd^, cowherd, shepherd; grazier, drover, cowkeeper^; trainer,
breeder; apiarian^, apiarist; bull whacker [U.S.], cowboy, cow puncher
[U.S.], farrier; horse leech, horse doctor; vaquero, veterinarian, vet,
veterinary surgeon.
cage &c (prison) 752; hencoop^, bird cage, cauf^; range, sheepfold,
&c (inclosure) 232.
V. tame, domesticate, acclimatize, breed, tend, break in, train; cage,
bridle, &c (restrain) 751.
Adj. pastoral, bucolic; tame, domestic.

371. [The economy or management of plants.] Agriculture -- N.
agriculture, cultivation, husbandry, farming; georgics, geoponics^;
tillage, agronomy, gardening, spade husbandry, vintage; horticulture,
arboriculture^, floriculture; landscape gardening; viticulture.
husbandman, horticulturist, gardener, florist; agricultor^,
agriculturist; yeoman, farmer, cultivator, tiller of the soil,
woodcutter, backwoodsman; granger, habitat, vigneron^, viticulturist;
field, meadow, garden; botanic garden^, winter garden, ornamental
garden, flower garden, kitchen garden, market garden, hop garden;
nursery; green house, hot house; conservatory, bed, border, seed plot;
grassplot^, grassplat^, lawn; park &c (pleasure ground) 840; parterre,
shrubbery, plantation, avenue, arboretum, pinery^, pinetum^, orchard;
vineyard, vinery; orangery^; farm &c (abode) 189.
V. cultivate; till the soil; farm, garden; sow, plant; reap, mow, cut;
manure, dress the ground, dig, delve, dibble, hoe, plough, plow,
harrow, rake, weed, lop and top; backset [U.S.].
Adj. agricultural, agrarian, agrestic^.
arable, predial^, rural, rustic, country; horticultural.

372. Mankind -- N. man, mankind; human race, human species, human kind,
human nature; humanity, mortality, flesh, generation.
[Science of man] anthropology, anthropogeny^, anthropography^,
anthroposophy^; ethnology, ethnography; humanitarian.
human being; person, personage; individual, creature, fellow
creature, mortal, body, somebody; one; such a one, some one; soul,
living soul; earthling; party, head, hand; dramatis personae [Lat.];
quidam [Lat.].
people, persons, folk, public, society, world; community,
community at large; general public; nation, nationality; state, realm;
commonweal, commonwealth; republic, body politic; million &c
(commonalty) 876; population &c (inhabitant) 188.
tribe, clan (paternity) 166; family (consanguinity) 11.
cosmopolite; lords of the creation; ourselves.
Adj. human, mortal, personal, individual, national, civic, public,
social; cosmopolitan; anthropoid.
Phr. am I not a man and a brother? [Wedgwood].

373. Man -- N. man, male, he, him; manhood &c (adolescence) 131;
gentleman, sir, master; sahib; yeoman, wight^, swain, fellow, blade,
beau, elf, chap, gaffer, good man; husband &c (married man) 903; Mr.,
mister; boy &c (youth) 129.
[Male animal] cock, drake, gander, dog, boar, stag, hart, buck,
horse, entire horse, stallion; gibcat^, tomcat; he goat, Billy goat;
ram, tup; bull, bullock; capon, ox, gelding, steer, stot^.
homosexual, gay, queen [Slang].
V. masculinize
Adj. male, he-, masculine; manly, virile; unwomanly, unfeminine.
he, him, his.
Phr. hominem pagina nostra sapit [Lat.] [Martial]; homo homini aut deus
aut lupus [Lat.] [Erasmus]; homo vitae commodatus non donatus est
[Lat.] [Syrus].

374. Woman -- N. woman, she, her, female, petticoat.
feminality^, muliebrity^; womanhood &c (adolescence) 131.
womankind; the sex, the fair; fair sex, softer sex; weaker vessel.
dame, madam, madame, mistress, Mrs.
lady, donna belle [Sp.], matron, dowager, goody, gammer^; Frau
[G.], frow^, Vrouw [Du.], rani; good woman, good wife; squaw; wife &c
(marriage) 903; matronage, matronhood^.
bachelor girl, new woman, feminist, suffragette, suffragist.
nymph, wench, grisette^; girl &c (youth) 129.
[Effeminacy] sissy, betty, cot betty [U.S.], cotquean^, henhussy^,
mollycoddle, muff, old woman.
[Female animal] hen, bitch, sow, doe, roe, mare; she goat, Nanny
goat, tabita; ewe, cow; lioness, tigress; vixen.
estrogen, oestrogen.
consanguinity &c 166 [Female relatives], paternity &c 11.
lesbian, dyke [Slang].
V. feminize.
Adj. female, she-; feminine, womanly, ladylike, matronly, maidenly,
wifely; womanish, effeminate, unmanly; gynecic^, gynaecic^.
she, her, hers.'
Phr. a perfect woman nobly planned [Wordsworth]; a lovely lady
garmented in white [Shelley]; das Ewig-Weibliche zieht uns hinan
[Goethe]; earth's noblest thing, a woman perfected [Lowell]; es de
vidrio la mujer [Sp.]; she moves a goddess and she looks a queen
[Pope]; the beauty of a lovely woman is like music [G.
Eliot]; varium et mutabile semper femina [Lat.] [Vergil]; woman is
the lesser man [Tennyson].

374a. Sexuality [human] -- N. sex, sexuality, gender; male,
masculinity, maleness &c 373; female, femininity &c 374.
sexual intercourse, copulation, mating, coitus, sex; lovemaking,
marital relations, sexual union; sleeping together, carnal knowledge.
sex instinct, sex drive, libido, lust, concupiscence; hots, horns
[Coll.]; arousal, heat, rut, estrus, oestrus; tumescence; erection,
hard-on, boner.
masturbation, self-gratification, autoeroticism, onanism, self-
orgasm, climax, ejaculation.
sexiness, attractiveness; sensuality, voluptuousness.
[sexual intercourse outside of marriage] fornication, adultery.
[person who is sexy] sex symbol, sex goddess; stud, hunk.
one-night stand.
pornography, porn, porno; hardcore pornography, softcore
pornography; pin-up, cheesecake; beefcake; [magazines with sexual
photos], Playboy, Esquire, Hustler.
[unorthodox sexual activity] perversion, deviation, sexual
abnormality; fetish, fetishism; homosexuality, lesbianism, bisexuality;
sodomy, buggery; pederasty; sadism.
masochism, sado-masochism; incest.
V. mate, copulate; make love, have intercourse, fornicate, have sex, do
it, sleep together, fuck [Vulg.]; sleep around, play the field.
masturbate, jerk off [Coll.], jack off [Coll.], play with oneself.
have the hots [Coll.]; become aroused, get hot; have an erection,
get it up.
come, climax, ejaculate.
Adj. sexy, erotic, sexual, carnal, sensual.
hot, horny, randy, rutting; passionate, lusty, hot-blooded,
libidinous; up, in the mood.
homosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual.

1. Sensation in general

375. Physical Sensibility -- N. sensibility; sensitiveness &c adj.;
physical sensibility, feeling, impressibility, perceptivity,
aesthetics; moral sensibility &c 822.
sensation, impression; consciousness &c (knowledge) 490.
external senses.
V. be sensible of &c adj.; feel, perceive.
render sensible &c adj.; sharpen, cultivate, tutor.
cause sensation, impress; excite an impression, produce an
Adj. sensible, sensitive, sensuous; aesthetic, perceptive, sentient;
conscious &c (aware) 490.
acute, sharp, keen, vivid, lively, impressive, thin-skinned.
Adv. to the quick.
Phr. the touch'd needle trembles to the pole [Pope].

376. Physical Insensibility -- N. insensibility, physical
insensibility; obtuseness &c adj.; palsy, paralysis, paraesthesia
[Med.], anaesthesia; sleep &c 823; hemiplegia^, motor paralysis;
vegetable state; coma.
anaesthetic agent, opium, ether, chloroform, chloral; nitrous
oxide, laughing gas; exhilarating gas, protoxide of nitrogen;
V. be insensible &c adj.; have a thick skin, have a rhinoceros hide.
render insensible &c adj.; anaesthetize^, blunt, pall, obtund^,
benumb, paralyze; put under the influence of chloroform &c n.; stupefy,
Adj. insensible, unfeeling, senseless, impercipient^, callous, thick-
skinned, pachydermatous; hard, hardened; case hardened; proof, obtuse,
dull; anaesthetic; comatose, paralytic, palsied, numb, dead.

377. Physical Pleasure -- N. pleasure; physical pleasure, sensual
pleasure, sensuous pleasure; bodily enjoyment, animal gratification,
hedonism, sensuality; luxuriousness &c adj.; dissipation, round of
pleasure, titillation, gusto, creature comforts, comfort, ease; pillow
&c (support) 215; luxury, lap of luxury; purple and fine linen; bed of
downs, bed of roses; velvet, clover; cup of Circe &c (intemperance)
treat; refreshment, regale; feast; delice [Fr.]; dainty &c 394;
bonne bouche [Fr.].
source of pleasure &c 829; happiness &c (mental enjoyment) 827.
V. feel pleasure, experience pleasure, receive pleasure; enjoy, relish;
luxuriate in, revel in, riot in, bask in, swim in, drink up, eat up,
wallow in; feast on; gloat over, float on; smack the lips.
live on the fat of the land, live in comfort &c adv.; bask in the
sunshine, faire ses choux gras [Fr.].
give pleasure &c 829.
Adj. enjoying &c v.; luxurious, voluptuous, sensual, comfortable, cosy,
snug, in comfort, at ease.
pleasant, agreeable &c 829.
Adv. in comfort &c n.; on a bed of roses &c n.; at one's ease.
Phr. ride si sapis [Lat.] [Martial]; voluptales commendat rarior usus
[Lat.] [Juvenal].

378. Physical Pain -- N. pain; suffering, sufferance, suffrance^; bodily
pain, physical pain, bodily suffering, physical suffering, body pain;
mental suffering &c 828; dolour, ache; aching &c v.; smart; shoot,
shooting; twinge, twitch, gripe, headache, stomach ache, heartburn,
angina, angina pectoris [Lat.]; hurt, cut; sore, soreness; discomfort,
malaise; cephalalgia [Med.], earache, gout, ischiagra^, lumbago,
neuralgia, odontalgia^, otalgia^, podagra^, rheumatism, sciatica; tic
douloureux [Fr.], toothache, tormina^, torticollis^.
spasm, cramp; nightmare, ephialtes^; crick, stitch; thrill,
convulsion, throe; throb &c (agitation) 315; pang; colic; kink.
sharp pain, piercing pain, throbbing pain, shooting pain, sting,
gnawing pain, burning pain; excruciating pain.
anguish, agony; torment, torture; rack; cruciation^, crucifixion;
martyrdom, toad under a harrow, vivisection.
V. feel pain, experience pain, suffer pain, undergo pain &c n.; suffer,
ache, smart, bleed; tingle, shoot; twinge, twitch, lancinate^; writhe,
wince, make a wry face; sit on thorns, sit on pins and needles.
give pain, inflict pain; lacerate; pain, hurt, chafe, sting, bite,
gnaw, gripe; pinch, tweak; grate, gall, fret, prick, pierce, wring,
convulse; torment, torture; rack, agonize; crucify; cruciate^,
excruciate^; break on the wheel, put to the rack; flog &c (punish) 972;
grate on the ear &c (harsh sound) 410.
Adj. in pain &c n., in a state of pain; pained &c v.; gouty, podagric^,
painful; aching &c v.; sore, raw.
2. Special Sensation
(1) Touch

379. [Sensation of pressure] Touch -- N. touch; tact, taction^,
tactility; feeling; palpation, palpability; contrectation^;
manipulation; massage.
[Organ of touch] hand, finger, forefinger, thumb, paw, feeler,
antenna; palpus^.
V. touch, feel, handle, finger, thumb, paw, fumble, grope, grabble;
twiddle, tweedle; pass the fingers over, run the fingers over;
manipulate, wield; throw out a feeler.
Adj. tactual, tactile; tangible, palpable; lambent.

380. Sensations of Touch -- N. itching, pruritis [Med.] &c v.;
titillation, formication^, aura; stereognosis^.
V. itch, tingle, creep, thrill, sting; prick, prickle; tickle,
Adj. itching &c v.; stereognostic^, titillative.

