The City of Domes
John D. Barry
Part 3 out of 3
Cleopatra's Needle repeated on edge of arches. Used by the Egyptians as
historical records and public bulletins. Merely decorative.
Green jars, beautifully designed, in niches at base of Arches of Rising
and Setting Sun, McKim, Mead & White. Eight in each arch.
Arch of the Rising Sun, surmounted by group representing types of
Oriental civilization. "Nations of the East," designed by Calder, and
executed in collaboration with Lentelli and Roth. From left to right:
Arab sheik on horse, negro slave, Egyptian on camel, Arab falconer,
Indian prince, Buddhist priest or lama from Thibet, Mohammedan with
crescent, negro slave, and Mongolian on horseback.
Murals in arch by Edward Simmons, of New York. On north wall, from left
to right, True Hope and False Hope, Commerce, Inspiration, Truth,
Religion, Wealth, Family; in background Asiatic and American cities. On
south wall: historical types, nations that have crossed the Atlantic;
from left to right, "Call to Fortune," listening to the past, the
workman, the artist, the priest, Raleigh the adventurer, Columbus the
discoverer, the savage of lost Atlantis, the Graeco-Roman, and the
Spirit of Adventure sounding the call to fortune. In background, ancient
and modern ships.
Arch of Setting Sun. Statues, frieze, spandrels, parapet, identical with
Arch of Rising Sun. Group on top, "The Nations of the West," designed by
Calder, executed in collaboration with Lentelli and Roth. American
figures grouped around prairie wagon, drawn by two oxen. Above wagon,
"Enterprise"; in front, "The Mother of Tomorrow," white boy on one side,
colored boy on other; south, a French-Canadian, an Alaskan woman, a
Spanish-American, a German; north, an Italian, British-American, squaw,
Quotations on Arch of Setting Sun, chosen by Garnett. Panels from left
to right, facing court: "In Nature's infinite book of secrecy a little I
can read," from "Antony and Cleopatra," by Shakespeare, the English
"Facing west from California's shores,
Inquiring, tireless, seeking what is yet unfound,
I, a child, very old, over waves, toward the house of maternity, the
land of migrations, look afar,
Look off the shores of my Western sea, the circle almost circled. from
"Leaves of Grass," by Walt Whitman the American poet; "Truth, witness
of the past, councillor of the present, guide of the future," from "Don
Quixote," by Cervantes, the Spanish novelist.
Murals in Arch of the Setting Sun, by Frank Vincent Du Mond of New York.
"Westward March of Civilization," beginning on north and continuing on
south wall. Four groups in north panel, from left to right, Emigrants
setting out for the west; two workmen and a woman holding child;
symbolic figure of the Call to Fortune; types of those who crossed the
continent, the driver, the Preacher, the Pioneer, the Judge, the
Schoolmistress, the children; youth bidding farewell to parents; in
background, New England home and meeting place. South wall: four groups
in panel, from left to right; two Spanish-American soldiers and captain
with a Spanish priest, suggesting Mission period; symbolical figure
"Spirit of Enlightenment"; types of immigrants, the Scientist, the
Architect, the Writer Bret Harte, the Sculptor, the Painter William
Keith, the Agriculturist, the Laborer, women and children; California
welcoming the easterners, figures of California bear, farmer, miner,
fruit pickers; orange tree, grain and fruit, symbols of state.
Classic groups at head of steps in front of arches leading down into
gardens by Paul Manship, of New York. North side, "The Dancing Girls";
south, "Music and Art."
Star-figure, along upper edge of court, by Calder. Repeated ninety
times. Contrast with angel in front of arches.
Lion's head, on cornice below star-figure, repeated around court.
Gilt balls on the domes of all six pavilions. Represent an ornamental
motive borrowed from the Byzantines and often used on synagogues. A
feature of St. Mark's. Dr. Jacob Nieto, rabbi of the Temple Israel, of
San Francisco, has an interesting theory as to their origin. "The
ancients always had the greatest regard for the central star of each of
the constellations that made tip the zodiacal signs. No doubt in their
method of representation they would symbolize the central stars by a
globe, as they also did the sun and the moon, looking upon them all as
servants of the earth, and having, possibly, no idea that these other
constellations might be separate solar systems."
Frieze on pavilions at corners of court, "Signs of the Zodiac," Atlas
and fourteen daughters, seven Pleiades and seven Hyades twelve bearing
plaques, by Herman A. MacNeil, of New York. On four sides of each of the
six dome-covered pavilions. The third figure from the end on either side
represents Electra. Sculptor, in modelling the form, put it on one side
and then reversed it on the other side. The daughters of Atlas: only
those representing signs of the Zodiac, have shields. On each shield is
one of the signs of the Zodiac. What the sculptor has designed on the
right is reversed on the left, securing absolute symmetry. The figures
are finely done and merit special attention.
Lamps around sunken garden. Women; the Canephori, priestesses who
carried baskets in ancient Greek religious festivals; men, suggestive of
Hermes, used by Romans at ends of roads. Instead of baskets, they all
"Fountain of the Rising Still." Ninety-foot column crowned by figure of
Rising Sun, by Adolph A. Weinman, of New York. Reliefs at base of
column, "Day Triumphant"; Time, Light, Truth, Energy, conquering
Falsehood, Vice, and Darkness. Ornamental figures under upper bowl
looking down into water, suggest Neptune, but are winged, "Spirit of the
"Fountain of Setting Sun." Column with figure of Setting Sun, a woman;
called also "Descending Night." Reliefs at base of fountain, "Gentle
Powers of Night," with Dusk covering Labor, Love, and Peace, followed by
the Stars, Luna, Illusions, and Evening Mists.
Tritons in pools of Fountains of Rising and Setting Sun, by Weinman. Two
statues; one, triton struggles with snake; in the other, with fish. Two
duplicated in each pool.
Sheetlike appearance of water when full force of water is on; streams
from figures in pool, overflowing from bowl, spouting from lion heads
"The Elements," reclining figures at head of main stairs leading down to
sunken gardens by Robert Aitken, of New York. In size and treatment,
suggestive of Michael Angelo. Northeast, "Water," riding a wave, with
his trident in one hand, sea weed in the other. Northwest, "Fire," a
Greek warrior lies in agony, grasping fire and lightning, with Phoenix,
bird of flame, at back, and the salamander, reptile of fire, under his
right leg. Southeast, "Earth," a woman leaning against a tree,
apparently sleeping; at back two human figures struggle to uproot tree,
symbol of man's war with nature. Southwest "Air" woman holding star to
ear; birds, symbol of air; Icarus, mythological aviator who fell into
sea, tied to wings of woman, typifying man's effort to conquer the air.
Small lion fountains below "The Elements," by McKim, Mead & White.
Bandstand, Arabic; picturesque, but inharmonious; obstructs view through
Four tigers at base of bandstand, facing pool; decorative.
Court leading from gardens to Column of Progress. Designs repeated in
frieze and in jeweled lamps of shell design, McKim, Mead & White; fine
Colonnades on either side of court leading to Marina. Large Roman
hanging lamps. Stars in ceilings. Beauty in design, coloring and sweep
Frieze around main doorway in colonnades, bird and conventionalized
foliage; skilfully designed.
On the Marina
View from Marina: Extreme right, Berkeley and Oakland; in center of bay,
Alcatraz Island, like a white citadel; left of Alcatraz, Angel Island;
left of Angel Island, Belvedere; left, Marin County, including Sausalito
and Mount Tamalpais, with military reservation facing the Golden Gate
and looking across to the large military reservation, Presidio.
