The Discovery of Muscovy etc.
Richard Hakluyt

Part 2 out of 2

within board by their names, and that by your books, to the end that
you may see that you have neither more nor less, but just the number
for the voyage.

5. Also, you must have in remembrance that if it shall chance the
ship to be put into any harbour in this coast by contrary winds, or
otherwise in making the voyage, to send word thereof from time to
time as the case shall require, by your letters in this manner: "To
Master I. B., Agent for the Company of the New Trades in S. in
London." If you do hire any to bring your letters, write that which
he must have for the postage. And for your better knowledge and
learning, you shall do very well to keep a daily note of the voyage
both outwards and homewards.

6. And principally see that you forget not daily in all the voyage,
both morning and evening, to call the company within board to
prayer, in which doing you shall please God, and the voyage will
have the better success thereby and the company prosper the better.

7. Also in calm weather and at other times when you shall fortune
to come to anchor in the seas during the voyage, you shall for the
company's profit, and for good husbanding of the victuals aboard,
call upon the boatswain and other of the company to use such hooks
and other engines as they have aboard to take fish with, that such
fish so taken may be eaten for the cause aforesaid; and if there be
no such engines aboard, then to provide some before you go from

8. And when God shall send you in safety into the Bay of St.
Nicholas at anchor, you shall go ashore with the first boat that
shall depart from the ship, taking with you such letters as you have
to deliver to the agent there: and if he be not there at your
coming ashore, then send the company's letters to Colmogro to him by
some sure mariner or otherwise, as the master and you shall think
best; but go not yourself at any hand, nor yet from aboard the ship
unless it be ashore to treat with the agent for the lading of the
ship that you be appointed in, which you shall apply diligently to
have done so speedily as may be. And for the discharging of the
goods therein in the bay, to be carried from thence, see that you do
look well to the unlading thereof, that there be none other goods
sent ashore than the company's, and according to the notes entered
in your book as aforesaid: if there be, inquire diligently for whom
they be, and what goods they be, noting who is the receiver of the
said goods, in such sort that the company may have the true
knowledge thereof at your coming home.

9. Also there ashore, and likewise aboard, you shall spy, and
search as secretly as you may, to learn and know what bargaining,
buying, and selling there is with the master and mariners of the
ship, and the Russians, or with the company's servants there; and
that which you shall perceive and learn you shall keep a note
thereof in your book, secretly to yourself, which you shall open and
disclose at your coming home, to the governors and the assistants,
in such sort as the truth of their secret trades and occupyings may
be revealed and known. You shall need always to have Argus' eyes,
to spy their secret packing and conveyance, as well on land as
aboard the ship, of and for such furs, and other commodities, as
yearly they do use to buy, pack, and convey hither. If you will be
vigilant and secret in this article, you cannot miss to spy their
privy packing one with another, either on shore or aboard the ship;
work herein wisely, and you shall deserve great thanks of the whole

10. Also at the lading again of the ship, you shall continue and
abide aboard, to the end that you may note and write in your book
all such goods and merchandise as shall be brought and laden, which
you shall orderly note in all sorts as heretofore, as in the second
article partly it is touched; and in any wise, put the master and
the company in remembrance to look and foresee substantially to the
roomaging of the ship, by fair means or threats, as you shall see
and think will serve for the best.

11. Thus, when the ship is fully laden again, and all things aboard
in good order, and that you do fortune to go ashore to the agent for
your letters, and despatch away, you shall demand whether all the
goods be laden that were brought thither, and to know the truth
thereof you shall repair to the company's storehouse there, at St.
Nicholas, to see if there be any goods left in the said storehouse;
if there be, you shall demand why they be not had laden, and to note
what kind of goods they be, that be so left; and seeing any of the
ships there, not fully laden, you shall put the agent in remembrance
to lade those goods so left, if any such be to be laden, as is
aforesaid. And thus, God sending you a fair wind, to make speed and

12. Finally, when God shall send you to arrive again upon this
coast in safety, either at Harwich or elsewhere, go not you ashore,
if you may possible, to the end that when you be gone ashore there
may no goods be sent privily ashore to be sold, or else to be sold
aboard the ship in your absence, but keep you still aboard, if you
can by any means, for the causes aforesaid, and write the company a
letter from the ship of your good arrival, which you may convey to
them by land, by some boy or mariner of the ship, or otherwise as
you shall think best and likewise when God shall send you and the
ship into the river here, do not in any wise depart out of the ship
that you be in, until the company do send some other aboard the
ship, in your stead and place, to keep the said ship in your


Of the honourable receiving into England of the first Ambassador
from the Emperor of Russia, in the year of Christ 1556, and in the
third year of the reign of Queen Mary, serving for the third voyage
to Moscow.--Registered by Master John Incent, Protonotarie.

