Scientific American Supplement, No. 803, May 23, 1891

Part 1 out of 3

Produced by Don Kretz, Juliet Sutherland, Victoria Woosley and the
Online Distributed Proofreading Team.



NEW YORK, May 23, 1891

Scientific American Supplement. Vol. XXXI., No. 803.

Scientific American established 1845

Scientific American Supplement, $5 a year.

Scientific American and Supplement, $7 a year.

* * * * *


I. ASTRONOMY.--The Great Equatorial of the Paris Observatory.--
The new telescope recently put in use in Paris.--Description of
the instrument and of its effects.--3 illustrations

II. CHEMISTRY.--An Apparatus for Heating Substances in Glass
Tubes under Pressure.--By H. PEMBERTON, Jr.--A simple apparatus
for effecting this purpose, avoiding risk of personal injury.--
2 illustrations

Table of Atomic Weights.--A revised table of atomic weights,
giving the results of the last determinations, and designed for
every-day use

Testing Cement.--A laboratory process for testing Portland cement

III. CIVIL ENGINEERING.--The Compressed Air System of Paris.
--An elaborate review of this great installation for the transmission
of power.--The new compressed air station, with full details
of performances of apparatus, etc.--10 illustrations

IV. ENTOMOLOGY.--Report on Insects.--Continuation of this report
on noxious insects.--Their habits and how to cope with them.
--18 illustrations

V. FLORICULTURE.--Lily of the Valley.--Practical notes on the
cultivation of this popular flower.--How to raise it and force the

VI. MATHEMATICS.--The Conic Sections.--By Prof. C.W.
MACCORD.--Examination of the four conic sections with a general
definition applicable to all.--6 illustrations

VII. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.--The Builders of the Steam
Engine--The Founders of Modern Industries and Nations.--By Dr.
R.H. THURSTON.--Prof. Thurston's address before the Centennial
Celebration of the American Patent System at Washington,
D.C.--The early history of the steam engine and its present position
in the world

VIII. MISCELLANEOUS.--The Breeds of Dogs.--Popular description
of the different breeds of dogs most affected by amateurs.--6

development of modern ship armor, from laminated
sandwiched and compound types to the present solid armor.--9

X. PISCICULTURE.--Restocking the Seine with Fish.--The introduction
of 40,000 fry of California trout and salmon, designed to restock
the Seine, depopulated of fish by explosions of dynamite
used in breaking up the ice.--1 illustration

XI. RAILWAY ENGINEERING.--Improved Hand Car.--A novelty
in the construction of hand cars, avoiding the production of a
dead center.--1 illustration

XII. TECHNOLOGY.--The Tanning Materials of Europe.--The natural
tanning materials and pathological or abnormal growth tanning
materials described and classified, with relative power

* * * * *


The great instrument which has just completed the installation of our
national observatory is constructed upon the same principle as the
elbowed equatorial, 11 in. in diameter, established in 1882, according
to the ingenious arrangement devised as long ago as 1872, by Mr.
Loewy, assistant director of the Paris Observatory.

We shall here recall the fact that the elbowed equatorial consists of
two parts joined at right angles. One of these is directed according
to the axis of the world, and is capable of revolving around its own
axis, and the other, which is at right angles to it, is capable of
describing around the first a plane representing the celestial
equator. At the apex of the right angle there is a plane mirror of
silvered glass inclined at an angle of 45 deg. with respect to the
optical axis, and which sends toward the ocular the image coming from
the objective and already reflected by another and similar plane
mirror. The objective and this second mirror (which is inclined at an
angle of 45 deg.) are placed at the extremity of the external part of
the tube, and form part of a cube, movable around the axis of the
instrument at right angles with the axis of the world. The diagram in
Fig. 3 will allow the course of a luminous ray coming from space to be
easily understood. The image of the star, A, toward which the
instrument is directed, traverses the objective, B C, is reflected
first from the mirror, B D, and next from the central mirror, E F, and
finally reaches O, at the ocular where the observer is stationed.

This new equatorial differs from the first model by its much larger
dimensions and its extremely remarkable mechanical improvements. The
optical part, which is admirably elaborated, consists of a large
astronomical objective 24 in. in diameter, and of a photographic
objective of the same aperture, capable of being substituted, one for
the other, according to the nature of the work that it is desired to
accomplish by the aid of this colossal telescope, the total length of
which is 59 ft. The two plane mirrors which complete the optical
system have, respectively, diameters of 34 in. and 29 in. These two
magnificent objectives and the two mirrors were constructed by the
Brothers Henry, whose double reputation as astronomers and opticians
is so universally established. The mechanical part is the successful
work of Mr. Gautier, who has looked after every detail with the
greatest care, and has thus realized a true _chef d'oeuvre_. The
colossal instrument, the total weight of which is 26,400 lb., is
maneuvered by hand with the greatest ease. A clockwork movement, due
to the same able manufacturer, is capable, besides, of moving the
instrument with all the precision desirable, and of permitting it to
follow the stars in their travel across the heavens. A star appearing
in the horizon can thus be observed from its rising to its setting.
The astronomer, his eye at the ocular, is always conveniently seated
at the same place, observing the distant worlds, rendered immovable,
so to speak, in the field of the instrument. For stars which, like the
moon and the planets, have a course different from the diurnal motion,
it is possible to modify the running of the clockwork, so that they
can thus be as easily followed as in the preceding case. Fig. 1 gives
a general view of the new installation, for which it became necessary
to build a special edifice 65 ft. in height on the ground south of the
observatory bordering on the Arago Boulevard. A large movable
structure serves for covering the external part of the instrument.
This structure rests on rails, upon which it slides toward the south
when it is desired to make observations. It will be seen from the
figure how the principal axis of the instrument rests upon the two
masonry pillars, one of which is 49 ft. and the other 13 ft. in


The total cost of the pavilion, rolling structure, and instrument
(including the two objectives) will amount to about $80,000 after the
new equatorial has been provided with the scientific apparatus that
necessarily have to accompany it for the various and numerous
applications to which the use of it will give rise.


Fig. 2 shows us the room in the observatory in which the astronomer,
seated in his chair, is completely protected against the inclemencies
of the weather. Here, with his eye applied to the ocular, he can,
without changing position (owing to all the handles that act at his
will upon the many transmissions necessary for the maneuvering),
direct his instrument unaided toward every point of the heavens with
wonderful sureness and precision. The observer has before him on the
same plane two divided circles, one of which gives the right
ascensions and the other the declinations, and which he consults at
each observation for the exact orientation of the equatorial.


All the readings are done by the aid of electric lamps of very small
dimensions, supplied by accumulators, and which are lighted at will.
Each of these lamps is of one candle power; two of them are designed
for the reading of the two circles of right ascension and of
declination; a third serves for the reading of the position circle of
the micrometer; two others are employed for the reading of the drums
fixed upon the micrometric screws; four others serve for rendering the
spider threads of the reticule brilliant upon a black ground; and
still another serves for illuminating the field of the instrument
where the same threads remain black upon a luminous ground. The
currents that supply these lamps are brought over two different
circuits, in which are interposed rheostats that permit of graduating
the intensity of the light at will.

Since the installation of the first model of an elbowed equatorial of
11 in. aperture, in 1882, at the Paris Observatory, the numerous and
indisputable advantages of this sort of instrument have led a certain
number of observatories to have similar, but larger, instruments
constructed. In France, the observatories of Alger, Besancon, and
Lyons have telescopes of this kind, the objectives of which have
diameters of from 12 in. to 13 in., and which have been used for
several years past in equatorial observations of all kinds. The Vienna
Observatory has for the last two years been using an instrument of
this kind whose objective has an aperture of 15 inches. Another
equatorial of the same kind, of 16 in. aperture, is now in course of
construction for the Nice Observatory, where it will be especially
employed as a seeker of exceptional power--a role to which this kind
of instrument lends itself admirably. The optical part of all these
instruments was furnished by the Messrs. Henry, and the mechanical
part by Mr. Gautier.

The largest elbowed equatorial is, therefore, that of the Paris
Observatory. Its optical power, moreover, corresponds perfectly to its
huge dimensions. The experimental observations which have already been
made with it fully justify the hopes that we had a right to found upon
the professional skill of the eminent artists to whom we owe this
colossal instrument. The images of the stars were given with the
greatest sharpness, and it was possible to study the details of the
surface of the moon and other planets, and several star clusters, in
all their peculiarities, in the most remarkable manner.

When it shall become possible to make use of this equatorial for
celestial photography, there is no doubt that we shall obtain the most
important results. As regards the moon, in particular, the
photographing of which has already made so great progress, its direct
image at the focus of the large 24 in. photographic objective will
have a diameter of 11 in., and, being magnified, will be capable of
giving images of more than 3 ft. in diameter.--_La Nature_.

* * * * *


There is no flower more truly and universally popular than the lily of
the valley. What can be more delicious and refreshing than the scent
of its fragrant flowers? What other plant can equal in spring the
attractiveness of its pillars of pure white bells half hidden in their
beautiful foliage? There are few gardens without a bed of lily of the
valley, but too often the place chosen for it is some dark corner
where nothing else would be expected to grow, but it is supposed as a
matter of course that "it will do for a lily bed." The consequence is
that although these lilies are very easy things to cultivate, as
indeed they ought to be, seeing that they grow wild in the woods of
this and other countries, yet one hears so often from those who take
only a slight interest in practical gardening, "I have a lily bed, but
I scarcely ever get any lilies." Wild lilies are hardly worth the
trouble of gathering, they are so thin and poor; it is interesting to
find a plant so beautiful and precious in the garden growing wild in
the woods, but beyond that the flowers themselves are worth but very
little. This at once tells us an evident fact about the lily of the
valley, viz., that it does require cultivation. It is not a thing to
be left alone in a dark and dreary corner to take care of itself
anyhow year after year. People who treat it so deserve to be
disappointed when in May they go to the lily bed and find plenty of
leaves, but no flowers, or, if any, a few poor, weak attempts at
producing blossoms, which ought to be so beautiful and fragrant.

