The Diary of Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys

Part 12 out of 18

of lack of money he will answer but with the shrug of the
shoulder; which methought did come to my heart, to see him to
begin to abandon the King's affairs, and let them sink or swim.
My wife had been to day at White Hall to the Maunday, it being
Maunday Thursday; but the King did not wash the poor people's
feet himself, but the Bishop of London did it for him.

5th. Mr. Young was talking about the building of the City again:
and he told me that those few churches that are to be new built
are plainly not chosen with regard to the convenience of the
City; they stand a great many in a cluster about Cornhill: but
that all of them are either in the gift of the Lord Archbishop,
or Bishop of London, or Lord Chancellor, or gift of the City.
Thus all things, even to the building of churches, are done in
this world! This morning come to me the collectors for my Poll-
money; for which I paid for my title as Esquire and place of
Clerk of Acts, and my head and wife's servants', and their wages,
40l. 17s. And though this be a great deal, yet it is a shame I
should pay no more: that is, that I should not be assessed for
my pay, as in the victualling business and Tangier; and for my
money, which of my own accord I had determined to charge myself
with 1000l. money, till coming to the Vestry, and seeing nobody
of our ablest merchants, as Sir Andrew Rickard, [A leading man in
the East India Company, who was committed in 1668 by the House of
Lords, during their proceedings on the petition of Skinner, VIDE
JOURNALS, He purchased the advowson of his parish, St. Olave,
Hart Street, and left it to trustees IN PERPETUUM, who still
present the Rector. He was knighted by Charles II,. July 10th,
1662.] to do it, I thought it not decent for me to do it.

7th. To White Hall, and there saw the King come out of chapel
after prayers in the afternoon, which he is never at but after
having received the Sacrament: and the Court, I perceive, is
quite out of mourning; and some very fine; among others, my Lord
Gerard, in a very rich vest and coate. Here I met with my Lord
Bellasses: and it is pretty to see what a formal story he tells
me of his leaving his place upon the death of my Lord Cleveland,
[Thomas Wentworth Earl of Cleveland.] by which he is become
Captain of the Pensioners; and that the King did leave it to him
to keep the other or take this; whereas I know the contrary, that
they had a mind to have him away from Tangier. Into Moor-fields,
and did find houses built two stories high, and like to stand;
and must become a place of great trade till the City be built;
and the street is already paved as London streets used to be.

8th. Away to the Temple, to my new bookseller's; and there I did
agree for Rycaut's [This book is in the Pepysian Library.] late
History of the Turkish Policy, which cost me 55s.: whereas it
was sold plain before the late fire for 8s., and bound and
coloured as this is for 20s.; for I have bought it finely bound
and truly coloured all the figures, of which there was but six
books done so, whereof the King and Duke of York and Duke of
Monmouth, and Lord Arlington, had four. The fifth was sold, and
I have bought the sixth.

9th. Towards noon I to the Exchange, and there do hear mighty
cries for peace, and that otherwise we shall be undone; and yet
do suspect the badness of the peace we shall make. Several do
complain of abundance of land flung up by tenants out of their
hands for want of ability to pay their rents; and by name, that
the Duke of Buckingham hath 6000l. so flung up. And my father
writes that Jasper Trice, upon this pretence of his tenants'
dealing with him, is broke up house-keeping, and gone to board
with his brother, Naylor, at Offord; which is very sad. To the
King's house, and there saw "The Tameing of a Shrew," which hath
some very good pieces in it, but generally is but a mean play;
and the best part "Sawny," done by Lucy; and hath not half its
life, by reason of the words, I suppose, not being understood, at
least by me.

10th. I began to discourse with Sir W. Coventry the business of
Tangier, which by the removal of my Lord Bellasses is now to have
a new Governor; and did move him, that at this season all the
business of reforming the garrison might be considered, while
nobody was to be offended. And I told him it is plain that we do
overspend our revenue: that it is of no more profit to the King
than it was the first day, nor in itself of better credit; no
more people of condition willing to live there, nor any thing
like a place likely to turn his Majesty to account: that it hath
been hitherto, and for aught I see likely only to be used as a
jobb to do a kindness to some lord, or he that can get to be
Governor. Sir W. Coventry agreed with me so as to say, that
unless the King hath the wealth of the Mogull, he would be a
beggar to have his businesses ordered in the manner they now are:
that his garrison must be made places only of convenience to
particular persons: that he hath moved the Duke of York in it:
and that it was resolved to send no Governor thither till there
had been Commissioners sent to put the garrison in order, so as
that he that goes may go with limitations and rules to follow,
and not to do as he please, as the rest have hitherto done. That
he is not afraid to speak his mind, though to the displeasure of
any man; and that I know well enough. But that when it is come
(as it is now), that to speak the truth in behalf of the King
plainly do no good but all things bore down by other measures
than by what is best for the King, he hath no temptation to be
perpetually fighting of battles, it being more easy to him on
those terms to suffer things to go on without giving any man
offence, than to have the same thing done, and he contract the
displeasure of all the world, as he must do, that will be for the
King. To the King's little chapel; and afterwards to see the
King heal the King's Evil (wherein no pleasure, I having seen it
before): and then to see him and the Queene and Duke of York and
his wife, at dinner in the Queene's lodgings. And so with Sir G.
Carteret to his lodgings to dinner; where very good company. And
after dinner he and I to talk alone how things are managed, and
to what ruin we must come if we have not a peace. He did tell me
one occasion, how Sir Thomas Allen (whom I took for a man of
known courage and service on the King's side) was tried for his
life in Prince Rupert's fleet, in the late times for cowardice,
and condemned to be hanged, and fled to Jerzy; where Sir G.
Carteret received him, not knowing the reason of his coming
thither; and that thereupon Prince Rupert wrote to the Queene-
Mother his dislike of Sir G. Carteret's receiving a person that
stood condemned; and so Sir C. Carteret was forced to bid him
betake himself to some other place. This was strange to me. Our
Commissioners are preparing to go to Bredah to the treaty, and do
design to be going the next week.

11th. To White Hall, thinking there to have seen the Duchesse of
Newcastle's coming this night to Court to make a visit to the
Queene, the King having been with her yesterday to make her a
visit since her coming to town. The whole story of this lady is
a romance, and all she does is romantic. Her footmen in velvet
coats, and herself in an antique dress, as they say; and was the
other day at her own play, "The Humourous Lovers;" the most
ridiculous thing that ever was wrote, but yet she and her Lord
mightily pleased with it; and she at the end made her respects to
the players from her box, and did give them thanks. There is as
much expectation of her coming to Court, that so people may come
to see her, as if it were the Queene of Sweden; but I lost my
labour, for she did not come this night. There have been two
fires in the City within this week.

12th. By water to White Hall, and there did our usual business
before the Duke of York: but it fell out that, discoursing of
matters of money, it rose to a mighty heat, very high words
arising between Sir G. Carteret and Sir W. Coventry, the former
in his passion saying that the other should have helped things if
they were so bad; and the other answered, so he would, and things
should have been better had he been Treasurer of the Navy. I was
mightily troubled at this heat, and it will breed ill blood
between them, I fear; but things are in that bad condition, that
I do daily expect we shall all fly in one another's faces, when
we shall be reduced every one to answer for himself. We broke
up; and I soon after to Sir G. Carteret's chamber, where I find
the poor man telling his lady privately, and she weeping. I went
in to them, and did seem, as indeed I was, troubled for this; and
did give the best advice I could, which I think did please them:
and they do apprehend me their friend, as indeed I am, for I do
take the Vice-chamberlain for a most honest man. He did assure
me that he was not, all expences and things paid, clear in estate
15,000l. better than he was when the King come in; and that the
King and Lord Chancellor did know that he was worth, with the
debt the King owed him, 50,000l. (I think he said) when the King
come into England.

15th. Called up by Sir H. Cholmly, who tells me that my Lord
Middleton [John first Earl of Middleton in Scotland.] is for
certain chosen Governor of Tangier; a man of moderate
understanding, not covetous, but a soldier of fortune, and poor.
To the King's house by chance, where a new play: so full as I
never saw it; I forced to stand all the while close to the very
door till I took cold, and many people went away for want of
room. The King and Queene and Duke of York and Duchesse there,
and all the Court, and Sir W. Coventry. The play called, "The
Change of Crownes:" a play of Ned Howard's, [A younger son of the
Earl of Berkshire, and brother to Sir Robert Howard.] the best
that I ever saw at that house, being a great play and serious;
only Lacy did act the country-gentleman come up to Court, who do
abuse the Court with all the imaginable wit and plainness about
selling of places, and doing every thing for money. The play
took very much. Thence I to my new bookseller's, and there
bought "Hooker's Polity," the new edition, and "Dugdale's History
of the Inns of Court," of which there was but a few saved out of
the fire. Carried my wife to see the new play I saw yesterday:
but there, contrary to expectation, I find "The Silent Woman."

16th. Knipp tells me the King was so angry at the liberty taken
by Lacy's part to abuse him to his face, that he commanded they
should act no more, till Moone [Michael Mohun, a celebrated actor
belonging to the King's Company; he had served as a Major in the
Royal Army.] went and got leave for them to act again, but not
this play. The King mighty angry; and it was bitter indeed, but
very fine and witty I never was more taken with a play than I am
with this "Silent Woman," as old as it is, and as often as I have
seen it. There is more wit in it than goes to ten new plays.
Pierce told us the story how in good earnest the King is offended
with the Duke of Richmond's marrying and Mrs. Stewart's sending
the King his jewels again. As she tells it, it is the noblest
romance: and example of a brave lady that ever I read in my

17th. In our way in Tower-street we saw Desbrough [Major-general
John Desborough, Cromwell's brother-in-law, and one of his
CounciI of State; afterwards promoted to the (Chancellorship of
Ireland by his nephew Richard.] walking on foot; who is now no
more a prisoner, and looks well, and just as he used to do

19th. Some talk about Sir W. Pen's being to buy Wanstead-House
of Sir Robert Brookes.

20th. Met Mr. Rolt, who tells me the reason of no play today at
the King's house. That Lacy had been committed to the porter's
lodge for his acting his part in the late new play, and being
thence released to come to the King's house, he there met with
Ned Howard, the poet of the play, who congratulated his release;
upon which Lacy cursed him as that it was the fault of his
nonsensical play that was the cause of his ill usage. Mr. Howard
did give him some reply: to which Lacy answered him, that he was
more a fool than a poet; upon which Howard did give him a blow on
the face with his glove; on which Lacy, having a cane in his
hand, did give him a blow over the pate. Here Rolt and others
that discoursed of it, in the pit this afternoon, did wonder that
Howard did not run him through, he being too mean a fellow to
fight with. But Howard did not do any thing but complain to the
King of it; so the whole house is silenced: and the gentry seem
to rejoice much at it, the house being become too insolent. I
have a mind to buy enough ground to build a coach-house and
stable; for I have had it much in my thoughts lately that it is
not too much for me now in degree or cost to keep a coach, but
contrarily, that I am almost ashamed to be seen in a hackney. To
Hackney church. A knight and his lady very civil to me when they
came, being Sir George Viner, and his lady in rich jewells, but
most in beauty: almost the finest woman that ever I saw. That
which I went chiefly to see was the young ladies of the schools,
whereof there is great store, very pretty; and also the organ,
which is handsome, and tunes the psalm and plays with the people;
which is mighty pretty, and makes me mighty earnest to have a
pair at our church: I having almost a mind to give them a pair
if they would settle a maintenance on them for it.

22nd. To the Lord Chancellor's house, the first time I have been
therein; and it is very noble, and brave pictures of the ancient
and present nobility. The King was vexed the other day for
having no paper laid for him at the Council table, as was usual;
and Sir Richard Browne did tell his Majesty he would call the
person whose work it was to provide it: who being come, did tell
his Majesty that he was but a poor man, and was out 4 or 500l.
for it, which was as much as he is worth; and that he cannot
provide it any longer without money, having not received a penny
since the King's coming in. So the King spoke to my Lord
Chamberlain. And many such mementos the King do now-a-days meet
withall, enough to make an ingenuous man mad.

23rd. St. George's-day; the feast being kept at White Hall, out
of design, as it is thought, to make the best coutenance we can
to the Swede's Embassadors before their leaving us to go to the
treaty abroad, to show some jollity.