381. [insensibility to touch.] Numbness -- N. numbness &c (physical
insensibility) 376; anaesthesia; pins and needles.
V. benumb &c 376.
Adj. numb; benumbed &c v.; deadened; intangible, impalpable.
(2) Heat

382. Heat -- N. heat, caloric; temperature, warmth, fervor, calidity^;
incalescence^, incandescence; glow, flush; fever, hectic.
phlogiston; fire, spark, scintillation, flash, flame, blaze;
bonfire; firework, pyrotechnics, pyrotechny^; wildfire; sheet of fire,
lambent flame; devouring element; adiathermancy^; recalescence [Phys.].
summer, dog days; canicular days^; baking &c 384; heat, white heat,
tropical heat, Afric heat^, Bengal heat^, summer heat, blood heat;
sirocco, simoom; broiling sun; insolation; warming &c 384.
sun &c (luminary) 423.
[Science of heat] pyrology^; thermology^, thermotics^,
thermodynamics; thermometer &c 389.
[thermal units] calorie, gram-calorie, small calorie; kilocalorie,
kilogram calorie, large calorie; British Thermal Unit, B.T.U.; therm,
[units of temperature] degrees Kelvin, kelvins, degrees
centigrade, degrees Celsius; degrees Fahrenheit.
V. be hot &c adj.; glow, flush, sweat, swelter, bask, smoke, reek,
stew, simmer, seethe, boil, burn, blister, broil, blaze, flame;
smolder; parch, fume, pant.
heat &c (make hot) 384; recalesce^; thaw, give.
Adj. hot, warm, mild, genial, tepid, lukewarm, unfrozen; thermal,
thermic; calorific; fervent, fervid; ardent; aglow.
sunny, torrid, tropical, estival^, canicular^, steamy; close,
sultry, stifling, stuffy, suffocating, oppressive; reeking &c v.;
baking &c 384.
red hot, white hot, smoking hot, burning &c v.. hot, piping hot;
like a furnace, like an oven; burning, hot as fire, hot as pepper; hot
enough to roast an ox, hot enough to boil an egg.
fiery; incandescent, incalescent^; candent^, ebullient, glowing,
smoking; live; on fire; dazzling &c v.; in flames, blazing, in a blaze;
alight, afire, ablaze; unquenched, unextinguished^; smoldering; in a
heat, in a glow, in a fever, in a perspiration, in a sweat; sudorific^;
sweltering, sweltered; blood hot, blood warm; warm as a toast, warm as
volcanic, plutonic, igneous; isothermal^, isothermic^, isotheral^.
Phr. not a breath of air; whirlwinds of tempestuous fire [Paradise

383. Cold -- N. cold, coldness &c adj.; frigidity, inclemency, fresco.
winter; depth of winter, hard winter; Siberia, Nova Zembla; wind-
chill factor.
[forms of frozen water] ice; snow, snowflake, snow crystal, snow
drift; sleet; hail, hailstone; rime, frost; hoar frost, white frost,
hard frost, sharp frost; barf; glaze [U.S.], lolly [U.S.]; icicle,
thick-ribbed ice; fall of snow, heavy fall; iceberg, icefloe; floe
berg; glacier; nev_ee, serac^; pruina^.
[cold substances] freezing mixture, dry ice, liquid nitrogen,
liquid helium.
[Sensation of cold] chilliness &c adj.; chill; shivering &c v.;
goose skin, horripilation^; rigor; chattering of teeth; numbness,
V. be cold &c adj.; shiver, starve, quake, shake, tremble, shudder,
didder^, quiver; freeze, freeze to death, perish with cold.
freeze &c (render cold) 385; horripilate^, make the skin crawl,
give one goose flesh.
Adj. cold, cool; chill, chilly; icy; gelid, frigid, algid^; fresh, keen,
bleak, raw, inclement, bitter, biting, niveous^, cutting, nipping,
piercing, pinching; clay-cold; starved &c (made cold) 385; chilled to
the bone, shivering &c v.; aguish, transi de froid [Fr.]; frostbitten,
frost-bound, frost-nipped.
cold as a stone, cold as marble, cold as lead, cold as iron, cold
as a frog, cold as charity, cold as Christmas; cool as a cucumber, cool
as custard.
icy, glacial, frosty, freezing, pruinose^, wintry, brumal^,
hibernal^, boreal, arctic, Siberian, hyemal^; hyperborean, hyperboreal^;
icebound; frozen out.
unwarmed^, unthawed^; lukewarm, tepid; isocheimal^, isocheimenal^,
frozen, numb, frost-bitten.
Adv. coldly, bitterly &c adj.; pierre fendre [Fr.];

384. Calefaction -- N. increase of temperature; heating &c v.;
calefaction^, tepefaction^, torrefaction^; melting, fusion; liquefaction
&c 335; burning &c v.; ambustion^, combustion; incension^, accension^;
concremation^, cremation; scorification^; cautery, cauterization;
ustulation^, calcination; cracking, refining; incineration, cineration^;
carbonization; cupellation [Chem].
ignition, inflammation, adustion^, flagration^; deflagration,
conflagration; empyrosis^, incendiarism; arson; auto dafe [Fr.].
boiling &c v.; coction^, ebullition, estuation^, elixation^,
decoction; ebullioscope^; geyser; distillation (vaporization) 336.
furnace &c 386; blanket, flannel, fur; wadding &c (lining) 224;
clothing &c 225.
still; refinery; fractionating column, fractionating tower,
cracking tower.
match &c (fuel) 388; incendiary; petroleuse [Fr.]; [biological
effects resembling the effects of heat] [substances causing a burning
sensation and damage on skin or tissue] cauterizer^; caustic, lunar
caustic, alkali, apozem^, moxa^; acid, aqua fortis [Lat.], aqua regia;
catheretic^, nitric acid, nitrochloro-hydric acid, nitromuriatic acid;
radioactivity, gamma rays, alpha particles, beta rays, X-rays,
radiation, cosmic radiation, background radiation, radioactive
isotopes, tritium, uranium, plutonium, radon, radium.
sunstroke, coup de soleil [Fr.]; insolation.
[artifacts requiring heat in their manufacture] pottery, ceramics,
crockery, porcelain, china; earthenware, stoneware; pot, mug, terra
cotta [Sp.], brick, clinker.
[products of combustion] cinder, ash, scoriae, embers, soot; slag.
[products of heating organic materials] coke, carbon, charcoal;
wood alcohol, turpentine, tea tree oil; gasoline, kerosene, naptha,
fuel oil (fuel) 388; wax, paraffin; residue, tar.
inflammability, combustibility.
[Transmission of heat] diathermancy^, transcalency^, conduction;
convection; radiation, radiant heat; heat conductivity, conductivity.
[effects of heat 2] thermal expansion; coefficient of expansion.
V. heat, warm, chafe, stive^, foment; make hot &c 382; sun oneself,
go up in flames, burn to the ground (flame) 382.
fire; set fire to, set on fire; kindle, enkindle, light, ignite,
strike a light; apply the match to, apply the torch to; rekindle,
relume^; fan the flame, add fuel to the flame; poke the fire, stir the
fire, blow the fire; make a bonfire of.
melt, thaw, fuse; liquefy &c 335.
burn, inflame, roast, toast, fry, grill, singe, parch, bake,
torrefy^, scorch; brand, cauterize, sear, burn in; corrode, char,
calcine, incinerate; smelt, scorify^; reduce to ashes; burn to a cinder;
commit to the flames, consign to the flames.
boil, digest, stew, cook, seethe, scald, parboil, simmer; do to
take fire, catch fire; blaze &c (flame) 382.
Adj. heated &c v.; molten, sodden; r_echauff_e; heating &c v.; adust^.
inflammable, combustible; diathermal^, diathermanous^; burnt &c v.;
volcanic, radioactive.

385. Refrigeration -- N. refrigeration, infrigidation^, reduction of
temperature; cooling &c v.; congelation^, conglaciation^; ice &c 383;
solidification &c (density) 321; ice box (refrigerator) 385.
extincteur [Fr.]; fire annihilator; amianth^, amianthus^; earth-
flax, mountain-flax; flexible asbestos; fireman, fire brigade
(incombustibility) 388.1.
incombustibility, incombustibleness &c adj.^. (insulation) 388.1.
air conditioning [residential cooling], central air conditioning;
air conditioner; fan, attic fan; dehumidifier.
V. cool, fan, refrigerate, refresh, ice; congeal, freeze, glaciate;
benumb, starve, pinch, chill, petrify, chill to the marrow, regelate^,
nip, cut, pierce, bite, make one's teeth chatter, damp, slack quench;
put out, stamp out; extinguish; go out, burn out (incombustibility)
Adj. cooled &c v.; frozen out; cooling &c v.; frigorific^.

386. Furnace -- N. furnace, stove, kiln, oven; cracker; hearth, focus,
combustion chamber; athanor^, hypocaust^, reverberatory; volcano; forge,
fiery furnace; limekiln; Dutch oven; tuyere, brasier^, salamander,
heater, warming pan; boiler, caldron, seething caldron, pot; urn,
kettle; chafing-dish; retort, crucible, alembic, still; waffle irons;
muffle furnace, induction furnace; electric heater, electric furnace,
electric resistance heat.
[steel-making furnace] open-hearth furnace.
fireplace, gas fireplace; coal fire, wood fire; fire-dog, fire-
irons; grate, range, kitchener; caboose, camboose^; poker, tongs,
shovel, ashpan, hob, trivet; andiron, gridiron; ashdrop; frying-pan,
stew-pan, backlog.
[area near a fireplace] hearth, inglenook.
[residential heating methods] oil burner, gas burner, Franklin
stove, pot-bellied stove; wood-burning stove; central heating, steam
heat, hot water heat, gas heat, forced hot air, electric heat, heat
pump; solar heat, convective heat.
hothouse, bakehouse^, washhouse^; laundry; conservatory; sudatory^;
Turkish bath, Russian bath, vapor bath, steam bath, sauna, warm bath;

387. Refrigerator -- N. refrigerator, refrigeratory^; frigidarium^; cold
storage, cold room, cold laboratory; icehouse, icepail, icebag, icebox;
cooler, damper, polyurethane cooler; wine cooler.
freezer, deep freeze, dry ice freezer, liquid nitrogen freezer,
freezing mixture [refrigerating substances], ice, ice cubes,
blocks of ice, chipped ice; liquid nitrogen, dry ice, dry ice-acetone,
liquid helium.

388. Fuel -- N. fuel, firing, combustible.
[solid fuels] coal, wallsend^, anthracite, culm^, coke, carbon,
charcoal, bituminous coal, tar shale; turf, peat, firewood, bobbing,
faggot, log; cinder &c (products of combustion) 384; ingle, tinder,
touchwood; sulphur, brimstone; incense; port-fire; fire-barrel,
fireball, brand; amadou^, bavin^; blind coal, glance coal; German
tinder, pyrotechnic sponge, punk, smudge [U.S.]; solid fueled rocket.
[fuels for candles and lamps] wax, paraffin wax, paraffin oil;
lamp oil, whale oil.
[liquid fuels] oil, petroleum, gasoline, high octane gasoline,
nitromethane, petrol, gas, juice [Coll.], gasohol, alcohol, ethanol,
methanol, fuel oil, kerosene, jet fuel, heating oil, number 2 oil,
number 4 oil, naphtha; rocket fuel, high specific impulse fuel, liquid
hydrogen, liquid oxygen, lox.
[gaseous fuels] natural gas, synthetic gas, synthesis gas,
propane, butane, hydrogen.
brand, torch, fuse; wick; spill, match, light, lucifer, congreve^,
vesuvian, vesta^, fusee, locofoco^; linstock^.
candle &c (luminary) 423; oil &c (grease) 356.
Adj. carbonaceous; combustible, inflammable; high octane, high specific
impulse; heat of combustion,

388a. Insulation [Fire extinction] {ant.
of 388} -- N. insulation, incombustible material, noncombustible
material; fire retardant, flame retardant; fire wall, fire door.
incombustibility, incombustibleness &c adj.. extincteur [Fr.];
fire annihilator; amianth^, amianthus^; earth-flax, mountain-flax;
asbestos; fireman, fire fighter, fire eater, fire department, fire
brigade, engine company; pumper, fire truck, hook and ladder, aerial
ladder, bucket; fire hose, fire hydrant.
[forest fires] backfire, firebreak, trench; aerial water
wet blanket; fire extinguisher, soda and acid extinguisher, dry
chemical extinguisher, CO-two extinguisher, carbon tetrachloride, foam;
sprinklers, automatic sprinkler system; fire bucket, sand bucket.
[warning of fire] fire alarm, evacuation alarm, [laws to prevent
fire] fire code, fire regulations, fire; fire inspector; code
violation, citation.
V. go out, die out, burn out; fizzle.
extinguish; damp, slack, quench, smother; put out, stamp out;
douse, snuff, snuff out, blow out.
fireproof, flameproof.
Adj. incombustible; nonflammable, uninflammable, unflammable^;
Phr. fight fire with fire

389. Thermometer -- N. thermometer, thermometrograph^, mercury
thermometer, alcohol thermometer, clinical thermometer, dry-bulb
thermometer, wet-bulb thermometer, Anschutz thermometer [G.], gas
thermometer, telethermometer; color-changing temperature indicator;
thermopile, thermoscope^; pyrometer, calorimeter, bomb calorimeter;
thermistor, thermocouple.
[temperature-control devices] thermostat, thermoregulator.
(3) Taste

390. Taste -- N. taste, flavor, gust, gusto, savor; gout, relish;
sapor^, sapidity^; twang, smack, smatch^; aftertaste, tang.
tasting; degustation, gustation.
palate, tongue, tooth, stomach.
V. taste, savor, smatch^, smack, flavor, twang; tickle the palate &c
(savory) 394; smack the lips.
Adj. sapid, saporific^; gustable^, gustatory; gustful^; strong, gamy;
palatable &c 394.