Column of Progress, celebrating the Progress of Man. Preliminary sketch
by Calder. W. Symmes Richardson, architect. Reliefs at base, by Isidore
Konti, of New York. Surmounting statue, by Hermon A. MacNeil, of New
Tablets on four sides of base, in commemoration of aerial advancement.
To the west, the scientific phase, a tribute to Langley, who first
solved the problem of flying. To the north, aerial achievement. To the
east, aerial organization. To the south, history of flying.
Frieze at base on four sides celebrates beginning of progress. On south
front, two women holding palm branches, symbol of victory, call mankind
Wreath at base of column, reward of achievement.
Top of pedestal, ornamental garland, with figure of Sphinx at corners.
Spiral, winding around column, with ships in full sail, suggestive of
upward progress of world. Similar spiral on Column of Trajan and Column
of Marcus Aurelius, in Rome.
Circular frieze sustaining main group at top, "The Burden Bearers," by
Group on top, "The Adventurous Bowman," the Superman, representing
moment of attainment. Three figures, the dominating male, with the male
supporter steadying his arm, and the devoted woman ready to crown him
First use of this kind of column for an idealistic conception.
Prototypes of this column, like Trajan's Column, but to celebrate some
warlike figure or feat.
Best place to view column, from north, near California Building.
Esplanade, straight northern wall, broken by Court of Four Seasons,
Court of the Universe, and Court of the Ages. Northern facades of all
four buildings, ornate doors in duplicate of Spanish plateresque
Main doorways, rich detail. Statues in niches, by Allen Newman, of New
York. Center, "Conquistador," sixteenth century Spanish adventurer.
Figure on either side in duplicate, Newman's "Pirate," who preyed on
shore commerce of South America. Humorous touch in bowlegs.
Magnificent view from Marina of San Francisco back of the Tower Of
Jewels. Like a painting by Cezanne.
Approaching the Court of Four Seasons From the Court of the Universe
Palaces on sides of court; to the north, Agriculture; to the south,
Quotation on Arch of Setting Sun, facing Venetian Court, chosen by
Garnett. Panels from left to right: "The world is in its most excellent
state when justice is supreme," from Dante, the Italian poet; "It is
absolutely indispensable for the United States to effect a passage from
the Mexican Gulf to the Pacific Ocean, and I am certain that they will
do it. Would that I might live to see it. But I shall not," from Goethe,
the German poet; "The Universe, an infinite sphere, the center
everywhere, the circumference no where," from Pascal, the French
Italian Renaissance architecture.
Colors rich and well harmonized; pink and green.
Picturesque lattice work in small doorways.
Lighting standards, by Faville.
Goats' heads at top of standards, just below the globe.
Arches on sides, coupled Corinthian columns. Endeavor to make them more
interesting than formal type of fluted columns. Four designs. They add
to richness of court.
Winged figures over arches, by Faville.
Blue medallions above arches, Faville. Italian adaptation of Byzantine,
Ship of State, the Bison, the Twins holding garlands representing
abundance, the horn of plenty and cadeucus, and tree.
Coloring under eaves, bright shades, blue and orange.
Planting, by McLaren, well-massed, in great profusion.
Court of Four Seasons
Court of Four Seasons, Henry Bacon, of New York, architect. Hadrian's
Villa used as model for half-dome and columns in front of fountain.
Italian Renaissance in feeling. Every detail in classic spirit. Gives
impression of seclusion and peace.
Quotations on gateways chosen by Garnett. On the eastern gateway, "So
forth issew'd the seasons of the yeare - first, lusty spring all dight
in leaves and flowres - then came the jolly sommer being dight in a thin
cassock coloured greene, then came the autumne all in yellow clad -
lastly came winter cloathed all in frize, chattering his teeth for cold
that did him chill," from "The Faerie Queene," by Edmund Spenser. On the
western gateway, "For lasting happiness we turn our eyes to one alone,
and she surrounds you now, great nature, refuge of the weary heart and
only balm to breasts that have been bruised. She bath cool hands for
every fevered brow and gentlest silence for the troubled soul," from
"The Triumph of Bohemia," by George Sterling.
Palaces around court: northeast, Agriculture; northwest, Food Products;
southwest, Education; southeast, Liberal Arts.
Emerald pool. Surrounded by shrubbery. No sculpture. Architectural term,
a "black mirror." Fine reflections.
Planting, by McLaren, simple and effective. Trees, olive, acacia,
eucalyptus, cypress, laurel. All foliage, grey-green; banner poles same
Banners, by Ryan; no heraldic designs.
Best view of court from between columns of Fountains of Spring or
Bulls at sides, above entrance to north court, "Feast of the Sacrifice,"
by Albert Jaegers, of New York. Youth and maiden leading bulls to
harvest festival, suggested by great garlands.
Roman eagles below bulls on four corners of north court.
Bull's head with festoons, skull motive, at base of corner pavilions at
four corners of north court, Roman.
Lion's head around cornice, designed by the architect, modelled by
artisans of Exposition.
Bulls' heads above cornices between festoons of flowers around court.
Statue above south dome, "Harvest," by Albert Jaegers. Seated figure
with horn of plenty. Fruits and grains on either side.
"Abundance," statue repeated four times over each gateway, by August
Vases repeated twenty-four times on balustrade around court; simple
design, in harmony with classic plan of court.
Wreaths above cornice around court, harvest motive, wheat and grape.
Figures in triangular spaces over three arches of each gateway,
repeated. By August Jaegers. Harvest motive.
In ceiling of east and west arches, faint relief, terra-cotta effect,
Greek designs; coloring, orange, faint greens, and browns.
Signs of zodiac on gateways, Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo,
Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces.
Half-dome to south, "Niche of Ceres." Rich coloring in vault, contrasted
with light tones in arched section.
Figures on composite columns at right and left of half-dome, "Rain" and
"Sunshine," Albert Jaegers. "Rain," a woman shielding head with mantle
and holding shell; "Sunshine," woman shading head from sun with palm
Capitals of columns of "Rain" and "Sunshine," agricultural figures,
small harvesters. Modelled by Donnelly and Ricci after designs of the
Pedestals at base of columns, agricultural scenes in low relief,
modelled by Donnelly and Ricci after designs of the architect. Farmers
going to work with women and children and dog.
In niches at corners of court, "Fountains of the Seasons," surmounted by
statue groups representing seasons, Furio Piccirilli, of New York.
Delicate pink tinting of walls in niches, by Guerin, in imitation of
Columns of colonnades, Ionic, with harvest suggestion in ears of corn
hanging from capitals, flower at top.
Flower boxes, in walls of niches near top and at top; African dew plant
hanging over edge; give note of age and break sharp outline of wall
against sky, and contrast with color of background.
Southwest corner, "Spring," by Piccirilli. Young woman with floral
garland, man adoring, Flora bringing flowers.
Northwest corner, "Summer," by Piccirilli. Group expresses fruition.
Woman brings child to husband. Laborer with first sheaf from field.
Northeast corner, "Autumn," by Piccirilli. Young woman carrying wine
jar, suggests fruitfulness. Harvest of fields and human race; one girl
offers grapes, other a child.
Southeast corner, "Winter," by Piccirilli. Bare tree at back; laborer
rests after tilling; one begins to sow, preparing for spring.
Murals in colonnades with fountains, by H. Milton Bancroft. Simple and
obvious, in the pagan spirit.
Above doorway in southwest corner, Spring. "Spring" and "Seedtime."
Northwest corner, Summer. "Summer" and "Fruition."
Northeast corner, Autumn. "Autumn" and "Harvest."
Southeast corner, Winter. "Festivity" and "Winter."