24th. To Sir John Duncomb's lodging in the Pell Mell, in order
to the money spoken of in the morning; and there awhile sat and
discoursed: and I find that he is a very proper man for
business, being very resolute and proud, and industrious. He
told me what reformation they had made in the office of the
Ordnance, taking away Legg's fees: have got an order that no
Treasurer after him shall ever sit at the Board; and it is a good
one: that no Master of the Ordnance here shall ever sell a
place. He tells me they have not paid any increase of price for
any thing during this war, but in most have paid less; and at
this day have greater stores than they know where to lay if there
should be peace, and than ever was any time this war. Then to
talk of news: that he thinks the want of money hath undone the
King, for the Parliament will never give the King more money
without; calling all people to account, nor, as he believes, will
ever make war again, but they will manage it themselves: unless,
which I proposed, he would visibly become a severer inspector
into his own business and accounts, and that would gain upon the
Parliament yet: which he confesses and confirms as the only lift
to set him upon his legs, but says that it is not, in his nature
ever to do. He thinks that much of our misfortune hath been for
want of an active Lord Treasurer, and that such a man as Sir W.
Coventry would do the business thoroughly.

26th. To White Hall, and there saw the Duke of Albemarle, who is
not well, and do grow crazy. While I was waiting in the Matted
Gallery, a young man was working in Indian inke, the great
picture of the King and Queene sitting by Van Dike; and did it
very finely. Then I took a turn with Mr. Evelyn; with whom I
walked two hours, till almost one of the clock: talking of the
badness of the Government, where nothing but wickedness, and
wicked men and women command the King: that it is not in his
nature to gainsay any thing that relates to his pleasures; that
much of it arises from the sickliness of our Ministers of State,
who cannot be about him as the idle companions are, and therefore
he gives way to the young rogues; and then from the negligence of
the clergy, that a Bishop shall never be seen about him, as the
King of France hath always: that the King would fain have some
of the same gang to be Lord Treasurer, which would be yet worse,
for now some delays are put to the getting gifts of the King; as
Lady Byron, [Eleanor, daughter of Robert Needham, Viscount
Kilmurrey, and widow of Peter Warburton, became in 1644 the
second wife of Richard first Lord Byron. Ob. 1663.] who had
been, as he called it, the King's seventeenth mistress abroad,
did not leave him till she had got him to give her an order for
4000l. worth of plate to be made for her; but by delays, thanks
be to God! she died before she had it. He confirmed to me the
business of the want of paper at the Council table the other day,
which I have observed; Wooly being to have found it, and did,
being called, tell the King to his face the reason of it. And
Mr. Elvelyn tells me of several of the menial servants of the
Court lacking bread, that have not received a farthing wages
since the King's coming in. He tells me the King of France hath
his mistresses, but laughs at the foolery of our King, that makes
his bastards princes, and loses his revenue upon them, and makes
his mistresses his masters. And the King of France did never
grant Lavaliere any thing to bestow on others, and gives a little
subsistence, but no more, to his bastards. We told me the whole
story of Mrs. Stewart's going away from Court, he knowing her
well; and believes her, up to her leaving the Court, to be as
virtuous as any woman in the world: and told me, from a Lord
that she told it to but yesterday with her own mouth, and a sober
man, that when the Duke of Richmond did make love to her, she did
ask the King, and he did the like also; and that the King did not
deny it, and told this Lord that she was come to that pass as to
resolve to have married any gentleman of 1500l. a-year that would
have had her in honour: for it was come to that pass, that she
could not longer continue at Court without prostituting herself
to the King, whom she had so long kept off, though he had liberty
more than any other had, or he ought to have, as to dalliance.
She told this Lord that she had reflected upon the occasion she
had given the world to think her a bad woman, and that she had no
way but to marry and leave the Court, rather in this way of
discontent than otherwise, that the world might see that she
sought not any thing but her honour; and that she will never come
to live at Court; more than when she comes to town to kiss the
Queene her mistress's hand: and hopes, though she hath little
reason to hope, she can please her Lord so as to reclaim him,
that they may yet live comfortably in the country on his estate.
She told this Lord that all the jewells she ever had given her at
Court, or any other presents (more than the King's Allowance of
700l. per annum out of the Privy-purse for her clothes), were at
her first coming, the King did give her a necklace of pearl of
about 1100l.; and afterwards, about seven months since, when the
King had hopes to have obtained some courtesy of her, the King
did give her some jewells, I have forgot what, and I think a pair
of pendants. The Duke of York, being once her Valentine, did
give her a jewell of about 800l.; and my Lord Mandeville, her
Valentine this year, a ring of about 300l.; and the King of
France would have had her mother (who, he says, was one of the
most cunning women in the world,) to have let her stay in France,
saying that he loved her not as a mistress, but as one that he
could marry as well as any lady in France; and that, if she might
stay, for the honour of his court he would take care she should
not repent. But her mother, by command of the Queene-mother,
thought rather to bring her into England; and the King of France
did give her a jewell: so that Evelyn believes she may be worth
in jewells about 6000l. and that is all she hath in the world:
and a worthy woman; and in this hath done as great an act of
honour as ever was done by woman. That now the Countesse
Castlemaine do carry all before her: and among other arguments
to prove Mrs. Stewart to have been honest to the last, he says
that the King's keeping in still with my Lady Castlemaine do show
it; for he never was known to keep two mistresses in his life,
and would never have kept to her had he prevailed any thing with
Mrs. Stewart. She is gone yesterday with her Lord to Cobham. He
did tell me of the ridiculous humour of our King and Knights of
the Garter the other day, who, whereas heretofore their robes
were only to be worn during their ceremonies and service, these,
as proud of their coats, did wear them all day till night, and
then rode into the Park with them on. Nay, and he tells me he
did see my Lord Oxford and Duke of Monmouth in a hackney-coach
with two footmen in the Park, with their robes on; which is a
most scandalous thing, so as all gravity may be said to be lost
among us. By and by we discoursed of Sir Thomas Clifford, whom I
took for a very rich and learned man, and of the great family of
that name. He tells me he is only a man of about seven-score
pounds a-year, of little learning more than the law of a justice
of peace; which he knows well; a parson's son, [Collins states,
that Sir Thomas Clifford's father was a Colonel in the King's
Army during the Scotch Rebellion 1639, and died the same year on
his return from the Northern March.] got to be burgess in a
little borough in the West, and here fell into the acquaintance
of my Lord Arlington, whose creature he is, and never from him; a
man of virtue, and comely, and good parts enough; and hath come
into his place with a great grace, though with a great skip over
the heads of a great many, as Chichly and Denham, and some Lords
that did expect it. By the way, he tells me that of all the
great men of England there is none that endeavours more to raise
those that he takes into favour than my Lord Arlington; and that
on that score he is much more to be made one's patron than my
Lord Chancellor, who never did, nor never will do any thing, but
for money. Certain news of the Dutch being abroad on our coast
with twenty-four great ships. Met my Lady Newcastle going with
her coaches and footmen all in velvet: herself (whom I never saw
before), as I have heard her often described (for all the town-
talk is now-a-days of her extravagancies), with her velvet-cap,
her hair about her ears; many black patches, because of pimples
about her mouth; naked-necked, without any thing about it, and a
black just-au-corps. She seemed to me a very comely woman: but
I hope to see more of her on May-day.

28th. To Deptford, and there I walked down the Yard, Shish and
Cox with me; and discoursed about cleaning of the wet docke, and
heard (which I had before) how, when the docke was made, a ship
of near 500 tons was there found; a ship supposed of Queene
Elizabeth's time, and well wrought, with a great deal of stone
shot in her of eighteen inches diameter, which was shot then in
use: and afterwards meeting with Captain Perriman and Mr. Castle
at Half-way Tree, they tell me of stone-shot of thirty-six inches
diameter, which they shot out of mortar-pieces.

29th. I hear that the Duke of Cambridge, the Duke of York's son,
[James, second son to the Duke of York. Born 1663, and created
Duke of Cambridge that year.] is very sick; and my Lord
Treasurer very bad of the stone, and hath been so some days. Sir
G. Carteret tells me my Lord Arlington hath done like a gentleman
by him in all things. He says, if my Lord were here, he were the
fittest man to be Lord Treasurer of any man in England; and he
thinks it might be compassed; for he confesses that the King's
matters do suffer through the inability of this man, who is
likely to die, and he will propound him to the King. It will
remove him from his place at sea, and the King will have a good
place to bestow. He says to me, that he could wish when my Lord
comes that he would think fit to forbear playing as a thing below
him, and which will lessen him, as it do my Lord St. Albans, in
the King's esteem: and as a great secret tells me that he hath
made a match for my Lord Hinchingbroke to a daughter of my Lord
Burlington's, [Richard Boyle second Earl of Cork, created Earl of
Burlington, 1663.] where there is great alliance, 10,000l.
portion; a civil family, and relation to my Lord Chancellor,
whose son hath married one of the daughters: and that my Lord
Chancellor do take it with very great kindness, so that he do
hold himself obliged by it. My Lord Sandwich hath referred it to
my Lord Crewe, Sir G. Carteret, and Mr. Montagu, to end it. My
Lord Hinchingbroke and the ladies know nothing yet of it. It
will, I think, be very happy.

30th, I met with Mr. Pierce, and he tells me the Duke of
Cambridge is very ill and full of spots about his body, that Dr.
Frazier knows not what to think of it.

MAY 1. 1667. To Westminster; in the way meeting many milk-maids
with their garlands upon their pails, dancing with a fiddler
before them; and saw pretty Nelly [Nell Gwynne.] standing at her
lodgings' door in Drury-lane in her smock sleeves and bodice,
looking upon one: she seemed a mighty pretty creature. My Lord
Crewe walked with me, giving me an account of the meeting of the
Commissioners for Accounts, whereof he is one. How some of the
gentlemen, Garraway, Littleton, and others, did scruple at their
first coming there, being called thither to act, as Members of
Parliament, which they could not do by any authority but that of
the Parliament, and therefore desired the King's direction in it,
which was sent for by my Lord Bridgewater, who brought answer,
very short, that the King expected they should obey his
Commission. Then they went on and observed upon a power to be
given them of administering and framing an oath, which they
thought they could not do by any power but Act of Parliament; and
the whole Commission did think fit to have the Judges' opinion in
it, and so drawing up their scruples in writing they all attended
the King, who told them he would send to the Judges to be
answered, and did so; who have, my Lord tells me, met three times
about it, not knowing what answer to give it: and they have met
this week, doing nothing but expecting the solution of the Judges
in this point. My Lord tells me he do believe this Commission
will do more hurt than good: it may undo some accounts, if these
men shall think fit; but it can never clear an account, for he
must come into the Exchequer for all this. Besides, it is a kind
of inquisition that hath seldom ever been granted in England:
and he believes it will never, besides, give any satisfaction to
the People or Parliament, but be looked upon as a forced, packed
business of the King, especially if these Parliament-men that are
of it shall not concur with them; which he doubts they will not,
and therefore wishes much that the King would lay hold of this
fit occasion and let the Commission fall. Then to talk of my
Lord Sandwich, whom my Lord Crewe hath a great desire might get
to be Lord Treasurer if the present Lord should die, as it is
believed he will in a little time; and thinks he can have no
competitor but my Lord Arlington, who, it is given out, desires
it: but my Lord thinks not, for that the being Secretary do keep
him a greater interest with the King than the other would do; at
least do believe that if my Lord would surrender him his Wardrobe
place, it would be a temptation to Arlington to assist my Lord in
getting the Treasurer's. I did object to my Lord that it would
be no place of content, nor safety, nor honour for my Lord, the
State being so indigent as it is, and the King so irregular, and
those about him, that my Lord must be forced to part with any
thing to answer his warrants; and that, therefore, I do believe
the King had rather have a man that may be one of his vicious
caball, than a sober man that will mind the publick, that so they
may sit at cards and dispose of the revenue of the kingdom. This
my Lord was moved at, and said he did not indeed know how to
answer it, and bid me think of it; and so said he himself would
also do. He do mightily cry out of the bad management of our
monies, the King having had so much given him; and yet when the
Parliament do find that the King should have 900,000l. in his
purse by the best account of issues they have yet seen, yet we
should report in the Navy a debt due from the King of 900,000l.:
which I did confess I doubted was true in the first, and knew to
be true in the last, and did believe that there was some great
miscarriages in it: which he owned to believe also, saying, that
at this rate it is not in the power of the kingdom to make a war,
nor answer the King's wants. Thence away to the King's
playhouse, and saw "Love in a Maze:" [Downes mentions this play,
which was never printed, nor is the author known.] but a sorry
play; only Lacy's clowne's part, which he did most admirably
indeed; and I am glad to find the rogue at liberty again. Here
was but little, and that ordinary company. We sat at the upper
bench next the boxes; and I find it do pretty well, and have the
advantage of seeing and hearing the great people, which may be
pleasant when there is good store. Now was only Prince Rupert
and my Lord Lauderdale, and my Lord --, [Probaby Craven.] the
naming of whom puts me in mind of my seeing at Sir Robert Viner's
two or three great silver flagons, made with inscriptions as
gifts of the King to such and such persons of quality as did stay
in town the late great plague, for the keeping things in order in
the town. Thence Sir W. Pen and I in his coach Tiburne way into
the Park, where a horrid dust, and number of coaches, without
pleasure or order. That which we and almost all went for was to
see my Lady Newcastle; which we could not, she being followed and
crowded upon by coaches all the way she went, that nobody could
come near her; only I could see she was in a large black coach
adorned with silver instead of gold, and so white curtains, and
every thing black and white, and herself in her cap. Sir W. Pen
did give me an account this afternoon of his design of buying Sir
Robert Brookes's fine house at Wansted: which I so wondered at,
and did give him reasons against it, which he allowed of: and
told me that he did intend to pull down the house and build a
less, and that he should get 1500l. by the old house, and I know
not what fooleries. But I will never believe he ever intended to
buy it, for my part, though he troubled Mr. Gauden to go and look
upon it, and advise him in it,