One great advantage of this lovely spring flower is that it can be so
readily and easily forced. Gardeners in large places usually spend
several pounds in the purchase of crowns and clumps of the lily of the
valley, which they either import direct from foreign nurserymen or
else procure from their own dealer in such things, who imports his
lilies in large quantities from abroad. But we may well ask, Have
foreign gardeners found out some great secret in the cultivation of
this plant? Or is their climate more suitable for it? Or their soil
adapted to growing it and getting it into splendid condition for
forcing? It is impossible that the conditions for growing large and
fine heads of this lily can be in any way better in Berlin or
elsewhere than they are in our own land, unless greater heat in summer
than we experience in England is necessary for ripening the growths in

There is another question certainly as to varieties; one variety may
be superior to another, but surely if so it is only on the principle
of the survival of the fittest, that is to say, by carefully working
on the finest forms only and propagating from them, a strong and
vigorous stock may be the result, and this stock may be dignified with
a special name. For my own part what I want is to have a great
abundance of lily of the valley from February till the out-door season
is over. To do this with imported clumps would, of course, be most
costly, and far beyond what any person ought to spend on mere flowers.
Though it must be remembered that it is an immense advantage to the
parish priest to be able to take bright and sweet flowers to the
bedside of the sick, or to gratify the weary spirit of a confirmed
invalid, confined through all the lovely spring time to the narrow
limits of a dull room, with the fragrant flowers of the lily of the
valley. I determined, therefore, that I would have an abundance of
early lilies, and that they should not be costly, but simply produced
at about the same expense as any other flowers, and I have been very
successful in accomplishing this by very simple means. First of all,
it is necessary to have the means of forcing, that is to say the
required heat, which in my case is obtained from an early vinery. I
have seen lilies forced by pushing the clumps in under the material
for making a hot bed for early cucumbers, the clumps being drawn out,
of course, as soon as the flowers had made a good start. They have
then to be carefully and very gradually exposed to full light, but
often, although fine heads of bloom may be produced in this way, the
leaves will be few and poor.

My method is simply this: In the kitchen garden there is the old
original bed of lilies of the valley in a corner certainly, but not a
dark corner. This is the reservoir, as were, from whence the regular
supply of heads for special cultivation is taken. This large bed is
not neglected and left alone to take care of itself, but carefully
manured with leaf mould and peat moss manure from the stable every
year. Especially the vacant places made by taking out the heads for
cultivation are thus filled up.

Then under the east wall another piece of ground is laid out and
divided into four plots. When I first began to prepare for forcing I
waited four years, and had one plot planted with divided heads each
year. Clumps are taken up from the reserve bed and then shaken out and
the heads separated, each with its little bunch of fibrous roots. They
are then carefully planted in one of the plots about 4 in. or 5 in.
apart, the ground having previously been made as light and rich as
possible with plenty of leaf mould. I think the best time for doing
this is in autumn, after the leaves have turned yellow and have rotted
away; but frequently the operation has been delayed till spring,
without much difference in the result.

Asparagus is usually transplanted in spring, and there is a wonderful
affinity between the two plants, which, of course, belong to the same
order. It was a long time to wait--four years--but I felt there was no
use in being in too great a hurry, and every year the plants
manifestly improved, and the buds swelled up nicely and looked more
plump each winter when the leaves were gone. It must be remembered
also that a nice crop of flowers could be gathered each year. When the
fourth year came, the first plot was divided up into squares about 2
ft. each way, and taken up before any hard frost or snow had made
their appearance, and put away on the floor of an unused stable. From
the stable they are removed as required in the squares to the vinery,
where they grow beautifully, not sending up merely fine heads of bloom
without a vestige of leaf, but growing as they would in spring out of
doors with a mass of foliage, among which one has to search for the
spikes of flower, so precious for all sorts of purposes at that early
season of the year.

The spikes produced in this way do not equal in thickness and
substance of petal the flowers which come from more carefully prepared
clumps imported from Berlin, but they are fine and strong, and above
all most abundant. I can not only supply the house and small vases for
the church, but also send away boxes of the flowers to friends at a
distance, besides the many gifts which can be made to those who are
ill or invalids. Few gifts at such a time are more acceptable than a
fragrant nosegay of lily of the valley. In order to keep the supply of
prepared roots ready year after year, a plot of ground has only to be
planted each autumn, so that in the rotation of years it may be ready
for forcing when its turn shall come.

As the season advances, as every one knows who has attempted to force
the lily of the valley, much less time is taken in bringing the
flowers to perfection under precisely the same circumstances as those
in which the first sods are forced. In February or earlier the buds
are more unwilling to start; there seems to be a natural repugnance
against being so soon forced out of the winter's sleep and rest. But
when the flowers do come, they are nearly as fine and their leaves are
quite as abundant in this way of forcing as from the pieces introduced
much later into heat. It would be easy to preserve the squares after
all the flowers are gathered, but I found that they would not, like
strawberries, kindly furnish forth another crop later on in the year,
and, therefore, mine are flung away; and I have often pitied the
tender leaves in the frost and snow after their short sojourn in the
hot climate of the vinery. But the reserve bed will always supply an
ample quantity of fresh heads, and it is best to take the new plants
for preparation in the kitchen garden from this reserve bed.

This very simple method of forcing lilies of the valley is within the
reach of any one who has even a small garden and a warm house, and
these two things are becoming more and more common among us every
day.--_A Gloucestershire Parson, in The Garden_.

* * * * *

[Continued from SUPPLEMENT, No. 802, page 12820.]



_Phorbia ceparum_ (Meig.)

Early in June a somewhat hairy fly, Fig. 9, may be seen flying about,
and depositing its eggs on the leaves of the young onion plants, near
the roots, Fig. 10.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.]

Dr. Fitch describes this fly as follows: "It has a considerable
resemblance to the common house fly, though when the two are placed
side by side, this is observed as being more slender in its form. The
two sexes are readily distinguished from each other by the eyes, which
in the males are close together, and so large as to occupy almost the
whole surface of the head, while in the females they are widely
separated from each other. These flies are of an ash gray color, with
the head silvery, and a rusty black stripe between the eyes, forked at
its hind end. And this species is particularly distinguished by having
a row of black spots along the middle of the abdomen or hind body,
which sometimes run into each other, and then forming a continuous

"This row of spots is quite distinct in the male, but in the female is
very faint, or is often wholly imperceptible. This fly measured 0.22
to 0.25 inch in length, the females being usually rather larger than
the males." The eggs are white, smooth, somewhat oval in outline, and
about one twenty-fifth of an inch in length. Usually not more than
half a dozen are laid on a single plant, and the young maggot burrows
downward within the sheath, leaving a streak of pale green to indicate
its path, and making its way into the root, devours all except the
outer skin.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.]

The maggots reach their full growth in about two weeks, when they are
about one-third of an inch long, white and glossy, tapering from the
posterior end to the head, which is armed with a pair of black,
hook-like jaws. The opposite end is cut off obliquely and has eight
tooth-like projections around the edge, and a pair of small brown
tubercles near the middle. Fig. 11 shows the eggs, larva, and pupa,
natural size and enlarged.

[Illustration: FIG. 11.]

They usually leave the onions and transform to pupae within the ground.
The form of the pupa does not differ very much from the maggot, but
the skin has hardened and changed to a chestnut brown color, and they
remain in this stage about two weeks in the summer, when the perfect
flies emerge. There are successive broods during the season, and the
winter is passed in the pupa stage.

The following remedies have been suggested:

Scattering dry, unleached wood ashes over the plants as soon as they
are up, while they are wet with dew, and continuing this as often as
once a week through the month of June, is said to prevent the deposit
of eggs on the plants.

Planting the onions in a new place as remote as possible from where
they were grown the previous year has been found useful, as the flies
are not supposed to migrate very far.

Pulverized gas lime scattered along between the rows has been useful
in keeping the flies away.

Watering with liquid from pig pens collected in a tank provided for
the purpose, was found by Miss Ormerod to be a better preventive than
the gas lime.

When the onions have been attacked and show it by wilting and changing
color, they should either be taken up with a trowel and burned, or
else a little diluted carbolic acid, or kerosene oil, should be
dropped on the infested plants to run down them and destroy the
maggots in the roots and in the soil around them.

Instead of sowing onion seed in rows, they should be grown in hills,
so that the maggots, which are footless, cannot make their way from
one hill to another.


_Pieris rapae_ (Linn.)

In the New England States there are three broods of this insect in a
year, according to Mr. Scudder, the butterflies being on the wing in
May, July, and September; but as the time of the emergence varies, we
see them on the wing continuously through the season.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.]

The expanded wings, Fig. 12, male, measure about two inches, are white
above, with the base dusky. Both sexes have the apex black and a black
spot a little beyond the middle, and the female, Fig. 13, has another
spot below this. The under side of the fore wings is white, yellowish
toward the apex, and with two black spots in both sexes corresponding
to those on the upper side of the female. A little beyond the middle
of the costa, on the hind wings, is an irregular black spot on the
upper surface, while the under surface is pale lemon yellow without
marks, but sprinkled more or less with dark atoms. The body is black
above and white beneath.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.]

The caterpillars of this insect feed on the leaves of cabbage,
cauliflower, turnip, mignonette, and some other plants.

The female lays her eggs on the under side of the leaves of the food
plants, generally, but sometimes on the upper sides or even on the
leaf stalks. They are sugar loaf shaped, flattened at the base, and
with the apex cut off square at the top, pale lemon yellow in color,
about one twenty-fifth of an inch long and one fourth as wide, and
have twelve longitudinal ribs with fine cross lines between them.

The eggs hatch in about a week, and the young caterpillars, which are
very pale yellow, first eat the shells from which they have escaped,
and then spin a carpet of silk, upon which they remain except when
feeding. They now eat small round holes through the leaves, but as
they grow older change to a greenish color, with a pale yellow line
along the back, and a row of small yellow spots along the sides, and
eat their way down into the head of the cabbage.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.]

