Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases: Body

Part 7 out of 14

expectation, sanguine expectation; torment of Tantalus.
hope &c 858; trust &c (belief) 484; auspices &c (prediction) 511;
assurance, confidence, presumption, reliance.
V. expect; look for, look out for, look forward to; hope for;
anticipate; have in prospect, have in contemplation; keep in view;
contemplate, promise oneself; not wonder at &c 870, not wonder if.
wait for, tarry for, lie in wait for, watch for, bargain for; keep
a good lookout for, keep a sharp lookout for; await; stand at
'attention' abide, bide one's time, watch.
foresee &c 510; prepare for &c 673; forestall &c (be early) 132;
count upon &c (believe in) 484; think likely &c (probability) 472.
lead one to expect &c (predict) 511; have in store for &c
(destiny) 152.
prick up one's ears, hold one's breath.
Adj. expectant; expecting &c v.; in expectation &c n.; on the watch &c
(vigilant) 459; open-eyed, open-mouthed, in wide-eyed anticipation;
agape, gaping, all agog; on tenterhooks, on tiptoe, on the tiptoe of
expectation; aux aguets^; ready; curious &c 455; looking forward to.
expected &c v.; long expected, foreseen; in prospect &c n.;
prospective; in one's eye, in one's view, in the horizon, on the
horizon, just over the horizon, just around the corner, around the
corner; impending &c (destiny) 152.
Adv. on the watch &c adj.; with breathless expectation &c n.; with
bated breath, with rapt anticipation; arrectis auribus [Lat.].
Phr. we shall see; nous verrons [Fr.]; expectation whirls me round
[Troilus and Cressida]; the light at the end of the tunnel.

508. Inexpectation -- N. inexpectation^, non-expectation; false
expectation &c (disappointment) 509; miscalculation &c 481.
surprise, sudden burst, thunderclap, blow, shock, start; bolt out
of the blue; wonder &c 870; eye opener.
unpleasant surprise, pleasant surprise.
V. not expect &c 507; be taken by surprise; start; miscalculate &c 481;
not bargain for; come upon, fall upon.
be unexpected &c adj.; come unawares &c adv.; turn up, pop, drop
from the clouds; come upon one, burst upon one, flash upon one, bounce
upon one, steal upon one, creep upon one; come like a thunder clap,
burst like a thunderclap, thunder bolt; take by surprise, catch by
surprise, catch unawares, catch napping; yach [S. Afr.].
pounce upon, spring a mine upon.
surprise, startle, take aback, electrify, stun, stagger, take away
one's breath, throw off one's guard; astonish, dumbfound &c (strike
with wonder) 870.
Adj. nonexpectant^; surprised &c v.; unwarned, unaware; off one's guard;
inattentive 458.
unexpected, unanticipated, unpredicted^, unlooked for, unforeseen,
unhoped for; dropped from the clouds; beyond expectation, contrary to
expectation, against expectation, against all expectation; out of one's
reckoning; unheard of &c (exceptional) 83; startling, surprising;
sudden &c (instantaneous) 113.
unpredictable, unforeseeable (unknowable) 519.
Adv. abruptly, unexpectedly, surprisingly; plump, pop, a l'improviste
[Fr.], unawares; without notice, without warning, without a 'by your
leave'; like a thief in the night, like a thunderbolt; in an unguarded
moment; suddenly &c (instantaneously) 113.
Int. heydey!^, &c (wonder) 870.
Phr. little did one think, little did one expect; nobody would ever
suppose, nobody would ever think, nobody would ever expect; who would
have thought? it beats the Dutch^.

509. [Failure of expectation.] Disappointment -- N. disappointment;
blighted hope, balk; blow; anticlimax; slip 'twixt cup and lip;
nonfulfillment of one's hopes; sad disappointment, bitter
disappointment; trick of fortune; afterclap; false expectation, vain
expectation; miscalculation &c 481; fool's paradise; much cry and
little wool.
V. be disappointed; look blank, look blue; look aghast, stand aghast &c
(wonder) 870; find to one's cost; laugh on the wrong side of one's
mouth; find one a false prophet.
not realize one's hope, not realize one's expectation.
[cause to be disappointed] disappoint; frustrate, discomfit,
crush, defeat (failure) 732; crush one's hope, dash one's hope, balk
one's hope, disappoint one's hope, blight one's hope, falsify one's
hope, defeat one's hope, discourage; balk, jilt, bilk; play one false,
play a trick; dash the cup from the lips, tantalize; dumfound,
dumbfound, dumbfounder, dumfounder (astonish) 870.
Adj. disappointed &c v.; disconcerted, aghast; disgruntled; out of
one's reckoning.
Phr. the mountain labored and brought forth a mouse; parturiunt montes
[Lat.]; nascitur ridiculus mus [Lat.] [Horace]; diis aliter visum
[Lat.], the bubble burst; one's countenance falling.

510. Foresight -- N. foresight, prospicience^, prevision, long-
sightedness; anticipation; providence &c (preparation) 673.
forethought, forecast; predeliberation^, presurmise^; foregone
conclusion &c (prejudgment) 481; prudence &c (caution) 864.
foreknowledge; prognosis; precognition, prescience, prenotion^,
presentiment; second sight; sagacity &c (intelligence) 498; antepast^,
prelibation^, prophasis^.
prospect &c (expectation) 507; foretaste; prospectus &c (plan)
V. foresee; look forwards to, look ahead, look beyond; scent from afar;
look into the future, pry into the future, peer into the future.
see one's way; see how the land lies, get the lay of the land, see
how the wind blows, test the waters, see how the cat jumps.
anticipate; expect &c 507; be beforehand &c (early) 132; predict
&c 511; foreknow, forejudge, forecast; presurmise^; have an eye to the
future, have an eye to the main chance; respicere finem [Lat.]; keep a
sharp lookout &c (vigilance) 459; forewarn &c 668.
Adj. foreseeing &c v.; prescient; farseeing, farsighted; sagacious &c
(intelligent) 498; weatherwise^; provident &c (prepared) 673;
prospective &c 507.
Adv. against the time when.
Phr. cernit omnia Deus vindex [Lat.]; mihi cura futuri [Lat.]; run it
up the flagpole and see who salutes.

511. Prediction -- N. prediction, announcement; program, programme
[Brit.] &c (plan) 626; premonition &c (warning) 668; prognosis,
prophecy, vaticination, mantology^, prognostication, premonstration^;
augury, auguration^; ariolation^, hariolation^; foreboding, aboding^;
bodement^, abodement^; omniation^, omniousness^; auspices, forecast; omen
&c 512; horoscope, nativity; sooth^, soothsaying; fortune telling,
crystal gazing; divination; necromancy &c 992.
[Divination by the stars] astrology^, horoscopy^, judicial
[Place of Prediction]. adytum prefiguration^, prefigurement;
prototype, type.
[person who predicts] oracle &c 513.
V. predict, prognosticate, prophesy, vaticinate, divine, foretell,
soothsay, augurate^, tell fortunes; cast a horoscope, cast a nativity;
advise; forewarn &c 668.
presage, augur, bode; abode, forebode; foretoken, betoken;
prefigure, preshow^; portend; foreshow^, foreshadow; shadow forth,
typify, pretypify^, ominate^, signify, point to.
usher in, herald, premise, announce; lower.
hold out expectation, raise expectation, excite expectation,
excite hope; bid fair, promise, lead one to expect; be the precursor &c
[predict by mathematical or statistical means from past
experience] extrapolate, project.
Adj. predicting &c v.; predictive, prophetic; fatidic^, fatidical^;
vaticinal, oracular, fatiloquent^, haruspical, Sibylline; weatherwise^.
ominous, portentous, augurous^, augurial, augural; auspicial^,
auspicious; prescious^, monitory, extispicious^, premonitory,
significant of, pregnant with, bit with the fate of.
Phr. coming events cast their shadows before [Campbell]; dicamus bona
verba [Lat.]; there buds the promise of celestial worth [Young].
[Divination: list] by oracles, Theomancy^; by the Bible,
Bibliomancy; by ghosts, Psychomancy^; by crystal gazing,
Crystallomancy^; by shadows or manes, Sciomancy; by appearances in the
air, Aeromancy^, Chaomancy^; by the stars at birth, Genethliacs; by
meteors, Meteoromancy^; by winds, Austromancy^; by sacrificial
appearances, Aruspicy, Haruspicy^, Hieromancy^, Hieroscopy^; by the
entrails of animals sacrificed, Extispicy^, Hieromancy^; by the entrails
of a human sacrifice, Anthropomancy^; by the entrails of fishes,
Ichthyomancy^; by sacrificial fire, Pyromancy^; by red-hot iron,
Sideromancy^; by smoke from the altar, Capnomancy^; by mice, Myomancy^;
by birds, Orniscopy^, Ornithomancy^; by a cock picking up grains,
Alectryomancy, Alectromancy^; by fishes, Ophiomancy^; by herbs,
Botanomancy^; by water, Hydromancy^; by fountains, Pegomancy^; by a wand,
Rhabdomancy; by dough of cakes, Crithomancy^; by meal, Aleuromancy^,
Alphitomancy^; by salt, Halomancy^; by dice, Cleromancy^; by arrows,
Belomancy^; by a balanced hatchet, Axinomancy^; by a balanced sieve,
Coscinomancy^; by a suspended ring, Dactyliomancy^; by dots made at
random on paper, Geomancy^; by precious stones, Lithomancy^; by pebbles,
Pessomancy^; by pebbles drawn from a heap, Psephomancy^; by mirrors,
Catoptromancy^; by writings in ashes, Tephramancy^; by dreams,
Oneiromancy^; by the hand, Palmistry, Chiromancy; by nails reflecting
the sun's rays, Onychomancy^; by finger rings, Dactylomancy^; by
numbers, Arithmancy^; by drawing lots, Sortilege^; by passages in books,
Stichomancy^; by the letters forming the name of the person, Onomancy^,
Nomancy; by the features, Anthroposcopy^; by the mode of laughing,
Geloscopy^; by ventriloquism, Gastromancy^; by walking in a circle,
Gyromancy^; by dropping melted wax into water, Ceromancy^; by currents,
Bletonism; by the color and peculiarities of wine, Oenomancy^.

512. Omen -- N. omen, portent, presage, prognostic, augury, auspice;
sign &c (indication) 550; harbinger &c (precursor) 64; yule candle^.
bird of ill omen; signs of the times; gathering clouds; warning &c
prefigurement &c 511.
Adj. ill-boding.
Phr. auspicium melioris aevi [Lat.].

513. Oracle -- N. oracle; prophet, prophesier, seer, soothsayer, augur,
fortune teller, crystal gazer^, witch, geomancer^, aruspex^; aruspice^,
haruspice^; haruspex; astrologer, star gazer^; Sibyl; Python, Pythoness^;
Pythia; Pythian oracle, Delphian oracle; Monitor, Sphinx, Tiresias,
Cassandra^, Sibylline leaves; Zadkiel, Old Moore; sorcerer &c 994;
interpreter, &c 524.
[person who predicts by non-mystical (natural) means] predictor,
prognosticator, forecaster; weather forecaster, weatherman.
Phr. a prophet is without honor in his own country; you don't need a
weatherman to know which way the wind blows [Bob Dylan].


514. Supposition -- N. supposition, assumption, assumed position,
postulation, condition, presupposition, hypothesis, blue sky
hypothesis, postulate, postulatum [Lat.], theory; thesis, theorem;
data; proposition, position; proposal &c (plan) 626; presumption &c
(belief) 484; divination.
conjecture; guess, guesswork, speculation; rough guess, shot, shot
in the dark [Coll.]; conjecturality^; surmise, suspicion, sneaking
suspicion; estimate, approximation (nearness) 197.
inkling, suggestion, hint, intimation, notion, impression; bare
supposition, vague supposition, loose supposition, loose suggestion.
association of ideas, (analogy) 514.1; metonym [Gramm.], metonymy
[Gramm.], simile (metaphor) 521.
conceit, idea, thought; original idea, invention (imagination)
V. suppose, conjecture, surmise, suspect, guess, divine; theorize;
presume, presurmise^, presuppose; assume, fancy, wis^, take it; give a
guess, speculate, believe, dare say, take it into one's head, take for
granted; imagine &c 515.
put forth; propound, propose; start, put a case, submit, move,
make a motion; hazard out, throw out a suggestion, put forward a
suggestion, put forward conjecture.
allude to, suggest, hint, put it into one's head.
suggest itself &c (thought) 451; run in the head &c (memory) 505;
marvel if, wonder if, wonder whether.
Adj. supposing &c v.; given, mooted, postulatory^; assumed &c v.;
supposititious, suppositive^, suppositious; gratuitous, speculative,
conjectural, hypothetical, theoretical, academic, supposable,
presumptive, putative; suppositional.
suggestive, allusive.
Adv. if, if so be; an; on the supposition &c n.; ex hypothesi [Lat.];
in the case, in the event of; quasi, as if, provided; perhaps &c (by
possibility) 470; for aught one knows.

514a. Analogy -- N. analogy, association, association of ideas.
metaphor &c 521.
analogical thinking; free association; train of thought.
Adj. analogical.