391. Insipidity -- N. insipidity, blandness; tastelessness &c adj..
V. be tasteless &c adj..
Adj. bland, void of taste &c 390; insipid; tasteless, gustless^,
savorless; ingustible^, mawkish, milk and water, weak, stale, flat,
vapid, fade, wishy-washy, mild; untasted^.

392. Pungency -- N. pungency, piquance, piquancy, poignancy haut-gout,
strong taste, twang, race.
sharpness &c adj.; acrimony; roughness &c (sour) 392; unsavoriness
&c 395.
mustard, cayenne, caviare; seasoning &c (condiment) 393; niter,
saltpeter, brine (saltiness) 392.1; carbonate of ammonia; sal ammoniac^,
sal volatile, smelling salts; hartshorn (acridity) 401.1.
dram, cordial, nip.
nicotine, tobacco, snuff, quid, smoke; segar^; cigar, cigarette;
weed; fragrant weed, Indian weed; Cavendish, fid^, negro head, old
soldier, rappee^, stogy^.
V. be pungent &c adj.; bite the tongue.
render pungent &c adj.; season, spice, salt, pepper, pickle,
brine, devil.
smoke, chew, take snuff.
Adj. pungent, strong; high-, full-flavored; high-tasted, high-seasoned;
gamy, sharp, stinging, rough, piquant, racy; biting, mordant; spicy;
seasoned &c v.; hot, hot as pepper; peppery, vellicating^, escharotic^,
meracious^; acrid, acrimonious, bitter; rough &c (sour) 397; unsavory &c

392a. Saltiness -- N. saltiness.
niter, saltpeter, brine.
Adj. salty, salt, saline, brackish, briny; salty as brine, salty as a
herring, salty as Lot's wife.
salty, racy (indecent) 961.
Phr. take it with a grain of salt.

392b. Bitterness -- N. bitterness, acridness^, acridity, acrimony;
caustic, alkali; acerbity; gall, wormwood; bitters, astringent bitters.
Angostura [additive for alcoholic beverages], aromatic bitters.
sourness &c 397; pungency &c 392.
[bitter substances] alkaloids; turmeric.
Adj. bitter, bitterish, acrid, acerb, acerbic.
Phr. bitter as gall; bitter pill to take; sugar coating on a bitter

393. Condiment -- N. condiment, seasoning, sauce, spice, relish,
[Condiments] salt; mustard, grey poupon mustard; pepper, black
pepper, white pepper, peppercorn, curry, sauce piquante [Fr.]; caviare,
onion, garlic, pickle; achar^, allspice; bell pepper, Jamaica pepper,
green pepper; chutney; cubeb^, pimento.
[capsicum peppers] capsicum, red pepper, chili peppers, cayenne.
nutmeg, mace, cinnamon, oregano, cloves, fennel.
[herbs] pot herbs, parsley, sage, rosemary, thyme, bay leaves,
[fragrant woods and gums] frankincense, balm, myrrh.
[from pods] paprika.
[from flower stigmas] saffron.
[from roots] ginger, turmeric.
V. season, spice, flavor, spice up &c (render pungent) 392.

394. Savoriness -- N. savoriness &c adj.; good taste, deliciousness,
relish, zest; appetizer.
tidbit, titbit^, dainty, delicacy, tasty morsel; appetizer, hors
d'ouvres [Fr.]; ambrosia, nectar, bonne-bouche [Fr.]; game, turtle,
venison; delicatessen.
V. be savory &c adj.; tickle the palate, tickle the appetite; flatter
the palate.
render palatable &c adj.. relish, like, smack the lips.
Adj. savory, delicious, tasty, well-tasted, to one's taste, good,
palatable, nice, dainty, delectable; toothful^, toothsome; gustful^,
appetizing, lickerish^, delicate, exquisite, rich, luscious, ambrosial,
scrumptious, delightful.
Adv. per amusare la bocca [It]
Phr. cela se laisse manger [Fr.].

395. Unsavoriness -- N. unsavoriness &c adj.; amaritude^; acrimony,
acridity (bitterness) 392.2; roughness &c (sour) 397; acerbity,
austerity; gall and wormwood, rue, quassia^, aloes; marah^; sickener^.
V. be unpalatable &c adj.; sicken, disgust, nauseate, pall, turn the
Adj. unsavory, unpalatable, unsweetened, unsweet^; ill-flavored; bitter,
bitter as gall; acrid, acrimonious; rough.
offensive, repulsive, nasty; sickening &c v.; nauseous; loathsome,
fulsome; unpleasant &c 830.

396. Sweetness -- N. sweetness, dulcitude^.
sugar, syrup, treacle, molasses, honey, manna; confection,
confectionary; sweets, grocery, conserve, preserve, confiture^, jam,
julep; sugar-candy, sugar-plum; licorice, marmalade, plum, lollipop,
bonbon, jujube, comfit, sweetmeat; apple butter, caramel, damson,
glucose; maple sirup^, maple syrup, maple sugar; mithai^, sorghum,
nectar; hydromel^, mead, meade^, metheglin^, honeysuckle, liqueur,
sweet wine, aperitif.
[sources of sugar] sugar cane, sugar beets.
[sweet foods] desert, pastry, pie, cake, candy, ice cream, tart,
puff, pudding (food) 298.
dulcification^, dulcoration^.
sweetener, corn syrup, cane sugar, refined sugar, beet sugar,
dextrose; artificial sweetener, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame,
Sweet'N Low.
V. be sweet &c adj.. render sweet &c adj.; sweeten; edulcorate^;
dulcorate^, dulcify^; candy; mull.
Adj. sweet; saccharine, sacchariferous^; dulcet, candied, honied^,
luscious, lush, nectarious^, melliferous^; sweetened &c v.. sweet as a
nut, sweet as sugar, sweet as honey.
sickly sweet.
Phr. eau sucr_ee [Fr.]; sweets to the sweet [Hamlet].

397. Sourness -- N. sourness &c adj.; acid, acidity, low pH; acetous
fermentation, lactic fermentation.
vinegar, verjuice^, crab, alum; acetic acid, lactic acid.
V. be sour; sour, turn sour &c adj.; set the teeth on edge.
render sour &c adj.; acidify, acidulate.
Adj. sour; acid, acidulous, acidulated; tart, crabbed; acetous,
acetose^; acerb, acetic; sour as vinegar, sourish, acescent^, subacid
[Chem]; styptic, hard, rough.
Phr. sour as a lemon.
(4) Odor

398. Odor -- N. odor, smell, odorament^, scent, effluvium; emanation,
exhalation; fume, essence, trail, nidor^, redolence.
sense of smell; scent; act of smelling &c v.; olfaction,
[pleasant odor] fragrance &c 400.
[animal with acute sense of smell] bloodhound, hound.
[smell detected by a hound] spoor.
V. have an odor &c n.; smell, smell of, smell strong of; exhale; give
out a smell &c n.; reek, reek of; scent.
smell, scent; snuff, snuff up; sniff, nose, inhale.
Adj. odorous, odoriferous; smelling, reeking, foul-smelling, strong-
scented; redolent, graveolent^, nidorous^, pungent; putrid, foul.
[Relating to the sense of smell] olfactory, quick-scented.

399. Inodorousness -- N. inodorousness^; absence of smell, want of
deodorant, deodorization, deodorizer.
V. be inodorous &c adj.^; not smell.
Adj. inodorous^, onodorate; scentless; without smell, wanting smell &c
deodorized, deodorizing.

400. Fragrance -- N. fragrance, aroma, redolence, perfume, bouquet,
essence, scent; sweet smell, aromatic perfume.
agalloch^, agallochium^; aloes wood; bay rum; calambac^, calambour^;
champak^, horehound, lign-aloes^, marrubium^, mint, muskrat, napha
water^, olibanum^, spirit of myrcia^.
essential oil.
incense; musk, frankincense; pastil^, pastille; myrrh, perfumes of
Arabia^; otto^, ottar^, attar; bergamot, balm, civet, potpourri, pulvil^;
nosegay; scentbag^; sachet, smelling bottle, vinaigrette; eau de Cologne
[Fr.], toilet water, lotion, after-shave lotion; thurification^.
[fragrant wood oils] eucalyptus oil, pinene.
V. be fragrant &c adj.; have a perfume &c n.; smell sweet.
scent [render fragrant], perfume, embalm.
Adj. fragrant, aromatic, redolent, spicy, savory, balmy, scented,
sweet-smelling, sweet-scented; perfumed, perfumatory^; thuriferous;
fragrant as a rose, muscadine^, ambrosial.

401. Fetor -- N. fetor^; bad &c adj.. smell, bad odor; stench, stink;
foul odor, malodor; empyreuma^; mustiness &c adj.; rancidity; foulness
&c (uncleanness) 653.
stoat, polecat, skunk; assafoetida^; fungus, garlic; stinkpot;
fitchet^, fitchew^, fourmart^, peccary.
acridity &c 401.1.
V. have a bad smell &c n.; smell; stink, stink in the nostrils, stink
like a polecat; smell strong &c adj., smell offensively.
Adj. fetid; strong-smelling; high, bad, strong, fulsome, offensive,
noisome, rank, rancid, reasty^, tainted, musty, fusty, frouzy^; olid^,
olidous^; nidorous^; smelling, stinking; putrid &c 653; suffocating,
mephitic; empyreumatic^.

401a. Acridity -- N. acridity, astringency, bite.
[acrid substances] tear gas; smoke, acrid fumes.
Adj. acrid, biting, astringent, sharp, harsh; bitter &c 392.2.
(5) Sound

402. Sound -- N. sound, noise, strain; accent, twang, intonation, tone;
cadence; sonorousness &c adj.; audibility; resonance &c 408; voice &c
580; aspirate; ideophone^; rough breathing.
[Science, of sound] acoustics; phonics, phonetics, phonology,
phonography^; diacoustics^, diaphonics^; phonetism^.
V. produce sound; sound, make a noise; give out sound, emit sound;
resound &c 408.
Adj. sounding; soniferous^; sonorous, sonorific^; resonant, audible,
distinct; stertorous; phonetic; phonic, phonocamptic^.
Phr. a thousand trills and quivering sounds [Addison]; forensis
strepitus [Lat.].

403. Silence -- N. silence; stillness &c (quiet) 265; peace, hush,
lull; muteness &c 581; solemn silence, awful silence, dead silence,
deathlike silence.
V. be silent &c adj.; hold one's tongue &c (not speak) 585.
render silent &c adj.; silence, still, hush; stifle, muffle, stop;
muzzle, put to silence &c (render mute) 581.
Adj. silent; still, stilly; noiseless, soundless; hushed &c v.; mute &c
soft, solemn, awful, deathlike, silent as the grave; inaudible &c
(faint) 405.
Adv. silently &c adj.; sub silentio [Lat.].
Int. hush!, silence!, soft!, whist!, tush!, chut!^, tut!, pax! [Lat.],
be quiet!, be silent!, be still!, shut up! [Slang]; chup!^, chup rao!^,
tace! [It],
Phr. one might hear a feather drop, one might hear a pin drop, so quiet
you could hear a pin drop; grosse Seelen dulden still [G.]; le silence
est la vertu de ceux qui ne sont pas sages [Fr.]; le silence est le
parti le plus sar de celui se d_efie de soi-meme [Fr.]; silence more
musical than any song [C.G.
Rossetti]; tacent satis laudant [Lat.]; better to be silent and
thought a fool than to speak up and remove all doubt.