Having reached its full growth, the caterpillar, Fig. 14, a, which is
about an inch in length, wanders off to some sheltered place, as under
a board, fence rail, or even under the edge of clapboards on the side
of a building, where it spins a button of silk, in which to secure its
hind legs, then the loop of silk to support the forward part of the

It now casts its skin, changing to a chrysalis, Fig. 14, b, about
three-fourths of an inch in length, quite rough and uneven, with
projecting ridges and angular points on the back, and the head is
prolonged into a tapering horn. In color they are very variable, some
are pale green, others are flesh colored or pale ashy gray, and
sprinkled with numerous black dots. The winter is passed in the
chrysalis stage.

After the caterpillar changes to a chrysalis, their minute parasites
frequently bore through the outside and deposit their eggs within.
These hatch before the time for the butterflies to emerge, and feeding
on the contents, destroy the life of the chrysalis.

Birds and spiders are of great service in destroying these insects.

The pupae should be collected and burned if the abdomen is flexible;
but if the joints of the abdomen are stiff and cannot be easily moved,
they should be left, as they contain parasites.

Several applications of poisons have been used, the best results being
obtained from the use of pyrethrum as a powder blown on to the plants
by a hand bellows, during the hottest part of the day, in the
proportion of one part to four or five of flour.

As the eggs are laid at different times, any application, to be
thoroughly tested, must be repeated several times.


_Clisiocampa Americana_ (Harr.)

Large, white, silken web-like tents, Fig. 15, are noticed by the
roadsides, in the early summer, on wild cherry trees, and also on
fruit trees in orchards, containing numerous caterpillars of a
blackish color, with fine gray hairs scattered over the body.

This well known pest has been very abundant throughout the State for
several years past, and the trees in many neglected orchards have been
greatly injured by it, some being entirely stripped of their leaves.
The trees in these orchards and the neglected ones by the roadsides
form excellent breeding places for this insect, and such as are of
little of no value should be destroyed. If this were well done, and
all fruit growers in any given region were to destroy all the tents on
their trees, even for a single season, the work of holding them in
check or destroying them in the following year would be comparatively

[Illustration: FIG. 15.]

The moths, Fig. 16, appear in great numbers in July, their wings
measuring, when expanded, from one and a quarter to one and a half
inches or more. They are of a reddish brown color, the fore wings
being tinged with gray on the base and middle, and crossed by two
oblique whitish stripes.

[Illustration: FIG. 16.]

The females lay their eggs, about three hundred in number, in a belt,
Fig. 15, c, around the twigs of apple, cherry, and a few other trees,
the belt being covered by a thick coating of glutinous matter, which
probably serves as a protection against the cold weather during

The following spring, when the buds begin to swell, the egg hatch and
the young caterpillar seek some fork of a branch, where they rest side
by side. They are about one-tenth of an inch long, of a blackish
color, with numerous fine gray hairs on the body. They feed on the
young and tender leaves, eating on an average two apiece each day.
Therefore the young of one pair of moths would consume from ten to
twelve thousand leaves; and it is not uncommon to see from six to
eight nests or tents on a single tree, from which no less than
seventy-five thousand leaves would be destroyed--a drain no tree can
long endure.

As the caterpillars grow, a new and much larger skin is formed
underneath the old one, which splits along the back and is cast off.
When fully grown, Fig. 15, a and b, which is in about thirty-five to
forty days after emerging from the eggs, they are about two inches
long, with a black head and body, with numerous yellowish hairs on the
surface, with a white stripe along the middle of the back, and minute
whitish or yellowish streaks, which are broken and irregular along the
sides; and there is also a row of transverse, small, pale blue spots
along each side of the back.

As they move about they form a continuous thread of silk from a fleshy
tube on the lower side of the mouth, which is connected with the
silk-producing glands in the interior of the body, and by means of
this thread they appear to find their way back from the feeding
grounds. It is also by the combined efforts of all the young from one
belt of eggs that the tents are formed.

These caterpillars do not feed during damp, cold weather, but take two
meals a day when it is pleasant.

After reaching their full growth, they leave their tents and scatter
in all directions, seeking for some protected place where each one
spins its spindle-shaped cocoon of whitish silk intermingled with
sulphur colored powder, Fig. 15, d. They remain in these cocoons,
where they have changed to pupae, from twenty to twenty-five days,
after which the moths emerge, pair, and the females lay their eggs for
another brood.

Several remedies have been suggested, a few of which are given below.
Search the trees carefully, when they are bare, for clusters of eggs;
and, when found, cut off the twigs to which they are attached, and
burn them.

As soon as any tents are observed in the orchard they should be
destroyed, which may be readily and effectually done by climbing the
trees, and with the hand protected by a mitten or glove, seize the
tent and crush it with its entire contents; also swab them down with
strong soapsuds or other substances; or tear them down with a rounded
bottle brush.

Burning with a torch not only destroys the caterpillars but injures
the trees.

It should be observed, however, since the caterpillars, are quite
regular in taking their meals, in the middle of the forenoon and
afternoon, that they should be destroyed only in the morning or
evening, when all are in the tent.

Another remedy is to shower the trees with Paris green in water, in
the proportion of one pound to one hundred and fifty gallons of water.


_Clisiocampa disstria_ (Huebner.)

This species, commonly known as the forest tent caterpillar, closely
resembles the apple tree tent caterpillar, but does not construct a
visible tent. It feeds on various species of forest trees, such as
oak, ash, walnut, hickory, etc., besides being very injurious to apple
and other fruit trees. The moth, Fig. 17, b, expands an inch and a
half or more. The general color is brownish yellow, and on the fore
wings are two oblique brown lines, the space between them being darker
than the rest of the wing. The eggs, Fig. 17, c and d, which are about
one twenty fifth of an inch long and one fortieth wide, are arranged,
three or four hundred in a cluster, around the twigs of the trees,
Fig. 17, a. These clusters are uniform in diameter and cut off
squarely at the ends. The eggs are white, and are firmly fastened to
the twigs and to each other, by a brown substance, like varnish, which
dries, leaving the eggs with a brownish covering.

[Illustration: FIG. 17.]

The eggs hatch about the time the buds burst, or before, and the young
caterpillars go for some time without food, but they are hardy and
have been known to live three weeks with nothing to eat, although the
weather was very cold.

[Illustration: FIG. 18.]

As soon as hatched they spin a silken thread wherever they go, and
when older wander about in search for food. The caterpillars are about
one and a half inches long when fully grown, Fig. 18. The general
color is pale blue, tinged with greenish low down on the sides, and
everywhere sprinkled with black dots or points, while along the middle
of the back is a row of white spots each side of which is an orange
yellow stripe, and a pale, cream yellow stripe below that. These
stripes and spots are margined with black. Each segment has two
elevated black points on the back, from each of which arise four or
more coarse black hairs. The back is clothed with whitish hairs, the
head is dark bluish freckled with black dots, and clothed with black
and fox-colored hairs, and the legs are black, clothed with whitish

At this stage the caterpillars may be seen wandering about on fences,
trees, and along the roads in search of a suitable place to spin their
cocoons, which are creamy white, and look very much like those of the
common tent caterpillar, except that they are more loosely

Within the cocoons, in two or three days they transform to pupae of a
reddish brown color, densely clothed with short pale yellowish hairs.
The moths appear in two or three weeks, soon lay their eggs and then
die. The insects are not abundant many years in succession, as their
enemies, the parasites, increase and check them.

Many methods have been suggested for their destruction, but the most
available and economical are to remove the clusters of eggs whenever
found, and burn them, and to shower the trees with Paris green in the
proportion of one pound to one hundred and fifty gallons of water.


_Gortyna nitela_ (Gruen.)

The perfect moth, Fig. 19, 1, expands from one to one and a half
inches. The fore wings are a mouse gray color, tinged with lilac and
sprinkled with fine yellow dots, and distinguished mainly by a white
band extending across the outer part. The moths hibernate in the
perfect state, and in April or May deposit their eggs singly on the
outside of the plant upon which the young are to feed. As soon as the
eggs hatch, which is in about a month, the young larvae, or
caterpillars, gnaw their way from the outside into the pith.

[Illustration: FIG. 19.]

The plant does not show any sign of decay until the caterpillar is
fully grown, when it dies. The caterpillar, Fig. 19, 2, is about one
and one-fourth inches long, of a reddish brown color, with whitish
stripes along the body. The stripes on the sides are not continuous,
and the shading of the body varies, being darker on the anterior than
on the posterior portion. When fully grown, Fig. 20, the color is
lighter and the stripes are broader. At this stage of life it burrows
into the ground just beneath the surface, and changes into the pupa
state. The pupa is three-fourths of an inch long, and of a mahogany
brown color. The perfect moth appears about the first of September,
and there is only one brood in a season.

[Illustration: FIG. 20.]

The caterpillars feed in the stalks of corn, tomatoes, potatoes,
dahlias, asters, and also in young currant bushes, besides feeding on
many species of weeds. By a close inspection of the plants about the
beginning of July, the spot where the borer entered, which is
generally quite a distance from the ground, may be detected, and the
caterpillar cut out without injury to the plant. This plan is
impracticable for an extensive crop, but by destroying the borers
found in the vines that wilt suddenly, one can lessen the number
another year.


_Pyrophila pyramidoides_ (Guen.)

This caterpillar, Fig. 21, is generally found on grapevines early in
June, but also feeds on apple, plum, raspberry, maple, poplar, etc. It
is about an inch and a half in length, with the body tapering toward
the head; of a whitish green color, darker on the sides; with a
longitudinal white stripe on the back, broader on the last segments.
Low down on each side is a bright yellow stripe, between this and the
one on the back is another less distinct, and the under surface of the
body is pale green.

[Illustration: FIG. 21.]

The caterpillar is fully grown about the middle or last of June, when
it descends to the ground, draws together some of the fallen leaves,
and makes a cocoon, in which it soon changes to a mahogany brown pupa.

[Illustration: FIG. 22.]

In the latter part of July the perfect moth, Fig. 22, emerges,
measuring, when its wings are expanded, about one and three-fourths
inches; the fore wings are dark brown shaded with lighter, with dots
and wavy lines of dull white. The hind wings are reddish, or of a
bright copper color, shading to brown on the outer angle of the front
edge of the wing, and paler toward the hinder and inner angle.