515. Imagination -- N. imagination; originality; invention; fancy;
inspiration; verve.
warm imagination, heated imagination, excited imagination,
sanguine imagination, ardent imagination, fiery imagination, boiling
imagination, wild imagination, bold imagination, daring imagination,
playful imagination, lively imagination, fertile imagination, fancy.
mind's eye; such stuff as dreams are made of [Tempest].
ideality, idealism; romanticism, utopianism, castle-building.
dreaming; phrensy^, frenzy; ecstasy, extasy^; calenture &c
(delirium) 503 [Obs.]; reverie, trance; day dream, golden dream;
conception, Vorstellung [G.], excogitation^, a fine frenzy;
cloudland^, dreamland; flight of fancy, fumes of fancy; thick coming
fancies [Macbeth]; creation of the brain, coinage of the brain;
conceit, maggot, figment, myth, dream, vision, shadow, chimera;
phantasm, phantasy; fantasy, fancy; whim, whimsey^, whimsy; vagary,
rhapsody, romance, gest^, geste^, extravaganza; air drawn dagger,
bugbear, nightmare.
flying Dutchman, great sea serpent, man in the moon, castle in the
air, pipe dream, pie-in-the-sky, chateau en Espagne [Fr.]; Utopia,
Atlantis^, happy valley, millennium, fairyland; land of Prester John,
kindgom of Micomicon; work of fiction &c (novel) 594; Arabian nights^;
le pot au lait [Fr.]; dream of Alnashar &c (hope) 858 [Obs.].
illusion &c (error) 495; phantom &c (fallacy of vision) 443; Fata
Morgana &c (ignis fatuus) 423 [Lat.]; vapor &c (cloud) 353; stretch of
the imagination &c (exaggeration) 549; mythogenesis^.
idealist, romanticist, visionary; mopus^; romancer, dreamer;
somnambulist; rhapsodist &c (fanatic) 504; castle-buildier, fanciful
V. imagine, fancy, conceive; idealize, realize; dream, dream of, dream
up; give to airy nothing a local habitation and a name [Midsummer
Night's Dream].
create, originate, devise, invent, coin, fabricate; improvise,
strike out something new.
set one's wits to work; strain one's invention, crack one's
invention; rack one's brains, ransack one's brains, cudgel one's
brains; excogitate^; brainstorm.
give play, give the reins, give a loose to the imagination, give
fancy; indulge in reverie.
visualize, envision, conjure up a vision; fancy oneself, represent
oneself, picture, picture-oneself, figure to oneself; vorstellen [G.].
float in the mind; suggest itself &c (thought) 451.
Adj. imagined &c v.; ben trovato [It]; air drawn, airbuilt^.
imagining &c v., imaginative; original, inventive, creative,
romantic, high flown, flighty, extravagant, fanatic, enthusiastic,
unrealistic, Utopian, Quixotic.
ideal, unreal; in the clouds, in nubibus [Lat.]; unsubsantial^ &c
4; illusory &c (fallacious) 495.
fabulous, legendary; mythical, mythic, mythological; chimerical;
imaginary, visionary; notional; fancy, fanciful, fantastic,
fantastical^; whimsical; fairy, fairy-like; gestic^.
Phr. a change came o'er the spirit of my dream [Byron]; aegri somnia
vana [Lat.]; dolphinum appingit sylvis in fluctibus aprum [Horace];
fancy light from fancy caught [Tennyson]; imagination rules the world
[Napoleon]; l'imagination gallope [Fr.], le jugement ne va que le pas
[Fr.]; musaeo contingens cuncta lepore [Lat.] [Lucretius]; tous songes
sont mensonges [Fr.]; Wahrheil und Dichtung [G.].


516. [Idea to be conveyed.] Meaning [Thing signified.] -- N. meaning;
signification, significance; sense, expression; import, purport; force;
drift, tenor, spirit, bearing, coloring; scope.
[important part of the meaning] substance; gist, essence, marrow,
spirit &c 5.
matter; subject, subject matter; argument, text, sum and
general meaning, broad meaning, substantial meaning, colloquial
meaning, literal meaning, plain meaning, simple meaning, natural
meaning, unstrained meaning, true meaning, &c (exact) 494 honest
meaning, &c 543 prima facie meaning [Lat.]; &c (manifest) 525.
letter of the law.
literally; after acceptation.
synonym; implication, allusion &c (latency) 526; suggestion &c
(information) 527; figure of speech &c 521; acceptation &c
(interpretation) 522.
V. mean, signify, express; import, purport; convey, imply, breathe,
indicate, bespeak, bear a sense; tell of, speak of; touch on; point to,
allude to; drive at; involve &c (latency) 526; declare &c (affirm) 535.
understand by &c (interpret) 522.
Adj. meaning &c v.; expressive, suggestive, allusive; significant,
significative^, significatory^; pithy; full of meaning, pregnant with
declaratory &c 535; intelligible &c 518; literal; synonymous;
tantamount &c (equivalent) 27; implied &c (latent) 526; explicit &c
Adv. to that effect; that is to say &c (being interpreted) 522.

517. [Absence of meaning.] Unmeaningness -- N. meaninglessness,
unmeaningness &c adj.^; scrabble.
empty sound, dead letter, vox et praeterea nihil [Lat.]; a tale
told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing; sounding
brass and a tinkling cymbal.
nonsense, utter nonsense, gibberish; jargon, jabber, mere words,
hocus-pocus, fustian, rant, bombast, balderdash, palaver, flummery,
verbiage, babble, baverdage, baragouin^, platitude, niaiserie^; inanity;
flap-doodle; rigmarole, rodomontade; truism; nugae canorae [Lat.];
twaddle, twattle, fudge, trash, garbage, humbug; poppy-cock [U.S.];
stuff, stuff and nonsense; bosh, rubbish, moonshine, wish-wash, fiddle-
faddle; absurdity &c 497; vagueness &c (unintelligibility) 519.
[routine or reflexive statements without substantive thought, esp.
legal] boilerplate, clich_.
V. mean nothing; be unmeaning &c adj.; twaddle, quibble, scrabble.
Adj. unmeaning; meaningless, senseless; nonsensical; void of sense &c
inexpressive, unexpressive; vacant; not significant &c 516;
trashy, washy, trumpery, trivial, fiddle-faddle, twaddling,
unmeant, not expressed; tacit &c (latent) 526.
inexpressible, undefinable, incommunicable.

518. Intelligibility -- N. intelligibility; clearness, explicitness &c
adj.; lucidity, comprehensibility, perspicuity; legibility, plain
speaking &c (manifestation) 525; precision &c 494; phonanta synetoisy
[Gr.]; a word to the wise.
V. be intelligible &c adj.; speak for itself, speak volumes; tell its
own tale, lie on the surface.
render intelligible &c adj.; popularize, simplify, clear up;
elucidate &c (explain) 522.
understand, comprehend, take, take in; catch, grasp, follow,
collect, master, make out; see with half an eye, see daylight, see
one's way; enter into the ideas of; come to an understanding.
Adj. intelligible; clear, clear as day, clear as noonday; lucid;
perspicuous, transpicuous^; luminous, transparent.
easily understood, easy to understand, for the million,
intelligible to the meanest capacity, popularized.
plain, distinct, explicit; positive; definite &c (precise) 494.
graphic; expressive &c (meaning) 516; illustrative &c
(explanatory) 522.
unambiguous, unequivocal, unmistakable &c (manifest) 525;
unconfused; legible, recognizable; obvious &c 525.
Adv. in plain terms, in plain words, in plain English.
Phr. he that runs may read &c (manifest) 525.

519. Unintelligibility -- N. unintelligibility; incomprehensibility,
imperspicuity^; inconceivableness, vagueness &c adj.; obscurity;
ambiguity &c 520; doubtful meaning; uncertainty &c 475; perplexity &c
(confusion) 59; spinosity^; obscurum per obscurius [Lat.]; mystification
&c (concealment) 528; latency &c 526; transcendentalism.
paradox, oxymoron; riddle, enigma, puzzle &c (secret) 533; diagnus
vindice nodus [Lat.]; sealed book; steganography^, freemasonry.
pons asinorum [Lat.], asses' bridge; high Dutch, Greek, Hebrew;
jargon &c (unmeaning) 517.
V. be unintelligible &c adj.; require explanation &c 522; have a
doubtful meaning, pass comprehension.
render unintelligible &c adj.; conceal &c 528; darken &c 421;
confuse &c (derange) 61; perplex &c (bewilder) 475.
not understand &c 518; lose, lose the clue; miss; not know what to
make of, be able to make nothing of, give it up; not be able to account
for, not be able to make either head or tail of; be at sea &c
(uncertain) 475; wonder &c 870; see through a glass darkly &c
(ignorance) 491.
not understand one another; play at cross purposes &c
(misinterpret) 523.
Adj. unintelligible, unaccountable, undecipherable, undiscoverable,
unknowable, unfathomable; incognizable^, inexplicable, inscrutable;
inapprehensible^, incomprehensible; insolvable^, insoluble;
illegible, as Greek to one, unexplained, paradoxical; enigmatic,
enigmatical, puzzling (secret) 533; indecipherable.
obscure, dark, muddy, clear as mud, seen through a mist, dim,
nebulous, shrouded in mystery; opaque, dense; undiscernible &c
(invisible) 447 [Obs.]; misty &c (opaque) 426; hidden &c 528; latent &c
indefinite, garbled &c (indistinct) 447; perplexed &c (confused)
59; undetermined, vague, loose, ambiguous; mysterious; mystic,
mystical; acroamatic^, acroamatical^; metempirical; transcendental;
occult, recondite, abstruse, crabbed.
inconceivable, inconceptible^; searchless^; above comprehension,
beyond comprehension, past comprehension; beyond one's depth;
inexpressible, undefinable, incommunicable.
unpredictable, unforeseeable.
Phr. it's Greek to me.

520. [Having a double sense] Equivocalness -- N. equivocalness &c adj.;
double meaning &c 516; ambiguity, double entente, double entendre
[Fr.], pun, paragram^, calembour^, quibble, equivoque [Fr.], anagram;
conundrum &c (riddle) 533; play on words, word play &c (wit) 842;
homonym, homonymy [Gramm.]; amphiboly^, amphibology^; ambilogy^,
Sphinx, Delphic oracle.
equivocation &c (duplicity) 544; white lie, mental reservation &c
(concealment) 528; paltering.
V. be equivocal &c adj.; have two meanings &c 516; equivocate &c
(alter) 544.
Adj. equivocal, ambiguous, amphibolous^, homonymous^; double-tongued &c
(lying) 544; enigmatical, indeterminate.
Phr. on the one hand, on the other hand.

521. Metaphor -- N. figure of speech; facon de parler [Fr.], way of
speaking, colloquialism.
phrase &c 566; figure, trope, metaphor, enallage^, catachresis^;
metonymy [Gramm.], synecdoche [Sem.]; autonomasia^, irony,
figurativeness &c adj.; image, imagery; metalepsis^, type, anagoge^,
simile, personification, prosopopoeia^, allegory, apologue^, parable,
fable; allusion, adumbration; application.
exaggeration, hyperbole &c 549.
association, association of ideas (analogy) 514.1
V. employ a metaphor &c n.; personify, allegorize, adumbrate, shadow
forth, apply, allude to.
Adj. metaphorical, figurative, catachrestical^, typical, tralatitious^,
parabolic, allegorical, allusive, anagogical^; ironical; colloquial;
Adv. so to speak, so to say, so to express oneself; as it were.
Phr. mutato nomine de te fabula narratur [Lat.] [Horace].

522. Interpretation -- N. interpretation, definition; explanation,
explication; solution, answer; rationale; plain interpretation, simple
interpretation, strict interpretation; meaning &c 516.
translation; rendering, rendition; redition^; literal translation,
free translation; key; secret; clew &c (indication) 550; clavis^, crib,
pony, trot [U.S.].
exegesis; expounding, exposition; hermeneutics; comment,
commentary; inference &c (deduction) 480; illustration,
exemplification; gloss, annotation, scholium^, note; elucidation,
dilucidation^; eclaircissement [Fr.], mot d'enigme [Fr.].
[methods of interpreting - list] symptomatology [Med.], semiology,
semeiology^, semiotics; metoposcopy^, physiognomy; paleography &c
(philology) 560; oneirology acception^, acceptation, acceptance; light,
reading, lection, construction, version.
equivalent, equivalent meaning &c 516; synonym; paraphrase,
metaphrase^; convertible terms, apposition; dictionary &c 562; polyglot.
V. interpret, explain, define, construe, translate, render; do into,
turn into; transfuse the sense of.
find out &c 480.1 the meaning of, &c 516 read; spell out, make
out; decipher, unravel, disentangle; find the key of, enucleate,
resolve, solve; read between the lines.
account for; find the cause, tell the cause of &c 153; throw light
upon, shed light upon, shed new light upon, shed fresh light upon;
clear up, clarify, elucidate.
illustrate, exemplify; unfold, expound, comment upon, annotate;
popularize &c (render intelligible) 518.
take in a particular sense, understand in a particular sense,
receive in a particular sense, accept in a particular sense; understand
by, put a construction on, be given to understand.
Adj. explanatory, expository; explicative, explicatory; exegetical^;
polyglot; literal; paraphrastic, metaphrastic^; consignificative^,
synonymous; equivalent &c 27.
Adv. in explanation &c n.; that is to say, id est, videlicet, to wit,
namely, in other words.
literally, strictly speaking; in plain, in plainer terms, in
plainer words, in plainer English; more simply.

523. Misinterpretation -- N. misinterpretation, misapprehension,
misunderstanding, misacceptation^, misconstruction, misapplication;
catachresis^; eisegesis^; cross-reading, cross-purposes; mistake &c 495.
misrepresentation, perversion, exaggeration &c 549; false
coloring, false construction; abuse of terms; parody, travesty;
falsification &c (lying) 544.
V. misinterpret, misapprehend, misunderstand, misconceive, misspell,
mistranslate, misconstrue, misapply; mistake &c 495.
misrepresent, pervert; explain wrongly, misstate; garble &c
(falsify) 544; distort, detort^; travesty, play upon words; stretch the
sense, strain the sense, stretch the meaning, strain the meaning, wrest
the sense, wrest the meaning; explain away; put a bad construction on,
put a false construction on; give a false coloring.
be at cross purposes, play at cross purposes.
Adj. misinterpreted &c v.; untranslated, untranslatable.