Murals in half-dome to south, Bancroft. Coloring and arrangement of
figures finer than in smaller panels.
On east wall under dome, "Art Crowned by Time." Father Time crowns Art;
on one side, figures of Weaving, Jewelry Making, Glassmaking; on other
Printing, Pottery, and Smithery.
"Man Receiving Instruction in Nature's Laws." Woman holds before a child
a tablet inscribed "Laws of Nature." Nature's laws applied to Earth,
Water, Fire, Love, Life, and Death.
North court, entrance to Court of Four Seasons. Wreaths, lion heads,
bulls' beads, harvest design on capitals of columns, repeated.
"Ceres," by Miss Beatrice Evelyn Longman, goddess of agriculture, wreath
of cereals and corn scepter. Figure conventional, prim and modish;
Figures below "Ceres" on drum represent carefree nature. In deep relief.
cameo-like. Figures of women, gracefully modeled, with garlands and
Satyrs spout water into bowl of fountain.
Trees, yews in couples, on either side of walks and center of lawn;
redwoods and eucalypti at sides of entrance to court.
Shiny-leaved dark green shrub, on borders in court, coprosma.
Mass of green, placed at end of court to hide Morro Castle. Deepens
intimate note of court.
French lighting standards at north end of court, by Ryan and Denneville.
Aisle of Sunset
Aisle approaching the Palace of Fine Arts, leading from Court of Four
Seasons, west to Administration Avenue, by Faville.
Central portal, Spanish Renaissance, with twisted Byzantine columns.
Globe above, symbolical of universal education.
Main sculptural group: "Education," by Gustave Gerlach, Weehawken, New
Jersey. Tree of knowledge in background. Left, kindergarten stage.
Center, half-grown children. Right, man working out problems for
Below, open book of knowledge radiating light in all directions. Small
figures draw aside curtains of darkness and ignorance. Hour-glass, "Time
Flies." Crown, for seekers of knowledge.
Educational panels inlaid in wall over smaller entrances, by pupils of
School of Sculpture of Beaux Arts Architects, and National Sculpture
Woman teacher, by W. H. Peters.
Man teacher, by Cesare Stea.
"Victory," on gables of buildings, by Louis Ulrich, of New York;
"Acroterium"; like "Victory of Samothrace."
Charm of green lattice-work in small doorways of palace.
Main doorway, Palace of Food Products, by Faville. Terra cotta effect on
sides of door. Eagles above door, inspiration. Green lattice-work in
West wall, magnificent; facing Palace of Fine Arts, broken by Aisle of
Spring, and two large Roman half-domes in Palace of Food Products and
Palace of Education.
Palaces facing avenue: from north to south, Food Products and Education;
across lagoon, Fine Arts.
Greenery and niches in pink and blue prevent wall from being monotonous.
"Dome of Plenty," in Palace of Food Products, harmonizes with half-dome
in Court of Four Seasons.
Fountain in dome; elaborate; Sienna design.
Man with oak wreath, repeated eight times above columns in portal
representing strength, by Earl Cummings.
Great columns of imitation Sienna on either side of portal, surmounted
by "Physical Vigor," by Ralph Stackpole.
Niches along wall, archaeological figures, by Charles Harley, of
Philadelphia. "Triumph of the Field," man with harvest symbols,
alternating with "Abundance," woman with horn of plenty.
Half-dome of Palace of Education, "Dome of Philosophy." Architecture as
in "Dome of Plenty." Charm of background, ornamented ceiling, Corinthian
columns with acanthus leaves.
Over doorways, beautiful use of stained glass.
Female figure repeated eight times above inner columns, by Albert
Weinert; carries books; "Ex Libris," representing education.
Statue by Stackpole surmounting Sienna columns, reversed duplicate of
figure before "Dome of Plenty," with different name, "Thought." Really
represents vigorous man thinking.
Figures in niches repeated.
Roman fountain, "Dome of Philosophy," by Faville; simplest and one of
the most beautiful of the fountains on grounds. Suggested by fountains
in Sienna and Ravenna.
Palace of Fine Arts
Palace of Fine Arts, Bernard R. Maybeck, of San Francisco. Conception
inspired by Boecklin's painting, "The Island of the Dead." Rotunda like
Pantheon in Rome. Colonnade suggested by Gerome's "Chariot Race."
Columns at end of colonnade, hint of Forum. Greek suggestion in
Corinthian columns and fretwork and frieze around rotunda. Roof garden
or pergola around edge of roof and the Egyptian red of wall gives
Egyptian note. Suggestion of overgrown ruin; atmosphere of melancholy
beauty. Originality of architectural design and treatment.
Curved hedge, obscuring view of floor of rotunda from opposite side of
lagoon, by John McLaren. African dew plant, as in south hedge. Laurels
and willows were originally planned to cover hedge and to reach to top
of columns. Monterey cypress at north end of colonnade.
Kneeling figure on altar directly in front of rotunda, "Reverence," by
Ralph Stackpole. Can be seen from across pool only.
Altar rock, planting grown down over edge gives effect of draped altar
Frieze on altar rock, below kneeling figure, by Bruno Louis Zimm, of New
York. Represents "Source of Genius." In center, Genius; to left and
right, mortals seeking to approach genius; lions guard the youth. Seen
from across lagoon only.
Panels on exterior of rotunda just below dome, by Zimm, representing
progress and influence of art.
Eastern panel, "Struggle for the Beautiful"; in center, Truth; at sides,
Persistence and Strength, struggling with centaurs, symbols of
Panel to left, "Power of the Arts"; Genius taming Pegasus, inspiration
in art; Wisdom inspiring Youth; Music with lyre; figures of Literature
Panel to right, "Triumph of the Arts"; Apollo, patron of arts, in
chariot; Fame, with olive branches; Ictinius, builder of Parthenon,
leads procession of devotees.
Three panels, repeated on five sides of rotunda.
Decorative figure, man and woman alternating, between panels, repeated
Corinthian columns, ochre grouped with pale green ones; capitals of
Flower boxes by Ulric H. Ellerhusen; women at corners. Original plan was
to have vines from boxes droop over, shoulders of women. Architect's
purpose in attitude of women to suggest sadness of art.
Roman vases, eight or ten feet high around colonnade. Massive and
Sculpture Outside Fine Arts Palace Beginning at Northeast Corner of
North of Lagoon
The Illustrious Obscure, by Robert Paine. (Fountain on island at north
end of lagoon.)
Whaleman, by Bela L. Pratt.
Garden Group by Anna Coleman Ladd.
Dying Lion, by Paul Wayland Bartlett.
Garden Figure, Nymph, by Edmond T. Quinn.
Fragment of "Fountain of Time," by Lorado Taft. Representing the
Roadway to Right Before Entering Circle
Bird Fountain, by Caroline Risque.
The First Mother, by Victor S. Holm.
Circle at North End of Peristyle
Mother of the Dead, by C. S. Pietro. (Lagoon side of circle.)
Chief Justice Marshall, by Herbert Adams. (In walk.)
Destiny, by C. P. Dietsch.
Sundial, by Edward Berge.
Head of Lincoln, by A. A. Weinman.
Fountain Groups, by Anna Coleman Ladd. Sun-God and Python, Water
Sprites, and Triton Babies. (To right.)
Sundial, by Gail Sherman Corbett.
Daughter of Pan, by R. Hinton Perry.
Boy Pan with Frog, by Clement J. Barnhorn,
Bondage, by Carl Augustus Heber. (Only feminist note in the grounds.)
Saki, Sundial, by Harriet W. Frishmuth. (In walk.)