3rd. To the Duke of York's chamber, which, as it is now fretted
at the top, and the chimney-piece made handsome, is one of the
noblest and best-proportioned rooms that ever, I think I saw. To
Westminster by coach: the Cofferer [Mr. Ashburnham.] telling us
odd stories how he was dealt with by the men of the Church at
Westminster in taking a lease of them at the King's coming in,
and particularly the devilish covetousness of Dr. Busby.
[Richard Busby, D.D., Master of Westminster School, and in 1660
made a Prebendary of Westminster. Notwithstanding the character
given of him here, he was a liberal benefactor to Christ Church,
Oxford, and Lichfield Cathedral. Ob. 1695,, aged 89.] Took a
turn with my old acquaintance Mr. Pechell, whose red nose makes
me ashamed to be seen with him, though otherwise a good-natured
man. This day the news is come that the fleet of the Dutch, of
about 20 ships, which come upon our coasts upon design to have
intercepted our colliers (but by good luck failed), is gone to
the Frith, and there lies, perhaps to trouble the Scotch
privateers, which have galled them of late very much, it may be
more than all our last year's fleet.

5th. Sir John Robinson tells me he hath now got a street ordered
to be continued, forty feet broad, from Paul's through Cannon-
street to the Tower, which will be very fine. He and others this
day, where I was in the afternoon, do tell me of at least six or
eight fires within these few days; and continually stirs of fire,
and real fires there have been, in one place or other, almost
ever since the late great fire, as if there was a fate sent
people for fire. I walked over the Park to Sir W. Coventry's.
We talked of Tangier, of which he is ashamed; also that it should
put the King to this charge for no good in the world: and now a
man going over that is a good soldier, but a debauched man, which
the place need not to have. And so used these words: "That this
place was to the King as my Lord Carnarvon [Charles Dormer
succeeded his father, who fell at the battle of Newbury; as Earl
of Carnarvon. Ob. s.p. 1709.] says of wood, that it is an
excrescence of the earth provided by God for the payment of
debts. "This day Sir W. Coventry tells me the Dutch fleet shot
some shot, four or five hundred, into Burnt Island in the Frith,
but without any hurt; and so are gone.

7th. To St. James's; but there find Sir W. Coventry gone out
betimes this morning on horseback with the King and Duke of York
to Putny-heath, to run some horses.

8th. In our street, at the Three Tuns Tavern, I find a great
hubbub: and what was it but two brothers had fallen out, and one
killed the other? And who should they be but the two Fieldings?
one whereof, Bazill, was page to my Lady Sandwich; and he hath
killed the other, himself being very drunk, and so is sent to

10th. At noon to Kent's, at the Three Tuns Tavern: and there
the constable of the parish did show us the picklocks and dice
that were found in the dead man's pocket, and but 18d. in money;
and a table-book, wherein were entered the names of several
places where he was to go; and among others his house, where he
was to dine, and did dine yesterday. And after dinner went into
the church, and there saw his corpse with the wound in his left
breast; a sad spectacle, and a broad wound, which makes my hand
now shake to write of it. His brother intending, it seems, to
kill the coachman, who did not please him, this fellow stepped in
and took away his sword; who thereupon took out his knife, which
was of the fashion, with a falchion blade, and a little cross at
the hilt like a dagger; and with that stabbed him. Drove hard
towards Clerkenwell, thinking to have overtaken my Lady
Newcastle, whom I saw before us in her coach, with 100 boys and
girls running looking upon her; but I could, not: and so she got
home before I could come up to her. But I will get a time to see

12th. Walked over the fields to Kingsland, and back again; a
walk, I think, I have not taken these twenty years; but puts me
in mind of my boy's time when I boarded at Kingsland, and used to
shoot with my bow and arrows in these fields.

13th. This morning come Sir H. Cholmly to me for a tally or two;
and tells me that he hears that we are by agreement to give the
King of France Nova Scotia; which he do not like: but I do not
know the importance of it. Sir Philip Warwick do please himself
like a good man to tell some of the good ejaculations of my Lord
Treasurer concerning the little worth of this world, to buy it
with so much pain, and other things fit for a dying man.

14th. To my Lord Chancellor's, where I met Mr. Povy expecting
the coming of the rest of the Commissioners for Tangier. Here I
understand how the two Dukes, both the only sons of the Duke of
York, are sick even to danger; and that on Sunday last they were
both so ill, as that the poor Duchesse was in doubt which would
die: the Duke of Cambridge, of some general disease, the other
little Duke, whose title I know not, of the convulsion fits, of
which he had four this morning. Fear that either of them might
be dead, did make us think that it was the occasion that the
Duke of York and others were not come to the meeting of the
Commission which was designed, and my Lord Chancellor did expect.
And it was pretty to observe how, when my Lord sent down to St.
James's to see why the Duke of York come not, and Mr. Povy, who
went, returned, my Lord did ask (not how the Princes or the Dukes
do, as other people do, but) "How do the Children?" which
methought was mighty great, and like a great man and grandfather.
I find every body mightily concerned for these children, as a
matter wherein the State is much concerned that they should live.

16th. I away with Sir G. Carteret to London, talking all the
way; and he do tell me that the business of my Lord Hinchingbroke
his marriage with my Lord Burlington's daughter, is concluded on
by all friends; and that my Lady is now told of it, and do
mightily please herself with it: which I am mightily glad of.
News still that my Lord Treasurer is so ill as not to be any man
of this world; and it is said that the Treasury shall be managed
by Commission. I would to God Sir G. Carteret, or my Lord
Sandwich, be in it! But the latter is the more fit for it.

16th. This being Holy Thursday, when the boys go our procession
round the parish, we were to go to the Three Tuns Tavern to dine
with the rest of the parish; where all the parish almost was, Sir
Andrew Rickard and others; and of our house, J. Minnes, W.
Batten, W. Pen, and myself: and Mr. Mills did sit uppermost at
the table. Sir John Fredricke [Lord Mayor of London 1662, and
President of Christ's Hospital. His eldest son, John, was
created a Baronet 1723.] and Sir R. Ford did talk of Paul's
School, which, they tell me, must be taken away; and then I fear
it will be long before another place, such as they say is
promised, is found: but they do say that the honour of their
Company [The Mercers' Company, under whose superintendence St.
Paul's school was placed by the Founder.] is concerned in the
doing of it, and that it is a thing that they are obliged to do.
To my Lord Treasurer's, where I find the porter crying, and
suspected it was that my Lord is dead; and, poor Lord! we did
find that he was dead just now. There is a good man gone: and I
pray God that the Treasury may not be worse managed the hand or
hands it shall now be put into; though, for certain, the slowness
(though he was of great integrity) of this man and remissness
have gone as far to undo the nation, as any thing else that hath
happened; and yet, if I knew all the difficulties that he hath
lain under, and his instrument Sir Philip Warwick, I might be
true to another mind. It is remarkable that this afternoon Mr.
Moore come to me, and there among other things did tell me how
Mr. Moyer the merchant, having procured an order from the King
and Duke of York and Council, with the consent of my Lord
Chancellor, and by assistance of Lord Arlington, for the
releasing out of prison his brother Samuel Moyer, who was a great
man in the late times in Haberdashers'-hall, and was engaged
under hand and seal to give the man that obtained it so much in
behalf of my Lord Chancellor; but it seems my Lady Duchesse of
Albemarle had before undertaken it for so much money, but hath
not done it. The Duke of Albemarle did the next day send for
this Moyer, to tell him that notwithstanding this order of the
King and Council's being passed for release of his brother, yet,
if he did not consider the pains of some friends of his, he would
stop that order. This Moyer being an honest, bold man, told him
that he was engaged to the hand that had done the thing to give
him a reward; and more, he could not give, nor could own any
kindness done by his Grace's interest: and so parted. The next
day Sir Edward Savage did take the said Moyer in tax about it,
giving ill words of this Moyer and his brother; which he not
being able to bear, told him he would give to the person that had
engaged him what he promised, and not any thing to any body else;
and that both he and his brother were as honest men as himself or
any man else: and so sent him going, and bid him do his worst.
It is one of the most extraordinary cases that ever I saw or
understood; but it is true.

17th. To Sir R. Viner's with 600 pieces of gold to turn into
silver, for the enabling me to answer Sir G. Carteret's 3000l.;
which he now draws all out of my hand towards the paying for a
purchase he hath made for his son and my Lady Jemimah, in
Northamptonshire, of Sir Samuel Luke, [Sir Samuel Luke was
(according to Granger) the original Hudibras of Butler.] in a
good place: a good house, and near all her friends; which is a
very happy thing.

19th. Great talk of the good end that my Lord Treasurer made;
closing his own eyes, and wetting his mouth, and bidding adieu
with the greatest content and freedom in the world: and is said
to die with the cleanest hands that ever any Lord Treasurer did.
Mr. How come to see us; and, among other things, told us how the
Barristers and Students of Gray's Inne rose in rebellion against
the Benchers the other day; who outlawed them, and a great deal
of do: but now they are at peace again.

20th. Among other news I hear that the Commissioners for the
Treasury were named by the King yesterday; but who they are
nobody could tell: but the persons are the Lord Chancellor, the
two Secretaries, Lord Ashly, and others say Sir W. Coventry and
Sir John Duncomb, but all conclude the Duke of Albemarle: but
reports do differ.

22nd. Up, and by water to White Hall to Sir G. Carteret, who
tells me now for certain how the Commission for the Treasury is
disposed of; viz. to Duke of Albemarle, Lord Ashly, Sir W.
Coventry, Sir John Duncomb, and Sir Thomas Clifford: at which,
he says, all the whole Court is disturbed; it having been once
concluded otherwise into the other hands formerly mentioned in
yesterday's notes, but all of a sudden the King's choice was
changed, and these are to be the men: the first of which is only
for a puppet to give honour to the rest. He do presage that
these men will make it their business to find faults in the
management of the late Lord Treasurer, and in discouraging the
bankers: but I am (whatever I in compliance do say to him) of
another mind, and my heart is very glad of it, for I do expect
they will do much good, and that it is the happiest thing that
hath appeared to me for the good of the nation since the King
come in. Thence to St. James's, and up to the Duke of York; and
there in his chamber Sir W. Coventry did of himself take notice
of this business of the Treasury, wherein he is in the
Commission, and desired that I would be thinking of any thing fit
for him to be acquainted with for the lessening of charge and
bettering of our credit, and what our expence hath been since the
King's coming home, which he believes will be one of the first
things they shall enquire into: which I promised him, and from
time to time, which he desires, give him an account of what I can
think of worthy his knowledge. I am mighty glad of this
opportunity of professing my joy to him in what choice the King
hath made, and the hopes I have that it will save the kingdom
from perishing: and how it do encourage me to take pains again,
after my having through despair neglected it! which he told me
of himself that it was so with him, that he had given himself up
to more ease than ever he expected, and that his opinion of
matters was so bad that there was no public employment in the
kingdom should have been accepted by him but this which the King
hath now given him; and therein he is glad, in hopes of the
service he may do therein; and in my conscience he will. So into
the Duke of York's closet, and there, among other things, Sir W.
Coventry did take notice of what he told me the other day, about
a report of Commissioner Pett's dealing for timber in the Navy
and selling it to us in other names; and besides his own proof,
did produce a paper I had given him this morning about it, in the
case of Widow Murford and Morecocke, which was so handled, that
the Duke of York grew very angry, and commanded us presently to
fall into the examination of it, saying that he would not trust a
man for his sake that lifts up the whites of his eyes. And it
was declared that if he be found to have done so, he should be
reckoned unfit to serve the Navy; and I do believe he will be
turned out: and it was, methought, a worthy saying of Sir W.
Coventry to the Duke of York, "Sir," says he, "I do not make this
complaint out of any disrespect to Commissioner Pett, but because
I do love to do these things fairly and openly." This day coming
from Westminster with W. Batten, we saw at White Hall stairs a
fisher-boat with a sturgeon that he had newly catched in the
River; which I saw, but it was but a little one; but big enough
to prevent my mistake of that for a colt, if ever I become Mayor
of Huntingdon.