524. Interpreter -- N. interpreter; expositor, expounder, exponent,
explainer; demonstrator.
scholiast, commentator, annotator; metaphrast^, paraphrast^;
glossarist^, prolocutor.
spokesman, speaker, mouthpiece.
dragoman, courier, valet de place, cicerone, showman;
oneirocritic^; (Edipus; oracle) &c 513


525. Manifestation -- N. {ant.
526} manifestation; plainness &c adj.; plain speaking; expression;
showing &c v.; exposition, demonstration; exhibition, production;
display, show; showing off; premonstration^.
exhibit [Thing shown].
indication &c (calling attention to) 457.
publicity &c 531; disclosure &c 529; openness &c (honesty) 543,
(artlessness) 703; panchement.
evidence &c 467.
V. make manifest, render manifest &c adj.; bring forth, bring forward,
bring to the front, bring into view; give notice; express; represent,
set forth, exhibit; show, show up; expose; produce; hold up to view,
expose to view; set before one, place before one, lay before one, one's
eyes; tell to one's face; trot out, put through one's paces, bring to
light, display, demonstrate, unroll; lay open; draw out, bring out;
bring out in strong relief; call into notice, bring into notice; hold
up the mirror; wear one's heart upon his sleeve; show one's face, show
one's colors; manifest oneself; speak out; make no mystery, make no
secret of; unfurl the flag; proclaim &c (publish) 531.
indicate &c (direct attention to) 457; disclose &c 529; elicit &c
be manifest &c adj.; appear &c (be visible) 446; transpire &c (be
disclosed) 529; speak for itself, stand to reason; stare one in the
face, rear its head; give token, give sign, give indication of; tell
its own tale &c (intelligible) 518.
Adj. manifest, apparent; salient, striking, demonstrative, prominent,
in the foreground, notable, pronounced.
flagrant; notorious &c (public) 531; arrant; stark staring;
unshaded, glaring.
defined, definite.
distinct, conspicuous &c (visible) 446; obvious, evident,
unmistakable, indubitable, not to be mistaken, palpable, self-evident,
autoptical^; intelligible &c 518.
plain, clear, clear as day, clear as daylight, clear as noonday;
plain as a pike staff, plain as the sun at noon-day, plain as the nose
on one's face, plain as the way to parish church.
explicit, overt, patent, express; ostensible; open, open as day;
naked, bare, literal, downright, undisguised, exoteric.
unreserved, frank, plain-spoken &c (artless) 703; candid
(veracious) 543; barefaced.
manifested &c v.; disclosed &c 529; capable of being shown,
producible; inconcealable^, unconcealable; no secret.
Adv. manifestly, openly &c adj.; before one's eyes, under one's nose,
to one's face, face to face, above board, cartes sur table, on the
stage, in open court, in the open streets; in market overt; in the face
of day, face of heaven; in broad daylight, in open daylight; without
reserve; at first blush, prima facie [Lat.], on the face of; in set
Phr. cela saute aux yeux [Fr.]; he that runs may read; you can see it
with half an eye; it needs no ghost to tell us [Hamlet]; the meaning
lies on the surface; cela va sans dire [Fr.]; res ipsa loquitur [Lat.];
clothing the palpable and familiar [Coleridge]; fari quae sentiat
[Lat.]; volto sciolto i pensieri stretti [It]; you don't need a
weatherman to know which way the wind blows [Bob Dylan].

526. Latency. Implication -- N. {ant.
525} latency, inexpression^; hidden meaning, occult meaning;
occultness, mystery, cabala^, anagoge^; silence &c (taciturnity) 585;
concealment &c 528; more than meets the eye, more than meets the ear;
Delphic oracle; le dessous des cartes [Fr.], undercurrent.
implication, logical implication; logical consequence; entailment.
allusion, insinuation; innuendo &c 527; adumbration; something
rotten in the state of Denmark [Hamlet].
snake in the grass &c (pitfall) 667; secret &c 533.
darkness, invisibility, imperceptibility.
V. be latent &c adj.; lurk, smolder, underlie, make no sign; escape
observation, escape detection, escape recognition; lie hid &c 528.
laugh in one's sleeve; keep back &c (conceal) 528.
involve, imply, understand, allude to, infer, leave an inference;
entail; whisper &c (conceal) 528.
[understand the implication] read between the lines.
Adj. latent; lurking &c v.; secret &c 528; occult; implied &c v.;
dormant; abeyant.
unapparent, unknown, unseen &c 441; in the background; invisible
&c 447; indiscoverable^, dark; impenetrable &c (unintelligible) 519;
unspied^, unsuspected.
unsaid, unwritten, unpublished, unbreathed^, untalked of^, untold
&c 527, unsung, unexposed, unproclaimed^, undisclosed &c 529,
unexpressed; not expressed, tacit.
undeveloped, solved, unexplained, untraced^, undiscovered &c 480.1,
untracked, unexplored, uninvented^.
indirect, crooked, inferential; by inference, by implication;
implicit; constructive; allusive, covert, muffled; steganographic^;
understood, underhand, underground; delitescent^, concealed &c 528.
Adv. by a side wind; sub silentio [Lat.]; in the background; behind the
scenes, behind one's back; on the tip of one's tongue; secretly &c 528;
between the lines.
Phr. thereby hangs a tale [As You Like It]; tacitum vivit sub pectore
vulnus [Lat.] [Vergil]; where there's smoke, there's fire.

527. Information -- N. information, enlightenment, acquaintance,
knowledge &c 490; publicity &c 531; data &c 467.
communication, intimation; notice, notification; enunciation,
annunciation; announcement; communiqu_e; representation, round robin,
case, estimate, specification, report, advice, monition; news &c
532; return &c (record) 551; account &c (description) 594; statement &c
(affirmation) 535.
mention; acquainting &c v.; instruction &c (teaching) 537;
outpouring; intercommunication, communicativeness.
informant, authority, teller, intelligencer^, reporter, exponent,
mouthpiece; informer, eavesdropper, delator, detective; sleuth;
mouchard^, spy, newsmonger; messenger &c 534; amicus curiae [Lat.].
valet de place, cicerone, pilot, guide; guidebook, handbook; vade
mecum [Lat.]; manual; map, plan, chart, gazetteer; itinerary &c
(journey) 266.
hint, suggestion, innuendo, inkling, whisper, passing word, word
in the ear, subaudition^, cue, byplay; gesture &c (indication) 550;
gentle hint, broad hint; verbum sapienti [Lat.], a word to the wise;
insinuation &c (latency) 526.
information theory.
[units of information] bit, byte, word, doubleword [Comp.], quad
word, paragraph, segment.
[information storage media] magnetic media, paper medium, optical
media; random access memory, RAM; read-only memory, ROM; write once
read mostly memory, WORM.
V. tell; inform, inform of; acquaint, acquaint with; impart, impart to;
make acquaintance with, apprise, advise, enlighten, awaken; transmit.
let fall, mention, express, intimate, represent, communicate, make
known; publish &c 531; notify, signify, specify, convey the knowledge
let one know, have one to know; give one to understand; give
notice; set before, lay before, put before; point out, put into one's
head; put one in possession of; instruct &c (teach) 537; direct the
attention to &c 457.
announce, annunciate; report, report progress; bringword^, send
word, leave word, write word; telegraph, telephone; wire; retail,
render an account; give an account &c (describe) 594; state &c (affirm)
[disclose inadvertently or reluctantly] let slip, blurt out, spill
the beans, unburden oneself of, let off one's chest; disclose &c 529.
show cause; explain &c (interpret) 522.
hint; given an inkling of; give a hint, drop a hint, throw out a
hint; insinuate; allude to, make allusion to; glance at; tip the wink
&c (indicate) 550; suggest, prompt, give the cue, breathe; whisper,
whisper in the ear.
give a bit of one's mind; tell one plainly, tell once for all;
speak volumes.
undeceive^, unbeguile^; set right, correct, open the eyes of,
disabuse, disillusion one of.
be informed of &c; know &c 490; learn &c 539; get scent of, get
wind of, gather from; awaken to, open one's eyes to; become alive,
become awake to; hear, overhear, understand.
come to one's ears, come to one's knowledge; reach one's ears.
Adj. informed &c v.; communique; reported &c v.; published &c 531.
expressive &c 516; explicit &c (open) 525, (clear) 518; plain
spoken &c, (artless) 703.
nuncupative, nuncupatory^; declaratory, expository; enunciative^;
communicative, communicatory^.
Adv. from information received.
Phr. a little bird told me; I heard it through the grapevine.

527a. Correction [Correct an error of information; distinguish from
correcting a flaw or misbehavior] -- N. correction.
disillusionment &c 616.
V. correct, set right, set straight, put straight; undeceive^;
show one one's error; point out an error, point out a fallacy;
pick out an error, pick out the fallacy; open one's eyes.
pick apart an argument, confutation &c 479; reasoning &c 476.
Adj. corrective.
Phr. I stand corrected.

528. Concealment -- N. concealment; hiding &c v.; occultation,
seal of secrecy; screen &c 530; disguise &c 530; masquerade;
masked battery; hiding place &c 530; cryptography, steganography^;
stealth, stealthiness, sneakiness; obreption^; slyness &c (cunning)
latitancy^, latitation^; seclusion &c 893; privacy, secrecy,
secretness^; incognita.
reticence; reserve; mental reserve, reservation; arriere pensee
[Fr.], suppression, evasion, white lie, misprision; silence &c
(taciturnity) 585; suppression of truth &c 544; underhand dealing;
closeness, secretiveness &c adj.; mystery.
latency &c 526; snake in the grass; secret &c 533; stowaway.
V. conceal, hide, secrete, put out of sight; lock up, seal up, bottle
encrypt, encode, cipher.
cover, screen, cloak, veil, shroud; cover up one's tracks; screen
from sight, screen from observation; drawing the veil; draw the
curtain, close the curtain; curtain, shade, eclipse, throw a view over;
be cloud, be mask; mask, disguise; ensconce, muffle, smother; befog;
keep from; keep back, keep to oneself; keep snug, keep close, keep
secret, keep dark; bury; sink, suppress; keep from, keep from out of
view, keep from out of sight; keep in the shade, throw into the shade,
throw into background; stifle, hush up, smother, withhold, reserve;
fence with a question; ignore &c 460.
keep a secret, keep one's own counsel; hold one's tongue &c
(silence) 585; make no sign, not let it go further; not breathe a word,
not breathe a syllable about; not let the right hand know what the left
is doing; hide one's light under a bushel, bury one's talent in a
keep in the dark, leave in the dark, keep in the ignorance; blind,
blind the eyes; blindfold, hoodwink, mystify; puzzle &c (render
uncertain) 475; bamboozle &c (deceive) 545.
be concealed &c v.; suffer an eclipse; retire from sight, couch;
hide oneself; lie hid, lie in perdu [Fr.], lie in close; lie in ambush
(ambush) 530; seclude oneself &c 893; lurk, sneak, skulk, slink, prowl;
steal into, steal out of, steal by, steal along; play at bopeep^, play
at hide and seek; hide in holes and corners; still hunt.
Adj. concealed &c v.; hidden; secret, recondite, mystic, cabalistic,
occult, dark; cryptic, cryptical^; private, privy, in petto, auricular,
clandestine, close, inviolate; tortuous.
behind a screen &c 530; undercover, under an eclipse; in ambush,
in hiding, in disguise; in a cloud, in a fog, in a mist, in a haze, in
a dark corner; in the shade, in the dark; clouded, wrapped in clouds,
wrapt in clouds^; invisible &c 447; buried, underground, perdu [Fr.];
secluded &c 893.
undisclosed &c 529, untold &c 527; covert &c (latent) 526;
untraceable; mysterious &c (unintelligible) 519.
irrevealable^, inviolable; confidential; esoteric; not to be spoken
of; unmentionable.
obreptitious^, furtive, stealthy, feline; skulking &c v.;
surreptitious, underhand, hole and corner; sly &c (cunning) 702;
secretive, evasive; reserved, reticent, uncommunicative, buttoned up;
close, close as wax; taciturn &c 585.
Adv. secretly &c adj.; in secret, in private, in one's sleeve, in holes
and corners; in the dark &c adj.. januis clausis [Lat.], with closed
doors, a huis clos [Fr.]; hugger mugger, a la derobee [Fr.]; under the
cloak of, under the rose, under the table; sub rosa [Lat.], en tapinois
[Fr.], in the background, aside, on the sly, with bated breath, sotto
voce [Lat.], in a whisper, without beat of drum, a la sourdine^.
behind the veil; beyond mortal ken, beyond the grave, beyond the
veil; hid from mortal vision; into the eternal secret, into the realms
supersensible^, into the supreme mystery.
in confidence, in strict confidence, in strictest confidence;
confidentially &c adj.; between ourselves, between you and me; between
you and me and the bedpost; entre nous [Fr.], inter nos, under the seal
of secrecy; a couvert [Fr.].
underhand, by stealth, like a thief in the night; stealthily &c
adj.; behind the scenes, behind the curtain, behind one's back, behind
a screen &c 530; incognito; in camera.
Phr. it must go no further, it will go no further; don't tell a soul;
tell it not in Gath, nobody the wiser; alitur vitium vivitque tegendo
[Lat.]; let it be tenable in your silence still [Hamlet].
[confidential disclosure to news reporters] background
information, deep background information, deep background; background
session, backgrounder; not for attribution

529. Disclosure -- N. disclosure; retection^; unveiling &c v.;
deterration^, revealment, revelation; exposition, exposure; expose;
whole truth; telltale &c (news) 532.
acknowledgment, avowal; confession, confessional; shrift.
bursting of a bubble; denouement.
[person who discloses a secret] tattletale, snitch, fink, stool
pigeon, canary.
V. disclose, discover, dismask^; draw the veil, draw aside the veil,
lift the veil, raise the veil, lift up the veil, remove the veil, tear
aside the veil, tear the curtain; unmask, unveil, unfold, uncover,
unseal, unkennel; take off the seal, break the seal; lay open, lay
bare; expose; open, open up; bare, bring to light.
divulge, reveal, break; squeal [Coll.], tattle [Coll.], sing
[Coll.], rat [Coll.], snitch [Coll.]; let into the secret; reveal the
secrets of the prison house; tell &c (inform) 527; breathe, utter,
blab, peach; let out, let fall, let drop, let slip, spill the beans,
let the cat out of the bag; betray; tell tales, come out of school;
come out with; give vent, give utterance to; open the lips, blurt out,
vent, whisper about; speak out &c (make manifest) 525; make public &c
531; unriddle &c (find out) 480.1; split.
acknowledge, allow, concede, grant, admit, own, own up to,
confess, avow, throw off all disguise, turn inside out, make a clean
breast; show one's hand, show one's cards; unburden one's mind,
disburden one's mind, disburden one's conscience, disburden one's
heart; open one's mind, lay bare one's mind, tell a piece of one's mind
[Fr.]; unbosom oneself, own to the soft impeachment; say the truth,
speak the truth; turn King's evidence, Queen's evidence; acknowledge
the corn [U.S.].
raise the mask, drop the mask, lift the mask, remove the mask,
throw off the mask; expose; lay open; undeceive^, unbeguile^; disabuse,
set right, correct, open the eyes of; d_esillusionner.
be disclosed &c; transpire, come to light; come in sight &c (be
visible) 446; become known, escape the lips; come out, ooze out, creep
out, leak out, peep out, crop-out; show its face, show its colors;
discover itself &c; break through the clouds, flash on the mind.
Adj. disclosed &c v.; open, public &c 525.
Int. out with it!,
Phr. the murder is out; a light breaks in upon one; the scales fall
from one's eyes; the eyes are opened.