Great Danes, by Anna Vaughan Hyatt.
Young Diana, by Janet Scudder.
Flower Urns, base of building along colonnade; Greek figures with
garlands. Ulric H. Ellerhusen.
Wall of building facing colonnade, seventeen feet high. Acacia blooming
there, suggesting over-growth, relieves severe lines of architecture.
Broken by small doors, at corners decorated with spears. Doors suggest
Corinthian columns and pilasters; harmony of color, smoked ivory and
ochre, with shades of green in foliage.
Urns, on the wall on either side of the doorways and in the rotunda,
designed by William G. Merchant. Suggested by urns in the Vatican, Rome.
North Peristyle (curved part colonnade north of rotunda).
Maiden of the Roman Campagna, by Albin Polasek. (To left.) Fountain:
Duck baby, by Edith Barretto Parsons.
A Fawn's Toilet, by Attilio Piccirilli.
Apollo, by Haig Patigian. (To right.)
The Scalp, by Edward Berge. (To left.)
Primitive Man, by Olga Popoff Muller.
Youth, by Victor D. Salvatore. (To right.)
Soldier of Marathon, by Paul Noquet. (To left.)
Fountain: Fighting Boys, by Janet Scudder.
Garden Figure, by Edith Woodman Burroughs. (To right.)
L'Amour, by Evelyn Beatrice Longman. (To right.)
Returning from the Hunt, by John J. Boyle. (To left.)
Boy with Fish, by Bela L. Pratt. (To right.)
The Centaur, by Olga Popoff Muller.
The Sower, by Albin Polasek.
Beyond, by Chester Beach. (By main doorway.)
Aspiration, by Leo Lentelli. (Over main doorway.)
Pioneer Mother Monument, by Charles Grafly. (Before main doorway.)
Portrait of a Boy, by Albin Polasek. (Outside west archway.)
The Awakening, by Lindsey Morris Sterling. (Outside west archway.)
"Sculpture," relief on walls of west archway. Bela L. Pratt.
Rotunda, Entrance Through North Archway
William Cullen Bryant, by Herbert Adams. (At northwest archway.)
Lafayette, by Paul Weyland Bartlett. (Center of rotunda.)
The Young Franklin, by Robert Tait.
Princeton Student Memorial, by Daniel Chester French.
"Architecture," relief by Richard H. Recchia.
Commodore John Barry, by John J. Boyle.
"Architecture," relief by Richard H. Recchia.
Lincoln, by Daniel Chester French.
Thomas Jefferson, by Karl Bitter. (Outside southwest arch way.)
Murals in dome of rotunda, Robert Reid. Two series of paintings, four in
each, "Birth and Influence of Art," alternating with "The Four Golds of
"Birth of Oriental Art," panel on west wall, toward main doorway. Man on
dragon attacking eagle, heavenly bird of inspiration. China, man in
bright robe. Japan, woman with parasol.
"Gold," panel to right, woman with wand; sits on horn of plenty pouring
"Ideals of Art," panel to right. Greek ideal, nude. Religion Madonna and
child. Heroism, Joan of Arc. Material youthful beauty, woman at left.
Nature without inspiration or ideal, peacock. Figures with wreath and
palm, rewards of art.
"Poppies," panel to right, second gold of California.
"Birth of European Art," panel to right. Altar with divine fire,
guardian with torch. Mortal in chariot grasps torch of inspiration.
Woman in lower corner with crystal globe, predicting future of art.
"Oranges," panel to right, third gold of California.
"Inspiration of Art," panel to right. Angels of inspiration above.
Figures of Sculpture, Architecture, Painting, Music, and Poetry.
"Wheat," panel to right, fourth gold of California.
"Priestess of Culture," Herbert Adams, of New York; female figure
surmounting columns within rotunda.
Coloring of dome, burnt orange, turquoise green, Sienna columns.
South Peristyle (curved colonnade).
Youth, by Charles Carey Rumsey. (To south of doorway.)
An Outcast, by Attilio Piccirilli. (To right.)
Idyl, by Olga Popoff Muller.
Dancing Nymph, by Olin L. Warner.
Boy and Frog, by Edward Berge. (To left.)
Eurydice, by Furio Piccirilli. (To right.)
Wild Flower, by Edward Berge.
Young Mother with Child, by Furio Piccirilli. (To right.)
Wood Nymph, by Isidore Konti.
Young Pan, by Janet Scudder, (To left.)
Michael Angelo, by Robert Aitken. (To right.)
Muse Finding the Head of Orpheus, by Edward Berge. (To left.)
Flying Cupid, by Janet Scudder.
Piping Pan, by Louis St. Gaudens.
Circle at South End of Peristyle
Bust of William Howard Taft, by Robert Aitken. (To right.)
Henry Ward Beecher, by John Quincy Adams Ward.
Bust of Halsey C. Ives, by Victor S. Holm. (To left.)
Seated Lincoln, by Augustus St. Gaudens.
South of Lagoon
Kirkpatrick Monument, by Gail Sherman Corbett, Indian pointing out
spring to Jesuit priest. (To right on roadway running back of palace.)
American Bisons, by A. P. Proctor. (Sides of roadway.)
Peace, by Sherry E. Fry. (To left.)
Diana, by Haig Patigian.
Fountain: Wind and Spray, by Anna Coleman Ladd. (In lagoon, south end.)
The Scout, by Cyrus E. Dallin.
Sea Lions, by Frederick G. R. Roth.
Court of Palms
Court of Palms, by Kelham; opposite Palace of Horticulture, between
Palaces of Education and Liberal Arts. Italian Renaissance. Sunken
Palaces at sides of court: to the west, Education; to the east, Liberal
"The End of the Trail," equestrian statue at entrance, by James Earl
Fraser. Exhausted Indian, suggests destiny of the American Indian race.
Italian Towers, Byzantine influence, by Kelham. Both sides of entrance
to court; identical. Simpler than towers at Court of Flowers, to cast.
Coloring of towers, by Jules Guerin. Walls frankly treated, not as
stone, but as plaster, after Italian method. Blue checkered border, pink
and blue diaper design; turquoise columns on little towers above, in
harmony with domes and columns of Tower of Jewels.
Design on top, repeated four times at corners, from choragic monument of
Lysicrates, in Venice.
Sienna columns at entrances of towers. Effective contrast.
Reclining women, purely decorative, in triangular spaces above entrances
to towers, by Albert Weinert.
Figures on side of shield over all portals, very graceful. Pink and
"The Fairy," crowning Italian Towers, Carl Gruppe.
Female figures, the caryatides on wide frieze, above columns, by Calder
and John Bateman, of New York. Flushed pink, against pink and blue
background of imitation marble and terra cotta.
Festoons of fruit in panels, blues and reds.
Coupled Ionic columns, smoked. Effective against pink walls.
Vases, before entrances, by Weinert. Bacchanalian revels, low relief.
Lighting standards on balustrade, designed by Ryan, modeled by
"Pool of Reflections," no sculpture.
Italian cypresses, on sides of portals.
Balled acacias between columns on corridors.
Palms, in garden.
Corridors, pink walls, blue ceiling.
Lamp standards, smoked ivory globes. Designed by Kelham, modeled by
Lamps in corridors Roman, hanging. Light pink, green, and cream;
effective. By Kelham.
Murals, in corridors, at east, north, and west portals.
"Pursuit of Pleasure," east arch, Charles W. Holloway. Light touch,
bright reds and blues in keeping with court; difficult use of floating
"Victorious Spirit," north arch, Arthur F. Mathews. Spirit of
Enlightenment protecting Youth from Materialism, symbolized by rampant
horse and the rider, Brute Force. Arrangement good, coloring deep and
"Fruits and Flowers," west arch, Childe Hassam. Early Italian.