23rd. Sir John Duncomb is sworn yesterday a Privy-councillor.
This day I hear also that last night the Duke of Kendall, [Henry
Stuart. Created Duke of Kendall, 1664.] second son of the Duke
of York, did die; and that the other, Duke of Cambridge,
continues very ill still.

26th. All our discourse about Brampton, and my intentions to
build there if I could be free of my engagement to my uncle
Thomas and his son, that they may not have what I have built
against my will in case of me and my brother's being without
heirs male; which is the true reason why I am against laying out
money upon that place, together with my fear of some
inconvenience by being so near Hinchingbroke; being obliged to be
a servant to that family, and subject to what expence they shall
call me; and to have all that I shall buy or do esteemed as got
by the death of my uncle, when indeed what I have from him is not
worth naming.

27th. The new Commissioners of the Treasury have chosen Sir G.
Downing for their Secretary: and I think in my conscience they
have done a great thing in it; for he is active and a man of
business, and values himself upon having of things do well under
his hand; so that I am mightily pleased in their choice. Abroad,
and stopped at Bear-garden stairs, there to see a prize fought.
But the house so full there was no getting in there, so forced to
go through an alehouse into the pit, where the bears are baited;
and upon a stool did see them fight, which they did very
furiously, a butcher and a waterman. The former had the better
all along till by and by the latter dropped his sword out of his
hand, and the butcher, whether not seeing his sword dropped I
know not, but did give him a cut over the wrist, so as he was
disabled to fight any longer. But, Lord! to see how in a minute
the whole stage was full of watermen to revenge the foul play,
and the butchers to defend their fellow, though most blamed him;
and there they all fell to it to knocking down and cutting many
on each side. It was pleasant to see, but that I stood in the
pit, and feared that in the tumult I might get some hurt. At
last the battle broke up, and so I away. The Duke of Cambridge
very ill still.

28th. Up, and by coach to St. James's, where I find Sir W.
Coventry desirous to have spoke with me. It was to read over a
draught of a letter which he hath made for his brother
Commissioners and him to sign to us, demanding an account of the
whole business of the Navy accounts; and I perceive, by the way
he goes about it, that they will do admirable things. He tells
me that they have chosen Sir G. Downing their Secretary, who will
be as fit a man as any in the world: and he said, by the by,
speaking of the banquers being fearful of Sir G. Downing's being
Secretary, he being their enemy, that they did not intend to be
ruled by their Secretary but do the business themselves. My
heart is glad to see so great hopes of good to the nation as will
be by these men; and it do me good to see Sir W. Coventry so
cheerfull as he now is on the same score. My wife away down with
Jane and W. Hewer to Woolwich, in order to a little ayre and to
lie there to night, and so to gather May-dew to-morrow morning,
which Mrs. Turner hath taught her is the only thing in the world
to wash her face with; and I am contented with it. I by water to
Fox-hall, and there walked in Spring-garden. A great deal of
company, and the weather and garden pleasant: and it is very
pleasant and cheap going thither, for a man may go to spend what
he will, or nothing, all as one. But to hear the nightingale and
other birds, and hear fiddles and there a harp, and here a Jew's
trump, and here laughing, and there fine people walking, is
mighty divertising.

29th. Our parson Mills having the offer of another benefice [The
Rectory of Wansted in Essex, to which he was presented.] by Sir
Robert Brookes, who was his tutor, he by my Lord Barkeley is made
one of the Duke's Chaplains, which qualifies him for two livings.
But to see how slightly such things are done, the Duke of York
only taking my Lord Barkeley's word upon saying, that we the
officers of the Navy do say that he is a good man and minister of
our parish, and the Duke of York admits him to kiss his hand, but
speaks not one word to him; but so a warrant will be drawn from
the Duke of York to qualify him, and there's an end of it.

30th. After dinner I walked to Arundell House, the way very
dusty, (the day of meeting of the Society being changed from
Wednesday to Thursday, which I knew not before, because the
Wednesday is a Council-day, and several of the Council are of the
Society, and would come but for their attending the King at
Council;) where I find very much company, in expectation of the
Duchesse of Newcastle, who had desired to be invited to the
Society; and was; after much debate PRO and CON, it seems many
being against it; and we do believe the town will be full of
ballads of it. Anon comes the Duchesse with her women attending
her; among others the Ferabosco, of whom so much talk is that her
lady would bid her show her face and kill the gallants. She is
indeed black, and hath good black little eyes, but otherwise a
very ordinary woman I do think, but they say sings well. The
Duchesse hath been a good, comely woman; but her dress so antick,
and her deportment so ordinary, that I do not like her at all,
nor did I hear her say any thing that was worth hearing, but that
she was full of admiration, all admiration. Several fine
experiments were shown her of colours, loadstones, microscopes,
and of liquors: among others, of one that did while she was
there turn a piece of roasted mutton into pure blood, which was
very rare. Here was Mrs. Moore of Cambridge, whom I had not seen
before, and I was glad to see her; as also a very black boy that
ran up and down the room, somebody's child in Arundell House.
After they had shown her many experiments, and she cried still
she was full of admiration, she departed, being led out and in by
several Lords that were there; among others, Lord George Barkeley
and Earl of Carlisle, [Charles Howard, created Earl of Carlisle
1661, employed on several Embassies, and Governor of Jamaica.
Ob. 1684.] and a very pretty young man, the Duke of Somerset.
[Francis fifth Duke of Somerset, murdered in Italy 1678.]

31st. At the Treasury chamber. Here I saw Duncomb look as big,
and take as much state on him, as if he had been born a lord.
Here I met, with Sir H. Cholmly, who tells me that he is told
this day by Secretary Morris that he believes we are, and shall
be only fooled by the French; and that the Dutch are very high
and insolent, and do look upon us as come over only to beg a
peace; which troubles me very much, and I do fear it is true.
Thence to Sir G. Carteret at his lodgings; who, I perceive, is
mightily displeased with this new Treasury; and he hath reason,
for it will eclipse him. And he tells me that my Lord Ashly says
they understand nothing; and he says he believes the King do not
intend they shall sit long. But I believe no such thing, but
that the King will find such benefit by them as he will desire to
have them continue, as we see he hath done in the late new Act
that was so much decried about the King; but yet the King hath
since permitted it, and found good by it. He says, and I
believe, that a great many persons at Court are angry at the rise
of this Duncomb, whose father, he tells me, was a long-Parliament
man, and a great Committee man; and this fellow used to carry his
papers to Committees after him: he was a kind of an atturny:
but for all this, I believe will be a great man, in spite of all.
In the evening home, and there to my unexpected satisfaction did
get my intricate accounts of interest (which have been of late
much perplexed by mixing of some moneys of Sir G. Carteret's with
mine) evened and set right: and so late to supper, and with
great quiet to bed; finding by the balance of my account that I
am creditor 6900l. for which the Lord of Heaven be praised!

JUNE 1, 1667. Up; and there comes to me Mr. Commander, whom I
employ about hiring of some ground behind the office, for the
building of me a stable and coach-house: for I do find it
necessary for me, both in respect of honour and the profit of it
also, (my expense in hackney-coaches being now so great), to keep
a coach, and therefore will do it. Having given him some
instructions about it, I to the office; where we have news that
our peace with Spain as to trade is wholly concluded, and we are
to furnish him with some men for Flanders against the French.
How that will agree with the French I know not; but they say that
he also hath liberty to get what men he pleases out of England.
But for the Spaniard, I hear that my Lord Castlehaven is raising
a regiment of 4000 men which he is to command there; and several
young gentlemen are going over in commands with him: and they
say the Duke of Monmouth is going over only as a traveller, not
to engage on either side, but only to see the campagne, which
will be becoming him much more: than to live as he now do.

3rd. Met Mr. Mills, our parson, whom I went back with to bring
him to Sir W. Coventry to give him the form of a qualification
for the Duke of York to sign to, to enable him to have two
livings; which was a service I did, but much against my will, for
a lazy, fat priest. Sir William Doyly did lay a wager with me,
the Treasurership would be in one hand (notwithstanding this
present Commission) before Christmas: on which we did lay a poll
of ling, a brace of carps, and a bottle of wine; and Sir W. Pen
and Mr. Scowen to be at the eating of them. Thence down by water
to Deptford, it being Trinity Monday, when the Master is chosen.
And so I down with them; and we had a good dinner of plain meat,
and good company at our table: among others my good Mr. Evelyn,
with whom after dinner I stepped aside and talked upon the
present posture of our affairs; which is, that the Dutch are
known to be abroad with eighty sail of ships of war, and twenty
fire-ships, and the French come into the Channell with twenty
sail of men-of-war, and five fire-ships, while we have not a ship
at sea to do them any hurt with, but are calling in all we can,
while our Embassadors are treating at Bredah, and the Dutch look
upon them as come to beg peace, and use them accordingly: and
all this through the negligence of our Prince, who had power, if
he would, to master all these with the money and men that he hath
had the command of, and may now have, if he would mind his
business. In the Treasury-chamber an hour or two, where we saw
the Country Receivers and Accountants come to attend; and one of
them a brisk young fellow (with his hat cocked like a fool
behind, as the present fashion among the blades is) committed to
the Serjeant. By and by I upon desire was called in, and
delivered in my Report of my Accounts. Present, Lord Ashly,
Clifford, and Duncomb. But I do like the way of these lords,
that they admit nobody to use many words, nor do they spend many
words themselves, but in great state do bear what they see
necessary, and say little themselves, but bid withdraw.

5th. Captain Perriman brings us word bow the Happy Returne's
crew below in the Hope, ordered to carry the Portugal Embassador
to Holland, (and the Embassador, I think, on board,) refuse to go
till paid; and by their example two or three more ships are in a
mutiny: which is a sad consideration, while so many of the
enemy's ships are at this day triumphing in the sea. Sir G.
Carteret showed me a gentleman coming by in his coach who hath
been sent for up out of Lincolnshire, (I think he says he is a
justice of peace there,) that the Council have laid by the heels
here, and here lies in a messenger's hands, for saying that a man
and his wife are but one person, and so ought to pay but 12d. for
both to the Poll Bill; by which others were led to do the like:
and so here he lies prisoner.

7th. With Mr. Townsend, whom I sent for to come to me to
discourse about my Lord Sandwich's business; (for whom I am in
some pain lest the Accounts of the Wardrobe may not be in so good
order as may please the new Lords' Treasurers, who are quick-
sighted, and under obligations of recommending themselves to the
King and the world by their finding and mending of faults, and
are most of them not the best friends to my Lord.)

8th. Up, and to the office, where all the news this morning is
that the Dutch are come with a fleet of eighty sail to Harwich,
and that guns were heard plain by Sir W. Rider's people at
Bednall-greene all yesterday even. The news is confirmed that
the Dutch are off Harwich, but had done nothing last night. The
King hath sent down my Lord of Oxford to raise the countries
there; and all the Western barges are taken up to make a bridge
over the river about the Hope for horse to cross the River, if
there be occasion.

9th. I hear that the Duke of Cambridge, who was given over long
since by the Doctors, is now likely to recover; for which God be
praised! To Sir W. Coventry, and there talked with him a great
while; and mighty glad I was of my good fortune to visit him, for
it keeps in my acquaintance with him, and the world sees it, and
reckons my interest accordingly. In comes my Lord Barkeley, who
is going down to Harwich also to look after the militia there:
and there is also the Duke of Monmouth, and with him a great many
young Hectors, the Lord Chesterfield, my Lord Mandeville, and
others; but to little purpose, I fear, but to debauch the country
women thereabouts. My Lord Barkeley wanting some maps, and Sir
W. Coventry recommending the six maps of England that are bound
up for the pocket, I did offer to present my Lord with them,
which he accepted; and so I will send them him. I find an order
come for the getting some fire-ships presently to annoy the
Dutch, who are in the King's Channel, and expected up higher.