404. Loudness -- N. loudness, power; loud noise, din; blare; clang,
clangor; clatter, noise, bombilation^, roar, uproar, racket, hubbub,
bobbery^, fracas, charivari^, trumpet blast, flourish of trumpets,
fanfare, tintamarre^, peal, swell, blast, larum^, boom; bang (explosion)
406; resonance &c 408.
vociferation, hullabaloo, &c 411; lungs; Stentor.
artillery, cannon; thunder.
V. be loud &c adj.; peal, swell, clang, boom, thunder, blare,
fulminate, roar; resound &c 408.
speak up, shout &c (vociferate) 411; bellow &c (cry as an animal)
rend the air, rend the skies; fill the air; din in the ear, ring
in the ear, thunder in the ear; pierce the ears, split the ears, rend
the ears, split the head; deafen, stun; faire le diable a quatre [Fr.];
make one's windows shake, rattle the windows; awaken the echoes,
startle the echoes; wake the dead.
Adj. loud, sonorous; high-sounding, big-sounding; deep, full, powerful,
noisy, blatant, clangorous, multisonous^; thundering, deafening &c v.;
trumpet-tongued; ear-splitting, ear-rending, ear-deafening; piercing;
obstreperous, rackety, uproarious; enough to wake the dead, enough to
wake seven sleepers.
shrill &c 410 clamorous &c (vociferous) 411 stentorian,
Adv. loudly &c adj.. aloud; at the top of one's voice, at the top of
one's lungs, lustily, in full cry.
Phr. the air rings with; the deep dread-bolted thunder [Lear].

405. Faintness -- N. faintness &c adj.; faint sound, whisper, breath;
undertone, underbreath^; murmur, hum, susurration; tinkle; still small
hoarseness &c adj.; raucity^.
V. whisper, breathe, murmur, purl, hum, gurgle, ripple, babble, flow;
tinkle; mutter &c (speak imperfectly) 583; susurrate^.
steal on the ear; melt in the air, float on the air.
Adj. inaudible; scarcely audible, just audible; low, dull; stifled,
muffled; hoarse, husky; gentle, soft, faint; floating; purling, flowing
&c v.; whispered &c v.; liquid; soothing; dulcet &c (melodious) 413;
susurrant^, susurrous^.
Adv. in a whisper, with bated breath, sotto voce [Lat.], between the
teeth, aside; piano, pianissimo; d la sourdine^; out of earshot
inaudibly &c adj..

406. [Sudden and violent sounds.] Snap -- N. snap &c v.; rapping &c v.;
decrepitation, crepitation; report, thud; burst, explosion, blast,
boom, discharge, detonation, firing, salvo, volley.
squib, cracker, firecracker, cherry bomb, M80, gun, cap, cap gun,
bomb burst, atomic explosion, nuclear explosion (arms) 727.
[explosive substances] gunpowder, dynamite, gun cotton,
nitroglycerine, nitrocellulose, plastic explosive, plastique, TNT,
cordite, trinitrotoluene, picric acid, picrates, mercury fulminate
(arms) 727.
whack, wham, pow.
V. rap, snap, tap, knock, ping; click; clash; crack, crackle; crash;
pop; slam, bang, blast, boom, clap, clang, clack, whack, wham; brustle^;
burst on the ear; crepitate, rump.
blow up, blow; detonate.
Adj. rapping &c v..
Int. kaboom!, whamo!, Heewhack!, pow!,

407. [Repeated and protracted sounds.] Roll -- N. roll &c v.; drumming
&c v.; berloque^, bombination^, rumbling; tattoo, drumroll; dingdong;
tantara^; rataplan^; whirr; ratatat, ratatat-tat; rubadub; pitapat;
quaver, clutter, charivari^, racket; cuckoo; repetition &c 104; peal of
bells, devil's tattoo; reverberation &c 408.
[sound of railroad train rolling on rails] clickety-clack.
hum, purr.
[animals that hum] hummingbird.
[animals that purr] cat, kitten (animal sounds) 412.
V. roll, drum, rumble, rattle, clatter, patter, clack; bombinate^.
hum, trill, shake; chime, peal, toll; tick, beat.
drum in the ear, din in the ear.
Adj. rolling &c v.; monotonous &c (repeated) 104; like a bee in a

408. Resonance -- N. resonance; ring &c v.; ringing, tintinabulation &c
v.; reflexion [Brit.], reflection, reverberation; echo, reecho; zap,
zot [Coll.]; buzz (hiss) 409.
low note, base note, bass note, flat note, grave note, deep note;
bass; basso, basso profondo [It]; baritone, barytone^; contralto.
[device to cause resonance] echo chamber, resonator.
[ringing in the ears] tinnitus [Med.].
[devices which make a resonating sound] bell, doorbell, buzzer;
gong, cymbals (musical instruments) 417.
[physical resonance] sympathetic vibrations; natural frequency,
coupled vibration frequency; overtone; resonating cavity; sounding
board, tuning fork.
[electrical resonance] tuning, squelch, frequency selection;
resonator, resonator circuit; radio &c [chemical resonance] resonant
structure, aromaticity, alternating double bonds, non-bonded resonance;
pi clouds, unsaturation, double bond, (valence).
V. resound, reverberate, reecho, resonate; ring, jingle, gingle^, chink,
clink; tink^, tinkle; chime; gurgle &c 405; plash, goggle, echo, ring in
the ear.
Adj. resounding &c v.; resonant, reverberant, tinnient^, tintinnabulary;
sonorous, booming, deep-toned, deep-sounding, deep-mouthed, vibrant;
hollow, sepulchral; gruff &c (harsh) 410.
Phr. sweet bells jangled, out of time and harsh [Hamlet]; echoing down
the mountain and through the dell.

408a. Nonresonance^ -- N. thud, thump, dead sound; nonresonance^;
muffled drums, cracked bell; damper; silencer.
V. sound dead; stop the sound, damp the sound, deaden the sound, deaden
the reverberations, dampen the reverberations.
Adj. nonresonant^, dead; dampened, muffled.

409. [Hissing sounds.] Sibilation -- N. sibilance, sibilation; zip;
hiss &c v.; sternutation; high note &c 410.
[animals that hiss] goose, serpent, snake (animal sounds) 412.
[animals that buzz] insect, bug; bee, mosquito, wasp, fly.
[inanimate things that hiss] tea kettle, pressure cooker; air
valve, pressure release valve, safety valve, tires, air escaping from
tires, punctured tire; escaping steam, steam, steam radiator, steam
release valve.
V. hiss, buzz, whiz, rustle; fizz, fizzle; wheeze, whistle, snuffle;
squash; sneeze; sizzle, swish.
Adj. sibilant; hissing &c v.; wheezy; sternutative^.

410. [Harsh sounds.] Stridor -- N. creak &c v.; creaking &c v.;
discord, &c 414; stridor; roughness, sharpness, &c adj.; cacophony;
acute note, high note; soprano, treble, tenor, alto, falsetto,
penny trumpet, voce di testa [It].
V. creak, grate, jar, burr, pipe, twang, jangle, clank, clink; scream
&c (cry) 411; yelp &c (animal sound) 412; buzz &c (hiss) 409.
set the teeth on edge, corcher les oreilles [Fr.]; pierce the
ears, split the ears, split the head; offend the ear, grate upon the
ear, jar upon the ear.
Adj. creaking &c v.; stridulous^, harsh, coarse, hoarse, horrisonous^,
rough, gruff, grum^, sepulchral, hollow.
sharp, high, acute, shrill; trumpet-toned; piercing, ear-piercing,
high-pitched, high-toned; cracked; discordant &c 414; cacophonous.

411. Cry -- N. cry &c v.; voice &c (human) 580; hubbub; bark &c
(animal) 412.
vociferation, outcry, hullabaloo, chorus, clamor, hue and cry,
plaint; lungs; stentor.
V. cry, roar, shout, bawl, brawl, halloo, halloa, hoop, whoop, yell,
bellow, howl, scream, screech, screak^, shriek, shrill, squeak, squeal,
squall, whine, pule, pipe, yaup^.
cheer; hoot; grumble, moan, groan.
snore, snort; grunt &c (animal sounds) 412.
vociferate; raise up the voice, lift up the voice; call out, sing
out, cry out; exclaim; rend the air; thunder at the top of one's voice,
shout at the top of one's voice, shout at the pitch of one's breath,
thunder at the pitch of one's breath; s'_egosiller; strain the throat,
strain the voice, strain the lungs; give a cry &c
Adj. crying &c v.; clamant^, clamorous; vociferous; stentorian &c (loud)
404; open-mouthed.

412. [Animal sounds.] Ululation -- N. cry &c v.; crying &c v.; bowwow,
ululation, latration^, belling; reboation^; wood-note; insect cry,
fritiniancy^, drone; screech owl; cuckoo.
wailing (lamentation) 839.
V. cry, roar, bellow, blare, rebellow^; growl, snarl.
[specific animal sounds] bark [dog, seal]; bow-wow, yelp [dog];
bay, bay at the moon [dog, wolf]; yap, yip, yipe, growl, yarr^, yawl,
snarl, howl [dog, wolf]; grunt, gruntle^; snort [pig, hog, swine,
horse]; squeak, [swine, mouse]; neigh, whinny [horse]; bray [donkey,
mule, hinny, ass]; mew, mewl [kitten]; meow [cat]; purr [cat];
caterwaul, pule [cats]; baa^, bleat [lamb]; low, moo [cow, cattle];
troat^, croak, peep [frog]; coo [dove, pigeon]; gobble [turkeys]; quack
[duck]; honk, gaggle, guggle [goose]; crow, caw, squawk, screech,
[crow]; cackle, cluck, clack [hen, rooster, poultry]; chuck, chuckle;
hoot, hoo [owl]; chirp, cheep, chirrup, twitter, cuckoo, warble, trill,
tweet, pipe, whistle [small birds]; hum [insects, hummingbird]; buzz
[flying insects, bugs]; hiss [snakes, geese]; blatter^; ratatat
Adj. crying &c v.; blatant, latrant^, remugient^, mugient^; deep-mouthed,
full-mouthed; rebellowing^, reboant^.
Adv. in full cry.

413. Melody. Concord -- N. melody, rhythm, measure; rhyme &c (poetry)
pitch, timbre, intonation, tone.
scale, gamut; diapason; diatonic chromatic scale^, enharmonic
scale^; key, clef, chords.
modulation, temperament, syncope, syncopation, preparation,
suspension, resolution.
staff, stave, line, space, brace; bar, rest; appoggiato^,
appoggiatura^; acciaccatura^.
note, musical note, notes of a scale; sharp, flat, natural; high
note &c (shrillness) 410; low note &c 408; interval; semitone; second,
third, fourth &c; diatessaron^.
breve, semibreve [Mus.], minim, crotchet, quaver; semiquaver,
demisemiquaver, hemidemisemiquaver; sustained note, drone, burden.
tonic; key note, leading note, fundamental note; supertonic^,
mediant^, dominant; submediant^, subdominant^; octave, tetrachord^; major
key, minor key, major scale, minor scale, major mode, minor mode;
passage, phrase.
concord, harmony; emmeleia^; unison, unisonance^; chime, homophony;
euphony, euphonism^; tonality; consonance; consent; part.
[Science of harmony] harmony, harmonics; thorough-bass,
fundamental-bass; counterpoint; faburden^.
piece of music &c 415 [Fr.]; composer, harmonist^, contrapuntist
(musician) 416.
V. be harmonious &c adj.; harmonize, chime, symphonize^, transpose; put
in tune, tune, accord, string.
Adj. harmonious, harmonical^; in concord &c n., in tune, in concert;
unisonant^, concentual^, symphonizing^, isotonic, homophonous^, assonant;
ariose^, consonant.
measured, rhythmical, diatonic^, chromatic, enharmonic^.
melodious, musical; melic^; tuneful, tunable; sweet, dulcet,
canorous^; mellow, mellifluous; soft, clear, clear as a bell; silvery;
euphonious, euphonic, euphonical^; symphonious; enchanting &c (pleasure-
giving) 829; fine-toned, full-toned, silver-toned.
Adv. harmoniously, in harmony; as one &c adj..
Phr. the hidden soul of harmony [Milton].

414. Discord -- N. discord, discordance; dissonance, cacophony, want of
harmony, caterwauling; harshness &c 410.
[Confused sounds], Babel, Dutch concert, cat's concert;
marrowbones and cleavers.
V. be discordant &c adj.; jar &c (sound harshly) 410.
Adj. discordant; dissonant, absonant^; out of tune, tuneless; unmusical,
untunable^; unmelodious, immelodious^; unharmonious^, inharmonious;
singsong; cacophonous; harsh &c 410; jarring.