Symbolism, obvious. Warmth of color.
Vista from south, graceful curve of court, view through north portal
through Court of the Four Seasons, long colonnade, to purple bills and
Palace of Horticulture
Palace of Horticulture, Bakewell & Brown, architects, San Francisco.
Architecture dome and spires Byzantine, suggest mosque of Ahmed the
First, in Constantinople. Ornamentation Renaissance, popular with modern
Basket on top of dome, 33 feet in diameter.
Dome, 186 feet in height, 152 feet in diameter steel construction St.
Peter's, 137 feet, concrete. Pantheon, 142 feet, concrete.
Ornamental shafts, suggestive of minarets, in French style.
Semi-circular colonnade forming entrances, French lattice-work.
Hanging lamp, in entrances, flower basket design; elaborate.
Lamps, hanging along porches, simple design.
Female figures at base of spires, by Eugene Louis Boutier; purely
Lavish decorations on building suggest variety and abundance of
California horticulture. Floral designs; green wreaths with fruit
motives and leaves; lamps; flowered shields over doorway; decorated
columns; entrance under green lattice-work; great ornamental vases on
Female figures used as columns supporting roof of porch, the caryatides,
by John Bateman.
Building suggests festivity, done in exposition spirit.
Coloring, green, old copper. Green lattice-work in domes.
Along the South Wall, West of the Tower of Jewels
South Wall, by Faville. Spanish Renaissance. Domes, Byzantine.
Palaces facing Avenue of Palms, from west to east: Education,
Palace Liberal Arts, Manufactures, and Varied Industries.
Vases beside doorways of Palace of Education, finely designed; pedestal
of one, a Corinthian capital; of the other, an Ionic capital.
Main portals, Faville. Suggest Roman gateway. Coloring, pink, turquoise
blue, and burnt orange; accentuates sculpture. Duplicated on Palaces of
Manufactures and Liberal Arts.
Panel over doorway, by Mahonri Young, Ogden, Utah; figures of domestic
life and industries, making of glass, metal work, statuary, textiles.
Figures at side, to left, woman with spindle; to right, man with
Flat columns at side of portals, pilasters. Corinthian.
Lion, over centerpiece of arch.
"Victory," on gables by Louis Ulrich, like the winged figure used by the
Greeks, " Blessings on this house."
Niches in wall, colored pink and blue. Heads of lions and elephants used
as fountains, alternately by Faville.
Panel over niches, figures with garland, by Faville.
Festival Hall, Robert Farquhar, of Los Angeles, architect. Modern French
architecture, of the Beaux Arts style, Paris. Used in many French
theatres; not a natural growth in this country, but growing in favor;
building arrangement fine. Details from Le Petit and Le Grand Trianon.
Coloring. light green, not so effective as on Horticultural Palace,
popular with French architects.
Figure on corner domes, "The Torch Bearer," Sherry F. Fry, of New York.
Figures on sides of shield over big central arch, by Fry. Decorative.
Reclining figures, above, on sides of entrance, by Fry. To right,
Bacchus with grapes and wine-skin. To left, a woman listening.
Groups in front of ball, on sides of stairway, by Fry. "Flora," flower
girl on pedestal, repeated. On left below pedestal, "Young Pan," seated
on Ionic capital covered with fawn skin, his music arrested by sight of
lizard. On right, young girl seated.
Greek drinking horns, rhytons, repeated around entrance, on cornice,
Symbol of Music, the lyre, above entrance.
Recital Hall, on the second floor of Festival Hall, eastern end,
contains fine stained glass windows. Designer and executor, Charles J.
Connick, of Boston. Three windows, a small one or, the landing of the
north stairway, and two larger ones on the west wall of the hall itself.
On the stairway. Figure of a young monk bearing a scroll inscribed with
"Venite exultamus domin" ("Come, let us exalt the Lord").
In the hall, window to the left. In the large tipper section, a figure
of St. Martha of Bethany. Below, Christ and three women, one kneeling.
In the hall, window to the right. In the large tipper section, figures
of two men, the wise men, one watching the star, one seated reading; an
owl and a lantern in the window also. In the small section below, a ship
with a cross on the main sail; the cross is of the design used in the
Court of Flowers
Court of Flowers, by Kelham. Italian Renaissance, Byzantine touches.
Opposite Festival Hall, between Palaces of Varied Industries and Mines.
Details different from Court of Palms; ornament richer.
Figure on tower, "The Fairy," by Carl Gruppe.
Palaces at sides of court: to the west, Manufactures; to the east,
Italian towers, by Kelham, same feeling. Outlines on top different from
those in Court of Palms.
"The American Pioneer," equestrian statue at entrance, by Solon Borglum,
of New York. Patriarchal. Suggests Joaquin Miller. Warlike trappings of
horse picturesque, but sixteenth century Spanish, out of place.
Spanish loggia around second story of court, southern in feeling,
implying warm climate.
"Oriental Flower Girl," female figure in niches along loggia, by Calder.
Griffons around frieze on top of columns.
Corridors, pink walls, smoked olive columns with orange capitals.
Against wall, Corinthian coupled pilasters.
Roman banging lamps, by Kelham, suggest bronze, great weight. Bronze,
pink, green, and cream. Italian bronze lanterns suggest blue eucalyptus.
Lamp standards between columns, globe half concealed, by Kelham. Charm
of effect, improvement on those with globe wholly visible.
Conventionalized lions in pairs at portals, by Albert Laessle, of
Fountain, "Beauty and the Beast," by Edgar Walter, of San Francisco.
Sandals and hat on woman. Beast at her feet. Fauns and satyrs, piping,
under circular bowl. Frieze outside edge of bowl, lion, bear, ape, and
tiger repeated; playful. Designed for Court of Palms to be seen from
Lophantha trees, trimmed four feet from ground, branching out six feet
across, along walks.
Vista through fairy-like Court of the Ages to Florentine Tower and blue
sky beyond, from south entrance of Court of Flowers.
Along the South Wall, East of Tower of Jewels
Palaces facing Avenue of Palms, from east to west: Varied Industries,
Manufactures, Liberal Arts, Education.
South facade of Palace of Varied Industries, by Faville. High walls,
seventy feet in height, suggest eighteenth century California missions.
Green domes on corners, Byzantine, inspired by mosques of
Coloring of flags, cerulean blue, pastel red, and burnt orange.
Windows in corners, mosque design. Little hexagonal kiosks at corners
below domes, Moorish.
Central portal, after portal of Santa Cruz Hospital, in Toledo, Spain.
Sixteenth century Spanish Renaissance, plateresque. Lattice-work effect
in doorway in harmony with lace-like silver-platter style. Niche walls
pink, with ultramarine blue.
Pope Calixtus III sent for a Spanish goldsmith, Diaz, to do work for him
in Rome. Diaz returned to Spain, carrying the influence of the Italian
Renaissance. He met the son of the architect of the cathedral at Toledo,
De Egas. To the son he imparted his knowledge and the son applied it to
architecture, creating the plateresque style. Till then all Spanish
cathedrals had shown the Gothic influence from the north.
Figures on large door by Stackpole. Upper figures, "Age Transferring His
Burden to Youth," America. Figure in center piece of arch, "Power of
Industry," the American workman. Figures in half circle above door,
"Varied Industries," from left to right, Spinning, Building,
Agriculture, Manual Labor, and Commerce. Figure repeated four times in
lower niches, "Man with the Pick."
