Roman Farm Management
Marcus Porcius Cato

Part 6 out of 6

Gauls, pre-eminence of, in
growing and making of pork
high qualities as shepherds
Geese, selection of, breeding, care, etc.
Geldings, horses called
_Geoponica_, the; cited
_Georgics_, Virgil's, passages based on information from Varro
Gestation, periods of
Gleaning of grain fields
_Gluma_, etymology of word
Goats, as foes of agriculture
characteristics, breeding and handling
milk of; use of hair and skins of; shearing of
Googe, Barnaby, translation of Heresbach by
Graftage of plants
Grain, advice on seeding
storing of
cleaning, when taken out of storage
time for marketing
Granaries, varieties of
_Granum_, etymology of word
Grapes, harvesting of
advice on storing
Grapevines, trellises and props for
Grazing, to be distinguished from agriculture
Greek writers on agriculture
Green manuring
Guinea fowl


_Haeredium_, defined
Hair, removal of superfluous
Hams, recipes for curing and cooking
Hares, varieties of
_See_ Rabbits
Harte, Walter, _Essays on Husbandry_ by
on alfalfa
Hartlib, Samuel
on pasture _vs._ arable land
Harvester, ancient forerunners of the modern
Harvest time
Hay, harvesting the
storing of
Health, location of farm steading with regard to
Healthfulness of farms, importance of
Hedges, myrtle
Heliotrope, habits of the
Herd dogs
Heresbach, Conrad, cited
Herrick, Robert, quoted
quoted and cited
Hives for bees, location and structure
inventors of modern devices
Homer, quoted
on use of mules
Honey, Sicilian and Corsican
profits from
removal of, from hive
Honeycomb, structure of the
Horace, cited
Horses, oxen _vs._
manure of
breeding, feeding, care of, etc.
House for residence on farm
Housekeeper, duties of the


Ibn-al-Awam, book of agriculture by
Implements, farming
Inarching, propagation by
Incantations as cures
Interamna, town of
Iowa, farming in Bavaria and
Italy, agriculture in modern


Johnson, Samuel, on Harte's _Husbandry_
quoted on Shenstone
Joigneaux, P., on yields of wine in France
Jones, W.H., on malaria in the Roman Campagna
_Jugerum_, defined
_Jugum_, defined
Jungle fowl


Kames, Lord, quoted
Keil, quoted
Keller, cited
_Kitab al-felahah_ of Ibn-al-Awam


Labourers, agricultural
Lanciani, cited
Land, effect of conformation of, on agriculture
Leaves as fodder for cattle
Legumes, soil improvement with
Library, public, at Rome
Literature of farm management, ancient
Live stock, feeding
care of
origin and importance of husbandry of
_See_ Cattle
Lombardy, agriculture in ancient and modern


Machiavelli, quoted
Maeterlinck, quoted on dogs
on the antique lore of bees
on the mathematics of the honeycomb
on the queen bee's life
on the nearness of the bee-stand to the dwelling-house
Mago the Carthagenian, treatise on farm management by
Varro's account of
_Maison Rustique_, cited and quoted
Malaria in Roman Campagna
Manure, preparation of
best kinds of
Manure pits, arrangement of
Manuring, importance of
Maremma sheep dogs
Mares, use of, for war horses
milk of
Market day among the Romans
Marl, use of, as manure
Marrying the vine
Martial, quotation from
Meadows, protection of
irrigated, of Lombardy
Measurement of land, units of area used in
Mile, the Roman
Military fences
Milk and milking, advice on
Minerval, a
Mitchell, Donald G.
Mommsen, quoted
Montesquieu, quoted
Moon, influence of, on agriculture
Moryson, Fynes, quoted
Mosquitoes, perception by Varro of damages from
Mules, remarks on foaling by
uses, care of, etc.
Murray, Gilbert, translation of Euripides by
Must cake
Myers, F.W.H., cited


Neat cattle, buying, breeding, feeding, etc.
Neighbourhood, considerations of, in locating farm
Neighbours, treatment of one's
_Nummus_, a "nickel,"
_Nundinum_, the Roman week
Nurseries, protection of
Nuts, eating preserved


Oaks, effect of, on olive trees
_Oboerati_, class of bondservants called
_Ocinum_, basil
Oil, manufacture of, from olives
Oil-making implements
Olive farm, number of hands for working an
Olives, allowances of, for
farm hands
reasons for growth in Attica
effect of oaks in neighbourhood of
advice on planting
propagating from truncheons
harvesting of
methods of preserving
eating preserved
Olive salad
Onager, wild ass
laying out and planting of
_See_ Aviaries
Ortolans, houses for keeping
duties of the
location of room of
Ovid, quoted
selling of worn-out
comparison of horses and
care of hoofs of
treatment of sick
number of, suitable for a farm
qualities of, to be considered
breaking of
respect in which held by ancient Romans


on the Gallic harvester
_Palma_, palm
care of
_vs_. arable land
Pate de foie gras, known and prized by Romans
Peacocks, discussion of
Perfumes among the Romans
Persius, cited
on Varro
on the loss of Varro's books
Philippus, L. Marcius
Pigeon houses
manure of
kinds and care of
Pigs, weanling, called "sacred"
field crops
time of
four methods of propagating
time for using different methods of propagation
mechanical action of
_Menaechmi_ of
Pleasure as a main purpose of agriculture
use of marl as manure noted by
on the Gallic harvester
Pliny the Younger, study in garden of
Ploughing, importance of thorough
of rotten land
Plough land, as distinguished from corn land
Pollio, Asinius, library at Rome founded by
Polybius, quoted
Pome fruits, storing
Pomegranates, preserving
Poultry, kinds, feeding, and care of
Poultry houses
Protection of nurseries and meadows
Prothero, quoted
Punning, Varro's use of