The under surface of the wings is lighter than the upper, and the body
is dark brown, with its posterior portion banded with lines of a paler

This pest may be destroyed by hand picking, or by jarring the trees or
vines on which they are feeding, when they will fall to the ground and
may be crushed or burned.


_Eudemis botrana_ (S.V.)

The moths emerge and fly early in June, and are quite small,
measuring, when the wings are expanded, only two-fifths of an inch,
Fig. 23, a, enlarged. The fore wings are purplish or slate brown from
the base to the middle, the outer half being irregularly marked with
dark and light brown.

[Illustration: FIG. 23.]

These insects are two-brooded and the first brood feeds not only on
the leaves of the grape, but on tulip, sassafras, vernonia and
raspberry. The caterpillars of the second brood emerge when the grapes
are nearly grown, and bore in them a winding channel to the pulp,
continuing to eat the interior of the berry till the pulp is all
consumed, Fig. 23, d, when, if not full grown, they draw one or two
other berries close to the first and eat the inside of those.

The mature caterpillar, Fig. 23, b, measures about half an inch in
length, is dull greenish, with head and thoracic shield somewhat
darker; the internal organs give the body a reddish tinge. It then
leaves the grape and forms its cocoon by cutting out a piece of a
leaf, leaving it hinged on one side; then rolling the cut end over,
fastens it to the leaf, thus making for itself a cocoon in which to
pupate. The pupa is dark reddish brown.

The second generation passes the winter in the pupa state, attached to
leaves which fall to the ground; therefore, if all the dead and dried
leaves be gathered in the fall and burned, also all the decayed fruit,
a great many of these insects would be destroyed. As the caterpillars
feed inside of the berry, no spraying of the vines with poisons would
reach them. The caterpillar makes a discolored spot where it enters
the berry, Fig. 23, c. Therefore the infested fruit may be easily
detected and destroyed.

There is a small parasite that attacks this insect and helps to keep
it in check. The insect has been known in Europe over a hundred years.
It is not certain when it was introduced into America, but it is now
found from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, and from the Atlantic to the
Pacific Ocean.


_Carpocapsa pomonella_ (Linn.)

This well known insect has a world-wide reputation, and is now found
wherever apples are raised.

[Illustration: FIG. 24.]

The moths are on the wing about the time the young apples are
beginning to set, and the female lays a single egg in the blossom end
of each apple. The fore wings of the moths when expanded, Fig. 24, g
(f, with the wings closed), measure about half an inch across, and are
marked with alternate wavy, transverse streaks of ashy gray and brown,
and have on the inner hind angle a large tawny brown, horseshoe shaped
spot, streaked with light bronze or copper color. The hind wings and
abdomen are light brown with a luster of satin.

Each female lays about fifty eggs, which are minute, flattened,
scale-like bodies of a yellowish color. In about a week the eggs hatch
and the tiny caterpillar begins to eat through the apple to the core,
Fig. 24, a, pushing its castings out through the hole where it
entered, Fig. 24, b. Oftentimes these are in sight on the outside in a
dark colored mass, thus making wormy apples plainly seen at quite a

The caterpillar is about two-fifths of an inch in length, of a glossy,
pale yellowish white color, with a light brown head. The skin is
transparent and the internal organs give to it a reddish tinge.

When mature the caterpillars, Fig. 24, e, top of head and second
segment, h, emerge from the apples and seek some sheltered place, such
as crevices of bark, or corners of the boxes or barrels in which the
fruit is stored, where they spin a tough whitish cocoon, Fig. 24, i,
in which they remain unchanged all winter, and transform to pupae, Fig.
24, d, the next spring, the perfect moths emerging in time to lay
their eggs in the new crop of apples.

One good remedy is to gather all the fallen apples, and feed them to
hogs; another is to let swine and sheep run in the orchard, and eat
the infested fruit.

It has been recommended to place bands of cloth or hay around the
trunks of the trees for the caterpillars to spin their cocoons
beneath, and to remove them at the proper time, and put them in
scalding water to destroy the worms.

By far the most successful method as yet adopted is to shower the
apple trees with Paris green in water, one pound to one hundred and
fifty gallons of water, when the apples are about the size of peas,
and again in about a week.


_Plutella cruciferarum_ (Zell.)

The cabbage leaf miner is not a native of this country, but was
imported from Europe.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.]

The perfect moth, Fig. 25, f, with the wings expanded (h, with the
wings closed, g, a dark variety), measures three-quarters of an inch.
The fore wings are ashy gray, and on the hinder margin is a white or
yellowish white stripe having three points extending into the gray,
thus forming, when the wings are closed, three diamond-shaped white
spots. Generally there is a dark brown stripe between the white and
the gray. There are also black dots scattered about on the anterior
part of these wings.

The hind wings are leaden brown, and the under side of all the wings
is leaden brown, glossy, and without any dots.

The antennae are whitish with dark rings, and the abdomen white. There
are two broods of this insect in this region, the moths of the first
appearing in May, and those of the second in August. They hibernate in
the pupa stage.

The caterpillars, Fig. 25, a (b, the top and c, the side of a
segment), appear in June or July and September; they are small and
cylindrical, tapering at both ends, pale green, and about one-fourth
of an inch long. The head has a yellowish tinge, and there are several
dark stiff hairs scattered over the body.

When ready to transform, this caterpillar spins a delicate gauze-like
cocoon, Fig. 25, e, made of white, silken threads, on the under side
of a cabbage leaf. The pupa, Fig. 25, d, and i, the end of a pupa, is
commonly white, sometimes shaded with reddish brown, and can be
distinctly seen through the silken case.

The first brood is more injurious than the second, as it feeds on the
young cabbage leaves before the head is formed, and this must surely
stunt the growth and make weak, sickly plants; while the second brood
feeds only on the outside leaves. The caterpillars are very active,
wriggling violently when disturbed, and falling by a white silken

Hot dry weather is favorable to them and enables them to multiply
rapidly. Advantage has been taken of this fact, and spraying the
plants thoroughly with water is strongly recommended. Prof. Riley
states that the insects are very readily destroyed by pyrethrum. There
are two species of spiders and a species of ichneumon fly that destroy


_Oxyptilus periscelidactylus_ (Fitch.)

The caterpillars of this species draw together the young grape leaves,
Fig. 26, a, in the spring, with fine silken threads, and feed on the
inside, thus doing much damage in proportion to their size. These
caterpillars, Fig. 26, a, and e, a segment greatly enlarged, are full
grown in about two weeks, when they are about one-fourth of an inch
long, pale green with whitish hairs arising from a transverse row of
warts on each segment.

Early in June they transform to pupae, Fig. 26, b, which are pale green
at first and change to dark brown. The surface is rough and the head
is cut off obliquely, while on the upper side near the middle are two
sharp pointed horns, Fig. 26, c. They remain in this stage from a week
to ten days, when the moths emerge.

[Illustration: FIG. 26.]

The moths, Fig. 26, d, belong to the family commonly known as plume
moths or feather wings (Pterophoridae), from having their wings divided
into feather-like lobes. When the wings are expanded they measure
about seven-tenths of an inch across. They are yellowish brown with a
metallic luster, and have several dull whitish streaks and spots. The
fore wings are split down the middle about half way to their base, the
posterior half having a notch in the outer margin. The body is
somewhat darker than the wings.

It is not known positively in what stage the winter is passed, but it
is supposed to be the perfect, or imago stage. The unnatural grouping
and spinning of the leaves together leads to their detection, and they
can be easily destroyed by hand picking and then crushing or burning

* * * * *


The dog exhibitions that have annually taken place for the last eight
years at Paris and in the principal cities of France have shown how
numerous and varied the breeds of dogs now are. It is estimated that
there are at present, in Europe, about a hundred very distinct and
very fine breeds (that is to say, such as reproduce their kind with
constant characters), without counting a host of sub-breeds or
varieties that a number of breeders are trying to fix.

Most of the breeds of dogs, especially those of modern creation, are
the work of man, and have been obtained by intercrossing older breeds
and discarding all the animals that departed from the type sought. But
many of these breeds are also the result of accident, or rather of
modifications of certain parts of the organism--of a sort of rachitic
or teratological degeneration which has become hereditary and has been
due to domestication; for it is proved that the dog is the most
anciently domesticated animal, and that its submission to man dates
back to more than five thousand years. Such is the origin of the
breeds of terriers, bulldogs, and all of the small house dogs.

Man has often, designedly or undesignedly, aided in the production of
breeds of this last category by submitting the dog to a regimen
contrary to nature, or setting to work to reproduce an animal born
monstrous, either for curiosity or for interest. As well known, the
accidental characters and the spontaneous modifications which work no
injury to the essential functions of life became easily hereditary,
and the same is the case with certain artificial modifications pursued
for a long series of generations.

It was the opinion of Buffon that the breeds of dogs, which were
already numerous in his time, were all derived from a single type,
which, according to him, was the shepherd's dog. Other scientists have
insisted that the dog descended from the wolf, and others from the
jackal. At the present time, it is rightly admitted that several
species of wild dogs have concurred in the formation of the different
breeds of dogs as we now have them.

In the lacustrine habitations of the stone age in Sweden, and in the
_kjoekkenmoedding_ (kitchen remains) of Denmark, of the same epoch, we
find the remains of a dog, which, according to Rutymeyer, belongs to a
breed which is constant up to its least details, and which is of a
light and elegant conformation, of medium size, with a spacious and
rounded cranium and a short, blunt muzzle, and a medium sized jaw, the
teeth of which form a regular series.

This dog, which has been named by geologists _Canis palustris_, fully
resembles in size, slenderness of the limbs, and weakness of the
muscular insertions, the spaniel, the brach hound, or the griffon.

This dog of the stone age is entirely distinct from the wolf and
jackal, of which some regard the domestic dog as a descendant, and as
it has appeared in Denmark as well as in Sweden, there is no doubt
that this species, peculiar to Europe, was subjugated by man and used
by him, in the first place, for hunting, and later on for guarding
houses and cattle. Later still, in the age of metals, we observe the
appearance, both in Denmark and Sweden, of larger and stronger breeds
of dogs, having in their jaws the character of mastiffs, and probably
introduced by the first emigrants from Asia.