"California Bear" and "California Shield" on buttresses, or square
columns supporting wall. Used in old mission buildings.
Avenue of Progress
Planting, some of the best landscape effects in Exposition. Against
buildings, Monterey cypress; banked by Lawson cypress in front and
between these, spruces and Spanish fir.
Machinery Palace, Ward & Blohme, of San Francisco, architects. Italian
Renaissance, inspired by Roman baths. Like Baths of Caracalla. Largest
building of its kind in world; three blocks long, seven acres in area.
Banners, by Ryan, heraldic designs of early Spanish explorers and
Lophantha lawn, designed by John McLaren, trees trimmed off four feet
above ground, and trained to grow flat alongside Palace of Varied
East facade of Varied Industries, made Italian to harmonize with Italian
Main portal, like gateways of old Roman walled cities.
"The Miner," in niches of gateway, by Albert Weinert of New York.
Small portals Italian, fine color effect; lattice-work, orange, blue,
Sculpture on Machinery Palace, by Haig Patigian, of San Francisco.
Large columns in front and in vestibule of half dome, imitation Sienna
Small portals, orange columns at sides, pink niche, blue dome, orange
above dome; pleasing tone,
Corinthian columns at sides of portals; eagles at corners of capitals,
at top, symbolize inspiration.
Frieze around drums at base of columns "Genii of Machinery," by Haig
Patigian; eyes closed, signifying Power of the spirit, or blind fate.
Figures in triangular spaces on either side above doorways, "Application
of Power to Machinery," by Haig Patigian.
Figures on tall Sienna marble columns, "Power," "by Haig Patigian.
"Steam Power," with lever. "Invention," carrying figure with flying
wings, suggesting quickness of mind. "Imagination, eyes closed. Eagle
bird of inspiration, about to fly. "Electricity," foot on earth,
Eagles repeated on bar, the entablature, across front of domes; symbol
Coloring in vestibule of Machinery Palace: Finely harmonized; brown and
brick-colored walls; orange and blue ceilings; green lattice work.
"Genius of Creation," group before court leading to Court of Ages,
Daniel Chester French. Spirit above, a woman, creating life from
shapeless mass of earth below. Man at left, courageous and enterprising;
woman at right, timid, hesitating. Serpent, symbol of wisdom, coiled
Court of Mines, Leading to Court of Ages
Coloring, pink walls, pink streamers, by Guerin. Green shell lamp posts,
by McKim, Mead & White, architects. Called "Pink Alley" by workmen
Palaces on sides of court: to the north, Mines; to the south, Varied
Lamp standards against walls, dark bronze, smoked ivory globes, by
Flat Ionic columns, called pilasters, against walls, by Faville.
Figure in niches, "The Miner," by Albert Weinert.
Court of the Ages
Court of Ages, Louis Christian Mullgardt, of San Francisco, architect.
Most original of the courts. Faint influence of Spanish Gothic,
Romanesque, French, Moorish. Richness and profusion. Suggests evolution
Palaces around court: northeast, Mines; northwest, Transportation;
southwest, Manufactures; southeast, Varied Industries,
Decorations on columns of archways around court, kelp, crabs, lobsters,
and other sea animals. Vertical lines in columns suggest falling water.
Fairy lamps, two in each archway, delicately designed.
"Primitive Man and Woman," by Albert Weinert, repeated alternately above
corridors around court. Man, a hunter, feeding pelican. Woman, the
Tower at north entrance, suggestive of French cathedral architecture,
massive, but gives appearance of lightness. One of the great successes
of the Exposition.
"The Rise of Civilization," groups of sculpture on tower, by Chester
Beach. Central idea, evolution, Stone Age, Mediaeval Age, and Present
Age. "Primitive Man," lowest group, just above great reptiles in
foreground. Man is holding child and protecting mate. "Mediaeval Age"
directly above, Crusader in center, Priest and Warrior on sides. The
candlesticks on sides of crusader, used in mediaeval churches, the light
of understanding. On sides of altar, "Modern Man and Woman," struggling
for freedom from the physical to the spiritual. "Spirit of Intelligence"
enthroned above; on one side, child with book; on the other side, child
with wheel of industry.
Chanticleer, repeated on highest pinnacles of court, at level with
altar. Signifying dawn of Christianity.
"Thought," figure on east and west sides of tower. Candlesticks at
Design on upper part of tower, suggested by the lily, emblem of purity.
Star clusters, at south end of court and in north court, by Ryan,
modeled from snow crystal, and deepening the ecclesiastical character of
the court by suggesting the golden monstrance, shaped like the rays of
the sun, used in the Catholic church and, in the small glass-covered
circle at the center, holding the sacred host.
"Water Sprites," by Leo Lentelli. Girl archers on top of columns at four
corners of central court, launching arrow at sprites on base of columns.
Originally designed as fountains.
Serpent cauldrons, around pool, designed by Mullgardt.
"Fountain of the Earth," by Robert Aitken, in center of court. Two Parts
to fountain; large central one with globe representing earth, surrounded
by panels showing life on earth; and on same pedestal to south, groups
representing life before and after death. "Setting Sun," group at
extreme south of pool, by Aitken. Man holding golden ball, Helios;
serpent, heat of sun.
Figures on west side of southern group, "The Dawn of Life." Hand of
Destiny giving life, pointing toward earth; Sleep of Woman before Birth;
the Awakening; Joy of Life; Kiss of Life; Birth. Gap to central group
represents time between peopling and history.
Panels around earth; South Panel; Vanity in center with handglass; man
and woman with children, representing Fecundity, starting on earthly
West Panel: "Natural Selection;" women turn to fittest male; one
rejected suitor angry, other despairing.
North Panel: "Physical Courage" or "Awakening of War Spirit." Two men
fight for possession of woman on left. Woman on right attempts to draw
East Panel: "Lesson of Life." Old woman gives counsel to young man and
woman. Old man restrains an angry, jealous youth.
Right of south panel, "Lust."
East side of southern group: Greed, looking back on earth. Faith
offering Immortality, symbolized by scarab, to Woman. Figures of man and
woman sinking back into oblivion, "Sorrow" and "Sleep." Hand of Destiny
drawing mortality to itself.
Hermae, pillars with head of Hermes, god of boundaries, separating
panels around earth.
Reptilian and fishy forms above panels of central mass of fountain.
Corridors, walls red, blue vault above, arches of smoked ivory, lines of
blue on wall. Illumination by half-globes in cups on inner side of
Murals, by Frank Brangwyn, of London, representing Elements. Best placed
of all murals. At corners of court in corridors.
Northeast corner, "Fire." "Primitive Fire," figures around fire nursing
it, or feeding it. "Industrial Fire," use of fire in service of man.
Southeast corner, "Water": Fishermen dragging in net, carriers with
baskets on backs, "The Net." Women and men filling jars at a spring,
flamingoes in water, luxuriant growth, clouds, "The Fountain."
Southwest corner, "Air": Men shooting arrows through trees, birds in
flight, "The Hunters." Huge mill, children flying kites, clouds, grain
blown by wind, "The Windmill."
Northwest corner, "Earth": Men high in trees and on ground, "The Fruit
Pickers." Figures crushing juice out with feet, group in front with
wine, "The Dancing of the Grapes."
Planting in Court: Tall Italian cypress before arches; orange trees;
balled acacia; denseness of growth along colonnades; heavy and rank,
suggesting tropical flora.
Large cauldrons, at side of steps leading down to sunken gardens,
designed by Mullgardt.
North Entrance to Court of Ages
"Daughter of Neptune" or "Aquatic Life," large female figure in north
Court of Ages, by Sherry E. Fry.