530. Ambush [Means of concealment]. -- N. camouflage; mimicry; hiding
place; secret place, secret drawer; recess, hold, holes and corners;
closet, crypt, adytum^, abditory^, oubliette.
ambush, ambuscade; stalking horse; lurking hole, lurking place;
secret path, back stairs; retreat &c (refuge) 666.
screen, cover, shade, blinker; veil, curtain, blind, cloak, cloud.
mask, visor, vizor^, disguise, masquerade dress, domino.
pitfall &c (source of danger) 667; trap &c (snare) 545.
V. blend in, blend into the background.
lie in ambush &c (hide oneself) 528; lie in wait for, lurk; set a
trap for &c (deceive) 545; ambuscade, ambush.
Adj. camouflaged, hidden, concealed.
Adv. aux aguets^.

531. Publication -- N. publication; public announcement &c 527;
promulgation, propagation, proclamation, pronunziamento [It];
circulation, indiction^, edition; hue and cry.
publicity, notoriety, currency, flagrancy, cry, bruit, hype; vox
populi; report &c (news) 532.
the Press, public press, newspaper, journal, gazette, daily;
telegraphy; publisher &c v.; imprint.
circular, circular letter; manifesto, advertisement, ad., placard,
bill, affiche^, broadside, poster; notice &c 527.
V. publish; make public, make known &c (information) 527; speak of,
talk of; broach, utter; put forward; circulate, propagate, promulgate;
spread, spread abroad; rumor, diffuse, disseminate, evulugate; put
forth, give forth, send forth; emit, edit, get out; issue; bring before
the public, lay before the public, drag before the public; give out,
give to the world; put about, bandy about, hawk about, buzz about,
whisper about, bruit about, blaze about; drag into the open day; voice.
proclaim, herald, blazon; blaze abroad, noise abroad; sound a
trumpet; trumpet forth, thunder forth; give tongue; announce with beat
of drum, announce with flourish of trumpets; proclaim from the
housetops, proclaim at Charing Cross.
advertise, placard; post, post up afficher^, publish in the
Gazette, send round the crier.
raise a cry, raise a hue and cry, raise a report; set news afloat.
be published &c; be public, become public &c adj.; come out; go
about, fly about, buzz about, blow about; get about, get abroad, get
afloat, get wind; find vent; see the light; go forth, take air, acquire
currency, pass current; go the rounds, go the round of the newspapers,
go through the length and breadth of the land; virum volitare per ora
[Lat.]; pass from mouth to mouth; spread; run like wildfire, spread
like wildfire.
Adj. published &c v.; current &c (news) 532; in circulation, public;
notorious; flagrant, arrant; open &c 525; trumpet-tongued; encyclical,
encyclic^, promulgatory^; exoteric.
Adv. publicly &c adj.; in open court, with open doors.
Int. Oyez!, O yes!, notice!,
Phr. notice is hereby given; this is to give, these are to give notice;
nomina stultorum parietibus haerent [Lat.]; semel emissum volat
irrevocabile verbum [Lat.].

532. News -- N. news; information &c 527; piece of news [Fr.], budget
of news, budget of information; intelligence, tidings.
word, advice, aviso [Sp.], message; dispatch, despatch; telegram,
cable, marconigram^, wire, communication, errand, embassy.
report, rumor, hearsay, on dit [Fr.], flying rumor, news stirring,
cry, buzz, bruit, fame; talk, oui dire [Fr.], scandal, eavesdropping;
town tattle, table talk; tittle tattle; canard, topic of the day, idea
bulletin, fresh news, stirring news; glad tidings; flash, news
just in; on-the-spot coverage; live coverage.
old story, old news, stale news, stale story; chestnut [Slang].
narrator &c (describe) 594; newsmonger, scandalmonger; talebearer,
telltale, gossip, tattler.
[study of news reporting] journalism.
[methods of conveying news] media, news media, the press, the
information industry; newspaper, magazine, tract, journal, gazette,
publication &c 531; radio, television, ticker (electronic information
[organizations producing news reports] [methods of conveying news]
United Press International, UPI; Associated Press, AP; The Dow Jones
News Service, DJ; The New York Times News Service, NYT; Reuters
[Brit.]; TASS [Rus.]; The Nikkei [Jap.].
[person reporting news as a profession] newscaster, newsman,
newswoman, reporter, journalist, correspondent, foreign correspondent,
special correspondent, war correspondent, news team, news department;
anchorman, anchorwoman^; sportscaster; weatherman.
[officials providing news for an organization] press secretary,
public relations department, public relations man.
V. transpire &c (be disclosed) 529; rumor &c (publish) 531.
Adj. many-tongued; rumored; publicly rumored, currently rumored,
currently reported; rife, current, floating, afloat, going about, in
circulation, in every one's mouth, all over the town.
in progress; live; on the spot; in person.
Adv. as the story goes, as the story runs; as they say, it is said; by
telegraph, by wireless.
Phr. airy tongues that syllable men's names [Milton]; what's up?;
what's the latest?; what's new?; what's the latest poop?.

533. Secret -- N. secret; dead secret, profound secret; arcanum^,
mystery; latency &c 526; Asian mystery^; sealed book, secrets of the
prison house; le desous des cartes [Fr.].
enigma, riddle, puzzle, nut to crack, conundrum, charade, rebus,
logogriph^; monogram, anagram; Sphinx; crux criticorum [Lat.].
maze, labyrinth, Hyrcynian wood; intricacy, meander.
problem &c (question) 461; paradox &c (difficulty) 704;
unintelligibility &c 519; terra incognita &c (ignorance) 491.
Adj. secret &c (concealed) 528; involved &c, 248; labyrinthine,
labyrinthian^, mazy.
confidential; top secret.

534. Messenger -- N. messenger, envoy, emissary, legate; nuncio,
internuncio^; ambassador &c (diplomatist) 758.
marshal, flag bearer, herald, crier, trumpeter, bellman^,
pursuivant^, parlementaire [Fr.], apparitor^.
courier, runner; dak^, estafette^; Mercury, Iris, Ariel^.
commissionaire [Fr.]; errand boy, chore boy; newsboy.
mail, overnight mail, express mail, next-day delivery; post, post
office; letter bag; delivery service; United Parcel Service, UPS;
Federal Express, Fedex.
telegraph, telephone; cable, wire (electronic information
transmission); carrier pigeon.
[person reporting news] (news) 532 reporter, gentleman of the
press, representative of the press; penny-a-liner; special
correspondent, own correspondent; spy, scout; informer &c 527.

535. Affirmation -- N. affirmance, affirmation; statement, allegation,
assertion, predication, declaration, word, averment; confirmation.
asseveration, adjuration, swearing, oath, affidavit; deposition &c
(record) 551; avouchment; assurance; protest, protestation; profession;
acknowledgment &c (assent) 488; legal pledge, pronouncement; solemn
averment, solemn avowal, solemn declaration.
remark, observation; position &c (proposition) 514, saying,
dictum, sentence, ipse dixit [Lat.].
emphasis; weight; dogmatism &c (certainty) 474; dogmatics &c 887.
V. assert; make an assertion &c n.; have one's say; say, affirm,
predicate, declare, state; protest, profess.
put forth, put forward; advance, allege, propose, propound,
enunciate, broach, set forth, hold out, maintain, contend, pronounce,
depose, depone, aver, avow, avouch, asseverate, swear; make oath,
take one's oath; make an affidavit, swear an affidavit, put in an
affidavit; take one's Bible oath, kiss the book, vow, vitam impendere
vero [Lat.]; swear till one is black in the face, swear till one is
blue in the face, swear till all's blue; be sworn, call Heaven to
witness; vouch, warrant, certify, assure, swear by bell book and
swear by &c (believe) 484; insist upon, take one's stand upon;
emphasize, lay stress on; assert roundly, assert positively; lay down,
lay down the law; raise one's voice, dogmatize, have the last word; rap
out; repeat; reassert, reaffirm.
announce &c (information) 527; acknowledge &c (assent) 488; attest
&c (evidence) 467; adjure &c (put to one's oath) 768.
Adj. asserting &c v.; declaratory, predicatory^, pronunciative^,
affirmative, soi-disant [Fr.]; positive; certain &c 474; express,
explicit &c (patent) 525; absolute, emphatic, flat, broad, round,
pointed, marked, distinct, decided, confident, trenchant, dogmatic,
definitive, formal, solemn, categorical, peremptory; unretracted^;
Adv. affirmatively &c adj.; in the affirmative.
with emphasis, ex-cathedra, without fear of contradiction.
as God is my witness, I must say, indeed, i' faith, let me tell
you, why, give me leave to say, marry, you may be sure, I'd have you to
know; upon my word, upon my honor; by my troth, egad, I assure you; by
jingo, by Jove, by George, &c; troth, seriously, sadly; in sadness, in
sober sadness, in truth, in earnest; of a truth, truly, perdy^, in all
conscience, upon oath; be assured &c (belief) 484; yes &c (assent) 488;
I'll warrant, I'll warrant you, I'll engage, I'll answer for it, I'll
be bound, I'll venture to say, I'll take my oath; in fact, forsooth,
joking apart; so help me God; not to mince the matter.
Phr. quoth he; dixi [Lat.].

536. Negation -- N. negation, abnegation; denial; disavowal,
disclaimer; abjuration; contradiction, contravention; recusation [Law],
protest; recusancy &c (dissent) 489; flat contradiction, emphatic
contradiction, emphatic denial, dementi [Lat.].
qualification &c 469; repudiation &c 610; retraction &c 607;
confutation &c 479; refusal &c 764; prohibition &c 761.
V. deny; contradict, contravene; controvert, give denial to, gainsay,
negative, shake the head.
disown, disaffirm, disclaim, disavow; recant &c 607; revoke &c
(abrogate) 756.
dispute; impugn, traverse, rebut, join issue upon; bring in
question, call in question &c (doubt) 485; give the lie in his throat,
give one the lie in his throat.
deny flatly, deny peremptorily, deny emphatically, deny
absolutely, deny wholly, deny entirely; give the lie to, belie.
repudiate &c 610; set aside, ignore &c 460; rebut &c (confute)
479; qualify &c 469; refuse &c 764.
recuse [Law].
Adj. denying &c v.; denied &c v.; contradictory; negative, negatory;
recusant &c (dissenting) 489; at issue upon.
Adv. no, nay, not, nowise; not a bit, not a whit, not a jot; not at
all, nohow, not in the least, not so; negative, negatory; no way
[Coll.]; no such thing; nothing of the kind, nothing of the sort; quite
the contrary, tout au contraire [Fr.], far from it; tant s'en faut
[Fr.]; on no account, in no respect; by no, by no manner of means;
[negative with respect to time] never, never in a million years;
at no time.
Phr. there never was a greater mistake; I know better; non haec in
faedera [Lat.]; a thousand times no.