There are, moreover, historic proofs that the dogs of the strongest
breeds are indigenous to Asia, where we still find the dog of Thibet,
the most colossal of all; in fact, in Pliny we read the following
narrative: Alexander the Great received from a king of Asia a dog of
huge size. He wished to pit it against bears and wild boars, but the
dog remained undisturbed and did not even rise, and Alexander had it
killed. On hearing of this, the royal donor sent a second dog like
the first, along with word that these dogs did not fight so weak
animals, but rather the lion and the elephant, and that he had only
two of such individuals, and in case that Alexander had this one
killed, too, he would no longer find his equal. Alexander matched this
dog with a lion and then with an elephant, and he killed them both.
Alexander was so afflicted at the premature death of the first dog,
that he built a city and temples in honor of the animal.

Did the mountainous province of Epirus called Molossia, in ancient
Greece, give its name to the _molossi_ that it produced, or did these
large dogs give their name to the country? At all events, we know that
it was from Epirus that the Romans obtained the molossi which fought
wild animals in the circuses, and that from Rome they were introduced
into the British islands and have became the present mastiffs.

Although our hunting and shepherd's dogs have a European and the
mastiffs an Asiatic ancestry, the ancestry of the harriers is African,
and especially Egyptian; in fact, in Upper Egypt we find a sort of
large white jackal (_Simenia simensis_) with the form of a harrier,
and which Paul Gervais regarded with some reason as the progenitor of
the domestic harrier, and a comparison of their skulls lends support
to this opinion.

A study of the most ancient monuments of the Pharaohs shows that the
ancient Egyptians already had at least five breeds of dogs: two very
slim watch dogs, much resembling the harrier, a genuine harrier, a
species of brach hound and a sort of terrier with short and straight
legs. All these dogs had erect ears, except the brach, in which these
organs were pendent, and this proves that the animal had already
undergone the effects of domestication to a greater degree than the
others. The harrier of the time of the Pharaohs still exists in great
numbers in Kordofan, according to Brehm.

Upon the whole, we here have, then, at least three stocks of very
distinct dogs: 1, a hunting or shepherd's dog, of European origin; 2,
a mastiff, typical of the large breed of dogs indigenous to Asia; and
3, a harrier, indigenous to Africa.

We shall not follow the effects of the combination of these three
types through the ages, and the formation of the different breeds; for
that we shall refer our readers to a complete work upon which we have
been laboring for some years, and two parts of which have already

[Footnote 1: Les Races des Chiens, in La Bibliotheque de l'Eleveur.]

We shall rapidly pass in review the different breeds of dogs that one
may chance to meet with in our dog shows, beginning with the largest.
It is again in mountainous countries that the largest dogs are raised,
and the character common to all of these is a very thick coat. The
largest of all, according to travelers, is the Thibetan dog. Buffon
tells of having seen one which, when seated, was five feet in height.
One brought back by the Prince of Wales from his voyage to the Indies
was taller in stature, stronger and more stocky than a large mastiff,
from which it differed, moreover, in its long and somewhat coarse
hair, which was black on the back and russet beneath, the thighs and
the tail being clothed with very long and silky hair.

In France, we have a beautiful mountain dog--the dog of the
Pyrenees--which is from 32 to 34 inches in height at the shoulders,
and has a very thick white coat, spotted above with pale yellow or
grayish fox color. It is very powerful, and is capable of
successfully defending property or flocks against bears and wolves.

The Alpine dog is the type of the mountain dog. It is of the same size
as the dog of the Pyrenees, and differs therefrom especially in its
coloring. It is white beneath, with a wide patch of orange red
covering the back and rump. The head and ears are of the same color,
with the addition of black on the edges; but the muzzle is white, and
a stripe of the same color advances upon the forehead nearly up to the
nape of the neck. The neck also is entirely white. There are two
varieties of the Alpine or St. Bernard dog, one having long hair and
the other shorter and very thick hair. We give in Fig. 1 a portrait of
Cano, a large St. Bernard belonging to Mr. Gaston Leonnard.


Although this breed originated at the celebrated convent of St.
Bernard, it no longer exists there in a state of purity, and in order
to find fine types of it we have to go to special breeders of
Switzerland and England. The famous Plinnlimon, which was bought for
$5,000 by an American two or three years ago, and about which there
was much talk in the papers, even the political ones, was born and
reared in England. It appears that it is necessary, too, to reduce the
number of life-saving acts that it is said are daily performed by the
St. Bernard dogs. This is no longer but a legend. There was, it is
true, a St. Bernard named Barry, now exhibited in a stuffed state in
the Berne Museum, which accomplished wonders in the way of saving
life, but this was an exception, and the reputation of this animal has
extended to all others of its kind. These latter are simply watch dogs
kept by the monks for their own safety, and which do not go at all by
themselves alone to search for travelers that have lost their way in
the snow.

The Newfoundland dog, which differs from the preceding in its wholly
black or black and white coat, was, it appears, also of mountain
origin. According to certain authors, it is indigenous to Norway, and
was carried to Newfoundland by the Norwegian explorers who discovered
the island. Adapted to their new existence, they have become excellent
water dogs, good swimmers, and better life savers by far than the
majority of their congeners.

Is it from descending to the plain that the mountain dogs have lost
their long hair and have become short haired dogs like the English dog
or mastiff and the German or large Danish dogs? It is very probable.
At all events, it is by this character of having short hair that
mastiffs are distinguished from the mountain dogs. Again, the large
breed of dogs are distinguished from each other by the following
characters: The mastiff is not very high at the shoulders (30 inches),
but he is very heavy and thick set, with powerful limbs, large head,
short and wide muzzle and of a yellowish or cafe-au-lait color
accompanying a black face; that is to say, the ears, the circumference
of the eyes and the muzzle are of a very dark color. The German or
large Danish dogs constitute but one breed, but of three varieties,
according to the coat: (1) those whose coat is of a uniform color, say
a slaty gray or isobelline of varying depth, without any white spots;
(2) those having a fawn colored coat striped transversely with black
like the zebra, but much less distinctly; (3) those having a spotted
coat, that is to say, a coat with a white ground strewed with
irregular black spots of varying size. These, like those of the first
variety are generally small-eyed. Whatever be the variety to which
they belong, the German or large Danish dogs are slimmer than, and not
so heavy as, the mastiffs. Some, even, are so light that it might be
supposed that they had some heavier blood in their veins. They have
also a longer muzzle, although square, and are quicker in gait and

The largest dogs are to be met with in this breed, and the beautiful
Danish dog belonging to Prof. Charcot (Fig. 2) is certainly the
largest dog in France and perhaps in Europe. It measures 36 inches at
the shoulders and has an osseous and muscular development perfectly in
keeping with its large stature, and at the same time has admirable
proportions and lightness, and its motions are comparable to those of
the finest horse.


Among the English dogs or mastiffs, we very frequently meet with
individuals in which the upper incisors and canines are placed back of
the corresponding ones in the lower jaw, this being due to a slight
shortening of the bones of the upper jaw, not visible externally. This
is the first degree of an artist of teratological development, which,
since the middle ages, has become very marked in certain subjects, and
has given rise to a variety in which this defect has become
hereditary. Such is the origin of the breed of bulldogs. The latter
were originally as large as the mastiffs. Carried to Spain under
Philip II., they have there preserved their primitive characters, but
the bulldogs remaining in England have continued to degenerate, so
that now the largest are scarcely half the size of the Spanish
bulldog, and the small ones attain hardly the size of the pug,
although they preserve considerable width of chest and muscular


Man hunted for ages with dogs that he united in a pack; but these
packs were of a very heterogeneous composition, since they included
strong dogs, light dogs very swift of foot, shepherds' dogs, and
others noted for acuteness of scent, and even mongrels due to a
crossing with the wolf. It is from the promiscuousness of all these
breeds that has arisen our ordinary modern dog.

The pointer is of relatively recent creation, and is due to the
falconers. In our western countries, falconry dates from the fourth
and fifth centuries, as is proved by the capitularies of Dagobert.
This art, therefore, was not brought to us from the East by the
crusaders in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, as stated by Le
Maout in his Natural History of Birds.

The falconer soon saw the necessity of having a dog of nice scent
having for its role the finding or hunting up of game without pursuing
it, in order to permit the falcons themselves to enter into the sport.
This animal was called the bird dog, and was regarded as coming from
various countries, especially from Spain, whence the name of spaniel
that a breed of pointers has preserved. It is quite curious to find
that for three or four centuries back there have been no spaniels in
Spain. From Italy also and from southern climes comes what is called
the _bracco_, whence doubtless is derived the French name _braque_ and
English brach. Finally the _agasse_ of the Bretons was certainly also
one of the progenitors of our present pointers. It was, says Oppian, a
breed of small and very courageous dogs, with long hair, provided with
strong claws and jaws, that followed hares on the sly under shelter of
vine-stocks and reeds and sportively brought them back to their
masters after they had captured them. We have certainly here the
source of our barbets and griffons.

Finally the net hunters of the middle ages also contributed much to
the creation of the pointer, for it is to them that we owe the setter.
It is erroneously, in fact, that certain authors have attributed the
creation of this dog to hunters with the arquebuse, since this weapon
did not begin to be utilized in hunting until the sixteenth century.
Gaston Phoebus, who died in 1391, shows, in his remarkable work, that
the net hunters made use of Spanish setters and that it was they who
created the true pointer--the animal that fascinates game by its gaze.
By the same pull of their draw net they enveloped in its meshes both
the setter and the prey that it held spellbound.

Upon the whole, we see that at the end of the middle ages there
existed three types of pointers: spaniels, brachs and very hairy dogs,
that Charles Estienne, in his Maison Rustique, of the sixteenth
century, calls barbets. It is again with these three types that are
connected all the present pointers, which we are going to pass rapidly
in review.