10th. Up; and news brought us that the Dutch are come up as high
as the Nore; and more presing orders for fire-ships. W. Batten,
W. Pen, and I to St. James's; whence the Duke of York gone this
morning betimes, to send away some men down to Chatham. So we
then to White Hall, and meet Sir W. Coventry, who presses all
that is possible for fireships. So we three to the office
presently; and thither comes Sir Fretcheville Hollis, who is to
command them all in some exploits he is to do with them on the
enemy in the River. [Son of Fretcheville Hollis, of Grimsby
(Colonel of a regiment on the King's side during the Civil Wars,
in which he acquired considerable credit,) by his second wife
Elizabeth Molesworth, and himself a distinguished naval officer.
He lost an arm in the sea-fight 1665, and afterwards served as
Rear-Admiral under Sir R. Holmes, when they attacked the Smyrna
fleet. He fell in the battle of Southwold Bay, 1672, on board
the Cambridge. Although Mr. Pepys speaks slightingly of Sir F.
H. he was a man of high spirit and enterprise, and is thus
eulogised by Dryden in his ANNUS MIRABILIS.
"Young Hollis on a Muse by Mars begot,
Born, Caesar-like, to write and act great deeds,
Impatient to revenge his fatal shot,
His right hand doubly to his left succeeds."]
So we all down to Deptford, and pitched upon ships and set men at
work: but, Lord! to see how backwardly things move at this
pinch, notwithstanding that by the enemy's being now come up as
high as almost the Hope, Sir J. Minnes, who was gone down to pay
some ships there, hath sent up the money; and so we are possessed
of money to do what we will with. Yet partly ourselves, being
used to be idle and in despair, and partly people that have been
used to be deceived by us as to money won't believe us; and we
know not, though we have it, how almost to promise it; and our
wants such, and men out of the way, that it is an admirable thing
to consider how much the King suffers, and how necessary it is in
a State to keep the King's service always in a good posture and
credit. Down to Gravesend, where I find the Duke of Albemarle
just come, with a great many idle lords and gentlemen, with their
pistols and fooleries; and the bulworke not able to have stood
half an hour had they come up; but the Dutch are fallen down from
the Hope and Shell-haven as low as Sheerenesse, and we do plainly
at this time hear the guns play. Yet I do not find the Duke of
Albemarle intends to go thither, but stays here to-night, and
hath (though the Dutch are gone) ordered our frigates to be
brought to a line between the two block-houses; which I took then
to be a ridiculous thing. I find the town had removed most of
their goods out of the town, for fear of the Dutch coming up to
them; and from Sir John Griffen, that last night there was not
twelve men to be got in the town to defend it: which the master
of the house tells me is not true, but that the men of the town
did intend to stay, though they did indeed, and so had he (at the
Ship,) removed their goods. Thence went to an Ostend man-of-war
just now come up, who met the Dutch fleet, who took three ships
that he came convoying hither from him: says they are as low as
the Nore, or thereabouts.

11th. Brouncker come to us, who is just now going to Chatham
upon a desire of Commissioner Pett's, who is very fearful of the
Dutch, and desires help for God and the King and kingdom's sake.
So Brouncker goes down, and Sir J. Minnes also from Gravesend.
This morning Pett writes us word that Sheerenesse is lost last
night, after two or three hours' dispute. The enemy hath
possessed himself of that place; which is very sad, and puts us
into great fears of Chatham. Home, and there to our business,
hiring some fire-ships, and receiving every hour almost letters
from Sir W. Coventry, calling for more fire-ships: and an order
from Council to enable us to take any man's ships; and Sir W.
Coventry, in his letter to us, says he do not; doubt but at this
time (under an invasion, as he owns it to be) the King may by law
take any man's goods. At this business late, and then home;
where a great deal of serious talk with my wife about the sad
state we are in, and especially from the beating up of drums this
night for the train-bands upon pain of death to appear in arms
to-morrow morning, with bullet and powder, and money to supply
themselves with victuals for a fortnight: which, considering the
soldiers drawn out to Chatham and elsewhere, looks as if they had
a design to ruin the City and give it up to be undone; which, I
hear, makes the sober citizens to think very sadly of things.

12th. Up very betimes to our business at the office, their
hiring of more fire-ships; and at it close all the morning. At
noon home, and Sir W. Pen dined with us. By and by after dinner
my wife out by coach to see her mother; and I in another (being
afraid at this busy time to be seen with a woman in a coach, as
if I were idle) towards The. Turner's: but met Sir W. Coventry's
boy; and there in a letter find that; the Dutch had made no
motion since their taking Sheerenesse, and the Duke of Albemarle
writes that all is safe as to the great ships against any
assault, the bomb and chaine being so fortified: which put my
heart into great joy. When I come to Sir W. Coventry's chamber,
I find him abroad; but his clerk, Powell, do tell me that ill
news is come to Court of the Dutch breaking the Chaine at
Chatham; which struck me to the heart. And to White Hall to hear
the truth of it; and there going up the Park-stairs I did hear
some lacquies speaking of sad news come to Court, saying, there
is hardly any body in the Court but do look as if he cried. I
met Roger Pepys, newly come out of the country: in discourse he
told me that his grandfather, my great grandfather, had 800l. per
annum in Queene Elizabeth's time in the very town of Cottenham;
and that we did certainly come out of Scotland with the Abbot of
Crowland. Home, where all our hearts do now ake; for the news is
true that the Dutch have broke the chaine and burned our ships,
and particularly "The Royal Charles:" other particulars I know
not, but it is said to be so. And the truth is I do fear so much
that the whole kingdom is undone, that I do this night resolve to
study with my father and wife what to do with the little that I
have in money by me, for I give all the rest that I have in the
King's hands for Tangier for lost. So God help us! and God
knows what disorders we may fall into, and whether any violence
on this office, or perhaps some severity on our persons, as being
reckoned by the silly people, or perhaps may by policy of State
be thought fit to be condemned by the King and Duke of York, and
so put to trouble; though, God knows I have in my own person done
my full duty, I am sure.

13th. No sooner up but hear the sad news confirmed of the Royal
Charles being taken by them, and now in fitting by them, (which
Pett should have carried up higher by our several orders, and
deserves therefore to be hanged for not doing it,) and burning
several others; and that another fleet is come up into the Hope.
Upon which news the King and Duke of York have been below since
four o'clock in the morning, to command the sinking of ships at
Barking-Creeke and other places, to stop their coming up higher:
which put me into such a fear, that I presently resolved of my
father's and wife's going into the country; and at two hours'
warning they did go by the coach this day, with about 1300l. in
gold in their night-bag. Pray God give them good passage, and
good care to hide it when they come home! but my heart is full
of fear. They gone, I continued in frights and fear what to do
with the rest. W. Hewer hath been at the banker's, and hath got
500l. out of Blackwell's hands of his own money; but they are so
called upon that they will be all broke, hundreds coming to them
for money: and they answer him, "It is payable at twenty days--
when the days are out we will pay you;" and those that are not so
they make tell over their money, and make their bags false on
purpose to give cause to retell it, and so spend time. I cannot
have my 200 pieces or gold again for silver, all being bought up
last night that were to be had, and sold for 24 and 25s. a-piece.
Every minute some one or other calls for this or that order; and
so I forced to be at the office most of the day about the fire-
ships which are to be suddenly fitted out. And it's a most
strange thing that we hear nothing from any of my brethren at
Chatham: so that we are wholly in the dark, various being the
reports of what is done there; insomuch, that I sent Mr. Clapham
express thither to see how matters go. I did about noon resolve
to send Mr. Gibson away after my wife with another 1000 pieces,
under colour of an express to Sir Jeremy Smith, who is, as I
hear, with some ships at Newcastle; which I did really send to
him, and may possibly prove of good use to the King, for it is
possible in the hurry of business they may not think of it at
Court, and the charge of express is not considerable to the King.
The King and Duke of York up and down all the day here and there:
some time on Tower Hill, where the City militia was; where the
King did make a speech to them, that they should venture
themselves no further than he would himself. I also sent (my
mind being in pain) Saunders after my wife and father, to
overtake them at their night's lodging, to see how matters go
with them. In the evening I sent for my cousin Sarah and her
husband, who come; and I did deliver them my chest of writings
about Brampton, and my brother Tom's papers, and my journalls,
which I value much: and did send my two silver flagons to Kate
Joyce's: that so being scattered what I have, something might be
saved. I have also made a girdle, by which with some trouble I
do carry about me 300l. in gold about my body, that I may not be
without something in case I should be surprised; for I think, in
any nation but our's, people that appear (for we are not indeed
so) so faulty as we, would have their throats cut. In the
evening comes Mr. Pelling and several others to the office, and
tell me that never were people so dejected as they are in the
City all over at this day; and do talk most loudly, even treason;
as, that we are bought and sold, that we are betrayed by the
Papists and others about the King: cry out that the office of
the Ordnance hath been so backward as no powder to have been at
Chatham nor Upner Castle till such a time, and the carriages all
broken: Legg is a Papist; [William Legge, mentioned before, He
was Treasurer and Superintendent of the Ordnance, with General's
pay.] that Upner, the old good castle built by Queen Elizabeth,
should be lately slighted; that the ships at Chatham should not
be carried up higher. They look upon us as lost, and remove
their families and rich goods in the City; and do think verily
that the French being come down with an army to Dunkirke, it is
to invade us, and that we shall be invaded. Mr. Clerke, the
solicitor, comes to me about business, and tells me that he hears
that the King hath chosen Mr. Pierpoint and Vaughan of the West,
Privy-councillors; that my Lord Chancellor was affronted in the
Hall this day, by people telling him of his Dunkirke House; and
that there are regiments ordered to be got together, whereof to
be commanders my Lord Fairfax, Ingolsby, Bethell, Norton, and
Birch, and other Presbyterians; and that Dr. Bates will have
liberty to preach. Now, whether this be true or not, I know not;
but do think that nothing but this will unite us together. Late
at night comes Mr. Hudson the cooper, my neighbour, and tells me
that he come from Chatham this evening at five o'clock, and saw
this afternoon "The Royal James," "Oake," and "London," burnt by
the enemy with their fire-ships: that two or three men-of-war
come up with them, and made no more of Upner Castle's shooting
than of a fly; that those ships lay below Upner-Castle, (but
therein, I conceive, he is in an error;) that the Dutch are
fitting out "The Royall Charles;" that we shot; so far as from
the Yard thither, so that the shot did no good, for the bullets
grazed on the water; that Upner played hard with their guns at
first, but slowly afterwards, either from the men's being beat
off; or their powder spent. But we hear that the fleet in the
Hope is not come up any higher the last flood. And Sir W. Batten
tells me that ships are provided to sink in the River, about
Woolwich, that will prevent their coming up higher if they should
attempt it. I made my will also this day, and did give all I had
equally between my father and wife.