537. Teaching -- N. teaching &c v.; instruction; edification;
education; tuition; tutorage, tutelage; direction, guidance; opsimathy^.
qualification, preparation; training, schooling &c v.; discipline;
drill, practice; book exercise.
persuasion, proselytism, propagandism^, propaganda; indoctrination,
inculcation, inoculation; advise &c 695.
explanation &c (interpretation) 522; lesson, lecture, sermon;
apologue^, parable; discourse, prolection^, preachment; chalk talk;
Chautauqua [U.S.].
exercise, task; curriculum; course, course of study; grammar,
three R's, initiation, A.B.C., &c (beginning) 66.
elementary education, primary education, secondary education,
technical education, college education, collegiate education, military
education, university education, liberal education, classical
education, religious education, denominational education, moral
education, secular education; propaedeutics^, moral tuition.
gymnastics, calisthenics; physical drill, physical education;
[methods of teaching] phonics; rote, rote memorization, brute
memory; cooperative learning; Montessori method, ungraded classes.
[measuring degree of learning of pupils] test, examination, exam;
final exam, mid-term exam grade [result of measurement of learning],
score, marks; A,B,C,D,E,F; gentleman's C; pass, fail, incomplete.
homework; take-home lesson; exercise for the student; theme,
V. teach, instruct, educate, edify, school, tutor; cram, prime, coach;
enlighten &c (inform) 527.
inculcate, indoctrinate, inoculate, infuse, instill, infix,
ingraft^, infiltrate; imbue, impregnate, implant; graft, sow the seeds
of, disseminate.
given an idea of; put up to, put in the way of; set right.
sharpen the wits, enlarge the mind; give new ideas, open the eyes,
bring forward, teach the young idea how to shoot [Thomson]; improve &c
expound &c (interpret) 522; lecture; read a lesson, give a lesson,
give a lecture, give a sermon, give a discourse; incept^; hold forth,
preach; sermonize, moralize; point a moral.
train, discipline; bring up, bring up to; form, ground, prepare,
qualify; drill, exercise, practice, habituate, familiarize with,
nurture, drynurse^, breed, rear, take in hand; break, break in; tame;
preinstruct^; initiate; inure &c (habituate) 613.
put to nurse, send to school.
direct, guide; direct attention to &c (attention) 457; impress
upon the mind, impress upon the memory; beat into, beat into the head;
convince &c (belief) 484.
[instructional materials] book, workbook, exercise book.
[unnecessary teaching] preach to the wise, teach one's grandmother
to suck eggs, teach granny to suck eggs; preach to the converted.
Adj. teaching &c v.; taught &c v.; educational; scholastic, academic,
doctrinal; disciplinal^; instructive, instructional, didactic;
propaedeutic^, propaedeutical^.
Phr. the schoolmaster abroad; a bovi majori disscit arare minor [Lat.];
adeo in teneris consuecere multum est [Lat.] [Vergil]; docendo discimus
[Lat.]; quaenocent docent [Lat.]; qui docet discit [Lat.]; sermons in
stones and good in everything [As You Like It].

538. Misteaching -- N. misteaching^, misinformaton, misintelligence^,
misguidance, misdirection, mispersuasion^, misinstruction^, misleading
&c v.; perversion, false teaching; sophistry &c 477; college of Laputa;
the blind leading the blind.
[misteaching by government agents] propaganda, disinformation,
agitprop; indoctrination.
V. misinform, misteach^, misdescribe^, misinstruct^, miscorrect^;
misdirect, misguide; pervert; put on a false scent, throw off the
scent, throw off the trail; deceive &c 545; mislead &c (error) 495;
misrepresent; lie &c 544; ambiguas in vulgum spargere voces [Lat.]
propagandize, disinform.
render unintelligible &c 519; bewilder &c (uncertainty) 475;
mystify &c (conceal) 528; unteach.
[person or government agent who misteaches] propagandist.
Adj. misteaching &c v.; unedifying.
Phr. piscem natare doces [Lat.]; the blind leading the blind.

539. Learning -- N. learning; acquisition of knowledge &c 490,
acquisition of skill &c 698; acquirement, attainment; edification,
scholarship, erudition; acquired knowledge, lore, wide information;
self-instruction; study, reading, perusal; inquiry &c 451.
apprenticeship, prenticeship^; pupilage, pupilarity^; tutelage,
novitiate, matriculation.
docility &c (willingness) 602; aptitude &c 698.
V. learn; acquire knowledge, gain knowledge, receive knowledge, take in
knowledge, drink in knowledge, imbibe knowledge, pick up knowledge,
gather knowledge, get knowledge, obtain knowledge, collect knowledge,
glean knowledge, glean information, glean learning.
acquaint oneself with, master; make oneself master of, make
oneself acquainted with; grind, cram; get up, coach up; learn by heart,
learn by rote.
read, spell, peruse; con over, pore over, thumb over; wade
through; dip into; run the eye over, run the eye through; turn over the
study; be studious &c adj.. [study intensely] burn the midnight
oil, consume the midnight oil, mind one's book; cram.
go to school, go to college, go to the university; matriculate;
serve an apprenticeship, serve one's apprenticeship, serve one's time;
learn one's trade; be informed &c 527; be taught &c 537.
[stop going to school voluntarily (intransitive)] drop out, leave
school, quit school; graduate; transfer; take a leave.
[cause to stop going to school (transitive)] dismiss, expel, kick
out of school.
[stop going to school involuntarily] flunk out; be dismissed &c
Adj. studious; scholastic, scholarly; teachable; docile &c (willing)
602; apt &c 698, industrious &c 682.
Adv. at one's books; in statu pupillari &c (learner) 541 [Lat.].
Phr. a lumber-house of books in every head [Pope]; ancora imparo!
[Lat.]; hold high converse with the mighty dead [Thomson]; lash'd into
Latin by the tingling rod [Gay].

540. Teacher -- N. teacher, trainer, instructor, institutor, master,
tutor, director, Corypheus, dry nurse, coach, grinder, crammer, don;
governor, bear leader; governess, duenna [Sp.]; disciplinarian.
professor, lecturer, reader, prelector^, prolocutor, preacher;
chalk talker, khoja^; pastor &c (clergy) 996; schoolmaster, dominie
[Fr.], usher, pedagogue, abecedarian; schoolmistress, dame, monitor,
pupil teacher.
expositor &c 524; preceptor, guide; guru; mentor &c (adviser) 695;
pioneer, apostle, missionary, propagandist, munshi^, example &c (model
for imitation) 22.
professorship &c (school) 542.
tutelage &c (teaching) 537.
Adj. professorial.
Phr. qui doet discet [Lat.].

541. Learner -- N. learner, scholar, student, pupil; apprentice,
prentice^, journeyman; articled clerk; beginner, tyro, amateur, rank
amateur; abecedarian, alphabetarian^; alumnus, eleve [Fr.].
recruit, raw recruit, novice, neophyte, inceptor^, catechumen,
probationer; seminarian, chela, fellow-commoner; debutant.
[apprentice medical doctors] intern; resident.
schoolboy; fresh, freshman, frosh; junior soph^, junior; senior
soph^, senior; sophister^, sophomore; questionist^.
[college and university students] undergraduate; graduate student;
law student; medical student; pre-med; post-doctoral student, post-doc;
matriculated student; part-time student, night student, auditor.
[group of learners] class, grade, seminar, form, remove; pupilage
&c (learning) 539.
disciple, follower, apostle, proselyte; fellow-student,
[place of learning] school &c 542.
V. learn; practise.
Adj. in statu pupillari [Lat.], in leading strings.
Phr. practise makes perfect.

542. School -- N. school, academy, university, alma mater, college,
seminary, Lyceum; institute, institution; palaestra, Gymnasium, class,
day school, boarding school, preparatory school, primary school,
infant school, dame's school, grammar school, middle class school,
Board school, denominational school, National school, British and
Foreign school, collegiate school, art school, continuation school,
convent school, County Council school, government school, grant-in-aid
school, high school, higher grade school, military school, missionary
school, naval school, naval academy, state-aided school, technical
school, voluntary school, school; school of art; kindergarten, nursery,
creche, reformatory.
pulpit, lectern, soap box desk, reading desk, ambo^, lecture room,
theater, auditorium, amphitheater, forum, state, rostrum, platform,
hustings, tribune.
school book, horn book, text book; grammar, primer, abecedary^,
rudiments, manual, vade mecum; encyclopedia, cyclopedia; Lindley
Murray, Cocker; dictionary, lexicon.
professorship, lectureship, readership, fellowship, tutorship;
School Board Council of Education; Board of Education; Board of
Studies, Prefect of Studies; Textbook Committee; propaganda.
Adj. scholastic, academic, collegiate; educational.
Adv. ex cathedra [Lat.].

543. Veracity -- N. veracity; truthfulness, frankness, &c adj.; truth,
sincerity, candor, unreserve^, honesty, fidelity; plain dealing, bona
fides [Lat.]; love of truth; probity &c 939; ingenuousness &c
(artlessness) 703.
the truth the whole truth and nothing but the truth; honest truth,
sober truth &c (fact) 494; unvarnished tale; light of truth.
V. speak the truth, tell the truth; speak by the card; paint in its
true colors, show oneself in one's true colors; make a clean breast &c
(disclose) 529; speak one's mind &c (be blunt) 703; not lie &c 544, not
deceive &c 545.
Adj. truthful, true; veracious, veridical; scrupulous &c (honorable)
939; sincere, candid, frank, open, straightforward, unreserved; open
hearted, true hearted, simple-hearted; honest, trustworthy;
undissembling &c (dissemble) &c 544 [Obs.]; guileless, pure; truth-
loving; unperjured^; true blue, as good as one's word; unaffected,
unfeigned, bona fide; outspoken, ingenuous &c (artless) 703;
undisguised &c (real) 494.
Adv. truly &c (really) 494; in plain words &c 703; in truth, with
truth, of a truth, in good truth; as the dial to the sun, as the needle
to the pole; honor bright; troth; in good sooth^, in good earnest;
unfeignedly, with no nonsense, in sooth^, sooth to say^, bona fide, in
foro conscientiae [Lat.]; without equivocation; cartes sur table, from
the bottom of one's heart; by my troth &c (affirmation) 535.
Phr. di il vero a affronterai il diavolo [It]; Dichtung und Wahrheit
[G.]; esto quod esse videris [Lat.]; magna est veritas et praevalet
[Lat.]; that golden key that opes the palace of eternity [Milton];
veritas odium parit [Lat.]; veritatis simplex oratio est [Lat.]; verite
sans peur [Fr.].

544. Falsehood -- N. falsehood, falseness; falsity, falsification;
deception &c 545; untruth &c 546; guile; lying &c 454; untruth &c 546;
guile; lying &c v.. misrepresentation; mendacity, perjury, false
swearing; forgery, invention, fabrication; subreption^; covin^.
perversion of truth, suppression of truth; suppressio veri [Lat.];
perversion, distortion, false coloring; exaggeration &c 549;
prevarication, equivocation, shuffling, fencing, evasion, fraud;
suggestio falsi &c (lie) 546 [Lat.]; mystification &c (concealment)
528; simulation &c (imitation) 19; dissimulation, dissembling; deceit;
sham; pretense, pretending, malingering.
lip homage, lip service; mouth honor; hollowness; mere show, mere
outside; duplicity, double dealing, insincerity, hypocrisy, cant,
humbug; jesuitism, jesuitry; pharisaism; Machiavelism, organized
hypocrisy; crocodile tears, mealy-mouthedness^, quackery; charlatanism^,
charlatanry; gammon; bun-kum^, bumcombe, flam; bam [Slang], flimflam,
cajolery, flattery; Judas kiss; perfidy &c (bad faith) 940; il volto
sciolto i pensieri stretti [It].
unfairness &c (dishonesty) 940; artfulness &c (cunning) 702;
misstatement &c (error) 495.
V. be false &c adj., be a liar &c 548; speak falsely &c adv.; tell a
lie &c 546; lie, fib; lie like a trooper; swear false, forswear,
perjure oneself, bear false witness.
misstate, misquote, miscite^, misreport, misrepresent; belie,
falsify, pervert, distort; put a false construction upon &c
(misinterpret); prevaricate, equivocate, quibble; palter, palter to the
understanding; repondre en Normand [Fr.]; trim, shuffle, fence, mince
the truth, beat about the bush, blow hot and cold, play fast and loose.
garble, gloss over, disguise, give a color to; give a gloss, put a
gloss, put false coloring upon; color, varnish, cook, dress up,
embroider; varnish right and puzzle wrong; exaggerate &c 549; blague^.
invent, fabricate; trump up, get up; force, fake, hatch, concoct;
romance &c (imagine) 515; cry 'wolf!'.
dissemble, dissimulate; feign, assume, put on, pretend, make
believe; play possum; play false, play a double game; coquet; act a
part, play a part; affect &c 855; simulate, pass off for; counterfeit,
sham, make a show of; malinger; say the grapes are sour.
cant, play the hypocrite, sham Abraham, faire pattes de velours,
put on the mask, clean the outside of the platter, lie like a conjuror;
hand out false colors, hold out false colors, sail under false colors;
commend the poisoned chalice to the lips [Macbeth]; ambiguas in vulgum
spargere voces [Lat.]; deceive &c 545.
Adj. false, deceitful, mendacious, unveracious, fraudulent, dishonest,
faithless, truthless, trothless; unfair, uncandid; hollow-hearted;
evasive; uningenuous, disingenuous; hollow, sincere, Parthis mendacior;
artificial, contrived; canting; hypocritical, jesuitical,
pharisaical; tartuffish; Machiavelian; double, double tongued, double
faced, double handed, double minded, double hearted, double dealing;
Janus faced; smooth-faced, smooth spoken, smooth tongued; plausible;
mealy-mouthed; affected &c 855.
collusive, collusory; artful &c (cunning) 702; perfidious &c 940;
spurious &c (deceptive) 545; untrue &c 546; falsified &c v.; covinous.
Adv. falsely &c adj.; a la tartufe, with a double tongue; silly &c
(cunning) 702.
Phr. blandae mendacia lingua [Lat.]; falsus in uno falsus in omnibus
[Lat.]; I give him joy that's awkward at a lie [Young]; la mentira
tiene las piernas cortas [Sp.]; O what a goodly outside falsehood hath
[Merchant of Venice].