_The Brach hounds_.--To-day we reserve the name of brachs for all
pointers with short hair. The type of the old brach still exists in
Italy, Spain, the south of France and in Germany. It is characterized
by its large size, its robust form, its large head, its long, flat
ears, its square muzzle separated from the forehead by a deep
depression, its large nose, often double (that is to say, with
nostrils separated by a deep vertical groove), its pendent lips, its
thick neck, its long and strong paws provided with dew claws, both on
the fore and the hind feet, and its short hair, which is usually white
and marked with brown or orange-yellow spots. The old brach breed has
been modified by the breeders of different countries, either by
hygiene or by crossing with ordinary dogs, according to the manner of
hunting, according to taste, and even according to fashion. Thus in
England, where "time is money" reigns in every thing and where they
like to hunt quickly and not leisurely, the brach has been rendered
lighter and swifter of foot and has become the pointer. In France,
while it has lost a little in size and weight, it has preserved its
moderate gait and has continued to hunt near its master, "under the
gun," as they say. The same is the case in Spain, Italy and Germany
even. In France there are several varieties or sub-breeds of brach
hounds. The old French brach, which is nothing more than the old type,
preserved especially in the south, where it is called the Charles the
Tenth brach, is about twenty-four inches in height, and has a white
and a maroon coat, which is somewhat coarse. It often has a cleft nose
and dew-claws on all the feet. The brach of the south scarcely differs
from the preceding except in color. Its coat has a white ground
covered with pale orange blotches and spots of the same color. The St.
Germain brach is finer bred, and appears to be a pointer introduced
into France in the time of Charles X. It has a very fine skin, very
fine hair of a white and orange color. The Bourbon brach has the
characters of the old French brach, with a white coat marked here and
there with large brown blotches, and the white ground spotted with the
same color; but what particularly characterizes this dog is that it is
born with a stumpy tail, as if three-quarters of it had been chopped
off. The Dupuy brach is slender and has a narrow muzzle, as if it had
some harrier blood in its veins. It is white, with large dark maroon
blotches. The Auvergne brach resembles the southern brach, but has a
white and black coat spotted with black upon white. The pointer, or
English brach (Fig. 3), descends from the old Spanish brach, but has
been improved and rendered lighter and much swifter of foot by the
introduction of the blood of the foxhound into its veins, according to
the English cynegetic authors themselves. The old pointer was of a
white and orange color, and was indistinguishable from our St.
Germain. The pointer now fancied is white and maroon and has a
stronger frame than the pointer of twenty years ago. The Italian
brachs are heavy, with lighter varieties, usually white and orange
color, more rarely _roan_, and provided with dew-claws, this being a
sign of purity of breed according to Italian fanciers. The German
brachs are of the type of the old brach, with a stiff white and
maroon coat, the latter color being so extensively distributed in
spots on the white as to make the coat very dark.

[Illustration: FIG 3.--POINTER.]

_Spaniels_.--The old type of spaniel has nearly disappeared, yet we
still find a few families of it in France, especially in Picardy and
perhaps in a few remote parts of Germany. The old spaniel was of the
same build as the brach, and differed from it in that the head, while
being short-haired, was provided with ears clothed with long, wavy
hair. The same kind of hair also clothed the whole body up to the
tail, where it constituted a beautiful tuft. The Picard spaniel is a
little lighter than the old spaniel. It has large maroon blotches upon
a white ground thickly spotted with maroon, with a touch of flame
color on the cheeks, over the eyes, and on the legs. The Pont-Andemer
spaniel is a Norman variety, with very curly hair, almost entirely
maroon colored, the white parts thickly spotted with a little color as
in the Picard variety, and a characteristic forelock on the top of the

[Illustration: FIG 4.--ENGLISH SETTERS.]

In England, the spaniel has given rise to several varieties. In the
first place there are several sub-breeds of setters, viz.: The English
setter, still called laverack, which has large black or orange-colored
blotches on the head, the rest of the body being entirely white, with
numerous spots of the same color as the markings on the head (Fig. 4);
the Irish setter, which is entirely of a bright yellowish mahogany
color; and the Gordon setter, which is entirely black, with orange
color on the cheeks, under the throat, within and at the extremity of
the limbs (Fig. 5). Next come the field spaniels, a group of terrier
spaniels, which includes the Clumber spaniel, which is white and
orange color; the Sussex spaniel, which is white and maroon; the black
spaniel, which is wholly black; and the cocker, which is the smallest
of all, and is entirely black, and white and maroon, or white and
orange-colored, or tricolored.

[Illustration: FIG 5.--GORDON SETTER.]

_Barbets and Griffons_.--To this latter category belong the dogs, _par
excellence_, for hunting in swamps. The barbets are entirely covered
with long curly hair, like the poodles, which are directly derived
from them. They are white or gray, with large black or brown blotches.
The griffons differ from the poodles in their coarse and stiff hair,
which never curls. They have large brown blotches upon a white ground,
which is much spotted or mixed, as in the color of the hair called
roan. There is an excellent white and orange-colored variety. The
griffons, neglected for a long time on account of the infatuation that
was and is still had for English hunting dogs, are being received
again with that favor which they have never ceased to be the object of
in Germany and in Italy (where they bear the name of _spinone_).
Breeders of merit, such as Mr. Korthals, in Germany, and Mr. E.
Boulet, in France, are endeavoring to bring them into prominence (Fig.
6). Finally, we reckon also among hunting dogs some very happy
crosses between the spaniels and the barbets, which in England are
called retrievers or water spaniels.--_P. Megnin, in La Nature_.

[Illustration: FIG 6.--COARSE HAIRED GRIFFON.]

* * * * *


A few days ago, at Bougival, a short distance below the dam of the
Marly machine, there were put into water 40,000 fry of California
trout and salmon, designed to restock the Seine, which, in this
region, has been depopulated by the explosions of dynamite which last
winter effected the breaking up of the ice jam that formed at this


The operation, which is quite simple in itself, attracted a large
number of inquisitive people by reason of the exceptional publicity
given to the conflict provoked by a government engineer, who, under
the pretext that he had not been consulted, made objections to the
submersion of the little fish. As well known, the affair was
terminated by a sharp reprimand from Mr. Yves Guyot, addressed to his
overzealous subordinate.

It would have been a great pity, moreover, if this interesting
experiment had not taken place, and had not come to corroborate the
favorable results already obtained.

In three years the California salmon reaches a weight of eleven
pounds, and, from this time, is capable of reproduction. Its flesh is
delicious, and comparable to that of the trout, the development of
which is less rapid, but just as sure.

The fry put into the water on Sunday were but two months old. The
trout were, on an average, one and a half inches in length, and the
salmon two and three-quarter inches. They were transported in three
iron plate vessels, weighing altogether, inclusive of the water, 770
lb., and provided with air tubes through which, during the voyage, the
employes, by means of pumps, assured the respiration of the little

Our engraving represents the submersion at the moment at which
the cylinders (of which the temperature has just been taken and
compared with that of the Seine, in order to prevent too abrupt a
transition for the fry) are being carefully let down into the

* * * * *

Figures show that the consumption of iron in general
construction--other than railroads--in this country has grown from a
little more than a million and a half of tons in 1879 to more than six
million tons in 1889. Much of this increase has gone into iron
buildings. By using huge iron frames and thin curtain walls for each
story supported thereon, as is done in a building going up on lower
Broadway, New York city, a good deal of space can be saved.

* * * * *



The building of a navy, which has been actively going on for the past
few years, has drawn public attention to naval subjects, and recent
important experiments with armor plates have attracted large
attention, hence it may not be amiss to give a description of the
manufacture and testing of armor. It would be interesting to wade
through the history of armor, studying each little step in its
development, but we shall simply take a hasty glance at the past, and
then devote our attention to modern armor and its immediate future.

Modern armor has arrived at its present state of development through a
long series of experiments. These experiments have been conducted with
great care and skill, and have been varied from time to time as the
improvements in the manufacture of materials have developed, and as
the physical laws connected with the subject have been better
understood. There has been very little war experience to draw from,
and hence about all that is now known has been acquired in peaceful

The fundamental object to be obtained by the use of armor is to keep
out the enemy's shot, and thus protect from destruction the vulnerable
things that may be behind it. The first serious effort to do this
dates with the introduction of iron armor. With this form of armor we
have had a small amount of war experience. The combat of the Monitor
and Merrimac, in Hampton Roads, in May, 1862, not only marked an epoch
in the development of models of fighting ships, but also marked one in
the use of armor. The Monitor's turret was composed of nine one-inch
plates of wrought iron, bolted together. Plates built in this manner
form what is known as laminated armor. (See Fig. 1.) The side armor of
the hull was composed of four one-inch plates. The Merrimac's casemate
was composed of four one-inch plates or two two-inch plates backed by
oak. The later monitors had laminated armor composed of one-inch
plates. The foregoing, with the Albemarle and Tennessee rams under the
Confederate flag, are about the sum of our practical experience in the
use of armor.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.]

European nations took up the subject of armor and energetically
conducted experiments which have cost large sums of money, but have
given much valuable data. For a long time wrought iron was the only
material used for armor, and the resisting power depending on the
thickness; and the caliber and penetration of guns rapidly increasing,
it was not long before a point was reached where the requisite
thickness made the load of armor so great that it was impracticable
for a ship to carry it. The question then arose as to what were the
most important parts of a ship to protect. The attempted solutions of
this question brought out various systems of distributions.