14th. Up, and to the office; where Mr. Fryer comes and tells me
that there are several Frenchman and Flemish ships in the River
with passes from the Duke of York for carrying of prisoners, that
ought to be parted from the rest of the ships, and their powder
taken, lest they do fire themselves when the enemy comes, and so
spoil us; which is good advice, and I think I will give notice of
it; and did so. But it is pretty odd to see how every body, even
at this high time of danger, puts business off of their own
hands! He says that he told this to the Lieutenant of the Tower,
(to whom I, for the same reason, was directing him to go); and
the Lieutenant of the Tower bade him come to us, for he had
nothing to do with it. And yesterday comes Captain Crew, of one
of the fire-ships, and told me that the officers of the Ordnance
would deliver his gunner's materials, but not compound them, but
that we must do it; whereupon I was forced to write to them about
it: and one that like a great many come to me this morning. By
and by comes Mr. Willson, and, by direction of his, a man of Mr.
Gauden's; who are come from Chatham last night, and saw the three
ships burnt, they lying all dry, and boats going from the men-of-
war to fire them. But that that he tells me of worst consequence
is, that he himself (I think he said) did hear many Englishmen on
board the Dutch ships speaking to one another in English; and
that they did cry and say, "We did heretofore fight for tickets;
now we fight for dollars!" and did ask how such and such a one
did, and would commend themselves to them: which is a sad
consideration. And Mr. Lewes (who was present at this fellow's
discourse to me) did tell me, that he is told that when they took
"The Royal Charles," they said that they had their tickets signed
(and showed some), and that now they come to have them paid, and
would have them paid before they parted. And several seamen come
this morning to me, to tell me that if I would get their tickets
paid they would go and do all they could against the Dutch; but
otherwise they would not venture being killed, and lose all they
have already fought for: so that I was forced to try what I
could do to get them paid. This man tells me that the ships
burnt last night did lie above Upner Castle, over against the
Docke; and the boats come from the ships of war and burnt them:
all which is very sad. And masters of ships that are lately
taken up, do keep from their ships all their stores, or as much
as they can, so that we can dispatch them, having not time to
appraise them, nor secure their payment. Only some little money
we have, which we are fain to pay the men we have with every
night, or they will not work. And indeed the hearts as well as
affections of the seamen are turned away; and in the open streets
in Wapping, and up and down, the wives have cried publickly,
"This comes of your not paying our husbands; and now your work is
undone, or done by hands that understand it not." And Sir W.
Batten told me that he was himself affronted with a woman, in
language of this kind, on Tower Hill publickly yesterday; and we
are fain to bear it, and to keep one at the office door to let no
idle people in, for fear of firing of the office and doing us
mischief. The City is troubled at their being put upon duty:
summoned one hour, and discharged two hours after: and then
again summoned two hours after that; to their great charge as
well as trouble. And Pelling, the Potticary, tells me the world
says all over, that less charge than what the kingdom is put to,
of one kind or other, by this business, would have set out all
our great ships. It is said they did in open streets yesterday,
at Westminster, cry, " A Parliament! a Parliament!" and I do
believe it will cost blood to answer for these miscarriages. We
do not hear that the Dutch are come to Gravesend; which is a
wonder. But a wonderful thing it is that to this day we have not
one word yet from Brouncker, or Peter Pett, or J. Minnes, of any
thing at Chatham. The people that come hither to hear how things
go, make me ashamed to be found unable to answer them: for I am
left alone here at the office; and the truth is, I am glad my
station is to be here, near my own home and out of danger, yet in
a place of doing the King good service. I have this morning good
news from Gibson; three letters from three several stages, that
we was safe last night as far as Royston at between nine and ten
at night. The dismay that is upon us all, in the business of the
kingdom and Navy at this day, is not to be expressed otherwise
than by the condition the citizens were in when the City was on
fire, nobody knowing which way to turn themselves, while
everything concurred to greaten the fire; as here the easterly
gale and spring-tides for coming up both rivers, and enabling
them to break the chaine. D. Gauden did tell me yesterday, that
the day before at the Council they were ready to fall together by
the ears at the Council-table, arraigning one another of being
guilty of the counsel that brought us into this misery, by laying
up all the great ships. Mr. Hater tells me at noon that some
rude people have been, as he hears, at my Lord Chancellor's,
where they have cut down the trees before his house and broke his
windows; and a gibbet either set up before or painted upon his
gate, and these three words writ: "Three sights to be seen;
Dunkirke, Tangier, and a barren Queene." It gives great matter
of talk that it is said there is at this hour, in the Exchequer,
as much money as is ready to break down the floor. This arises,
I believe, from Sir G. Downing's late talk of the greatness of
the sum lying there of people's money that, they would not fetch
away, which he showed me and a great many others. Most people
that I speak with are in doubt how we shall do to secure our
seamen from running over to the Dutch; which is a sad but very
true consideration at this day. At noon I am told that my Lord
Duke of Albemarle is made Lord High Constable; the meaning
whereof at this time I know not, nor whether it be true or no.
Dined, and Mr. Hater and Mr. Hewer with me; where they do speak
very sorrowfully of the posture of the times, and how people do
cry out in the streets of their being bought and sold; and both
they and every body that come to me do tell me that people make
nothing of talking treason in the streets openly; as, that they
are bought and sold, and governed by Papists, and that we are
betrayed by people about the King, and shall be delivered up to
the French, and I know not what. At dinner we discoursed of Tom
of the Wood, a fellow that lives like a hermit near Woolwich,
who, as they say (and Mr. Bodham, they tell me, affirms that he
was by at the Justice's when some did accuse him there for it)
did foretell the burning of the City, and now says that a greater
desolation is at hand. Thence we read and laughed at Lilly's
prophecies this month, in his Almanack this year. So to the
office after dinner; and thither comes Mr. Pierce, who tells me
his condition, how he cannot get his money (about 500l. which, he
says, is a very great part of what he hath for his family and
children) out of Viner's hand: and indeed it is to be feared
that this will wholly undo the bankers. He says he knows nothing
of the late affronts to my Lord Chancellor's house, as is said,
nor hears of the Duke of Albemarle's being made High Constable;
but says that they are in great distraction at White Hall, and
that every where people do speak high against Sir W. Coventry:
[Evelyn says it was owing to Sir W. C. that no fleet was fitted
out in 1667.] but he agrees with me, that he is the best
Minister of State the King hath, and so from my heart I believe.
At night come home Sir W. Batten and W. Ben, who only can tell me
that they have placed guns at Woolwich and Deptford, and sunk
some ships below Woolwich and Blackwall, and are in hopes that
they stop the enemy's coming up. But strange our confusion!
that among them that are sunk they have gone and sunk without
consideration "The Franclin," one of the King's ships with stores
to a very considerable value, that hath been long loaded for
supply of the ships; and the new ship at Bristoll, and much
wanted there. And nobody will own that they directed it, but do
lay it on Sir W. Rider. They speak also of another ship loaded
to the value of 80,000l. sunk with the goods in her, or at least
was mightily contended for by him and a foreign ship that had the
faith of the nation for her security: this Sir R. Ford tells us.
And it is too plain a truth, that both here and at Chatham the
ships that we have sunk have many, and the first of them, been
ships completely fitted for fire-ships at great charge. But most
strange the backwardness and disorder of all people, especially
the King's people in pay, to do any work, (Sir W. Pen tells me),
all crying out for money. And it was so at Chatham that this
night comes an order from Sir W. Coventry to stop the pay of the
wages of that Yard, the Duke of Albemarle having related, that
not above three of 1100 in pay there, did attend to do any work
there. This evening having sent a messenger to Chatham on
purpose, we have received a dull letter from my Lord Brouncker
and Peter Pett, how matters have gone there this week; but not so
much, or so particularly as we knew it by common talk before, and
as true. I doubt they will be found to have been but slow men in
this business; and they say the Duke of Albemarle did tell my
Lord Brouncker to his face that his discharging of the great
ships there was the cause of all this; and I am told that it is
become common talk against my Lord Brouncker. But in that; he is
to be justified, for he did it by verbal order from Sir W.
Coventry, and with good intent; and it was to good purpose,
whatever the success be, for the men would have but spent the
King so much the more in wages, and yet not attended on board to
have done the King any service. And as an evidence of that, just
now, being the 15th day in the morning that I am writing
yesterday's passages, one is with me, Jacob Bryan, Purser of the
Princesse, who confesses to me that he hath but 180 men borne at
this day in victuals and wages on that ship lying at Chatham,
being lately brought in thither; of which 180 there was not above
five appeared to do the King any service at this late business.
And this morning also, some of the Cambridge's men come up from
Portsmouth by order from Sir Fretcheville Hollis, who boasted to
us the other day that he had sent for 50, and would be hanged if
100 did not come up that would do as much as twice the number of
other men: I say some of them, instead of being at work at
Deptford, where they were intended, do come to the office this
morning to demand the payment of their tickets; for otherwise
they would, they said, do no more work; and are, as I understand
from every body that has to do with them, the most debauched,
damning, swearing rogues that ever were in the Navy, just like
their prophane commander.

15th. All the morning at the office. No news more than last
night; only Purser Tyler comes and tells me that he being at all
the passages in this business at Chatham, he says there have been
horrible miscarriages, such as we shall shortly hear of: that
the want of boats hath undone us: and it is commonly said, and
Sir J. Minnes under his hand tells us, that they were employed by
the men of the Yard to carry away their goods; and I hear that
Commissioner Pett will be found the first man that began to
remove: he is much spoken against, and Brouncker is complained
of, and reproached for discharging the men of the great ships
heretofore. At noon Mr. Hater dined with me; and tells me he
believes that it will hardly be the want of money alone that will
excuse to the Parliament the neglect of not setting out a fleet,
it having never been done in our greatest straits, but however
unlikely it appeared, yet when it was gone about, the State or
King did compass it; and there is something in it.

18th. Roger Pepys told me, that when I come to his house he will
show me a decree in Chancery, wherein there was 26 men all house-
keepers in the town of Cottenham, in Queene Elizabeth's time, of
our name. By and by occasion offered for my writing to Sir W.
Coventry a plain bold letter touching lack of money; which, when
it was gone, I was afraid might give offence; but upon two or
three readings over again the copy of it, I was satisfied it was
a good letter; only Sir W. Batten signed it with me, which I
could wish I had done alone.

17th. Every moment business of one kind or other about the fire-
ships and other businesses, most of them vexatious for want of
money, the commanders all complaining that if they miss to pay
their men a night, they run away; seamen demanding money of them
by way of advance, and some of Sir Fretcheville Hollis's men,
that he so bragged of, demanding their tickets to be paid, or
they would not work: this Hollis, Sir W. Batten and W. Pen say,
proves a conceited, idle, prating, lying fellow. Captain Cocke
tells me there have been great endeavours of bringing in the
Presbyterian interest, but that it will not do. He named to me
several of the insipid lords that are to command the armies that
are to be raised. He says the King and Court are all troubled,
and the gates of the Court were shut up upon the first coming of
the Dutch to us, but they do mind the business no more than ever:
that the bankers, he fears, are broke as to ready-money, though
Viner had 100,000l. by him when our trouble begun: that he and
the Duke of Albemarle have received into their own hands, of
Viner, the former 10,000l., and the latter 12,000l., in tallies
or assignments to secure what was in his hands of theirs; and
many other great men of our masters have done the like; which is
no good sign, when they begin to fear the main. He and every
body cries out of the office of the Ordnance, for their neglects,
both at Gravesend and Upner, and every where else.

18th. To the office, and by and by word was brought me that
Commissioner Pett is brought to the Tower, and there laid up
close prisoner; which puts me into a fright, lest they may do the
same with us as they do with him. Great news to-night of the
blowing up of one of the Dutch's greatest ships, while a Council
of War was on board: the latter part, I doubt, is not so, it not
being confirmed since; but the former, that they had a ship blown
up, is said to be true. This evening comes Sir G. Carteret to
the office, to talk of business at Sir W. Batten's; where all to
be undone for want of money, there being none to pay the chest at
their public pay the 24th of this month, which will make us a
scorn to the world. After he had done there, he and I into the
garden, and walked; and the greatest of our discourse is, his
sense of the requisiteness of his parting with his being
Treasurer of the Navy, if he can on any good terms. He do harp
upon getting my Lord Brouncker to take it on half profit, but
that he is not able to secure him in paying him so much. He
tells me now the great question is, whether a Parliament or no
Parliament; and says the Parliament itself cannot be thought able
at present to raise money, and therefore it will be to no purpose
to call one.

19th. Comes an order from Sir R. Browne, commanding me this
afternoon to attend the Council-board with all my books and
papers, touching the Medway. I was ready to fear some mischief
to myself, though it appears most reasonable that it is to inform
them about Commissioner Pett. I am called in to a large
Committee of the Council: present, the Duke of Albemarle,
Anglesy, Arlington, Ashly, Carteret, Duncomb, Coventry, Ingram,
Clifford, Lauderdale, Morrice, Manchester, Craven, Carlisle,
Bridgewater. [John, second Earl of Bridgewater, Ob. 1686.] And
after Sir W. Coventry's telling them what orders his Royal
Highness had made for the safety of the Medway, I told them to
their full content what we had done, and showed them our letters.
Then was Peter Pett called in, with the Lieutenant of the Tower.
He is in his old clothes, and looked most sillily. His charge
was chiefly the not carrying up of the great ships, and the using
of the boats in carrying away his goods; to which he answered
very sillily, though his faults to me seem only great omissions.
Lord Arlington and Coventry very severe against him; the former
saying that, if he was not guilty the world would think them all
guilty. The latter urged, that there must be some faults, and
that the Admiral must be found to have done his part. I did say
an unhappy word, which I was sorry for, when he complained of
want of oares for the boats: and there was, it seems, enough,
and good enough, to carry away all the boats with from the King's
occasions. He said he used never a boat till they were all gone
but one; and that was to carry away things of great value, and
these were his models of ships; which, when the Council, some of
them, had said they wished that the Dutch had had them instead of
the King's ships, he answered, he did believe the Dutch would
have made more advantage of the models than of the ships, and
that the King had had greater loss thereby: this they all
laughed at. After having heard him for an hour or more, they bid
him withdraw. He being gone, they caused Sir Richard Browne to
read over his minutes; and then my Lord Arlington moved that they
might be put into my hands to put into form, I being more
acquainted with such business; and they were so. So I away back
with my books and papers; and when I got into the Court it was
pretty to see how people gazed upon me, that I thought myself
obliged to salute people and to smile, lest they should think I
was a prisoner too: but afterwards I found that most did take me
to be there to bear evidence against P. Pett. My wife did give
me so bad an account of her and my father's method in burying of
our gold, that made me mad: and she herself is not pleased with
it, she believing that my sister knows of it. My father and she
did it on Sunday, when they were gone to church, in open
daylight, in the midst of the garden; where, for aught they knew,
many eyes might see them: which put me into trouble, and
presently cast about how to have it back again to secure it here,
the times being a little better now.