545. Deception -- N. deception; falseness &c 544; untruth &c 546;
imposition, imposture; fraud, deceit, guile; fraudulence, fraudulency^;
covin^; knavery &c (cunning) 702; misrepresentation &c (falsehood) 544;
bluff; straw-bail, straw bid [U.S.]; spoof [Slang].
delusion, gullery^; juggling, jugglery^; slight of hand,
legerdemain; prestigiation^, prestidigitation; magic &c 992; conjuring,
conjuration; hocus-pocus, escamoterie^, jockeyship^; trickery, coggery^,
chicanery; supercherie^, cozenage^, circumvention, ingannation^,
collusion; treachery &c 940; practical joke.
trick, cheat, wile, blind, feint, plant, bubble, fetch, catch,
chicane, juggle, reach, hocus, bite; card sharping, stacked deck,
loaded dice, quick shuffle, double dealing, dealing seconds, dealing
from the bottom of the deck; artful dodge, swindle; tricks upon
travelers; stratagem &c (artifice) 702; confidence trick, fake, hoax;
theft &c 791; ballot-box stuffing [U.S.], barney [Slang]; brace game
[Slang], bunko game, drop game [Slang], gum game [U.S.], panel game
[U.S.], shell game, thimblerig, skin game [U.S.].
snare, trap, pitfall, decoy, gin; springe^, springle^; noose, hoot;
bait, decoy-duck, tub to the whale, baited trap, guet-a-pens; cobweb,
net, meshes, toils, mouse trap, birdlime; dionaea^, Venus's flytrap^;
ambush &c 530; trapdoor, sliding panel, false bottom; spring-net,
spring net, spring gun, mask, masked battery; mine; flytrap^; green
goods [U.S.]; panel house.
Cornish hug; wolf in sheep's clothing &c (deceiver) 548; disguise,
disguisement^; false colors, masquerade, mummery, borrowed plumes;
pattes de velours [Fr.].
mockery &c (imitation) 19; copy &c 21; counterfeit, sham, make-
believe, forgery, fraud; lie &c 546; a delusion a mockery and a snare
[Denman], hollow mockery.
whited sepulcher, painted sepulcher; tinsel; paste, junk jewelry,
costume jewelry, false jewelry, synthetic jewels; scagliola^, ormolu,
German silver, albata^, paktong^, white metal, Britannia metal, paint;
veneer; jerry building; man of straw.
illusion &c (error) 495; ignis fatuus &c 423 [Lat.]; mirage &c
V. deceive, take in; defraud, cheat, jockey, do, cozen, diddle, nab,
chouse, play one false, bilk, cully^, jilt, bite, pluck, swindle,
victimize; abuse; mystify; blind one's eyes; blindfold, hoodwink; throw
dust into the eyes; dupe, gull, hoax, fool, befool^, bamboozle,
flimflam, hornswoggle; trick.
impose upon, practice upon, play upon, put upon, palm off on, palm
upon, foist upon; snatch a verdict; bluff off, bluff; bunko, four flush
[Slang], gum [U.S.], spoof [Slang], stuff (a ballot box) [U.S.].
circumvent, overreach; outreach, out wit, out maneuver; steal a
march upon, give the go-by, to leave in the lurch decoy, waylay, lure,
beguile, delude, inveigle; entrap, intrap^, ensnare; nick, springe^; set
a trap, lay a trap, lay a snare for; bait the hook, forelay^, spread the
toils, lime; trapan^, trepan; kidnap; let in, hook in; nousle^, nousel^;
blind a trail; enmesh, immesh^; shanghai; catch, catch in a trap;
sniggle, entangle, illaqueate^, hocus, escamoter^, practice on one's
credulity; hum, humbug; gammon, stuff up [Slang], sell; play a trick
upon one, play a practical joke upon one, put something over on one,
put one over on; balk, trip up, throw a tub to a whale; fool to the top
of one's bent, send on a fool's errand; make game, make a fool of, make
an April fool of^, make an ass of; trifle with, cajole, flatter; come
over &c (influence) 615; gild the pill, make things pleasant, divert,
put a good face upon; dissemble &c 544.
cog, cog the dice, load the dice, stack the deck; live by one's
wits, play at hide and seek; obtain money under false pretenses &c
(steal) 791; conjure, juggle, practice chicanery; deacon [U.S.].
play off, palm off, foist off, fob-off.
lie &c 544; misinform &c 538; mislead &c (error) 495; betray &c
940; be deceived &c 547.
Adj. deceived &c v.; deceiving &c; cunning &c 702; prestigious^,
prestigiatory^; deceptive, deceptious^; deceitful, covinous^; delusive,
delusory; illusive, illusory; elusive, insidious, ad captandum vulgus
untrue &c 546; mock, sham, make-believe, counterfeit, snide
[Slang], pseudo, spurious, supposititious, so-called, pretended,
feigned, trumped up, bogus, scamped, fraudulent, tricky, factitious
bastard; surreptitious, illegitimate, contraband, adulterated,
sophisticated; unsound, rotten at the core; colorable; disguised;
meretricious, tinsel, pinchbeck, plated; catchpenny; Brummagem.
artificial, synthetic, ersatz [G.]; simulated &c 544.
Adv. under false colors, under the garb of, under cover of; over the
Phr. keep the word of promise to the ear and break it to the hope
[Macbeth]; fronti nulla fides [Lat.]; ah that deceit should steal such
gentle shapes [Richard III]; a quicksand of deceit [Henry VI];
decipimur specie recti [Lat.] [Horace]; falsi crimen [Lat.]; fraus est
celare fraudem [Lat.]; lupus in fabula [Lat.]; so smooth, he daubed his
vice with show of virtue [Richard III].

546. Untruth -- N. untruth, falsehood, lie, story, thing that is not,
fib, bounce, crammer, taradiddle^, whopper; jhuth^.
forgery, fabrication, invention; misstatement, misrepresentation;
perversion, falsification, gloss, suggestio falsi [Lat.]; exaggeration
&c 549.
invention, fabrication, fiction; fable, nursery tale; romance &c
(imagination) 515; absurd story, untrue story, false story, trumped up
story, trumped up statement; thing devised by the enemy; canard; shave,
sell, hum, traveler's tale, Canterbury tale, cock and bull story, fairy
tale, fake; claptrap.
press agent's yarn; puff, puffery (exaggeration) 549.
myth, moonshine, bosh, all my eye and Betty Martin, mare's nest,
irony; half truth, white lie, pious fraud; mental reservation &c
(concealment) 528.
pretense, pretext; false plea &c 617; subterfuge, evasion, shift,
shuffle, make-believe; sham &c (deception) 545.
profession, empty words; Judas kiss &c (hypocrisy) 544; disguise
&c (mask) 530.
V. have a false meaning.
Adj. untrue, false, phony, trumped up; void of foundation, without-
foundation; fictive, far from the truth, false as dicer's oaths;
unfounded, ben trovato [It], invented, fabulous, fabricated, forged;
fictitious, factitious, supposititious, surreptitious; elusory^,
illusory; ironical; soi-disant &c (misnamed) 565 [Fr.].
Phr. se non e vero e ben trovato [It]; where none is meant that meets
the ear [Milton].

547. Dupe -- N. dupe, gull, gudgeon, gobemouche^, cull [Slang], cully^,
victim, pigeon, April fool^; jay [Slang], sucker [Slang]; laughingstock
&c 857; Cyclops, simple Simon, flat; greenhorn; fool &c 501; puppet,
cat's paw.
V. be deceived &c 545, be the dupe of; fall into a trap; swallow the
bait, nibble at the bait; bite, catch a Tartar.
Adj. credulous &c 486; mistaken &c (error) 495.

548. Deceiver -- N. deceiver &c (deceive) &c 545; dissembler,
hypocrite; sophist, Pharisee, Jesuit, Mawworm^, Pecksniff, Joseph
Surface, Tartufe^, Janus; serpent, snake in the grass, cockatrice,
Judas, wolf in sheep's clothing; jilt; shuffler^, stool pigeon.
liar &c (lie) &c 544; story-teller, perjurer, false witness,
menteur a triple etage [Fr.], Scapin^; bunko steerer [U.S.],
carpetbagger [U.S.], capper [U.S.], faker, fraud, four flusher [Slang],
horse coper^, ringer [Slang], spieler^, straw bidder [U.S.].
imposter, pretender, soi-disant [Fr.], humbug; adventurer;
Cagliostro, Fernam Mendez Pinto; ass in lion's skin &c (bungler) 701;
actor &c (stage player) 599.
quack, charlatan, mountebank, saltimbanco^, saltimbanque^, empiric,
quacksalver, medicaster^, Rosicrucian, gypsy; man of straw.
conjuror, juggler, trickster, prestidigitator, jockey; crimp,
decoy, decoy duck; rogue, knave, cheat; swindler &c (thief) 792;
Phr. saint abroad and a devil at home [Bunyan].

549. Exaggeration -- N. exaggeration; expansion &c 194; hyperbole,
stretch, strain, coloring; high coloring, caricature, caricatura^;
extravagance &c (nonsense) 497; Baron Munchausen; men in buckram, yarn,
fringe, embroidery, traveler's tale; fish story, gooseberry [Slang].
storm in a teacup; much ado about nothing &c (overestimation) 482;
puff, puffery &c (boasting) 884; rant &c (turgescence) 577 [Obs.].
figure of speech, facon de parler [Fr.]; stretch of fancy, stretch
of the imagination; flight of fancy &c (imagination) 515.
false coloring &c (falsehood) 544; aggravation &c 835.
V. exaggerate, magnify, pile up, aggravate; amplify &c (expand) 194;
overestimate &c 482; hyperbolize; overcharge, overstate, overdraw,
overlay, overshoot the mark, overpraise; make over much, over the most
of; strain, strain over a point; stretch, stretch a point; go great
lengths; spin a long yarn; draw with a longbow, shoot with a longbow;
deal in the marvelous.
out-Herod Herod, run riot, talk at random.
heighten, overcolor^; color highly, color too highly; broder^;
flourish; color &c (misrepresent) 544; puff &c (boast) 884.
Adj. exaggerated &c v.; overwrought; bombastic &c (grandiloquent) 577;
hyperbolical^, on stilts; fabulous, extravagant, preposterous,
egregious, outre [Fr.], highflying^.
Adv. hyperbolically &c adj..
Phr. excitabat enim fluctus in simpulo [Lat.] [Cicero].



550. Indication -- N. indication; symbolism, symbolization; semiology,
semiotics, semeiology^, semeiotics^; Zeitgeist.
[means of recognition: property] characteristic, diagnostic;
lineament, feature, trait; fingerprint, voiceprint, footprint,
noseprint [for animals]; cloven hoof; footfall; recognition (memory)
[means of recognition: tool] diagnostic, divining rod; detector.
sign, symbol; index, indice^, indicator; point, pointer; exponent,
note, token, symptom; dollar sign, dollar mark.
type, figure, emblem, cipher, device; representation &c 554;
epigraph, motto, posy.
gesture, gesticulation; pantomime; wink, glance, leer; nod, shrug,
beck; touch, nudge; dactylology^, dactylonomy^; freemasonry, telegraphy,
chirology [Med.], byplay, dumb show; cue; hint &c 527; clue, clew, key,
signal, signal post; rocket, blue light; watch fire, watch tower;
telegraph, semaphore, flagstaff; cresset^, fiery cross; calumet;
heliograph; guidon; headlight.
[sign (evidence) on physobj of contact with another physobj] mark,
scratch, line, stroke, dash, score, stripe, streak, tick, dot, point,
notch, nick.
print; imprint, impress, impression.
[symbols accompanying written text to signify modified
interpretation] keyboard symbols, printing symbols; [Symbols for
emphasis], red letter, italics, sublineation^, underlining, bold font;
jotting; note, annotation, reference; blaze, cedilla, guillemets^,
hachure [Topo.];
[Special Characters list], quotation marks, "; double quotes, " ";
parentheses, "( )"; brackets, "[ ]"; braces, "{ }", curly brackets;
arrows, slashes; left parenthesis, "("; right parenthesis, ")"; opening
bracket, "["; closing bracket, "]"; left curly brace, "{"; right curly
brace, "}"; left arrow, "<"; right arrow, ">"; forward slash, "/";
backward slash, "\\"; exclamation point, "!"; commercial at, "@"; pound
sign, "#"; percent sign, "%"; carat, "^"; ampersand, "&"; asterisk,
"*"; hyphen, "-"; dash, "-", "_"; em dash, "--"; plus sign, "+"; equals
sign, "="; question mark, "?"; period, "."; semicolon, ";"; colon, ":";
comma, ","; apostrophe, "'"; single quote, "'"; tilde, "~".
[For identification: general] badge, criterion; countercheck^,
countermark^, countersign, counterfoil; duplicate, tally; label, ticket,
billet, letter, counter, check, chip, chop; dib^; totem; tessera^, card,
bill; witness, voucher; stamp; cacher [Fr.]; trade mark, Hall mark.
[For identification of people, on a document] signature, mark,
autograph, autography; attestation; hand, hand writing, sign manual;
cipher; seal, sigil [Lat.], signet, hand and seal [Law]; paraph^, brand;
superscription; indorsement^, endorsement.
[For identification of people, to gain access to restricted
(locations or information)] password, watchword, catchword; security
card, pass, passkey; credentials &c (evidence) 467; open sesame;
timbrology^; mot de passe [Fr.], mot du guet [Fr.]; pass-parole;
title, heading, docket.
address card, visiting card; carte de visite [Fr.].
insignia; banner, banneret^, bannerol^; bandrol^; flag, colors,
streamer, standard, eagle, labarum^, oriflamb^, oriflamme; figurehead;
ensign; pennon, pennant, pendant; burgee^, blue Peter, jack, ancient,
gonfalon, union jack; banderole, old glory [U.S.], quarantine flag;
vexillum^; yellow-flag, yellow jack; tricolor, stars and stripes;
heraldry, crest; coat of arms, arms; armorial bearings, hatchment^;
escutcheon, scutcheon; shield, supporters; livery, uniform; cockade,
epaulet, chevron; garland, love knot, favor.
[Of locality] beacon, cairn, post, staff, flagstaff, hand,
pointer, vane, cock, weathercock; guidepost, handpost^, fingerpost^,
directing post, signpost; pillars of Hercules, pharos; bale-fire,
beacon-fire; l'etoile du Nord [Fr.]; landmark, seamark; lighthouse,
balize^; polestar, loadstar^, lodestar; cynosure, guide; address,
direction, name; sign, signboard.
[Of the future] warning &c 668; omen &c 512; prefigurement &c 511.
[Of the past] trace, record &c, 551.
[Of danger] warning &c 668, alarm &c 669.
[of authority]. scepter &c 747.
[of triumph]. trophy &c 733.
[of quantity]. gauge &c 466.
[Of Distance] milestone, milepost.
[Of disgrace], brand, fool's cap.
[For detection], check, telltale; test &c (experiment) 463;
mileage ticket; milliary^.
notification &c (information) 527; advertisement &c (publication)
word of command, call; bugle call, trumpet call; bell, alarum,
cry; battle cry, rallying cry; angelus^; reveille; sacring bell^,
sanctus bell [Lat.].
exposition &c (explanation) 522, proof &c (evidence) 463; pattern
&c (prototype) 22.
V. indicate; be the sign &c n.. of; denote, betoken; argue, testify &c
(evidence) 467; bear the impress &c n.. of; connote, connotate^.
represent, stand for; typify &c (prefigure) 511; symbolize.
put an indication, put a mark &c n.; note, mark, stamp, earmark;
blaze; label, ticket, docket; dot, spot, score, dash, trace, chalk;
print; imprint, impress; engrave, stereotype.
make a sign &c n.. signalize; underscore; give a signal, hang out
a signal; beckon; nod; wink, glance, leer, nudge, shrug, tip the wink;
gesticulate; raise the finger, hold up the finger, raise the hand, hold
up the hand; saw the air, suit the action to the word [Hamlet].
wave a banner, unfurl a banner, hoist a banner, hang out a banner
&c n.; wave the hand, wave a kerchief; give the cue &c (inform) 527;
show one's colors; give an alarm, sound an alarm; beat the drum, sound
the trumpets, raise a cry.
sign, seal, attest &c (evidence) 467; underline &c (give
importance to) 642; call attention to &c (attention) 457; give notice
&c (inform) 527.
Adj. indicating &c v., indicative, indicatory; denotative, connotative;
diacritical, representative, typical, symbolic, pantomimic,
pathognomonic^, symptomatic, characteristic, demonstrative, diagnostic,
exponential, emblematic, armorial; individual &c (special) 79.
known by, recognizable by; indicated &c v.; pointed, marked.
[Capable of being denoted] denotable^; indelible.
Adv. in token of; symbolically &c adj.; in dumb show.
Phr. ecce signum [Lat.]; ex ungue leonem [Lat.], ex pede Herculem
[Lat.]; vide ut supra; vultus ariete fortior [Lat.].