Armored ships were formerly of two classes; in one the guns were
mounted in broadside, in the other in turrets. Every part of the ship
was protected with iron to a greater or less thickness. In more modern
ships the guns are mounted in an armored citadel, in armored barbettes
or turrets, the engines, boilers and waterline being the only other
parts protected. There may be said to be three systems of armor
distribution. The belt system consists in protecting the whole
waterline by an armored belt, the armor being thickest abreast of the
engines and boilers. The guns are protected by breastworks, turrets or
barbettes, the other parts of the ship being unprotected. The French
use the belt system, and our own monitors may be classed under it. The
central citadel system consists in armoring that part of the waterline
which is abreast of the engines and boilers. Forward and aft the
waterline is unprotected, but a protective deck extends from the
citadel in each direction, preventing the projectiles from entering
the compartments below. The hull is divided into numerous compartments
by water-tight bulkheads, and, having a reserve of flotation, the
stability of the ship is not lost, even though the parts above the
protective deck, forward and aft, be destroyed or filled with water.
The guns are protected by turrets or barbettes. The deflective system
consists in inclining the armor, or in so placing it that it will be
difficult or impossible to make a projectile strike normal to the face
of the plate. A plate that is inclined to the path of a projectile
will, of course, offer greater resistance to penetration than one
which is perpendicular; hence, when there is no other condition to
outweigh this one, the armor is placed in such a manner as to be at
the smallest possible angle with the probable path of the projectile.
This system is designed to cause the projectile to glance or deflect
on impact. Deflective armor should be at such an angle that the
projectiles fired at it cannot bite, and hence the angle will vary
according to the projectile most likely to be used. In the usual form
of deflective deck the armor is at such a small inclination with the
horizon that it becomes very effective. Turret and barbette armor may
be considered as deflective armor. The term inclined armor denotes
deflective armor that is inclined to the vertical. The kinds of armor
that are in use may be designated as rolled iron, chilled cast iron,
compound, forged and tempered steel, and nickel steel. Iron armor
consists of wrought iron plates, rolled or forged, and of cast iron or
chilled cast iron, as in the Gruson armor. Compound armor consists of
a forged combination of a steel plate and an iron plate. Steel armor
consists of wrought steel plates. Nickel-steel armor consists of
plates made from an alloy of nickel and steel.

I have spoken above of laminated armor. To secure the full benefit of
this kind, the plates must be neatly fitted to each other; the
surfaces must make close contact. This requires accurate machining,
and hence is expensive. To overcome this point sandwiched armor was
suggested. This consists in placing a layer of wood between the
laminations, as shown in Fig. 2. It was found that laminated and
sandwiched armor gave very much less resisting power than solid rolled
plates of the same thickness. Wrought iron armor is made under the
hammer or under the rolls, in the ordinary manner of making plates,
and has been exhaustively studied and experimented with--more so than
any other form of armor.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.]

Chilled cast iron armor is manufactured by Gruson, in Germany, and is
used in sea coast defense forts of Europe.

In 1867 several compound plates were made by Chas. Cammell & Co., of
Sheffield, England, and were tested at Shoeburyness, in England, and
at Tegel, in Russia. These plates were made by welding slabs of steel
to iron; but the difficulties were so great that the idea was
abandoned for the time.

[Illustration: Fig. 3.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.]

Compound armor, as now manufactured, is of two types: Wilson's patent,
a backing of rolled iron, faced with Bessemer steel; Ellis' patent, a
backing of rolled iron, faced with a plate of hard rolled steel,
cemented with a layer of Bessemer steel. Both these kinds are
manufactured in England and France in sizes up to fifty tons weight.
The Wilson process is used at the works of Messrs. Cammell & Co., of
Sheffield, England, and the Ellis process at the Atlas Works of Sir
John Brown & Co., of the same place. These are the two leading
manufacturers of compound plate.

[Illustration: Fig. 5.]

The method employed by Wilson in making compound plate is to first
make a good wrought iron plate. To the surface of this and along each
side of the length of the plate are fixed two small channel irons, as
shown in Fig. 5. The plate is then raised to a welding heat in a gas
furnace, and transferred to an iron flask or mould. Wedges are driven
in between the back of the plate and the side of the mould, thus
forcing the channel irons up snug against the opposite side of the
mould. Moulding sand is then packed around the back and sides of the
plate (see Fig. 6). The mould is lowered in a vertical position into a
pit. Molten steel, manufactured by either the Siemens-Martin or
Bessemer process, is then poured in through a trough that forms
several streams, and forms the hard face of the plate. The molten
steel as it runs down cleans the face of the wrought iron plate,
scoring it in places, and, being of much higher temperature, the
excessive heat carbonates the iron to a depth of one-eighth to
three-sixteenths of an inch, forming a zone of mild steel between the
hard steel and soft iron. The mould is placed in a vertical position
to insure closeness of structure and the forcing of gases out of the
steel. After solidifying, the whole plate is pressed, and passed
through the rolls to obtain thorough welding. It is then bent, planed,
fitted, tempered, and annealed to remove internal strains.

[Illustration: Fig. 6.]

In 1887, Wilson took out a patent for improvements in his process of
making compound plates. In this method of manufacture he takes a
wrought iron, fibrous plate, fifteen inches thick, built up from a
number of thin plates. While hot from the forging press, he places
this plate in an iron mould (see Fig. 7) about 28 inches deep, and
upon it runs "ingot iron" or very mild steel to a depth of thirteen
inches. In this form of mould the plate rests on brickwork, and is
held in place by two grooved side clamps or strips which are caused to
grip the plate by means of screws which extend through the sides of
the mould. After solidifying, the plate, which is twenty-eight inches
thick, is reheated and rolled down to eighteen inches. This is the
iron backing of the finished plate, and it is again put in the iron
mould and heated, when a layer of hard steel is run on the exposed
surface of the original wrought iron plate to a depth of eight inches.
This makes a plate about twenty-eight inches thick. It is taken from
the mould, reheated, rolled, hammered or pressed down to twenty
inches. After cooling, it is bent, planed, and fitted as desired, then
tempered and annealed to relieve internal strains.

[Illustration: Fig. 7.]

The method employed by Ellis in making compound plates is to take two
separate plates, one of good wrought iron and one of hard forged
steel, placing the forged steel plate on the wrought iron plate,
keeping them separate by a wedge frame or berm of steel around three
sides, and placing small blocks of steel at various points near the
middle of the plates (see Fig. 8). These blocks are called distance
blocks. After covering all the exposed steel surfaces with ganister,
the plates are put in a gas furnace and heated to a welding heat. They
are then lowered into a vertical iron pit with the open side
uppermost. The plates are held in position by hydraulic rams, which
also prevent bulging. Molten steel of medium softness is then poured
into the space between the plates, by means of a distributing trough
having holes in the bottom, and after this has solidified, the whole
plate is placed under the hydraulic press and reduced about twenty per
cent. in thickness. The plate is then passed through the rolls, bent,
planed, fitted, tempered, and annealed to reduce internal strains.

[Illustration: Fig. 8.]

In heating the compound plates for rolling, the plate is placed in the
furnace with the steel face down, so that the iron part gets well
heated and the steel does not become too hot. Great care must be taken
not to overheat the plate, and in working, many passes are given the
plate with small closings of the rolls. The steel part of a compound
plate is usually about one third of the full thickness of the plate.

Forged steel armor, tempered in oil, is fabricated at Le Creusot,
France, by Schneider & Co., using open-hearth steel, and forging under
the 100 ton hammer. The ingots are cast, with twenty-five per cent.
sinking head and are cubical in form. The porter bar is attached to a
lug on one side of the ingot. By means of a crane with a curved jib
which gives springiness under the hammer, the ingot is thrust into the
heating furnace. On arriving at a good forging heat it is swung around
to the 100 ton hammer, under which it is worked down to the required
shape. A seventy-five ton ingot requires about eight reheatings before
being reduced to shape. Having been reduced to shape, the plate is
carefully annealed, then raised to a high tempering heat, and the face
tempered in oil. It is reannealed to take out the internal strains,
care being taken not to reduce the face hardness more than necessary.
The Schneider process of tempering is based upon the utilization of
the absorption of heat caused by the fusing or melting of a solid
substance, and of the fact that so long as a solid is melting or
dissolving in a liquid substance, the liquid cannot get appreciably
hotter, except locally around the heating surface. The body to be
hardened is plunged at the requisite temperature into a bath
containing the solid melting body, or is kept under pressure in the
solid material of low melting point until the required extraction of
heat has taken place, more solid material being added if necessary as
that originally present melts and dissolves.

Nickel steel armor is made in a similar manner to the steel plates,
the material used in casting the ingot being an alloy of nickel and
steel containing between three and four per cent. of nickel.

The Harvey process of making armor consists in taking an all-steel
plate and carbonizing the face. This carbonizing process is very
similar to the cementation process of producing steel, and by it the
face of the plate is made high in carbon and very hard.

The system invented by Sir Joseph Whitworth, of Manchester, England,
consists in what might be called scale armor. A section of a sample of
the armor represents four plates. The outer layer, one inch thick, is
composed of steel of a tensile strength of 80 tons per square inch;
the second layer, one inch thick, of steel whose tensile strength is
40 tons per square inch; the third and fourth layers, each one-half
inch thickness, of mild steel. The outer layer is in small squares of
about ten inches on a side, and is fastened to the second layer by
bolts at the corners and one in the middle of each square. The surface
is flush. (See Fig. 9.) The end sought by the above system is to break
up the shot by the hard steel face and to restrict any starring or
cracking of the metal to the limit of the squares or scales struck.
The bolts are of high carbon and are extremely hard steel.

[Illustration: Fig. 9.]

Armor plates must often be bent or curved to single or double
curvature and sometimes to a warped surface to fit the form of the
ship. There are several methods of bending plates. One method employs
a cast iron slab of the required form, which is placed on the piston
of a hydraulic press. The armor plate is placed face down on this
slab, and on top of the plate are laid packing blocks of cast iron, of
such sizes and shapes as to conform to the required curve. These
blocks take against the upper table of the press, when the piston is
forced up, and the hot plate is thus dished to the proper form.

In the French method of bending, an anvil or bed plate of the required
curve is used, and the armor plate is forced to take the curve by
being hammered all over its upper surface with a specially designed
steam hammer.

The edges of the plate are trimmed by large, powerful slotting
machines or circular saws; the latter, however, operate in exactly the
same manner as a slotter, except that there is no return motion to the
tool. Each tooth of the saw is but a slotting tool, and these teeth
are, by screws, rendered capable of being nicely adjusted in the
circumference of the saw.

The plates are fastened to the hulls and backing by heavy bolts,
varying in size according to the weight of the individual plate. For
the 6,000 ton armored ships, these bolts are from 2.75 to 3.1 inches
in diameter and from 18.45 to 23 inches in length. They are tapped two
or three inches into the armor and do not go through the plate. They
pass through wrought iron tubes in the backing and set up with cups,
washers and nuts against the inner skin of the ship.

At steel works where plates for our new navy are being manufactured,
there are inspectors who look after the government's interests.
Officers of the navy are detailed for this work, and their duty is to
watch the manufacture of plates through each part of the process and
to see that the conditions of the specifications and contract are
complied with.