415. Music -- N. music; concert; strain, tune, air; melody &c 413;
aria, arietta^; piece of music [Fr.], work, number, opus; sonata; rondo,
rondeau [Fr.]; pastorale, cavatina^, roulade^, fantasia, concerto,
overture, symphony, variations, cadenza; cadence; fugue, canon,
quodlibet, serenade, notturno [It], dithyramb; opera, operetta;
oratorio; composition, movement; stave; passamezzo [It], toccata,
Vorspiel [G.].
instrumental music; full score; minstrelsy, tweedledum and
tweedledee, band, orchestra; concerted piece [Fr.], potpourri,
vocal music, vocalism^; chaunt, chant; psalm, psalmody; hymn; song
&c (poem) 597; canticle, canzonet^, cantata, bravura, lay, ballad,
ditty, carol, pastoral, recitative, recitativo^, solfeggio^.
Lydian measures; slow music, slow movement; adagio &c adv.;
minuet; siren strains, soft music, lullaby; dump; dirge &c (lament)
839; pibroch^; martial music, march; dance music; waltz &c (dance) 840.
solo, duet, duo, trio; quartet, quartett^; septett^; part song,
descant, glee, madrigal, catch, round, chorus, chorale; antiphon^,
antiphony; accompaniment, second, bass; score; bourdon^, drone,
morceau^, terzetto^.
composer &c 413; musician &c 416.
V. compose, perform &c 416; attune.
Adj. musical; instrumental, vocal, choral, lyric, operatic; harmonious
&c 413; Wagnerian.
Adv. adagio; largo, larghetto, andante, andantino^; alla capella [It];
maestoso^, moderato; allegro, allegretto; spiritoso^, vivace^, veloce^;
presto, prestissimo^; con brio; capriccioso^; scherzo, scherzando^;
legato, staccato, crescendo, diminuendo, rallentando^, affettuoso^;
obbligato; pizzicato; desto^.
Phr. in notes by distance made more sweet [Collins]; like the faint
exquisite music of a dream [Moore]; music arose with its voluptuous
swell [Byron]; music is the universal language of mankind [Longfellow];
music's golden tongue [Keats]; the speech of angels [Carlyle]; will
sing the savageness out of a bear [Othello]; music hath charms to
soothe the savage beast.

416. Musician [Performance of Music.] -- N. musician, artiste,
performer, player, minstrel; bard &c (poet) 597; [specific types of
musicians] accompanist, accordionist, instrumentalist, organist,
pianist, violinist, flautist; harper, fiddler, fifer^, trumpeter, piper,
drummer; catgut scraper.
band, orchestral waits.
vocalist, melodist; singer, warbler; songster, chaunter^,
chauntress^, songstress; cantatrice^.
choir, quire, chorister; chorus, chorus singer; liedertafel [G.].
nightingale, philomel^, thrush; siren; bulbul, mavis; Pierides;
sacred nine; Orpheus, Apollo^, the Muses Erato, Euterpe, Terpsichore;
tuneful nine, tuneful quire.
composer &c 413.
performance, execution, touch, expression, solmization^.
V. play, pipe, strike up, sweep the chords, tweedle, fiddle; strike the
lyre, beat the drum; blow the horn, sound the horn, wind the horn;
doodle; grind the organ; touch the guitar &c (instruments) 417; thrum,
strum, beat time.
execute, perform; accompany; sing a second, play a second;
compose, set to music, arrange.
sing, chaunt, chant, hum, warble, carol, chirp, chirrup, lilt,
purl, quaver, trill, shake, twitter, whistle; sol-fa^; intone.
have an ear for music, have a musical ear, have a correct ear.
Adj. playing &c v.; musical.
Adv. adagio, andante &c (music) 415.

417. Musical Instruments -- N. musical instruments; band; string-band,
brass-band; orchestra; orchestrina^.
[Stringed instruments], monochord^, polychord^; harp, lyre, lute,
archlute^; mandola^, mandolin, mandoline^; guitar; zither; cither^,
cithern^; gittern^, rebeck^, bandurria^, bandura, banjo; bina^, vina^;
viol, violin, fiddle, kit; viola, viola d'amore [Fr.], viola di
gamba [It]; tenor, cremona, violoncello, bass; bass viol, base viol;
theorbo^, double base, contrabasso^, violone^, psaltery [Slang]; bow,
piano, pianoforte; harpsichord, clavichord, clarichord^,
manichord^; clavier, spinet, virginals, dulcimer, hurdy-gurdy, vielle^,
pianino^, Eolian harp.
[Wind instruments]; organ, harmonium, harmoniphon^; American
organ^, barrel organ, hand organ; accordion, seraphina^, concertina;
humming top.
flute, fife, piccolo, flageolet; clarinet, claronet^; basset horn,
corno di bassetto [It], oboe, hautboy, cor Anglais [Fr.], corno
Inglese^, bassoon, double bassoon, contrafagotto^, serpent, bass
clarinet; bagpipes, union pipes; musette, ocarina, Pandean pipes; reed
instrument; sirene^, pipe, pitch-pipe; sourdet^; whistle, catcall;
doodlesack^, harmoniphone^.
horn, bugle, cornet, cornet-a-pistons, cornopean^, clarion,
trumpet, trombone, ophicleide^; French horn, saxophone, sax [Slang],
buglehorn^, saxhorn, flugelhorn^, althorn^, helicanhorn^, posthorn^;
sackbut, euphonium, bombardon tuba^.
[Vibrating surfaces] cymbal, bell, gong; tambour^, tambourine,
tamborine^; drum, tom-tom; tabor, tabret^, tabourine^, taborin^; side
drum, kettle drum; timpani, tympani^; tymbal^, timbrel^, castanet, bones;
musical glasses, musical stones; harmonica, sounding-board, rattle;
tam-tam, zambomba^.
[Vibrating bars] reed, tuning fork, triangle, Jew's harp, musical
box, harmonicon^, xylophone.
sordine^, sordet^; sourdine^, sourdet^; mute.

418. [Sense of sound.] Hearing -- N. hearing &c v.; audition,
auscultation; eavesdropping; audibility.
acute ear, nice ear, delicate ear, quick ear, sharp ear, correct
ear, musical ear; ear for music.
ear, auricle, lug, acoustic organs, auditory apparatus; eardrum,
tympanum, tympanic membrane.
[devices to aid human hearing by amplifying sound] ear trumpet,
speaking trumpet, hearing aid, stethoscope.
[distance within which direct hearing is possible] earshot,
hearing distance, hearing, hearing range, sound, carrying distance.
[devices for talking beyond hearing distance: list] telephone,
phone, telephone booth, intercom, house phone, radiotelephone,
radiophone, wireless, wireless telephone, mobile telephone, car radio,
police radio, two-way radio, walkie-talkie [Mil.], handie-talkie,
citizen's band, CB, amateur radio, ham radio, short-wave radio, police
band, ship-to-shore radio, airplane radio, control tower communication;
(communication) 525, 527, 529, 531, 532; electronic devices [devices
for recording and reproducing recorded sound], phonograph, gramophone,
megaphone, phonorganon^.
[device to convert sound to electrical signals] microphone,
directional microphone, mike, hand mike, lapel microphone.
[devices to convert recorded sound to electronic signals]
phonograph needle, stylus, diamond stylus, pickup; reading head
(electronic devices).
hearer, auditor, listener, eavesdropper, listener-in.
auditory, audience.
[science of hearing] otology, otorhinolaryngology.
[physicians specializing in hearing] otologist,
V. hear, overhear; hark, harken; list, listen, pay attention, take
heed; give an ear, lend an ear, bend an ear; catch, catch a sound,
prick up one's ears; give ear, give a hearing, give audience to.
hang upon the lips of, be all ears, listen with both ears.
become audible; meet the ear, fall upon the ear, catch the ear,
reach the ear; be heard; ring in the ear &c (resound) 408.
Adj. hearing &c v.; auditory, auricular, acoustic; phonic.
Adv. arrectis auribus [Lat.].
Int. hark, hark ye!, hear!, list, listen!, O yes!, Oyez!, listen up
[Coll.]; listen here!, hear ye!, attention!, achtung [G.].

419. Deafness -- N. deafness, hardness of hearing, surdity^;
inaudibility, inaudibleness^.
V. be deaf &c adj.; have no ear; shut one's ears, stop one's ears,
close one's ears; turn a deaf ear to.
render deaf, stun, deafen.
Adj. deaf, earless^, surd; hard of hearing, dull of hearing; deaf-mute,
stunned, deafened; stone deaf; deaf as a post, deaf as an adder, deaf
as a beetle, deaf as a trunkmaker^.
inaudible, out of hearing.
Phr. hear no evil.
(6) Light

420. Light -- N. light, ray, beam, stream, gleam, streak, pencil;
sunbeam, moonbeam; aurora.
day; sunshine; light of day, light of heaven; moonlight,
starlight, sunlight &c (luminary) 432; daylight, broad daylight,
noontide light; noontide, noonday, noonday sun.
glow &c v.; glimmering &c v.; glint; play of light, flood of
light; phosphorescence, lambent flame.
flush, halo, glory, nimbus, aureola.
spark, scintilla; facula; sparkling &c v.; emication^,
scintillation, flash, blaze, coruscation, fulguration^; flame &c (fire)
382; lightning, levin^, ignis fatuus [Lat.], &c (luminary) 423.
luster, sheen, shimmer, reflexion [Brit.], reflection; gloss,
tinsel, spangle, brightness, brilliancy, splendor; effulgence,
refulgence; fulgor^, fulgidity^; dazzlement^, resplendence,
transplendency^; luminousness &c adj.; luminosity; lucidity; renitency^,
nitency^; radiance, radiation; irradiation, illumination.
actinic rays, actinism; Roentgen-ray, Xray; photography,
heliography; photometer &c 445.
[Science of light] optics; photology^, photometry; dioptrics^,
[Distribution of light] chiaroscuro, clairobscur^, clear obscure,
breadth, light and shade, black and white, tonality.
reflection, refraction, dispersion; refractivity.
V. shine, glow, glitter; glister, glisten; twinkle, gleam; flare, flare
up; glare, beam, shimmer, glimmer, flicker, sparkle, scintillate,
coruscate, flash, blaze; be bright &c adj.; reflect light, daze,
dazzle, bedazzle, radiate, shoot out beams; fulgurate.
clear up, brighten.
lighten, enlighten; levin^; light, light up; irradiate, shine upon;
give out a light, hang out a light; cast light upon, cast light in,
throw light upon, throw light in, shed light upon, shed luster upon;
illume^, illumine, illuminate; relume^, strike a light; kindle &c (set
fire to) 384.
Adj. shining &c v.; luminous, luminiferous^; lucid, lucent, luculent^,
lucific^, luciferous; light, lightsome; bright, vivid, splendent^,
nitid^, lustrous, shiny, beamy^, scintillant^, radiant, lambent; sheen,
sheeny; glossy, burnished, glassy, sunny, orient, meridian; noonday,
tide; cloudless, clear; unclouded, unobscured^.
gairish^, garish; resplendent, transplendent^; refulgent,
effulgent; fulgid^, fulgent^; relucent^, splendid, blazing, in a blaze,
ablaze, rutilant^, meteoric, phosphorescent; aglow.
bright as silver; light as day, bright as day, light as noonday,
bright as noonday, bright as the sun at noonday.
actinic; photogenic, graphic; heliographic; heliophagous^.
Phr. a day for gods to stoop and men to soar [Tennyson]; dark with
excessive bright [Milton].