Quail, houses for keeping
migrations of
Queen bees, recency of knowledge about
Quinces, storing
Quintilian, on Varro


Rabbits, warrens for
breeding and feeding of
derivation of Latin name for
Racking wine
Reate, asses from
_Rerum Rusticarum_ of Varro
Virgil's indebtedness to
Rest room for farm hands
Ridgeway, quoted
on markings of horses
Ridging land, custom of
Rogers, Thorold, quoted
Roman fever
Rome, insecurity of life in ancient
Rosea, drainage of, by artificial canals
Rosean breed of horses
Rotten land, precautions regarding


Sacred pigs
Salad, olive
Salt, allowance of, for farm hands
_Saltus_, defined
Salutations, Greek, as used by Romans
Saserna, as a writer on agriculture
on number of farm hands necessary
on securing allegiance of dogs
Scab among sheep and cattle
Scratches in horses, remedy for
Scratching pen for hens
_Scripulum_, defined
Scrofa, Tremelius
origin of name
Sea birds, manure of
Seasons, agricultural
Seed, selection of
Seed bed, preparing the
Sellar, cited
Seneca, on Virgil's farming
_Sestertius_, value of the
Sheep, value of, for their manure
buying of
feeding, breeding, and care of
shearing of
Sheep dogs
Shepherds, distinguished from farmers
number and kind of, requisite
purchase of slaves for
life of
Sicilian honey
Size of farm
Slaves, selling of old and sick
importance of food to contentment of
selection of, for farm hands
number of, for operating a farm
buying, to act as shepherds
Snails, recipe for preparing cooked
method of keeping in enclosures
varieties of
fattening of
Snakebite, remedy for
Soil, improvement of
effect of character of, on agriculture
different kinds of
fining the
Solar measure of year
Solomon, quotation on ploughing from
Sour land, treatment of
Sowing, period for
Spring ploughing
Stables for live stock
Steading, building a
husbandry of the
development of the industries of the
Stamen, etymology of
Stocking a farm
Storing crops
Strabo, inventor of aviaries
Straw, derivation of word
Swine, selecting, feeding, breeding, etc.


Tarquinii, ancient Etruscan city
Taylor, John, _Arator_ by, quoted
Teeth, telling age of animals by the
_Terra_, different senses of word
Thales of Miletus
Thebes, derivation of name
Theophrastus, works by
on honey of Corsica
Thessalian horses
Thinning vines
Threshing floor, the
Thrushes, profits from
houses for keeping
Tillage, advice on
Time, standards of
the Roman week
Tools, farming
Toulouse, production of pate de foie gras in
Transportation, importance of ease of
Trellises in vineyards
Trumpet, training hogs to obey sound of
assembling wild boars and roebucks by the
Tull, Jethro
Turkeys, fattening
effect of introduction into Europe, on geese
Turtle doves, housing and care of


Varro, Marcus Terentius
the _Rerum Rusticarum_ of
works of, besides _Rerum Rusticarum_,
activities of, in war against pirates
estate and museum of
Vegetable gardens
_Versus_, the, defined
Vetch, derivation of name
Veterinary science of ancient Romans
Villa, discussion of the Roman
Vines, for marking farm boundaries
advice on planting
Vineyards, the maintenance of
implements for
Vintage, work of the
indebtedness of, to Varro
formula for testing sour land by
advice on ploughing
on colours of horses
Vitruvius, quoted on Cyrrhestes' Tower of the Winds


Walnut trees, effect of, on surrounding land
Walter of Henley
on use of marl as manure
Warrens, defined
Watch dogs, 116
Water for cattle
Water supply for a steading
Weaning, of young cattle
of lambs
Weanling pigs
Week, the Roman
Wheat, seeding
yields of
structure of plant
harvesting of
Wild asses
Wild boars, keeping of, in game preserves
Wind, impregnating of mares by the
Wind breaks for olive orchards
Wine, cabbage as an offset to effects of
allowances of, for farm hands
yields of, in ancient Italy
racking, 173
used in cramming fowls
Winnowing basket, use of, for a cradle
Winter ploughing
Wood pigeons, cramming and fattening
Wool, shearing sheep for


Xenophon, as a writer on agriculture


Year, solar measure of the
Young, Arthur
inscription on tombstone of wife
fences recommended by
on necessary number of farm labourers


Zeno of Citium
Zodiacal signs, honour paid to cattle in


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