The inspection and testing of armor plates consists in examining them
for pits, scales, laminations, forging cracks, etc., in determining
the chemical analysis of specimens taken from different parts, in
determining the physical qualities of specimens taken longitudinally
and transversely, and the ballistic test. Specifications for these
different tests are constantly undergoing change, and it would be
impossible to state, with exactness, what the requirements are or will
be in the near future. The ballistic test is the important one, and is
made by taking one plate of a group and subjecting it to the fire of a
suitable gun. The other tests are simply to insure, as far as
practicable, that all the other plates of the group are similar to and
are capable of standing as severe a ballistic test as the test plate.

The following will give an idea of the ballistic test as prescribed by
the Bureau of Ordnance, Navy Department. The test plate, irrespective
of its thickness, is to be backed by thirty-six inches of oak or other
substantial wood. Near the middle region of the plate an equilateral
triangle will be marked, each side of which will be three and one-half
calibers long. The lower side of the triangle will be horizontal.
Three shots will be fired, the points of impact being as near as
possible the extremities of the triangle. The velocity of the shot
will be such as to give the projectile sufficient energy to just pass
through a wrought iron plate of equal thickness to the test plate, and
through its wood backing. The velocity is calculated by the Gavre

V squared = --- { 3507 E squared x 2265464 e^{1.4} }

[TEX: V^2 = \frac{a}{w} \{ 3507 \ E^2 \times 2265464 \ e^{1.4} \}]

V = the velocity of the projectile in feet per second.
a = the diameter of the projectile in inches.
w = the weight of the projectile in pounds.
E = the thickness of the backing in inches.
e = the thickness of the plate in inches.

Using the above formula we can make out a table as follows:

Plate. |Backi'g| Gun, service| w, | a, | V. | Energy, |
Inches.|Inches.| shot. |Pounds.|Inches.| f. 8.| Impact. |
| | | | | | f. tons.|
6 | 36 | 6" B.L.R. | 100 | 5.96 | 1389 | 1337 |
7 | 36 | 6" " | 100 | 5.96 | 1528 | 1619 |
8 | 36 | 8" " | 250 | 7.96 | 1213 | 2550 |
9 | 36 | 8" " | 250 | 7.96 | 1308 | 2966 |
10 | 36 | 8" " | 250 | 7.96 | 1399 | 3390 |
11 | 36 | 8" " | 250 | 7.96 | 1489 | 3839 |
12 | 36 | 10" " | 500 | 9.96 | 1247 | 5386 |
13 | 36 | 10" " | 500 | 9.96 | 1315 | 5987 |
14 | 36 | 10" " | 500 | 9.96 | 1381 | 6608 |
15 | 36 | 12" " | 850 | 11.96 | 1215 | 8699 |
16 | 36 | 12" " | 850 | 11.96 | 1269 | 9710 |
17 | 36 | 12" " | 850 | 11.96 | 1332 | 10454 |
18 | 36 | 12" " | 850 | 11.96 | 1374 | 11124 |
19 | 36 | 12" " | 850 | 11.96 | 1425 | 11965 |
20 | 36 | 12" " | 850 | 11.96 | 1476 | 12837 |

No projectile or fragment of the plate or projectile must get wholly
through the plate and backing. The plate must not break up or give
such cracks as to expose the backing, previous to the third shot.

The penetration of projectiles of different forms into various styles
of armor has been very thoroughly studied and many attempts have been
made to bring the subject down to mathematical formulae. These formulae
are based on several suppositions, and agree very closely with results
obtained in actual experiments, but there are so many varying
conditions that it is extremely doubtful if any formulae will ever be
written that will properly express the penetration.

Many different forms have been given to the heads of projectiles, as
flat, ogival, hemispherical, conoidal, parabolic, blunt trifaced, etc.

The flat headed projectile has the shape of a right cylinder, and acts
like a punch, driving the material of the armor plate in front of it.
These projectiles are especially valuable when firing at oblique
armor, for they will bite or cut into the armor when striking at an
angle of thirty degrees.

The ogival head acts more as a wedge, pushing the metal aside, and
generally will give more penetration in thick solid plates than the
flat headed projectile. The ogival head is usually designed by using a
radius of two calibers.

The hemispherical, conoidal, parabolic and blunt trifaced all give
more or less of the wedging effect. The blunt trifaced has all the
good qualities of the ogival of two calibers. It bites at a slightly
less angle, and the three faces start cracks radiating from the point
of impact.

Forged steel is the best material for armor-piercing projectiles, but
many are made of chilled cast iron, on account of its great hardness
and cheapness.

The best weight for a projectile is found by the formula

w = d cubed (0.45 to 0.5)

w being the weight in pounds, d the diameter in inches and 0.45 to 0.5
having been determined by experiment.

With a light projectile we get a flat trajectory, and accuracy at
short ranges is increased. With a heavy projectile the resistance of
the air has less effect and the projectile is advantageously employed
at long ranges.

In the following formulae, used in calculating the penetration of
projectiles in rolled iron armor,

g = the force of gravity.
w = the weight of projectile in pounds.
d = the diameter of projectile in inches.
v = the striking velocity in feet per second.
P = the penetration in inches.

Major Noble, R.A., gives

1.6 / w v squared
P = /\ / ----------------
\/ [pi] g d 11334.4

[TEX: P = \sqrt[1.6]{\frac{w \ v^2}{\pi \ g \ d \ 11334.4}}]

U.S. Naval Ordnance Proving Ground uses

2.035/ w v squared
P = /\ / ---------------
\/ [pi] g d 3852.8

[TEX: P = \sqrt[2.035]{\frac{w \ v^2}{\pi \ g \ d \ 3852.8}}]

Col. Maitland gives

w v squared
P = ------------
g d squared 16654.4

[TEX: P = \frac{w \ v^2}{g \ d^2 \ 16654.4}]

Maitland's latest formula, now used in England, is

v /w
P = ----- \/ - - 0.14 d
608.3 d

[TEX: P = \frac{v}{608.3} \sqrt{\frac{w}{d}} - 0.14 \ d]

General Froloff, Russian army, gives

w v
P = ------
d squared 576

[TEX: P = \frac{w \ v}{d^2 \ 576}]

for plates less than two and one-half inches thick, and

w v
P = ------ - 1.5
d squared 400

[TEX: P = \frac{w \ v}{d^2 \ 400} - 1.5]

for plates more than two and one-half inches thick.

If [theta] be the angle between the path of the projectile and the
face of the plate, then v in the above formulae becomes v sin [theta].

When we come to back the plates, their power to resist penetration
becomes greater, and our formula changes. The Gavre formula, given
above, is used to determine the velocity necessary for a projectile to
pass entirely through an iron plate and its wood backing.

Compound and steel armor are said to give about 29 per cent. more
resisting power than wrought iron, but in one experiment at the
proving ground, at Annapolis, a compound plate gave over 50 per cent.
more resisting power than wrought iron.

The Italian government, after most expensive and elaborate comparative
tests, has decided in favor of the Creusot or Schneider all-steel
plates, and has established a plant for their manufacture at Terni,
near Rome.

The French use both steel and compound plates; the Russians, compound;
the Germans, compound; the Swedes and Danes use both. Spain has
adopted and accepted the Creusot plate for its new formidable armored
vessel, the Pelayo; and China too has recently become a purchaser of
Creusot plates.

Certain general rules may be laid down for attacking armor. If the
armor is iron, it is useless to attack with projectiles having less
than 1,000 feet striking velocity for each caliber in thickness of
plate. It is unadvisable to fire steel or chilled iron filled shells
at thick armor, unless a normal hit can be made. When perforation is
to be attempted, steel-forged armor-piercing shells, unfilled, should
be used. They may be filled if the guns are of great power as compared
to the armor. Steel and compound armor are not likely to be pierced by
a single blow, but continued hammering may break up the plate, and
that with comparatively low-powered guns.

Wrought iron must be perforated, and hard armor, compound or steel,
must be broken up. Against wrought iron plates the projectile may be
made of chilled cast iron, but hard armor exacts for its penetration
or destruction the use of steel, forged and tempered. Against
unarmored ships, and against unarmored portions of ironclads, the
value of rapid-firing guns, especially those of large caliber, can
hardly be overestimated.

The relative value of steel and compound armor is much debated, and at
present the rivalry is great, but the weight of evidence and opinion
seems to favor the all-steel plate. The hard face of a compound plate
is supposed to break up the projectile, that is, make the projectile
expend its energy on itself rather than upon the plate, and the
backing of wrought iron is, by its greater ductility, to prevent the
destruction of the plate. It seems probable that these two systems
will approach each other as the development goes on. An alloy of
nickel and steel is now attracting attention and bids fair to give
very good results.

The problem to be solved, as far as naval armor is concerned, is to
get the greatest amount of protection with the least possible weight
and volume, and this reduction of weight and volume must be
accomplished, in the main, by reducing the thickness of the plates by
increasing the resisting power of the material. In the compound plate
great surface hardness is readily and safely attained, but it has not
yet been definitely determined what the proper proportionate thickness
of iron and steel is.

A considerable thickness of steel is necessary to aid, by its
stiffness, in preventing the very ductile iron from giving back to
such an extent as to distort the steel face and thus tear or separate
the parts of the plate. The ductile iron gives a very low resisting
power, its duty being to hold the steel face up to its work. If now we
substitute a soft steel plate in the place of the ductile iron, we
will get greater resisting power, but our compound plate then becomes
virtually an all-steel one, only differing in process of manufacture.
The greatest faults of the compound plate are the imperfect welding of
the parts and the lack of solidity of the iron. When fired at, the
surface has a tendency to chip.

In the all-steel plate we have the greatest resisting power
throughout, but there are manufacturing difficulties, and surface
hardness equal to that of the compound plate has not been obtained.
The manufacturing difficulties are being gradually overcome, and
artillerists are in high hopes that the requisite surface hardness
will soon be obtained.

The following may be stated as well proved:

1. That steel armor promises to replace both iron and compound.

2. That projectiles designed for the piercing of hard armor must be
made of steel.

3. That the larger the plate, the better it is able to absorb the
energy of impact without injury to itself.


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