20th. Mr. Barber told me that all the discourse yesterday, about
that part of the town where he was, was that Mr. Pett and I were
in the Tower; and I did hear the same before. Busy all the
afternoon: in the evening did treat with, and in the end agree,
but by some kind of compulsion, with the owners of six merchant-
ships, to serve the King as men-of-war. But, Lord! to see how
against the hair it is with these men, and everybody, to trust us
and the King; and how unreasonable it is to expect they should be
willing to lend their ships, and lay out 2 or 300l. a man to fit
their ships for the new voyages, when we have not paid them half
of what we owe them for their old services! I did write so to
Sir W. Coventry this night.

21st. This day comes news from Harwich that the Dutch fleet are
all in sight, near 100 sail great and small, they think, coming
towards them; where, they think, they shall be able to oppose
them; but do cry out of the falling back of the seamen, few
standing by them, and those with much faintness. The like they
write from Portsmouth, and their letters this post are worth
reading. Sir H. Cholmly come to me this day, and tells me the
Court is as mad as ever; and that the night the Dutch burned our
ships the King did sup with my Lady Castlemaine, at the Duchesse
of Monmouth's, and there were all mad in hunting of a poor moth.
All the Court afraid of a Parliament; but he thinks nothing can
save us but the King's giving up all to a Parliament.

22nd. In the evening come Captain Hart and Hayward to me about
the six merchant-ships now taken up for men-of-war; and in
talking they told me about the taking of "The Royal Charles;"
that nothing but carelessness lost the ship, for they might have
saved her the very tide that the Dutch came up, if they would
have but used means and had had but boats; and that the want of
boats plainly lost all the other ships. That the Dutch did take
her with a boat of nine men, who found not a man on board her,
(and her laying so near them was a main temptation to them to
come on;) and presently a man went up and struck her flag and
jacke, and a trumpeter sounded upon her "Joan's placket is torn:"
[Placket: the open part of a woman's petticoat.] that they did
carry her down at a time, both for tides and wind, when the best
pilot in Chatham would not have undertaken it, they heeling her
on one side to make her draw little water: and so carried her
away safe. They being gone, by and by comes Sir W. Pen, who hath
been at Court; and in the first place I hear the Duke of
Cambridge is dead; which is a great loss to the nation, having, I
think, never an heyre male now of the King's or Duke's to succeed
to the Crown. He tells me that they do begin already to damn the
Dutch and call them cowards at White Hall, and think of them and
their business no better than they used to do; which is very sad.
The King did tell him himself, (which is so, I was told, here in
the City,) that the City hath lent him 10,000l. to be laid out
towards securing of the River of Thames; which, methinks, is a
very poor thing, that we should be induced to borrow by such mean

23rd. To Woolwich, and there called on Mr. Bodham: and he and I
to see the batterys newly raised; which, indeed, are good works
to command the River below the ships that are sunk, but not above
them. It is a sad sight to see so many good ships there sunk in
the River, while we would be thought to be masters of the sea.
Cocke says the bankers cannot, till peace returns, ever hope to
have credit again; so that they can pay no more money, but people
must be contented to take publick security such as they can give
them; and if so, and they do live to receive the money thereupon,
the bankers will be happy men, Fenn read me an Order of Council
passed the 17th instant, directing all the Treasurers of any part
of the King's revenue to make no payments but such as shall be
approved by the present Lords Commissioners; which will, I think,
spoil the credit of all his Majesty's service, when people cannot
depend upon payment any where. But the King's declaration in
behalf of the bankers, to make good their assignments for money,
is very good, and will, I hope, secure me. Cocke says, that he
hears it is come to it now that the King will try what he can
soon do for a peace; and if he cannot, that then he will cast all
upon the Parliament to do as they see fit: and in doing so,
perhaps, it may save us all. The King of France, it is believed,
is engaged for this year; so that we shall be safe as to him.
The great misery the City and kingdom is like to suffer for want
of coals in a little time is very visible, and, is feared, will
breed a mutiny; for we are not in any prospect to command the sea
for our colliers to come, but rather, it is feared, the Dutch may
go and burn all our colliers at Newcastle; though others do say
that they lie safe enough there. No news at all of late from
Bredagh what our treaters do. In the evening comes Mr. Povy
about business; and he and I to walk in the garden an hour or
two, and to talk of State matters. He tells me his opinion that
it is out of possibility for us to escape being undone, there
being nothing in our power to do that is necessary for the saving
us: a lazy Prince, no Council, no money, no reputation at home
or abroad. He says that to this day the King do follow the women
as much as ever he did; that the Duke of York hath not got Mrs.
Middleton, as I was told the other day: but says that he wants
not her, for he hath others, and hath always had, and that he
hath known them brought through the Matted Gallery at White Hall
into his closet; nay, he hath come out of his wife's bed, and
gone to others laid in bed for him: that Mr. Brouncker is not
the only pimp, but that the whole family are of the same strain,
and will do any thing to please him: that, besides the death of
the two Princes lately, the family is in horrible disorder by
being in debt by spending above 60,000l. per annum, when he hath
not 40,000l.: that the Duchesse is not only the proudest woman
in the world, but the most expensefull; and that the Duke of
York's marriage with her hath undone the kingdom, by making the
Chancellor so great above reach, who otherwise would have been
but an ordinary man to have been dealt with by other people; and
he would have been careful of managing things well, for fear of
being called to account; whereas now he is secure, and hath let
things run to rack, as they now appear. That at a certain time
Mr. Povy did carry him an account of the state of the Duke of
York's estate, showing in faithfullness how he spent more than
his estate would bear, by above 20,000l. per annum, and asked my
Lord's opinion of it; to which he answered, that no man that
loved the King or kingdom durst own the writing of that paper:
at which Povy was started, and reckoned himself undone for this
good service, and found it necessary then to show it to the Duke
of York's Commissioners; who read, examined, and approved of it,
so as to cause it to be put into form, and signed it, and gave it
to the Duke. Now the end of the Chancellor was, for fear that
his daughter's ill housewifery should be condemned. He tells me
that the other day, upon this ill news of the Dutch being upon
us, White Hall was shut up, and the Council called and sat close;
(and, by the way he do assure me, from the mouth of some Privy-
councillors, that at this day the Privy-council in general do
know no more what the state of the kingdom as to peace and war
is, than he or I; nor who manages it, nor upon whom it depends;)
and there my Lord Chancellor did make a speech to them, saying
that they knew well that he was no friend to the war from the
beginning, and therefore had concerned himself little in, nor
could say much to it; and a great deal of that kind to discharge
himself of the fault of the war. Upon which my Lord Anglesy rose
up and told his Majesty that he thought their coming now together
was not to enquire who was or was not the cause of the war, but
to enquire what was or could be done in the business of making a
peace, and in whose hands that was, and where it was stopped or
forwarded; and went on very highly to have all made open to them:
(and, by the way, I remember that Captain Cocke did the other day
tell me that this Lord Anglesy hath said within few days, that he
would willingly give 10,000l. of his estate that he was well
secured of the rest, such apprehensions he hath of the sequel of
things, as giving all over for lost.) He tells me, (speaking of
the horrid effeminacy of the King,) that the King hath taken ten
times more care and pains in making friends between my Lady
Castlemaine and Mrs. Stewart, when they have fallen out, than
ever he did to save his kingdom; nay, that upon any falling out
between my Lady Castlemaine's nurse and her women, my Lady hath
often said she would make the King to make them friends, and they
would be friends and be quiet; which the King hath been fain to
do: that the King is, at this day, every night in Hyde Park with
the Duchesse of Monmouth, or with my Lady Castlemaine: that he
is concerned of late by my Lord Arlington in the looking after
some buildings that he is about in Norfolke, [At Euston Hall in
Suffolk, on the borders of Norfolk.] where my Lord is laying out
a great deal of money; and that he (Mr. Povy,) considering the
unsafeness of laying out money at such a time as this, and,
besides, the enviousness of the particular county as well as all
the kingdom to find him building and employing workmen, while all
the ordinary people of the country are carried down to the sea-
sides for securing the land, he thought it becoming him to go to
my Lord Arlington (Sir Thomas Clifford by) and give it as his
advice to hold his hands a little; but my Lord would not, but
would have him go on, and so Sir Thomas Clifford advised also,
which one would think (if he were a statesman) should be a sign
of his foreseeing that all shall do well. He tells me that there
is not so great confidence between any two men of power in the
nation at this day, that he knows of, as between my Lord
Arlington and Sir Thomas Clifford; and that it arises by accident
only, there being no relation nor acquaintance between them, but
only Sir Thomas Clifford's coming to him and applying himself to
him for favours, when he came first up to town to be a

25th. Up, and with Sir W. Pen in his new chariot (which indeed
is plain, but pretty and more fashionable in shape than any coach
he hath, and yet do not cost him, harness and all, above 32l.) to
White Hall; where staid a very little: and thence to St. James's
to Sir W. Coventry, whom I have not seen since before the coming
of the Dutch into the River, nor did indeed know how well to go
to see him, for shame either to him or me, or both of us, to find
ourselves in so much misery. I find that he and his fellow-
Treasurers are in the utmost want of money, and do find fault
with Sir G. Carteret, that having kept the mystery of borrowing
money to himself so long, (to the ruin of the nation, as Sir W.
Coventry said in words to Sir W. Pen and me,) he should now lay
it aside and come to them for money for every penny he hath,
declaring that he can raise no more: which, I confess do appear
to me the most like ill-will of any thing that I have observed of
Sir W. Coventry, when he himself did tell us on another occasion
at the same time, that the bankers who used to furnish them money
are not able to lend a farthing, and he knows well enough that
that was all the mystery Sir G. Carteret did use, that is, only
his credit with them. He told us the masters and owners of two
ships that I had complained of, for not readily setting forth
their ships which we had taken up to make men-of-war, had been
yesterday with the King and Council, and had made their case so
well understood, that the King did owe them for what they had
earned the last year, and that they could not set them out again
without some money or stores out of the King's Yard; the latter
of which Sir W. Coventry said must be done, for that they were
not able to raise money for them, though it was but 200l. a ship:
which do show us our condition to be so bad, that I am in a total
despair of ever having the nation do well. After that talking
awhile, and all out of heart with stories of want of seamen, and
seamen's running away, and their demanding a month's advance, and
our being forced to give seamen 3s. a-day to go hence to work at
Chatham, and other things that show nothing but destruction upon
us; for it is certain that, as it now is, the seamen of England,
in my conscience, would, if they could, go over and serve the
King of France or Holland rather than us. Up to the Duke of York
to his chamber, where he seems to be pretty easy, and now and
then merry; but yet one may perceive in all their minds there is
something of trouble and care, and with good reason. Thence to
White Hall, with Sir W. Pen, by chariot; and there in the Court
met with my Lord Anglesy: and he to talk with Sir W. Pen, and
told him of the masters of ships being with the Council
yesterday, and that we were not in condition, though the men were
willing, to furnish them with 200l. of money (already due to them
as earned by them the last year) to enable them to set out their
ships again this year for the King: which he is amazed at; and
when I told him, "My Lord, this is a sad instance of the
condition we are in," he answered that it was so indeed, and
sighed; and so parted: and he up to the Council-chamber, where I
perceive they sit every morning. It is worth noting that the
King and Council in their order of the 23rd instant, for
unloading three merchant-ships taken up for the King's service
for men-of-war, do call the late coming of the Dutch "an
invasion." I was told yesterday, that Mr. Oldenburg, [Henry
Oldenburgh, Secretary to the Royal Society.] our Secretary at
Gresham College, is put into the Tower, for writing news to a
virtuoso in France, with whom he constantly corresponds in
philosophical matters; which makes it very unsafe at this time to
write, or almost do any thing. Several captains come to the
office yesterday and to-day, complaining that their men come and
go when they will, and will not be commanded, though they are
paid every night, or may be. Nay, this afternoon comes Harry
Russell from Gravesend, telling us that the money carried down
yesterday for the Chest at Chatham had like to have been seized
upon yesterday in the barge there by seamen, who did beat our
waterman: and what men should these be but the boats' crew of
Sir Fretcheville Hollis, who used to brag so much of the goodness
and order of his men, and his command over them? Sir H. Cholmly
tells me great news; that this day in Council the King hath
declared that he will call his Parliament in thirty days: which
is the best news I have heard a great while, and will, if any
thing, save the kingdom. How the King come to be advised to
this, I know not; but he tells me that it was against the Duke of
York's mind flatly, who did rather advise the King to raise money
as he pleased; and against the Chancellor's, who told the King
that Queene Elizabeth did do all her business in eighty-eight
without calling a Parliament, and so might he do for anything he
saw, But, blessed be God, it is done; and pray God it may hold,
though some of us must surely go to the pot, for all must be
flung up to them, or nothing will be done.