421. Darkness -- N. darkness &c adj., absence of light; blackness &c
(dark color) 431; obscurity, gloom, murk; dusk &c (dimness) 422.
Cimmerian darkness^, Stygian darkness, Egyptian darkness; night;
midnight; dead of night, witching hour of night, witching time of
night; blind man's holiday; darkness visible, darkness that can be
felt; palpable obscure; Erebus [Lat.]; the jaws of darkness [Midsummer
Night's Dream]; sablevested night [Milton].
shade, shadow, umbra, penumbra; sciagraphy^.
obscuration; occultation, adumbration, obumbration^;
obtenebration^, offuscation^, caligation^; extinction; eclipse, total
eclipse; gathering of the clouds.
shading; distribution of shade; chiaroscuro &c (light) 420.
[perfectly black objects] black body; hohlraum [Phys.]; black
hole; dark star; dark matter, cold dark matter.
V. be dark &c adj.. darken, obscure, shade; dim; tone down, lower;
overcast, overshadow; eclipse; obfuscate, offuscate^; obumbrate^,
adumbrate; cast into the shade becloud, bedim^, bedarken^; cast a shade,
throw a shade, spread a shade, cast a shadow, cast a gloom, throw a
shadow, spread a shadow, cast gloom, throw gloom, spread gloom.
extinguish; put out, blow out, snuff out; doubt.
turn out the lights, douse the lights, dim the lights, turn off
the lights, switch off the lights.
Adj. dark, darksome^, darkling; obscure, tenebrious^, sombrous^, pitch
dark, pitchy, pitch black; caliginous^; black &c (in color) 431.
sunless, lightless &c (sun) (light), &c 423; somber, dusky;
unilluminated &c (illuminate) &c 420 [Obs.]; nocturnal; dingy, lurid,
gloomy; murky, murksome^; shady, umbrageous; overcast &c (dim) 422;
cloudy &c (opaque) 426; darkened; &c v.. dark as pitch, dark as a pit,
dark as Erebus [Lat.].
benighted; noctivagant^, noctivagous^.
Adv. in the dark, in the shade.
Phr. brief as the lightning in the collied night [M.
D.]; eldest Night and Chaos, ancestors of Nature [Paradise Lost];
the blackness of the noonday night [Longfellow]; the prayer of Ajax was
for light [Longfellow].

422. Dimness -- N. dimness &c adj.; darkness &c 421; paleness &c (light
color) 429.
half light, demi-jour; partial shadow, partial eclipse; shadow of
a shade; glimmer, gliming^; nebulosity; cloud &c 353; eclipse.
aurora, dusk, twilight, shades of evening, crepuscule, cockshut
time^; break of day, daybreak, dawn.
moonlight, moonbeam, moonglade^, moonshine; starlight, owl's light,
candlelight, rushlight, firelight; farthing candle.
V. be dim, grow dim &c adj.; flicker, twinkle, glimmer; loom, lower;
fade; pale, pale its ineffectual fire [Hamlet].
render dim &c adj.; dim, bedim^, obscure; darken, tone down.
Adj. dim, dull, lackluster, dingy, darkish, shorn of its beams, dark
faint, shadowed forth; glassy; cloudy; misty &c (opaque) 426;
blear; muggy^, fuliginous^; nebulous, nebular; obnubilated^, overcast,
crepuscular, muddy, lurid, leaden, dun, dirty; looming &c v.. pale &c
(colorless) 429; confused &c (invisible) 447.

423. [Source of light, self-luminous body.] Luminary -- N. luminary;
light &c 420; flame &c (fire) 382.
spark, scintilla; phosphorescence, fluorescence.
sun, orb of day, Phoebus, Apollo^, Aurora; star, orb; meteor,
falling star, shooting star; blazing star, dog star, Sirius; canicula,
Aldebaran^; constellation, galaxy; zodiacal light; anthelion^; day star,
morning star; Lucifer; mock sun, parhelion; phosphor, phosphorus; sun
dog^; Venus.
aurora, polar lights; northern lights, aurora borealis; southern
lights, aurora australis.
lightning; chain lightning, fork lightning, sheet lightning,
summer lightning; ball lightning, kugelblitz [G.]; [chemical substances
giving off light without burning] phosphorus, yellow phosphorus;
scintillator, phosphor; firefly luminescence.
ignis fatuus [Lat.]; Jack o'lantern, Friar's lantern; will-o'-the-
wisp, firedrake^, Fata Morgana [Lat.]; Saint Elmo's fire.
[luminous insects] glowworm, firefly, June bug, lightning bug.
[luminous fish] anglerfish.
[Artificial light] gas; gas light, lime light, lantern, lanthorn^;
dark lantern, bull's-eye; candle, bougie [Fr.], taper, rushlight; oil
&c (grease) 356; wick, burner; Argand^, moderator, duplex; torch,
flambeau, link, brand; gaselier^, chandelier, electrolier^, candelabrum,
candelabra, girandole^, sconce, luster, candlestick.
[non-combustion based light sources] lamp, light; incandescent
lamp, tungsten bulb, light bulb; flashlight, torch [Brit.]; arc light;
laser; [microwave radiation]; maser neon bulb, neon sign; fluorescent
[parts of a light bulb] filament; socket; contacts; filler gas.
firework, fizgig^; pyrotechnics; rocket, lighthouse &c (signal)
V. illuminate &c (light) 420.
Adj. self-luminous, glowing; phosphoric^, phosphorescent, fluorescent;
incandescent; luminescent, chemiluminescent; radiant &c (light) 420.
Phr. blossomed the lovely stars, the forget-me-nots of the angels
[Longfellow]; the sentinel stars set their watch in the sky [Campbell];
the planets in their station list'ning stood [Paradise Lost]; the
Scriptures of the skies [Bailey]; that orbed continent, the fire that
severs day from night [Twelfth Night].

424. Shade -- N. shade; awning &c (cover) 223; parasol, sunshade,
umbrella; chick; portiere; screen, curtain, shutter, blind, gauze,
veil, chador, mantle, mask; cloud, mist, gathering.
of clouds.
umbrage, glade; shadow &c 421.
beach umbrella, folding umbrella.
V. draw a curtain; put up a shutter, close a shutter; veil &c v.; cast
a shadow &c (darken) 421.
Adj. shady, umbrageous.
Phr. welcome ye shades! ye bowery thickets hail [Thomson].

425. Transparency -- N. transparence, transparency; clarity;
translucence, translucency; diaphaneity^; lucidity, pellucidity^,
limpidity; fluorescence; transillumination, translumination^.
transparent medium, glass, crystal, lymph, vitrite^, water.
V. be transparent &c adj.; transmit light.
Adj. transparent, pellucid, lucid, diaphanous, translucent, tralucent^,
relucent^; limpid, clear, serene, crystalline, clear as crystal,
vitreous, transpicuous^, glassy, hyaline; hyaloid [Med.], vitreform^.

426. Opacity -- N. opacity; opaqueness &c adj.. film; cloud &c 353.
V. be opaque &c adj.; obstruct the passage of light; obfuscate,
Adj. opaque, impervious to light; adiaphanous^; dim &c 422; turbid,
thick, muddy, opacous^, obfuscated, fuliginous^, cloud, hazy, misty,
foggy, vaporous, nubiferous^, muggy^ &c (turbidity) 426.1.
smoky, fumid^, murky, dirty.

426a. Turbidity -- N. turbidity, cloudiness, fog, haze, muddiness,
haziness, obscurity.
nephelometer [instrument to measure turbidity].
Adj. turbid, thick, muddy, obfuscated, fuliginous^, hazy, misty, foggy,
vaporous, nubiferous^; cloudy (cloud) 353.
smoky, fumid^, murky, dirty.

427. Semitransparency -- N. semitransparency, translucency,
semiopacity; opalescence, milkiness, pearliness^; gauze, muslin; film;
mica, mother-of-pearl, nacre; mist &c (cloud) 353.
[opalescent jewel] opal.
turbidity &c 426.1.
Adj. semitransparent, translucent, semipellucid^, semidiaphanous^,
semiopacous^, semiopaque; opalescent, opaline^; pearly, milky; frosted,
V. opalesce.

428. Color -- N. color, hue, tint, tinge, dye, complexion, shade,
tincture, cast, livery, coloration, glow, flush; tone, key.
pure color, positive color, primary color, primitive complementary
color; three primaries; spectrum, chromatic dispersion; broken color,
secondary color, tertiary color.
local color, coloring, keeping, tone, value, aerial perspective.
[Science of color] chromatics, spectrum analysis, spectroscopy;
chromatism^, chromatography^, chromatology^.
[instruments to measure color] prism, spectroscope, spectrograph,
spectrometer, colorimeter (optical instruments) 445.
pigment, coloring matter, paint, dye, wash, distemper, stain;
medium; mordant; oil paint &c (painting) 556.
V. color, dye, tinge, stain, tint, tinct^, paint, wash, ingrain, grain,
illuminate, emblazon, bedizen, imbue; paint &c (fine art) 556.
Adj. colored &c v.; colorific^, tingent^, tinctorial^; chromatic,
prismatic; full-colored, high-colored, deep-colored; doubly-dyed;
polychromatic; chromatogenous^; tingible^.
bright, vivid, intense, deep; fresh, unfaded^; rich, gorgeous; gay.
gaudy, florid; gay, garish; rainbow-colored, multihued; showy,
flaunting, flashy; raw, crude; glaring, flaring; discordant,
mellow, pastel, harmonious, pearly, sweet, delicate, tender,

429. [Absence of color.] Achromatism -- N. achromatism^; decoloration^,
discoloration; pallor, pallidness, pallidity^; paleness &c adj.;
etiolation; neutral tint, monochrome, black and white.
V. lose color &c 428; fade, fly, go; become colorless &c adj.; turn
pale, pale.
deprive of color, decolorize, bleach, tarnish, achromatize,
blanch, etiolate, wash out, tone down.
Adj. uncolored &c (color) &c 428; colorless, achromatic, aplanatic^;
etiolate, etiolated; hueless^, pale, pallid; palefaced^, tallow-faced;
faint, dull, cold, muddy, leaden, dun, wan, sallow, dead, dingy, ashy,
ashen, ghastly, cadaverous, glassy, lackluster; discolored &c v..
light-colored, fair, blond; white &c 430.
pale as death, pale as ashes, pale as a witch, pale as a ghost,
pale as a corpse, white as a corpse.

430. Whiteness -- N. whiteness &c adj.; argent.
albification^, etiolation; lactescence^.
snow, paper, chalk, milk, lily, ivory, alabaster; albata^, eburin^,
German silver, white metal, barium sulphate [Chem], titanium oxide,
blanc fixe [Fr.], ceruse^, pearl white; white lead, carbonate of lead.
V. be white &c adj.. render white &c adj.; whiten, bleach, blanch,
etiolate, whitewash, silver.
Adj. white; milk-white, snow-white; snowy; niveous^, candid, chalky;
hoar, hoary; silvery; argent, argentine; canescent^, cretaceous,
whitish, creamy, pearly, fair, blond; blanched &c v.; high in
tone, light.
white as a sheet, white as driven snow, white as a lily, white as
silver; like ivory &c n..

431. Blackness -- N. blackness, &c adj.; darkness, &c (want of light)..
421; swartliness^, lividity, dark color, tone, color; chiaroscuro &c
nigrification^, infuscation^.
jet, ink, ebony, coal pitch, soot, charcoal, sloe, smut, raven,
[derogatory terms for black-skinned people] negro, blackamoor, man
of color, nigger, darkie, Ethiop, black; buck, nigger [U.S.]; coon
[U.S.], sambo.
[Pigments] lampblack, ivory black, blueblack; writing ink,
printing ink, printer's ink, Indian ink, India ink.
V. be black &c adj.; render black &c adj.. blacken, infuscate^,
denigrate; blot, blotch; smutch^; smirch; darken &c 421.
black, sable, swarthy, somber, dark, inky, ebony, ebon,
atramentous^, jetty; coal-black, jet-black; fuliginous^, pitchy, sooty,
swart, dusky, dingy, murky, Ethiopic; low-toned, low in tone; of the
deepest dye.
black as jet &c n., black as my hat, black as a shoe, black as a
tinker's pot, black as November, black as thunder, black as midnight;
nocturnal &c (dark) 421; nigrescent^; gray &c 432; obscure &c 421.
Adv. in mourning.

432. Gray -- N. gray &c adj.; neutral tint, silver, pepper and salt,
chiaroscuro, grisaille [Fr.].
[Pigments] Payne's gray; black &c 431.
Adj. gray, grey; iron-gray, dun, drab, dingy, leaden, livid, somber,
sad, pearly, russet, roan; calcareous, limy, favillous^; silver,
silvery, silvered; ashen, ashy; cinereous^, cineritious^; grizzly,
grizzled; slate-colored, stone-colored, mouse-colored, ash-colored;

433. Brown -- N. brown &c adj.. [Pigments],, bister ocher, sepia,
Vandyke brown.
V. render brown &c adj.; tan, embrown^, bronze.
Adj. brown, bay, dapple, auburn, castaneous^, chestnut, nut-brown,
cinnamon, russet, tawny, fuscous^, chocolate, maroon, foxy, tan,
brunette, whitey brown^; fawn-colored, snuff-colored, liver-colored;
brown as a berry, brown as mahogany, brown as the oak leaves; khaki.
sun-burnt; tanned &c v..