551. Record -- N. trace, vestige, relic, remains; scar, cicatrix;
footstep, footmark^, footprint; pug; track mark, wake, trail, scent,
monument, hatchment^, slab, tablet, trophy, achievement; obelisk,
pillar, column, monolith; memorial; memento &c (memory) 505;
testimonial, medal; commemoration &c (celebration) 883.
record, note, minute; register, registry; roll &c (list) 86;
cartulary, diptych, Domesday book; catalogue raisonne [Fr.]; entry,
memorandum, indorsement^, inscription, copy, duplicate, docket; notch &c
(mark) 550; muniment^, deed &c (security) 771; document; deposition,
proces verbal [Fr.]; affidavit; certificate &c (evidence) 467.
notebook, memorandum book, memo book, pocketbook, commonplace
book; portfolio; pigeonholes, excerpta^, adversaria [Lat.], jottings,
gazette, gazetteer; newspaper, daily, magazine; almanac, almanack^;
calendar, ephemeris, diary, log, journal, daybook, ledger; cashbook^,
petty cashbook^; professional journal, scientific literature, the
literature, primary literature, secondary literature, article, review
archive, scroll, state paper, return, blue book; statistics &c 86;
compte rendu [Fr.]; Acts of, Transactions of, Proceedings of; Hansard's
Debates; chronicle, annals, legend; history, biography &c 594;
Congressional Records.
registration; registry; enrollment, inrollment^; tabulation; entry,
booking; signature &c (identification) 550; recorder &c 553;
[analog recording media] recording, tape recording, videotape.
[digital recording media] compact disk; floppy disk, diskette;
hard disk, Winchester disk; read-only memory, ROM; write once read
mostly memory, WORM.
V. record; put on record, place on record; chronicle, calendar, hand
down to posterity; keep up the memory &c (remember) 505; commemorate &c
(celebrate) 883; report &c (inform) 527; write, commit to writing,
reduce to writing; put in writing, set down in writing, writing in
black and white; put down, jot down, take down, write down, note down,
set down; note, minute, put on paper; take note, make a note, take
minute, take memorandum; make a return.
mark &c (indicate) 550; sign &c (attest) 467.
enter, book; post, post up, insert, make an entry of; mark off,
tick off; register, enroll, inscroll^; file &c (store) 636.
burn into memory; carve in stone.
Adv. on record.
Phr. exegi monumentum aere perennium [Horace]; read their history in a
nation's eyes [Gray]; records that defy the tooth of time [Young].

552. [Suppression of sign.] Obliteration -- N. obliteration; erasure,
rasure^; cancel, cancellation; circumduction^; deletion, blot; tabula
rasa [Lat.]; effacement, extinction.
V. efface, obliterate, erase, raze^, rase^, expunge, cancel; blot out,
take out, rub out, scratch out, strike out, wipe out, wash out, sponge
out; wipe off, rub off; wipe away; deface, render illegible; draw the
pen through, apply the sponge.
be effaced &c; leave no trace &c 550; leave not a rack behind
Adj. obliterated &c v.; out of print; printless^; leaving no trace;
intestate; unrecorded, unregistered, unwritten.
Int. dele; out with it!,
Phr. delenda est Carthago [Lat.] [Cato].

553. Recorder -- N. recorder, notary, clerk; registrar, registrary^,
register; prothonotary [Law]; amanuensis, secretary, scribe, babu^,
remembrancer^, bookkeeper, custos rotulorum [Lat.], Master of the Rolls.
annalist; historian, historiographer; chronicler, journalist;
biographer &c (narrator) 594; antiquary &c (antiquity) 122;
memorialist^; interviewer.

554. Representation -- N. representation, representment^; imitation &c
19; illustration, delineation, depictment^; imagery, portraiture,
iconography; design, designing; art, fine arts; painting &c 556;
sculpture &c 557; engraving &c 558; photography, cinematography;
radiography, autoradiography [Bioch.], fluorography [Chem], sciagraphy^.
personation, personification; impersonation; drama &c 599.
picture, photo, photograph, daguerreotype, snapshot; X-ray photo;
movie film, movie; tracing, scan, TV image, video image, image file,
graphics, computer graphics, televideo, closed-circuit TV.
copy &c 21; drawing, sketch, drought, draft; plot, chart, figure,
image, likeness, icon, portrait, striking likeness, speaking
likeness; very image; effigy, facsimile.
figure, figure head; puppet, doll, figurine, aglet^, manikin, lay-
figure, model, mammet^, marionette, fantoccini^, waxwork, bust; statue,
ideograph, hieroglyphic, anaglyph, kanji [Jap.]; diagram,
map, plan, chart, ground plan, projection, elevation (plan) 626.
ichnography^, cartography; atlas; outline, scheme; view &c
(painting) 556; radiograph, scotograph^, sciagraph^; spectrogram,
V. represent, delineate; depict, depicture^; portray; take a likeness,
catch a likeness &c n.; hit off, photograph, daguerreotype; snapshot;
figure, shadow forth, shadow out; adumbrate; body forth; describe &c
594; trace, copy; mold.
dress up; illustrate, symbolize.
paint &c 556; carve &c 557; engrave &c 558.
personate, personify; impersonate; assume a character; pose as;
act; play &c (drama) 599; mimic &c (imitate) 19; hold the mirror up to
Adj. represent, representing &c v., representative; illustrative
[Slang]; represented &c v.; imitative, figurative; iconic.
like &c 17; graphic &c (descriptive) 594; cinquecento quattrocento
[Fr.], trecento^.

555. Misrepresentation -- N. misrepresentation, distortion, caricatura^,
exaggeration; daubing &c v.; bad likeness, daub, sign painting;
scratch, caricature; anamorphosis^; burlesque, falsification,
misstatement; parody, lampoon, take-off, travesty.
V. misrepresent, distort, overdraw, exaggerate, caricature, daub;
burlesque, parody, travesty.
Adj. misrepresented &c v..

556. Painting -- N. painting; depicting; drawing &c v.; design;
perspective, sciagraphy^, skiagraphy^; chiaroscuro &c (light) 420;
composition; treatment.
historical painting, portrait painting, miniature painting;
landscape painting, marine painting; still life, flower painting, scene
painting; scenography^.
school, style; the grand style, high art, genre, portraiture;
ornamental art &c 847.
monochrome, polychrome; grisaille [Fr.].
pallet, palette; easel; brush, pencil, stump; black lead,
charcoal, crayons, chalk, pastel; paint &c (coloring matter) 428;
watercolor, body color, oil color; oils, oil paint; varnish &c 356.1,
priming; gouache, tempera, distemper, fresco, water glass; enamel;
encaustic painting; mosaic; tapestry.
photography, heliography, color photography; sun painting;
graphics, computer graphics.
picture, painting, piece [Fr.], tableau, canvas; oil painting &c;
fresco, cartoon; easel picture, cabinet picture, draught, draft; pencil
drawing &c, water color drawing, etching, charcoal, pen-and-ink;
sketch, outline, study.
photograph, color photograph, black-and-white photograph,
holograph, heliograph; daguerreotype, talbotype^, calotype^, heliotype^;
negative, positive; print, glossy print, matte print; enlargement,
reduction, life-size print; instant photo, Polaroid photo.
technicolor, Kodachrome, Ektachrome; Polaroid.
portrait &c (representation) 554; whole length, full length, half
length; kitcat, head; miniature; shade, silhouette; profile.
landscape, seapiece^; view, scene, prospect; panorama, diorama;
still life.
picture gallery, exhibit; studio, atelier; pinacotheca^.
V. paint, design, limn draw, sketch, pencil, scratch, shade, stipple,
hatch, dash off, chalk out, square up; color, dead color, wash,
varnish; draw in pencil &c n.; paint in oils &c n.; stencil; depict &c
(represent) 554.
Adj. painted &c v.; pictorial, graphic, picturesque.
pencil, oil &c n..
Adv. in pencil &c n..
Phr. fecit [Lat.], delineavit [Lat.]; mutum est pictura poema [Lat.].

557. Sculpture -- N. sculpture, insculpture^; carving &c v.; statuary.
high relief, low relief, bas relief [Fr.]; relief; relieve;
bassorilievo^, altorilievo^, mezzorilievo^; intaglio, anaglyph^; medal,
medallion; cameo.
marble, bronze, terra cotta [Sp.], papier-mache; ceramic ware,
pottery, porcelain, china, earthenware; cloisonne, enamel, faience,
Laocoon, satsuma.
statue, &c (image) 554; cast &c (copy) 21; glyptotheca^.
V. sculpture, carve, cut, chisel, model, mold; cast [Slang].
Adj. sculptured &c, v.. in relief, anaglyptic^, ceroplastic^, ceramic;
parian^; marble &c n.; xanthian^.

558. Engraving -- N. engraving, chalcography^; line engraving, mezzotint
engraving, stipple engraving, chalk engraving; dry point, bur; etching,
aquatinta^; chiseling; plate engraving, copperplate engraving, steel
engraving, wood engraving; xylography, lignography^, glyptography^,
cerography^, lithography, chromolithography^, photolithography,
zincography^, glyphography, xylograph, lignograph^, glyptograph^,
cerograph^, lithograph, chromolithograph, photolithograph, zincograph^,
glyphograph^, holograph.
impression, print, engraving, plate; steelplate, copperplate;
etching; mezzotint, aquatint, lithotint^; cut, woodcut; stereotype,
graphotype^, autotype^, heliotype^.
graver, burin^, etching point, style; plate, stone, wood block,
negative; die, punch, stamp.
printing; plate printing, copperplate printing, anastatic
printing^, color printing, lithographic printing; type printing &c 591;
three-color process.
illustration, illumination; half tone; photogravure; vignette,
initial letter, cul de lampe [Fr.], tailpiece.
[person who inscribes on stone] lapidary, lapidarian.
V. engrave, grave, stipple, scrape, etch; bite, bite in; lithograph &c
n.; print.
Adj. insculptured^; engraved &c v.. [of inscriptions on stone] lapidary.
Phr. sculpsit [Lat.], imprimit [Lat.].

559. Artist -- N. artist; painter, limner, drawer, sketcher, designer,
engraver; master, old master; draftsman, draughtsman; copyist, dauber,
hack; enamel, enameler, enamelist; caricaturist.
historical painter, landscape painter, marine painter, flower
painter, portrait painter, miniature painter, miniaturist, scene
painter, sign painter, coach painter; engraver; Apelles^; sculptor,
carver, chaser, modeler, figuriste^, statuary; Phidias, Praxiteles;
Royal Academician.
photographer, cinematographer, lensman, cameraman, camera
technician, camera buff; wildlife photographer.
Phr. photo safari; with gun and camera

1. Language generally

560. Language -- N. language; phraseology &c 569; speech &c 582;
tongue, lingo, vernacular; mother tongue, vulgar tongue, native tongue;
household words; King's English, Queen's English; dialect &c 563.
confusion of tongues, Babel, pasigraphie^; pantomime &c (signs)
550; onomatopoeia; betacism^, mimmation, myatism^, nunnation^;
lexicology, philology, glossology^, glottology^; linguistics,
chrestomathy^; paleology^, paleography; comparative grammar.
literature, letters, polite literature, belles lettres [Fr.],
muses, humanities, literae humaniores [Lat.], republic of letters, dead
languages, classics; genius of language; scholarship &c (scholar) 492.
V. express by words &c 566.
Adj. lingual, linguistic; dialectic; vernacular, current; bilingual;
diglot^, hexaglot^, polyglot; literary.
Phr. syllables govern the world [Selden].