Planting: eucalyptus, acacia, laurel.
Features that Ought to be in Noted by Night
Three kinds of light used; white arc lamps, extensively behind banners
and shields to flood facades of outer walls and Court of Four Seasons;
warmer light of Mazda lamps in clear and colored globes; and
searchlights concealed on tops of buildings trained on towers and on
high groups of sculpture.
Lighting scheme and scope completed long before buildings were up; made
possible by advance in illuminating engineering, developed under name of
science of lighting and art of illumination.
Chief of Department of Illumination, Walter D'Arcy Ryan, of the General
Electric Company, Schenectady, New York; field assistant, A. F.
Ornamental details of lighting standards and fixtures, designed by J. W.
Gosling; designs made at Illuminating Engineering Laboratories,
Keynote of lighting scheme - life and gaiety, without garishness.
Lighting kept subordinate to architecture; walks shaded to throw
emphasis on brilliantly lighted facades and to bring out architecture,
landscape and flowers. Same lighting principle used throughout; but
effect in different courts radically different.
Area of surface illuminated, 8,000,000 square feet; 2,000,000 of wall
surface, and 6,000,000 of ground surface.
Number of searchlights used: 373 arc searchlights, in diameter from 13
to 36 inches; 450 small searchlights, called the "Mosquito Fleet"; 250
incandescent projectors for flag lighting.
Fillmore Street Entrance
South facade of entrance, outline illumination, with bare electric
lights following outlines of architecture; used elsewhere only in Zone.
Inside Fillmore Street entrance, Zone to right; brilliant lighting,
outline illumination, more or less refined; exaggerated effects
Zone, element of festivity in arches crossing street at short intervals,
ribbons of turkey red suspended from each lamp give warmth and action.
Contrast of Zone lights with illumination in other parts of Exposition.
To left, Service Building, administration offices; coloring, Pinks and
blue; ceiling of porch, intense blue, deepest used on grounds.
Corner of Avenue of Palms and Avenue of Progress: lights banners,
towers, facades of buildings, walks, flood lights, spots of light and
Fairy-like effect of Avenue of Palms: towers look luminous; in early
evening Italian Towers red hot, throbbing; glow stronger than Tower of
Jewels; later, Tower of Jewels most brilliant spot on avenue.
Tower illumination, floods of light from searchlights; white light
creates shadows, in turn illuminated by concealed colored light on
various stages, on Tower of Jewels and Italian Towers.
Single light standards along Avenue of Palms, light yellow, dull points
of light; contrast with white pearly light on tops of booths.
Avenue of Progress
Along Avenue of Progress: fine flag display; no direct sources of light;
banners; beautiful scenes made by planting against walls and quality of
green on lawn; daylight effect from luminous arcs which produce whitest
artificial light in use.
Gas lights on tops of booths, emergency lights if electricity fails.
Banners and heraldic shields, designed by Ryan; banners, of early
explorers and pioneers, heraldic shields related to history of
California, Mexico, Central America, and Pacific Ocean.
Purpose of banners: to form beautiful lines of color, to screen eyes
from direct light source, to reflect light toward buildings, and to
suggest history of court.
Banners suspended, swung by wind, form moving spots of color.
Roman gateway, Palace of Varied Industries: faint light through small
arches above doorway; delicate green lattice or grill work in door.
Light in doorways: appearance of life within, produced by reflectors
inside palaces throwing light through glass of doors; new idea; contrast
with dark windows of other expositions.
Arches of Machinery Palace: warm red glow in domes above; strong yellow
through doors below.
Inner Court of Mines Leading From Palace of Machinery to Court of Ages
Illumination strongest on upper sections of wall; it becomes more
subdued as it approaches flowers and lawns, and reaches lowest point on
center of avenue; plan used on all avenues.
Green lattice work, filling entire main doorway, in harmony with lawns.
Single globe lamps placed against walls; only court with lights in this
Shell lamps, flooding walls with light, advanced method of wall
View of central fountain in Court of Ages: glow of red lights, faint
shimmer in pools, steam rising to suggest the earth cooling after being
thrown off by the sun.
Court of the Ages
Court of the Ages: mystery in blending of illumination from searchlights
above; lack of direct illumination on court itself; steam cauldrons,
with illumination, incandescent lights, gas torches in small serpent
cauldrons, lanterns in arches of the arcade that burn around cloister.
Fountain of Earth in center of pool, carrying mind down the ages to
correspond with architect's conception of court.
Steam rising from base of fountain; figures silhouetted in warm red
glow; lighter tone of red at upper portion of ball; shimmering
reflection of panels, with red background in pool at sides of fountain.
Serpent cauldrons, around edge of pool, to heighten weird effect, by the
flickering of the gas lamps.
Large cauldrons at east and west entrances; effect of simmering molten
Steam used in court, obtained from twenty horse-power boiler under
Main tower, only tower without direct light thrown on exterior;
religious feeling, increased by candlesticks, two on each side; steam to
suggest smoke drifting upward.
Reflection of tower in pool, to be seen from south.
Cathedral appearance of windows at sides of court, by illumination in
warm orange tone from within.
Sunburst standards modelled in imitation of snow crystal, and resembling
monstrance used in Catholic church; two at south of court; only large
light sources in court; contrast with other illumination.
Two fairy lanterns in each arch around court.
Brangwyn murals lighted without glare by indirect diffusion from four
Play of lights along colonnade; lighting on murals adds to apparent
North Entrance to Court of the Ages
Similar treatment of lights, brighter than in central court; four star
clusters, sixteen serpent cauldrons; effect heightened.
Tower, more beautiful from Marina side; note of refinement illumination
in altar, shadow in two colors, created by red light illuminated by pale
Star clusters convey to mind religious feeling in keeping with design;
View of Italian Towers at sides of Court of Flowers, from north court,
red glow and green columns of towers on either side of Mullgardt tower,
To Court of the Universe, through Florentine Court.
Florentine Court; only illumination, single lamp standards; contrast
with intense light in Court of Universe, beyond.
Fine shadow effects against walls; vertical shadows of columns in arches
contrasted with shadows of trees and shrubbery.
Court of the Universe
Arch of Rising Sun; light through latticed windows in arch to give faint
spots of luminous color.
Illumination of main and side arches; curvature preserved and details
thrown into relief by lights of different strengths and colors;
concealed red light on one side and pale lemon light on other side
thrown on arch. All main arches similarly accentuated.
Urns in side arches, effect heightened by lights thrown from sides,
bring out lines; red on one side, on the other pale green.
Colonnade, illuminated by three translucent shell cups sunk into central
groove of each column at rear; spear of light from each shell up the
grooves or fluting; pleasant glow through shells from below. Effect of
melted gold, suggesting the tongues of fire mentioned in the Scriptures.
Sculptural groups on Arches of Rising and Setting Sun, flooded with
light from searchlights, creating black shadows, in turn illuminated by
purple lights on top of arch. Figures thrown into relief.
Tower of Jewels, gradual illumination; early evening, faintly lighted;
later, when searchlights are turned on, tower dominates southern wall;
blaze of white light; jewels sparkle like diamonds; turquoise columns,
faintly colored in bright light; statues, orange color.
Star figures around court above colonnades, jewelled; each has forty-two
stones, illuminated by small searchlights on opposite side of court.
Early evening, pretty effect; little jets of light from figures shoot
across the court in clearly defined rays. Later, flood of lights from
columns in court above the small rays.