Primitive Colors

434. Redness -- N. red, scarlet, vermilion, carmine, crimson, pink,
lake, maroon, carnation, couleur de rose [Fr.], rose du Barry^; magenta,
damask, purple; flesh color, flesh tint; color; fresh color, high
color; warmth; gules [Heral.].
ruby, carbuncle; rose; rust, iron mold.
[Dyes and pigments] cinnabar, cochineal; fuchsine^; ruddle^,
madder; Indian red, light red, Venetian red; red ink, annotto^;
annatto^, realgar, minium^, red lead.
redness &c adj.; rubescence^, rubicundity, rubification^;
erubescence^, blush.
V. be red, become red &c adj.; blush, flush, color up, mantle, redden.
render red &c adj.; redden, rouge; rubify^, rubricate;
incarnadine.; ruddle^.
Adj. red &c n., reddish; rufous, ruddy, florid, incarnadine, sanguine;
rosy, roseate; blowzy, blowed^; burnt; rubicund, rubiform^; lurid,
stammell blood red^; russet buff, murrey^, carroty^, sorrel,
lateritious^; rubineous^, rubricate, rubricose^, rufulous^.
rose-colored, ruby-colored, cherry-colored, claret-colored, flame-
colored, flesh-colored, peach-colored, salmon-colored, brick-colored,
brick-colored, dust-colored.
blushing &c v.; erubescent^; reddened &c v.. red as fire, red as
blood, red as scarlet, red as a turkey cock, red as a lobster; warm,
hot; foxy.

Complementary Colors

435. Greenness -- N. green &c adj.; blue and yellow; vert [Heral.].
emerald, verd antique [Fr.], verdigris, malachite, beryl,
aquamarine; absinthe, cr=eme de menthe [Fr.].
[Pigments] terre verte [Fr.], verditer^, verdine^, copperas.
greenness, verdure; viridity^, viridescence^; verditure^.
[disease of eyes with green tint] glaucoma, rokunaisho [Jap.Tr.].
Adj. green, verdant; glaucous, olive, olive green; green as grass;
emerald green, pea green, grass green, apple green, sea green,
olive green, bottle green, coke bottle green.
greenish; virent^, virescent^.
green (learner) 541, new, inexperienced, novice, (unskillful) 699.
green (ill, sick).
Phr. green with envy; the green grass of Ireland; the wearing of the

436. Yellowness -- N. yellow &c adj.; or.
[Pigments] gamboge; cadmium-yellow, chrome-yellow, Indian-yellow
king's-yellow, lemonyellow; orpiment^, yellow ocher, Claude tint,
aureolin^; xanthein [Chem], xanthin^; zaofulvin^.
crocus, saffron, topaz; xanthite^; yolk.
jaundice; London fog^; yellowness &c adj.; icterus^; xantho-
cyanopia^, xanthopsia [Med.].
Adj. yellow, aureate, golden, flavous^, citrine, fallow; fulvous^,
fulvid^; sallow, luteous^, tawny, creamy, sandy; xanthic^, xanthous^;
jaundiced^, auricomous^.
gold-colored, citron-colored, saffron-colored, lemon-colored,
lemon yellow, sulphur-colored, amber-colored, straw-colored, primrose-
colored, creamcolored; xanthocarpous^, xanthochroid^, xanthopous^.
yellow as a quince, yellow as a guinea, yellow as a crow's foot.
warm, advancing.

437. Purple -- N. purple &c adj.; blue and red, bishop's purple;
aniline dyes, gridelin^, amethyst; purpure [Heral.]; heliotrope.
lividness, lividity.
V. empurple^.
Adj. purple, violet, ultraviolet; plum-colored, lavender, lilac, puce,
mauve; livid.

438. Blueness -- N. blue &c adj.; garter-blue; watchet^.
[Pigments] ultramarine, smalt, cobalt, cyanogen [Chem]; Prussian
blue, syenite blue^; bice^, indigo; zaffer^.
lapis lazuli, sapphire, turquoise; indicolite^.
blueness, bluishness; bloom.
Adj. blue, azure, cerulean; sky-blue, sky-colored, sky-dyed;
cerulescent^; powder blue, bluish; atmospheric, retiring; cold.

439. Orange -- N. orange, red and yellow; gold; or; flame color &c
adj.. [Pigments] ocher, Mars'orange^, cadmium.
cardinal bird, cardinal flower, cardinal grosbeak, cardinal
lobelia (a flowering plant).
V. gild, warm.
Adj. orange; ochreous^; orange-colored, gold-colored, flame-colored,
copper-colored, brass-colored, apricot-colored; warm, hot, glowing.

440. Variegation -- N. variegation; colors, dichroism, trichroism;
iridescence, play of colors, polychrome, maculation, spottiness,
spectrum, rainbow, iris, tulip, peacock, chameleon, butterfly,
tortoise shell; mackerel, mackerel sky; zebra, leopard, cheetah, nacre,
ocelot, ophite^, mother-of-pearl, opal, marble.
check, plaid, tartan, patchwork; marquetry-, parquetry; mosaic,
tesserae^, strigae^; chessboard, checkers, chequers; harlequin; Joseph's
coat; tricolor.
V. be variegated &c adj.; variegate, stripe, streak, checker, chequer;
bespeckle^, speckle; besprinkle, sprinkle; stipple, maculate, dot,
bespot^; tattoo, inlay, damascene; embroider, braid, quilt.
Adj. variegated &c v.; many-colored, many-hued; divers-colored, party-
colored; dichromatic, polychromatic; bicolor^, tricolor, versicolor^; of
all the colors of the rainbow, of all manner of colors; kaleidoscopic.
iridescent; opaline^, opalescent; prismatic, nacreous, pearly,
shot, gorge de pigeon, chatoyant^; irisated^, pavonine^.
pied, piebald; motley; mottled, marbled; pepper and salt, paned,
dappled, clouded, cymophanous^.
mosaic, tesselated, plaid; tortoise shell &c n.. spotted, spotty;
punctated^, powdered; speckled &c v.; freckled, flea-bitten, studded;
flecked, fleckered^; striated, barred, veined; brinded^, brindled;
tabby; watered; grizzled; listed; embroidered &c v.; daedal^; naevose^,
stipiform^; strigose^, striolate^.

441. Vision -- N. vision, sight, optics, eyesight.
view, look, espial^, glance, ken [Scot.], coup d'oeil [Fr.];
glimpse, glint, peep; gaze, stare, leer; perlustration^, contemplation;
conspection^, conspectuity^; regard, survey; introspection;
reconnaissance, speculation, watch, espionage, espionnage [Fr.],
autopsy; ocular inspection, ocular demonstration; sight-seeing.
point of view; gazebo, loophole, belvedere, watchtower.
field of view; theater, amphitheater, arena, vista, horizon;
commanding view, bird's eye view; periscope.
visual organ, organ of vision; eye; naked eye, unassisted eye;
retina, pupil, iris, cornea, white; optics, orbs; saucer eyes, goggle
eyes, gooseberry eyes.
short sight &c 443; clear sight, sharp sight, quick sight, eagle
sight, piercing sight, penetrating sight, clear glance, sharp glance,
quick glance, eagle glance, piercing glance, penetrating glance, clear
eye, sharp eye, quick eye, eagle eye, piercing eye, penetrating eye;
perspicacity, discernment; catopsis^.
eagle, hawk; cat, lynx; Argus^.
evil eye; basilisk, cockatrice [Myth.].
V. see, behold, discern, perceive, have in sight, descry, sight, make
out, discover, distinguish, recognize, spy, espy, ken [Scot.]; get a
sight of, have a sight of, catch a sight of, get a glimpse of, have a
glimpse of, catch a glimpse of; command a view of; witness,
contemplate, speculate; cast the eyes on, set the eyes on; be a
spectator of &c 444; look on &c (be present) 186; see sights &c
(curiosity) 455; see at a glance &c (intelligence) 498.
look, view, eye; lift up the eyes, open one's eye; look at, look
on, look upon, look over, look about one, look round; survey, scan,
inspect; run the eye over, run the eye through; reconnoiter, glance
round, glance on, glance over turn one's looks upon, bend one's looks
upon; direct the eyes to, turn the eyes on, cast a glance.
observe &c (attend to) 457; watch &c (care) 459; see with one's
own eyes; watch for &c (expect) 507; peep, peer, pry, take a peep; play
at bopeep^.
look full in the face, look hard at, look intently; strain one's
eyes; fix the eyes upon, rivet the eyes upon; stare, gaze; pore over,
gloat on; leer, ogle, glare; goggle; cock the eye, squint, gloat, look
Adj. seeing &c v.; visual, ocular; optic, optical; ophthalmic.
clear-eyesighted &c n.; eagle-eyed, hawk-eyed, lynx-eyed, keen-
eyed, Argus-eyed.
visible &c 446.
Adv. visibly &c 446; in sight of, with one's eyes open at sight, at
first sight, at a glance, at the first blush; prima facie [Lat.].
Int. look!, &c (attention) 457.
Phr. the scales falling from one's eyes; an eye like Mars to threaten
or command [Hamlet]; her eyes are homes of silent prayer [Tennyson];
looking before and after [Hamlet]; thy rapt soul sitting in thine eyes

442. Blindness -- N. blindness, cecity^, excecation^, amaurosis^,
cataract, ablepsy^, ablepsia^, prestriction^; dim-sightedness &c 443;
Braille, Braille-type; guttaserena (drop serene), noctograph^,
V. be blind &c adj.; not see; lose sight of; have the eyes bandaged;
grope in the dark.
not look; close the eyes, shut the eyes-, turn away the eyes,
avert the eyes; look another way; wink &c (limited vision) 443; shut
the eyes to, be blind to, wink at, blink at.
render blind &c adj.; blind, blindfold; hoodwink, dazzle, put
one's eyes out; throw dust into one's eyes, pull the wool over one's
eyes; jeter de la poudre aux yeux [Fr.]; screen from sight &c (hide)
Adj. blind; eyeless, sightless, visionless; dark; stone-blind, sand-
blind, stark-blind; undiscerning^; dimsighted &c 443.
blind as a bat, blind as a buzzard, blind as a beetle, blind as a
mole, blind as an owl; wall-eyed.
blinded &c v..
Adv. blindly, blindfold, blindfolded; darkly.
Phr. O dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon [Milton].

443. [Imperfect vision.] Dimsightedness [Fallacies of vision.] -- N.
dim sight, dull sight half sight, short sight, near sight, long sight,
double sight, astigmatic sight, failing sight; dimsightedness &c;
purblindness, lippitude^; myopia, presbyopia^; confusion of vision;
astigmatism; color blindness, chromato pseudo blepsis^, Daltonism;
nyctalopia^; strabismus, strabism^, squint; blearedness^, day blindness,
hemeralopia^, nystagmus; xanthocyanopia^, xanthopsia [Med.]; cast in the
eye, swivel eye, goggle-eyes; obliquity of vision.
winking &c v.; nictitation; blinkard^, albino.
dizziness, swimming, scotomy^; cataract; ophthalmia.
[Limitation of vision] blinker; screen &c (hider) 530.
[Fallacies of vision] deceptio visus [Lat.]; refraction,
distortion, illusion, false light, anamorphosis^, virtual image,
spectrum, mirage, looming, phasma^; phantasm, phantasma^, phantom;
vision; specter, apparition, ghost; ignis fatuus [Lat.] &c (luminary)
423; specter of the Brocken; magic mirror; magic lantern &c (show) 448;
mirror lens &c (instrument) 445.
V. be dimsighted &c n.; see double; have a mote in the eye, have a mist
before the eyes, have a film over the eyes; see through a prism, see
through a glass darkly; wink, blink, nictitate; squint; look askant^,
askant askance^; screw up the eyes, glare, glower; nictate^.
dazzle, loom.
Adj. dim-sighted &c n.; myopic, presbyopic^; astigmatic, moon-eyed,
mope-eyed, blear-eyed, goggle-eyed, gooseberry-eyed, one-eyed; blind of
one eye, monoculous^; half-blind, purblind; cock-eyed, dim-eyed, mole-
eyed; dichroic.
blind as a bat &c (blind) 442; winking &c v..

444. Spectator -- N. spectator, beholder, observer, looker-on,
onlooker, witness, eyewitness, bystander, passer by; sightseer;
rubberneck, rubbernecker [U.S.].
spy; sentinel &c (warning) 668.
V. witness, behold &c (see) 441; look on &c (be present) 186; gawk,
rubber [Slang], rubberneck [U.S.].