561. Letter -- N. letter; character; hieroglyphic &c (writing) 590;
type &c (printing) 591; capitals; digraph, trigraph; ideogram,
ideograph; majuscule, minuscule; majuscule, minuscule; alphabet, ABC^,
abecedary^, christcross-row.
consonant, vowel; diphthong, triphthong [Gramm.]; mute, liquid,
labial, dental, guttural.
syllable; monosyllable, dissyllable^, polysyllable; affix, suffix.
spelling, orthograph^; phonography^, phonetic spelling;
anagrammatism^, metagrammatism^.
cipher, monogram, anagram; doubleacrostic^.
V. spell.
Adj. literal; alphabetical, abecedarian; syllabic; majuscular^,
minuscular^; uncial &c (writing) 590.

562. Word -- N. word, term, vocable; name &c 564; phrase &c 566; root,
etymon; derivative; part of speech &c (grammar) 567; ideophone^.
dictionary, vocabulary, lexicon, glossary; index, concordance;
thesaurus; gradus [Lat.], delectus [Lat.].
etymology, derivation; glossology^, terminology orismology^;
paleology &c (philology) 560 [Obs.].
lexicography; glossographer &c (scholar) 492; lexicologist,
Adj. verbal, literal; titular, nominal.
conjugate [Similarly derived], paronymous^; derivative.
Adv. verbally &c adj.; verbatim &c (exactly) 494.
Phr. the artillery of words [Swift].

563. Neologism -- N. neology, neologism; newfangled expression, nonce
expression; back-formation; caconym^; barbarism.
archaism, black letter, monkish Latin.
corruption, missaying^, malapropism, antiphrasis^.
pun, paranomasia^, play upon words; word play &c (wit) 842; double-
entendre &c (ambiguity) 520 [Fr.]; palindrome, paragram^, anagram,
clinch; abuse of language, abuse of terms.
dialect, brogue, idiom, accent, patois; provincialism,
regionalism, localism; broken English, lingua franca; Anglicism,
Briticism, Gallicism, Scotticism, Hibernicism; Americanism^; Gypsy
lingo, Romany; pidgin, pidgin English, pigeon English; Volapuk,
Chinook, Esperanto, Hindustani, kitchen Kaffir.
dog Latin, macaronics^, gibberish; confusion of tongues, Babel;
babu English^, chi-chi.
figure of speech &c (metaphor) 521; byword.
colloquialism, informal speech, informal language.
substandard language, vernacular.
vulgar language, obscene language, obscenity, vulgarity.
jargon, technical terms, technicality, lingo, slang, cant, argot;
Gile's Greek, thieves' Latin, peddler's French, flash tongue,
Billingsgate, Wall Street slang.
pseudonym &c (misnomer) 565; Mr.
So-and-so; wha d'ye call 'em^, whatchacallim, what's his name;
thingummy^, thingumbob; je ne sais quoi [Fr.].
neologist^, coiner of words.
V. coin words, coin a term; backform; Americanize, Anglicize.
Adj. neologic^, neological^; archaic; obsolete &c (old) 124; colloquial;

564. Nomenclature -- N. nomenclature; naming &c v.; nuncupation^,
nomination, baptism; orismology^; onomatopoeia; antonomasia^.
name; appelation^, appelative^; designation, title; heading,
rubric; caption; denomination; by-name, epithet.
style, proper name; praenomen [Lat.], agnomen^, cognomen;
patronymic, surname; cognomination^; eponym; compellation^, description,
antonym; empty title, empty name; handle to one's name; namesake.
term, expression, noun; byword; convertible terms &c 522;
technical term; cant &c 563.
V. name, call, term, denominate designate, style, entitle, clepe^, dub,
christen, baptize, characterize, specify, define, distinguish by the
name of; label &c (mark) 550.
be called &c v.; take the name of, bean the name of, go by the
name of, be known by the name of, go under the name of, pass under the
name of, rejoice in the name of.
Adj. named &c v.; hight^, ycleped, known as; what one may well, call
fairly, call properly, call fitly.
nuncupatory^, nuncupative; cognominal^, titular, nominal,
Phr. beggar'd all description [Antony and Cleopatra].

565. Misnomer -- N. misnomer; lucus a non lucendo [Lat.]; Mrs.
Malaprop; what d'ye call 'em &c (neologism) 563 [Obs.]; Hoosier.
nickname, sobriquet, by-name; assumed name, assumed title; alias;
nom de course, nom de theatre, nom de guerre [Fr.], nom de plume;
pseudonym, pseudonymy.
V. misname, miscall, misterm^; nickname; assume a name.
Adj. misnamed &c v.; pseudonymous; soi-disant [Fr.]; self called, self
styled, self christened; so-called.
nameless, anonymous; without a having no name; innominate,
unnamed; unacknowledged.
Adv. in no sense.

566. Phrase -- N. phrase, expression, set phrase; sentence, paragraph;
figure of speech &c 521; idiom, idiotism^; turn of expression; style.
paraphrase &c (synonym) 522; periphrase &c (circumlocution) 573;
motto &c (proverb) 496 [Obs.].
phraseology &c 569.
V. express, phrase; word, word it; give words to, give expression to;
voice; arrange in words, clothe in words, put into words, express by
words; couch in terms; find words to express; speak by the card; call,
denominate, designate, dub.
Adj. expressed &c v.; idiomatic.
Adv. in round terms, in set terms, in good set terms, set terms; in set

567. Grammar -- N. grammar, accidence, syntax, praxis, punctuation;
parts of speech; jussive^; syllabication; inflection, case, declension,
conjugation; us et norma loquendi [Lat.]; Lindley Murray &c
(schoolbook) 542; correct style, philology &c (language) 560.
V. parse, punctuate, syllabicate^.

568. Solecism -- N. solecism; bad grammar, false grammar, faulty
grammar; slip of the pen, slip of the tongue; lapsus linguae [Lat.];
slipslop^; bull; barbarism, impropriety.
V. use bad grammar, faulty grammar; solecize^, commit a solecism; murder
the King's English, murder the Queen's English, break Priscian's head.
Adj. ungrammatical; incorrect, inaccurate; faulty; improper,
incongruous; solecistic, solecistical^.

569. Style -- N. style, diction, phraseology, wording; manner, strain;
composition; mode of expression, choice of words; mode of speech,
literary power, ready pen, pen of a ready writer; command of language
&c (eloquence) 582; authorship; la morgue litteraire [Fr.].
V. express by words &c 566; write.
Phr. le style c'est de l'homme [Buffon]; style is the dress of thoughts
Various Qualities of Style

570. Perspicuity -- N. perspicuity, perspicuousness &c
(intelligibility) 518; plain speaking &c (manifestation) 525;
definiteness, definition; exactness &c 494; explicitness, lucidness.
Adj. lucid &c (intelligible) 518; explicit &c (manifest) 525; exact &c

571. Obscurity -- N. obscurity &c (unintelligibility) 519; involution;
hard words; ambiguity &c 520; unintelligibleness; vagueness &c 475,
inexactness &c 495; what d'ye call 'em &c (neologism) 563 [Obs.];
darkness of meaning.
Adj. obscure &c n.; crabbed, involved, confused.

572. Conciseness -- N. conciseness &c adj.; brevity, the soul of wit,
laconism^; Tacitus; ellipsis; syncope; abridgment &c (shortening) 201;
compression &c 195; epitome &c 596; monostich^; brunch word, portmanteau
V. be concise &c adj.; condense &c 195; abridge &c 201; abstract &c
596; come to the point.
Adj. concise, brief, short, terse, close; to the point, exact; neat,
compact; compressed, condensed, pointed; laconic, curt, pithy,
trenchant, summary; pregnant; compendious &c (compendium) 596;
succinct; elliptical, epigrammatic, quaint, crisp; sententious.
Adv. concisely &c adj.; briefly, summarily; in brief, in short, in a
word, in a few words; for shortness sake; to come to the point, to make
a long story short, to cut the matter short, to be brief; it comes to
this, the long and the short of it is.
Phr. brevis esse laboro obscurus fio [Lat.] [Horace].

573. Diffuseness -- N. diffuseness &c adj.; amplification &c v.;
dilating &c v.; verbosity, verbiage, cloud of words, copia verborum
[Lat.]; flow of words &c (loquacity) 584; looseness.
Polylogy^, tautology, battology^, perissology^; pleonasm,
exuberance, redundancy; thrice-told tale; prolixity; circumlocution,
ambages^; periphrase^, periphrasis; roundabout phrases; episode;
expletive; pennya-lining; richness &c 577.
V. be diffuse &c adj.; run out on, descant, expatiate, enlarge, dilate,
amplify, expand, inflate; launch out, branch out; rant.
maunder, prose; harp upon &c (repeat) 104; dwell on, insist upon.
digress, ramble, battre la campagne [Fr.], beat about the bush,
perorate, spin a long yarn, protract; spin out, swell out, draw out;
Adj. diffuse, profuse; wordy, verbose, largiloquent^, copious,
exuberant, pleonastic, lengthy; longsome^, long-winded, longspun^, long
drawn out; spun out, protracted, prolix, prosing, maundering;
circumlocutory, periphrastic, ambagious^, roundabout; digressive;
discursive, excursive; loose; rambling episodic; flatulent, frothy.
Adv. diffusely &c adj.; at large, in extenso [Lat.]; about it and about

574. Vigor -- N. vigor, power, force; boldness, raciness &c adj.;
intellectual, force; spirit, point, antithesis, piquance, piquancy;
verve, glow, fire, warmth; strong language; gravity, sententiousness;
elevation, loftiness, sublimity.
eloquence; command of words, command of language.
Adj. vigorous, nervous, powerful, forcible, trenchant, incisive,
impressive; sensational.
spirited, lively, glowing, sparkling, racy, bold, slashing;
pungent, piquant, full of point, pointed, pithy, antithetical;
lofty, elevated, sublime; eloquent; vehement, petulant,
impassioned; poetic.
Adv. in glowing terms, in good set terms, in no measured terms.
Phr. thoughts that breath and words that burn [Gray].

575. Feebleness -- N. feebleness &c adj..
Adj. feeble, bald, tame, meager, jejune, vapid, bland, trashy,
lukewarm, cold, frigid, poor, dull, dry, languid; colorless, enervated;
proposing, prosy, prosaic; unvaried, monotonous, weak, washy, wishy-
washy; sketchy, slight.
careless, slovenly, loose, lax (negligent) 460; slipshod,
slipslop^; inexact; puerile, childish; flatulent; rambling &c (diffuse)

576. Plainness -- N. plainness &c adj.; simplicity, severity; plain
terms, plain English; Saxon English; household words
V. call a spade 'a spade'; plunge in medias res; come to the point.
Adj. plain, simple; unornamented, unadorned, unvarnished; homely,
homespun; neat; severe, chaste, pure, Saxon; commonplace, matter-of-
fact, natural, prosaic.
dry, unvaried, monotonous &c 575.
Adv. in plain terms, in plain words, in plain English, in plain common
parlance; point-blank.

577. Ornament -- N. ornament; floridness c^.
adj.. turgidity, turgescence^; altiloquence &c adj.^; declamation,
teratology^; well-rounded periods; elegance &c 578; orotundity.
inversion, antithesis, alliteration, paronomasia; figurativeness
&c (metaphor) 521.
flourish; flowers of speech, flowers of rhetoric; frills of style,
euphuism^, euphemism.
big-sounding words, high-sounding words; macrology^, sesquipedalia
verba [Lat.], Alexandrine; inflation, pretension; rant, bombast,
fustian, prose run mad; fine writing; sesquipedality^; Minerva press.
phrasemonger; euphuist^, euphemist.
V. ornament, overlay with ornament, overcharge; smell of the lamp.
Adj. ornament &c v.; beautified &c 847; ornate, florid, rich, flowery;
euphuistic^, euphemistic; sonorous; high-sounding, big-sounding;
inflated, swelling, tumid; turgid, turgescent; pedantic, pompous,
stilted; orotund; high flown, high flowing; sententious, rhetorical,
declamatory; grandiose; grandiloquent, magniloquent, altiloquent^;
sesquipedal^, sesquipedalian; Johnsonian, mouthy; bombastic; fustian;
frothy, flashy, flaming.
antithetical, alliterative; figurative &c 521; artificial &c
(inelegant) 579.
Adv. ore rutundo [Lat.].

578. Elegance -- N. elegance, purity, grace, ease; gracefulness,
readiness &c adj.; concinnity^, euphony, numerosity^; Atticism^,
classicalism^, classicism.
well rounded periods, well turned periods, flowing periods; the
right word in the right place; antithesis &c 577.
purist [Slang].
V. point an antithesis, round a period.
Adj. elegant, polished, classical, Attic, correct, Ciceronian,
artistic; chaste, pure, Saxon, academical^.
graceful, easy, readable, fluent, flowing, tripping; unaffected,
natural, unlabored^; mellifluous; euphonious, euphemism, euphemistic;
numerose^, rhythmical.
felicitous, happy, neat; well put, neatly put, well expressed,
neatly expressed

579. Inelegance -- N. inelegance; stiffness &c adj.; unlettered Muse
[Gray]; barbarism; slang &c 563; solecism &c 568; mannerism &c
(affectation) 855; euphuism^; fustian &c 577; cacophony; words that
break the teeth, words that dislocate the jaw; marinism^.
V. be inelegant &c adj..
Adj. inelegant, graceless, ungraceful; harsh, abrupt; dry, stiff,
cramped, formal, guinde [Fr.]; forced, labored; artificial, mannered,
ponderous; awkward, uncourtly^, unpolished; turgid &c 577; affected,
euphuistic^; barbarous, uncouth, grotesque, rude, crude, halting;
offensive to ears polite.
2. Spoken Language

580. Voice -- N. voice; vocality^; organ, lungs, bellows; good voice,
fine voice, powerful voice &c (loud) 404; musical voice &c 413;
intonation; tone of voice &c (sound) 402.
vocalization; cry &c 411; strain, utterance, prolation^;
exclamation, ejaculation, vociferation, ecphonesis^; enunciation,
articulation; articulate sound, distinctness; clearness, of
articulation; stage whisper; delivery.


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