Fountains of Rising and Setting Sun; columns, said to be strongest light
sources ever created; aggregate 500,000 candlepower sufficient to
illuminate 500,000 square feet of surface; fluting of columns glazed with
special diffusion glass. For elimination of shadows caused by structure,
there is diffusive glass inside. The glare from the light source is not
excessive; brilliancy low; daring illumination of entire court.
Lights under water in pools of fountains; source and reflection
concealed; yellow light diffused over surface.
Figures on pedestals of balustrades mark boundary of Sunken Garden; not
for illumination, but for ornament merely.
Domes of corner pavilions, north of Tower of Jewels, fine contrasts in
interior; delicate blue ceiling; orange at sides.
Bear fountains at sides of Palaces of Manufactures and Liberal Arts,
north of Tower of Jewels; three on each wall in flat niches; coloring,
pink wall, turquoise blue, green; lights concealed under water; when
water is flowing, wavering light like heat waves; niches hardly
noticeable when water is not flowing.
Tower of Jewels, interior of main arch, accentuated by lights at sides
above columns; no illumination on murals.
In niches at either side, Fountains of Youth and El Dorado,
flood-lighted from above; no colored lights; two single lamp standards
in each court; reflection of fountain figures in pools.
On the Way to the Marina
Lighting of colonnades, vivid pinks and blues. Illumination in colonnade
from lamps concealed in cups in one of the inner flutes of each column.
Notice reflections of colonnade in pool.
Column of Progress; flood light on figures on top of column by
On the Marina
North facade of buildings, tall dark-green planting against walls, black
vertical shadows; shading of lawn; flood light standards, spots of dull
orange light through translucent rigid shields. Spots of light from
single globes along avenue, on water front, white lights on booths; glow
from lamps at entrance to Court of Four Seasons.
Spanish doorway of Palaces of Food Products, Agriculture, Transportation
and Mines, among most successfully illuminated portals on grounds; light
pink walls in two shades, light blue vaulted ceiling, green edges; three
arches; light green lattice work; dark shadows in niches of
"Conquistador" and "Pirate."
"Adventurous Bowman," profile view of group from entrance to Court of
Four Seasons; outlined against blue-black sky; stars, in sky about it,
mere points of light. Group sometimes reproduced in the fog.
Inner Court, between Court of the Universe and Court of Four Seasons.
Only illumination, single globe standards. Contrast of bright
illumination in Court of Universe with more subdued light in Court of
Coloring, pink walls in harmony with walls of corridors in Courts at
Planting, low shrubbery, with tall trees massed in corners.
Court of the Four Seasons
Court of Four Seasons; flood illumination on the bulls at sides, glowing
half-dome at south, figure of "Harvest" above dome, and twin Italian
towers at sides.
Illumination of court in harmony with architecture, very quiet.
Charm of lighting in colonnades against Pompeian red walls; three half
globes in cups at rear of plain columns.
Fountains of Four Seasons, illumination of red walls against intense
blue of sky, in early evening like color in paintings by Maxfield
Parrish. Concealed lights, red, orange, yellow and lemon, fall on walls
and create interesting luminous shadows on fountain figures.
Water falling from cascades, a luminous green; not only are lights
concealed, but also reflection of sources, an effect that, it was
predicted, could not be achieved.
Figures on fountains reflected in green water.
Reflections in pool in center of court; from north, half dome and figure
of "Harvest" above dome; from south, the bulls on the pylons.
View through north court toward bay, from half-dome, very interesting;
intense white light of scintillator directly opposite court; statute of
"Ceres," silhouetted against rays.
Banners in court, no heraldic designs.
Half dome in Court of Four Seasons; even distribution of light, ceiling
lighted from base of dome, lights diffused through dome and softly
graded down to floor by ten shell lamps up wall, back of vertical
projection on each side.
Through Aisle of Spring to Administration Avenue, facing Palace of Fine
Along the Western Wall
Illumination: Yellow glow from single lamp standards along
Administration Avenue. Searchlights on top of wall, flooding Palace of
Fine Arts. Wall, lighted by reflection from shields; orange light
through translucent portion of shields.
High wall flooded with light, in strong contrast with dark rippling
surface of lagoon across the avenue.
Half-domes; warm golden glow; light from interior through stained glass
windows in domes.
Planting, trees cast tall vertical shadows against wall; heavier shadows
at base, from massed shrubbery.
Palace of Fine Arts
Illumination, "triple moonlight," three times the strength of the moon's
rays. Searchlights flood the building; concealed yellow lights on
cornices in rear of columns. Three effects; flood lighting, relief
lighting, and combination of both. One night, flood light; next,
View from Administration Avenue across lagoon; finest reflections on
grounds; changing views; small sections of lagoon, mirror-like; others,
rippled or wavering; entire colonnade and rotunda reflected.
Suggestion of ancient ruin, intended by architect, brought out by
lighting. Great shadows, deepening toward base of columns.
Contrasted colors in colonnade, from across lagoon; pink walls, dark
green doors, columns silhouetted against walls.
In the Colonnade, Entering From North
"Triple moonlight," bright rays across colonnade through columns, making
intense shadows; when moon is shining the fainter rays cut weirdly
through shadows; suggestion of moonlight coming from two directions.
Reflections in lagoon, from along colonnade, north of rotunda; West
facade of walled city, with half domes of Palaces of Education and Food
Products, and dim reflections of Italian towers. Changing reflections
all along colonnade, and from rotunda.
Rotunda, on nights when relief illumination is used, lights on capitals
of Corinthian columns; deep color effects in murals on dome.
View of palace from south across lagoon, with flood lights on rotunda
Avenue of Palms
Quality of light brings out color detail; fine display of flowers;
massing of shrubbery at base of wall, and tall trees casting vertical
Elephant and lion fountains along south wall; colors, pink and blue;
rippling of water causes light to wave.
Central doorway of Palace of Liberal Arts, rosetta or rose-window effect
in semi-circular space above door; orange light through lattice work of
Court of Palms
Court of Palms, illumination of towers from searchlights. Only direct
light, from single white globes painted to imitate Travertine, and Roman
hanging lamps around in corridors; faint red shines through from below.
Reflections in circular and rectangular pools; north, east, and west
portals; the columns, the colonnades at sides of entrances, the murals
above doorways; pinks, blues, reds, orange.
Murals above east, west, and north doorways, best effect at night.
Illumination at base of arches throws light on upper part of mural,
shading softly and gradually down to base.
Palace of Horticulture
Dome of Palace of Horticulture; beams of light from concealed
searchlights play through revolving lenses and color screens of green,
orange, and red, fading slowly into each other in moving designs on
Floral hanging lamps in east and north entrances; deep green of lattice
work in domes above; hanging lamps along porches, pearl-white light.
French lighting standards, pale yellow light, hundreds of Travertined
globes, soft light unique ivory color.
Clusters of lights- look like bunches of grapes.
Reflections in pools north of Young Women's Christian Association
Building and Press Building
Flood lights on equestrian figure in Fountain of Energy.
Court of Flowers
No searchlights, no direct illumination; suggestion of dimness and
Italian towers, glow of light through small doors above entrances;
appearance of life inside; strong strong red shadows on first lift;
turquoise columns on next lift, pink background.
Lamps in corridors, Italian and Roman; translucent, dull red light.
Floral lamp standards between columns in corridors, pale yellow light.
Flood light shields at south entrance to court; too bright necessarily.
Reflection of Festival Hall in pool; Fountain of the Mermaid silhouetted
against entrance window of hall; golden light through colored glass.
Warm pink illumination inside towers at corners of large dome; green
coloring of dome, more effective than by day.
Blending of lines of building with planting against walls.
Back to Full Books