445. Optical Instruments -- N. optical instruments; lens, meniscus,
magnifier, sunglass, magnifying glass, hand lens; microscope,
megascope^, tienoscope^.
spectacles, specs [Coll.], glasses, barnacles, goggles, eyeglass,
pince-nez, monocle, reading glasses, bifocals; contact lenses, soft
lenses, hard lenses; sunglasses, shades [Coll.].
periscopic lens^; telescope, glass, lorgnette; spyglass, opera
glass, binocular, binoculars, field glass; burning glass, convex lens,
concave lens, convexo-concave lens^, coated lens, multiple lens,
compound lens, lens system, telephoto lens, wide-angle lens, fish-eye
lens, zoom lens; optical bench.
astronomical telescope, reflecting telescope, reflector,
refracting telescope, refractor, Newtonian telescope, folded-path
telescope, finder telescope, chromatoscope; X-ray telescope;
radiotelescope, phased-array telescope, Very Large Array
radiotelescope; ultraviolet telescope; infrared telescope; star
spectroscope; space telescope.
[telescope mounts] altazimuth mount, equatorial mount.
refractometer, circular dichroism spectrometer.
phase-contrast microscope, fluorescence microscope, dissecting
microscope; electron microscope, transmission electron microscope;
scanning electron microscope, SEM; scanning tunneling electron
[microscope components] objective lens, eyepiece, barrel,
platform, focusing knob; slide, slide glass, cover glass, counting
chamber; illuminator, light source, polarizer, [component parts of
telescopes] reticle, cross-hairs.
light pipe, fiber optics mirror, reflector, speculum; looking-
glass, pier-glass, cheval-glass, rear-view mirror, hand mirror, one-way
mirror, magnifying mirror.
[room with distorting mirrors] fun house.
prism, diffraction grating; beam splitter, half-wave plate,
quarter-wave plate.
camera lucida [Lat.], camera obscura [Lat.]; magic lantern &c
(show) 448; stereopticon; chromatrope^, thaumatrope^; stereoscope,
pseudoscope^, polyscope^, kaleidoscope.
photometer, eriometer^, actinometer^, lucimeter^, radiometer; ligth
detector, photodiode, photomultiplier, photodiode array, photocell.
X-ray diffractometer, goniometer.
spectrometer, monochrometer, UV spectrometer, visible
spectrometer, Infrared spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared
spectrometer, recording spectrometer; densitometer, scanning
densitometer, two-dimensional densitometer.
abdominoscope^, gastroscope [Med.], helioscope^, polariscope^,
polemoscope^, spectroscope.
abdominoscopy^; gastroscopy [Med.]; microscopy, microscopist.

446. Visibility -- N. visibility, perceptibility; conspicuousness,
distinctness &c adj.; conspicuity^, conspicuousness; appearance &c 448;
bassetting^; exposure; manifestation &c 525; ocular proof, ocular
evidence, ocular demonstration; field of view &c (vision) 441;
V. be become visible &c adj.; appear, open to the view; meet the eye,
catch the eye; basset; present itself, show manifest itself, produce
itself, discover itself, reveal itself, expose itself, betray itself;
stand forth, stand out; materialize; show; arise; peep out, peer out,
crop out; start up, spring up, show up, turn up, crop up; glimmer,
loom; glare; burst forth; burst upon the view, burst upon the sight;
heave in sight; come in sight, come into view, come out, come forth,
come forward; see the light of day; break through the clouds; make its
appearance, show its face, appear to one's eyes, come upon the stage,
float before the eyes, speak for itself &c (manifest) 525; attract the
attention &c 457; reappear; live in a glass house.
expose to view &c 525.
Adj. visible, perceptible, perceivable, discernible, apparent; in view,
in full view, in sight; exposed to view, en vidence; unclouded,
unobscured^, in the foreground.
obvious &c (manifest) 525; plain, clear, distinct, definite; well
defined, well marked; in focus; recognizable, palpable, autoptical^;
glaring, staring, conspicuous; stereoscopic; in bold, in strong relief.
periscopic^, panoramic.
before one's eyes, under one's eyes; before one, +a vue d'oeil
[Fr.], in one's eye, oculis subjecta fidelibus [Lat.].
Adv. visibly &c adj.; in sight of; before one's eyes &c adj.; veluti in
speculum [Lat.].

447. Invisibility -- N. invisibility, invisibleness, nonappearance,
imperceptibility; indistinctness &c adj.; mystery, delitescence^.
concealment &c 528; latency &c 526.
V. be invisible &c adj.; be hidden &c (hide) 528; lurk &c (lie hidden)
526; escape notice.
render invisible &c adj.; conceal &c 528; put out of sight.
not see &c (be blind) 442; lose sight of.
Adj. invisible, imperceptible; undiscernible^, indiscernible;
unapparent, non-apparent; out of sight, not in sight; a perte de vue
[Fr.]; behind the scenes, behind the curtain; viewless, sightless;
inconspicuous, unconspicuous^; unseen &c (see) &c 441; covert &c
(latent) 526; eclipsed, under an eclipse.
dim &c (faint) 422; mysterious, dark, obscure, confused;
indistinct, indistinguishable; shadowy, indefinite, undefined; ill-
defined, ill-marked; blurred, fuzzy, out of focus; misty &c (opaque)
426; delitescent^.
hidden, obscured, covered, veiled (concealed) 528.
Phr. full many a flower is born to blush unseen [Gray].

448. Appearance -- N. appearance, phenomenon, sight, spectacle, show,
premonstration^, scene, species, view, coup d'oeil [Fr.]; lookout,
outlook, prospect, vista, perspective, bird's-eye view, scenery,
landscape, picture, tableau; display, exposure, mise en sc ne [Fr.];
rising of the curtain.
phantasm, phantom &c (fallacy of vision) 443.
pageant, spectacle; peep-show, raree-show, gallanty-show; ombres
chinoises [Sp.]; magic lantern, phantasmagoria, dissolving views;
biograph^, cinematograph, moving pictures; panorama, diorama,
cosmorama^, georama^; coup de theatre, jeu de theatre [Fr.]; pageantry
&c (ostentation) 882; insignia &c (indication) 550.
aspect, angle, phase, phasis^, seeming; shape &c (form) 240; guise,
look, complexion, color, image, mien, air, cast, carriage, port,
demeanor; presence, expression, first blush, face of the thing; point
of view, light.
lineament feature trait lines; outline, outside; contour, face,
countenance, physiognomy, visage, phiz., cast of countenance, profile,
tournure^, cut of one s jib, metoposcopy^; outside &c 220.
V. appear; be visible, become visible &c 446; seem, look, show; present
the appearance of, wear the appearance of, carry the appearance of,
have the appearance of, bear the appearance of, exhibit the appearance
of, take the appearance of, take on the appearance of, assume the
appearance, present the semblance of, wear the semblance of, carry the
semblance of, have the semblance of, bear the semblance of, exhibit the
semblance of, take the semblance of, take on the semblance of, assume
the semblance of; look like; cut a figure, figure; present to the view;
show &c (make manifest) 525.
Adj. apparent, seeming, ostensible; on view.
Adv. apparently; to all seeming, to all appearance; ostensibly,
seemingly, as it seems, on the face of it, prima facie [Lat.]; at the
first blush, at first sight; in the eyes of; to the eye.
Phr. editio princeps [Lat.].

449. Disappearance -- N. disappearance, evanescence, eclipse,
departure &c 293; exit; vanishing point; dissolving views.
V. disappear, vanish, dissolve, fade, melt away, pass, go, avaunt^,
evaporate, vaporize; be gone &c adj.; leave no trace, leave 'not a rack
behind' [Tempest]; go off the stage &c (depart) 293; suffer an eclipse,
undergo an eclipse; retire from sight; be lost to view, pass out of
lose sight of.
efface &c 552.
Adj. disappearing &c v.; evanescent; missing, lost; lost to sight, lost
to view; gone.
Int. vanish!, disappear!, avaunt!^, get lost!, get out of here &c
(ejection) 297.



450. Intellect -- N. intellect, mind, understanding, reason, thinking
principle; rationality; cogitative faculties, cognitive faculties,
discursive faculties, reasoning faculties, intellectual faculties;
faculties, senses, consciousness, observation, percipience,
intelligence, intellection, intuition, association of ideas, instinct,
conception, judgment, wits, parts, capacity, intellectuality, genius;
brains, cognitive powers, intellectual powers; wit &c 498; ability &c
(skill) 698; wisdom &c 498; Vernunft [G.], Verstand [G.].
soul, spirit, ghost, inner man, heart, breast, bosom, penetralia
mentis [Lat.], divina particula aurae [Lat.], heart's core; the
Absolute, psyche, subliminal consciousness, supreme principle.
brain, organ of thought, seat of thought; sensorium^, sensory;
head, headpiece; pate, noddle^, noggin, skull, scull, pericranium
[Med.], cerebrum, cranium, brainpan^, sconce, upper story.
[in computers] [Comp.] central processing unit, CPU; arithmetic
and logical unit, ALU.
[Science of mind] metaphysics; psychics, psychology; ideology;
mental philosophy, moral philosophy; philosophy of the mind;
pneumatology^, phrenology; craniology [Med.], cranioscopy [Med.].
ideality, idealism; transcendentalism, spiritualism; immateriality
&c 317; universal concept, universal conception.
metaphysician, psychologist &c
V. note, notice, mark; take notice of, take cognizance of be aware of,
be conscious of; realize; appreciate; ruminate &c (think) 451; fancy &c
(imagine) 515.
Adj. intellectual [Relating to intellect], mental, rational,
subjective, metaphysical, nooscopic^, spiritual; ghostly; psychical^,
psychological; cerebral; animastic^; brainy; hyperphysical^,
superphysical^; subconscious, subliminal.
immaterial &c 317; endowed with reason.
Adv. in petto.
Phr. ens rationis [Lat.]; frons est animi janua [Lat.] [Cicero]; locos
y ninos dicen la verdad [Sp.]; mens sola loco non exulat [Lat.] [Ovid];
my mind is my kingdom [Campbell]; stern men with empires in their
brains [Lowell]; the mind, the music breathing from her face [Byron];
thou living ray of intellectual Fire [Falconer].

450a. Absence or want of Intellect -- N. absence of intellect, want of
intellect &c 450; imbecility &c 499.
brutality, brute force.
instinct, brute instinct, stimulus-response loop, conditioned
response, instinctive reaction, Pavlovian response.
mimicry, aping (imitation) 19.
moron, imbecile, idiot; fool &c 501; dumb animal; vegetable, brain
Adj. unendowed with reason, void of reason; thoughtless; vegetative;
moronic [Sarc.], idiotic [Sarc.], brainless [Sarc.].
Adv. instinctively, like Pavlov's dog; vegetatively.
V. mimic, ape (imitate) 19; respond instinctively.

451. Thought -- N. thought; exercitation of the intellect^, exercise of
the intellect; intellection; reflection, cogitation, consideration,
meditation, study, lucubration, speculation, deliberation, pondering;
head work, brain work; cerebration; deep reflection; close study,
application &c (attention) 457.
abstract thought, abstraction contemplation, musing; brown study
&c (inattention) 458; reverie, Platonism; depth of thought, workings of
the mind, thoughts, inmost thoughts; self-counsel self-communing, self-
consultation; philosophy of the Absolute, philosophy of the Academy,
philosophy of the Garden, philosophy of the lyceum, philosophy of the
association of thought, succession of thought, flow of thought,
train of thought, current of thought, association of ideas, succession
of ideas, flow of ideas, train of ideas, current of ideas.
after thought, mature thought; reconsideration, second thoughts;
retrospection &c (memory) 505; excogitation^; examination &c (inquiry)
461; invention &c (imagination) 515.
thoughtfulness &c adj..
V. think, reflect, cogitate, excogitate^, consider, deliberate; bestow
thought upon, bestow consideration upon; speculate, contemplate,
meditate, ponder, muse, dream, ruminate; brood over, con over;
animadvert, study; bend the mind, apply the mind &c (attend) 457;
digest, discuss, hammer at, weigh, perpend; realize, appreciate; fancy
&c (imagine) 515; trow^.
take into consideration; take counsel &c (be advised) 695; commune
with oneself, bethink oneself; collect one's thoughts; revolve in the
mind, turn over in the mind, run over in the mind; chew the cud upon,
sleep upon; take counsel of one's pillow, advise with one's pillow.
rack one's brains, ransack one's brains, crack one's brains, beat
one's brains, cudgel one's brains; set one's brain to work, set one's
wits to work.
harbor an idea, entertain an idea, cherish an idea, nurture an


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