26th. The Parliament is ordered to meet the 25th of July being,
as they say, St. James's day; which every creature is glad of.
Colonel Reymes [Bullen Reymes, M.P. for Melcombe Regis.] tells me
of a letter come last night or the day before from my Lord St.
Albans out of France, wherein he says that the King of France did
lately fall out with him, giving him ill names, saying that he
had belied him to our King, by saying that he had promised to
assist our King, and to forward the peace; saying that indeed he
had offered to forward the peace at such a time, but it was not
accepted of, and so he thinks himself not obliged, and would do
what was fit for him; and so made him to go out of his sight in
great displeasure: and he hath given this account to the King,
which, Colonel Reymes tells me, puts them into new melancholy at
Court, and he believes hath forwarded the resolution of calling
the Parliament. At White Hall spied Mr. Povy, who tells me as a
great secret, which none knows but himself, that Sir G. Carteret
hath parted with his place of Treasurer of the Navy by consent to
my Lord Anglesy, and is to be Treasurer of Ireland in his stead;
but upon what terms it is, I know not: and that it is in his
power to bring me to as great a friendship and confidence in my
Lord Anglesy, as ever I was with Sir W. Coventry. Such is the
want already of coals, and the despair of having any supply, by
reason of the enemy's being abroad, and no fleet of ours to
secure them, that they are come this day to 5l. 10s. per

27th. Proclamations come out this day for the Parliament to meet
the 25th of next month: for which God be praised! And another to
invite seamen to bring in their complaints, of their being ill
used in the getting their tickets and money. Pierce tells me
that he hears for certain fresh at Court, that France and we
shall agree; and more, that yesterday was damned at the Council
the Canary Company; and also that my Lord Mordaunt hath laid down
his Commission. News this tide that about 80 sail of Dutch,
great and small, were seen coming up the River this morning; and
this tide some of them to the upper end of the Hope.

28th. We find the Duke of York and Sir W. Coventry gone this
morning by two o'clock to Chatham, to come home to-night: and it
is fine to observe how both the King and Duke of York have in
their several late journeys to and again done them in the night
for coolnesse. They tell me that the Duke of Buckingham hath
surrendered himself to Secretary Morrice, and is going to the
Tower. Mr. Fenn, at the table, says that he hath been taken by
the watch two or three times of late, at unseasonable hours, but
so disguised that they could not know him: and when I come home
by and by, Mr. Lowther tells me that the Duke of Buckingham do
dine publickly this day at Wadlow's, at the Sun Tavern; and is
mighty merry, and sent word to the Lieutenant of the Tower that
he would come to him as soon as he had dined. It is said that
the King of France do make a sport of us now; and says, that he
knows no reason why his cosen the King of England should not be
as willing to let him have his kingdom, as that the Dutch should
take it from him, Sir G. Carteret did tell me, that the business
is done between him and my Lord Anglesy; that himself is to have
the other's place of Deputy Treasurer of Ireland (which is a
place of honour and great profit, being far better than the
Treasurer's, my Lord of Corke's,) and to give the other his of
Treasurer of the Navy; that the King, at his earnest entreaty,
did with much unwillingness, but with owing of great obligations
to him for his faithfulness and long service to him and his
father, grant his desire. My Lord Chancellor, I perceive, is his
friend in it; I remember I did in the morning tell Sir H. Cholmly
of this business: and he answered me, he was sorry for it: for
whatever Sir G. Carteret was, he is confident my Lord Anglesy is
one of the greatest knaves in the world. Home, and then find my
wife making of tea; a drink which Mr. Pelling, the Potticary,
tells her is good for her cold and defluxions. To Sir W.
Batten's to see how he did; and he is better than he was. He
told me how Mrs Lowther had her train held up yesterday by her
page at his house in the country which is ridiculous. Mr.Pelling
told us the news of the town; how the officers of the Navy are
cried out upon, and a great many greater men; but do think that I
shall do well enough; and I think, if I have justice, I shall.
We hear that the Dutch are gone down again; and, thanks be to
God, the trouble they give us this second time is not very

30th. To Rochester about ten of the clock. At the landing-place
I met my Lord Brouncker and my Lord Douglas, and all the officers
of the soldiers in the town, waiting there for the Duke of York,
whom they heard was coming. By and by comes my Lord Middleton,
well mounted: he seems a fine soldier, and so every body says he
is; and a man like my Lord Tiviott, and indeed most of the Scotch
gentry (as I observe,) of few words. After seeing the boats come
up from Chatham with them that rowed with bandeleeres about their
shoulders, and muskets in their boats; they being the workmen of
the Yard, who have promised to redeem their credit, lost by their
deserting the service when the Dutch were there; I and Creed down
by boat to Chatham yard. Thence to see the batteries made; which
indeed are very fine, and guns placed so as one would think the
River should be very secure. Here I was told that in all the
late attempt there was but one man that they knew killed on
shore; and that was a man that had laid upon his belly upon one
of the hills on the other side of the River, to see the action;
and a bullet come, and so he was killed. Thence by barge, it
raining hard, down to the chaine; and in our way did see the sad
wrackes of the poor "Royall Oake," "James," and "London;" and
several other of our ships by us sunk, and several of the
enemy's, whereof three men-of-war that they could not get off,
and so burned. I do not see that Upner Castle hath received any
hurt by them, though they played long against it; and they
themselves shot till they had hardly a gun left upon the
carriages, so badly provided they were: they have now made two
batteries on that side, which will be very good, and do good
service. So to the chaine, and there saw it fast at the end on
Upner side of the River; very fast, and borne up upon the several
stages across the River; and where it is broke nobody can tell
me. I went on shore on Upner side to look upon the end of the
chaine; and caused the link to be measured, and it was six inches
and one-fourth in circumference. It seems very remarkable to me,
and of great honour to the Dutch, that those of them that did go
on shore to Gillingham, though they went in fear of their lives,
and were some of them killed, and notwithstanding their
provocation at Scelling, yet killed none of our people nor
plundered their houses, but did take some things of easy carriage
and left the rest, and not a house burned; and which is to our
eternal disgrace, that; what my Lord Douglas's men, who come
after them, found there, they plundered and took all away; and
the watermen that carried us did further tell us, that our own
soldiers are far more terrible to those people of the country-
towns than the Dutch themselves. We were told at the batteries,
upon my seeing of the field-guns that were there, that had they
come a day sooner they had been able to have saved all; but they
had no orders, and lay lingering upon the way. Several
complaints, I hear, of the Monmouth's coming away too soon from
the chaine, where she was placed with the two guard-ships to
secure it; and Captain Robert Clerke, my friend, is blamed for so
doing there, but I hear nothing of him at London about it; but
Captain Brookes's running aground with the "Sancta Maria," which
was one of the three ships that were ordered to be sunk to have
dammed up the River at the chaine, is mightily cried against, and
with reason. It is a strange thing to see, that while my Lords
Douglas and Middleton do ride up and down upon single horses, my
Lord Brouncker do go up and down with his hackney coach and six
horses at the King's charge, and is not able to do so much good
as a good boatswain in this business.

JULY 2, 1667. To the office, where W. Pen and myself and Sir T.
Harvey met, the first time we have had a meeting since the coming
of the Dutch upon this coast.

3rd. Sir Richard Ford tells us how he hath been at the Sessions-
house, and there it is plain that there is a combination of
rogues in the town that do make it their business to set houses
on fire, and that one house they did set on fire in Aldersgate-
street last Easter; and that this is proved by two young men,
whom one of them debauched by degrees to steal their fathers'
plate and clothes, and at last to be of their company. One of
these boys is a son of a Montagu, of my Lord Manchester's family.
To the Council-chamber, to deliver a letter to their Lordships
about the state of the six merchantmen which we have been so long
-fitting out. When I come, the King and the whole table full of
Lords were hearing of a pitifull cause of a complaint of an old
man with a great grey beard against his son, for not allowing him
something to live on; and at last come to the ordering the son to
allow his father 10l. a-year. This cause lasted them near two
hours; which, methinks, at this time to be the work of the
Council-board of England, is a scandalous thing. Here I find all
the news is the enemy's landing 3000 men near Harwich, and
attacking Landguard Fort, and being beat off thence with our
great guns, killing some of their men, and they leaving their
ladders behind them; but we had no horse in the way on Suffolke
side, otherwise we might have galled their foot. The Duke of
York is gone down thither this day, while the Generall sat
sleeping this afternoon at the Council-table.

4th. To the Sessions-house, where I have a mind to hear Bazill
Fielding's case tried; and so got up to the Bench, my Lord Chief-
Justice Keeling [Sir John Keeling, Knight, King's Serjeant 1661,
Chief Justice of the King's Bench 1665.] being Judge. Here I
stood bare, not challenging, though I might well enough, to be
covered. But here were several fine trials; among others,
several brought in for making it their trade to set houses on
fire merely to get plunder; and all proved by the two little boys
spoken of yesterday by Sir R. Ford, who did give so good account
of particulars that I never heard children in my life. One my
Lady Montagu's (I know not what Lady Montagu) son, and the other
of good condition, were playing in Moore-fields, and one rogue,
Gabriel Holmes, did come to them and teach them to drink, and
then to bring him plate and clothes from their fathers' houses:
and this Gabriel Holmes did advise to have had two houses set on
fire, one after another, that while they were quenching of one
they might be burning another. The boys did swear against one of
them, that he had made it his part to pull out the plug out of
the engine while it was a-playing; and it really was so. Well,
this fellow Holmes was found guilty of the act of burning the
house, and other things that he stood indicted for. It was time
very well spent to be here. Here I saw how favourable the Judge
was to a young gentleman that struck one of the officers, for not
making him room: told him he had endangered the loss of his
hand, but that he hoped he had not struck him, and would suppose
that he had not struck him. The Court then rose, and I to dinner
with my Lord Mayor and Sheriffs; where a good dinner and good
discourse, the Judge being there. There was also tried this
morning Fielding (which I thought had been Bazill, but it proved
the other, and Bazill was killed,) that killed his brother, who
was found guilty of murder, and nobody pitied him. The Judge
seems to be a worthy man, and able; and do intend for these
rogues that burned this house to be hung in some conspicuous
place in the town, for an example.

6th. Mr. Williamson told me that Mr. Coventry is coming over
with a project of a peace; which, if the States agree to, and our
King when their Ministers on both sides have showed it them, we
shall agree, and that is all: but the King, I hear, do give it
out plain that the peace is concluded. This day with great
satisfaction I hear that my Lady Jemimah is brought to bed, at
Hinchingbroke, of a boy [In 1681 created Baron Carteret of
Hawnes, co. Bedford, in consideration of the eminent services
rendered by his grandfather and father to Charles II.]

7th (Lord's day). Mr. Moor tells me that the discontented
Parliament-men are fearful that the next sitting the King will
try for a general excise by which to raise him money, and then to
fling off the Parliament, and raise a land-army and keep them all
down like slaves; and it is gotten among them that Bab. May, the
Privy-purse, hath been heard to say that 300l. a-year is enough
for any country-gentleman; which makes them mad, and they do talk
of 6 or 800,000l. gone into the Privy-purse this war, when in
King James's time it arose but to 5000l., and in King Charles's
but 10,000l. in a year. He tells me that a goldsmith in town
told him, that being with some plate with my Lady Castlemaine
lately, she directed her woman (the great beauty,) "Willson,"
sayes she, "Make a note for this and for that to the Privy-purse
for money." He tells me a little more of the basenesse of the
courses taken at Court in the case of Mr. Moyer, who is at
liberty, and is to give 500l. for his liberty; but now the great
ones are divided who shall have the money, the Duke of Albemarle
on one hand, and another Lord on the other; and that it is fain
to be decided by having the person's name put into the King's
warrant for his liberty, at whose intercession the King shall own
that he is set at liberty: which is a most lamentable thing,
that we do professedly own that we do these things, not for right
and justice' sake, but only to gratify this or that person about
the King. God forgive us all!

8th. Mr. Coventry is come from Bredah, as was expected; but,


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