It is here recorded by writing and authentical testimony, partly for
memory of things done and partly for the verity to be known to
posterity in time to come, that whereas the Most High and Mighty
Ivan Vasivilich, Emperor of all Russia, Great Duke of Volidemer,
Muscovy and Novogrode, Emperor of Cassan and of Astrachan, Lord of
Piskie, and Great Duke of Smolenski, Tverski, Yowgoriski, Permiski,
Viatski, Boligarski, and Sibieriski, Emperor and Great Duke of many
others, as Novogrode in the Nether Countries, Charnogoski, Rizanski,
Volodski, Rezewski, Bielski, Rostoski, Yeraslavski, Bialazarski,
Woodarski, Opdorski, Condinski, and many other countries, and lord
over all those parts in the year of our Lord God ensuing, the
account of the Latin Church, 1556, sent by the sea from the Port of
St. Nicholas, in Russia, his Right honourable Ambassador, surnamed
Osepp Napea, his high officer in the town and country of Vologhda,
to the most famous and excellent Princes, Philip and Mary, by the
grace of God King and Queen of England, Spain, France, and Ireland,
Defenders of the Faith, Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Burgundy,
Milan, and Brabant, counties of Hasburge, Flanders, and Tyrol, his
ambassador and orator, with certain letters tenderly conceived,
together with certain presents and gifts mentioned in the foot of
this memorial, as a manifest argument and token of a mutual amity
and friendship to be made and continued between their Majesties and
subjects respectively, for the commodity and benefit of both the
realms and people; which orator was the 20th day of July embarked
and shipped in and upon a good English ship named the Edward
Bonaventura, belonging to the Governor, Consuls, and company of
English merchants, Richard Chanceler being grand pilot, and John
Buckland master of the said ship, in which was laden, at the
adventure of the aforesaid ambassador and merchants, at several
accounts, goods and merchandise, viz., in wax, train oil, tallow,
furs, felts, yarn, and such-like, to the sum of 20,000 li. sterling,
together with sixteen Russians, attendant upon the person of the
said ambassador--over and above ten other Russians shipped within
the said Bay of St. Nicholas in one other good ship, to the said
company also belonging, called the Bona Speranza, with goods of the
said orators and merchants to the value of 6,000 li. sterling as by
the invoices and letters of lading of the said several ships
(whereunto relation is to be had) particularly appeareth; which good
ships, coming in good order into the seas, and traversing the same
in their journey towards the coast of England, were by contrary
winds and extreme tempest of weather severed the one from the other;
that is to say, the said Bona Speranza, with two other English
ships, also appertaining to the said company, the one surnamed the
Philip and Mary, the other the Confidentia, were driven on the coast
of Norway into Drenton Water, where the said Confidentia was seen to
perish on a rock, and the other, videlicet the Bona Speranza, with
her whole company, being to the number of four-and-twenty persons,
seemed to winter there, whereof no certainty at this present day is
known. The third, videlicet the Philip and Mary, arrived in the
Thames nigh London the eighteenth day of April, in the year of our
Lord 1557. The Edward Bonaventura, traversing the seas for months,
finally, the tenth day of November, of the aforesaid year of our
Lord 1556, arrived within the Scottish coast in a bay named
Pettislego, where, by outrageous tempests and extreme storms, the
said ship, being beaten from her ground tackles, was driven upon the
rocks on shore, where she broke and split in pieces; in such sort as
the grand pilot, using all carefulness for the safety of the body of
the ambassador and his train, taking the boat of the said ship,
trusting to attain the shore and so to save and preserve the body,
and seven of the company or attendants of the said ambassador, the
same boat by rigorous waves of the seas was by dark night
overwhelmed and drowned, wherein perished, not only the body of the
said grand pilot, with seven Russians, but also divers of the
mariners of the said ship; the noble personage of the said
ambassador, with a few others (by God's preservation and special
favour), only with much difficulty saved. In which shipwreck, not
only the said ship was broken, but also the whole mass and body of
the goods laden in her was, by the rude and ravenous people of the
country thereunto adjoining, rifled, spoiled, and carried away, to
the manifest loss and utter destruction of all the lading of the
said ship, and together with the ship, apparel, ordnance, and
furniture, belonging to the company, in value of 1,000 pounds of
all, which was not restored towards the costs and charges to the sum
of 500 li. sterling.

As soon as by letters addressed to the said company, and in London
delivered the 6th of December last past, it was to them certainly
known of the loss of their pilot, men, goods, and ship, the same
merchants with all celerity and expedition obtained, not only the
Queen's Majesty's most gracious and favourable letters to the Lady
Dowager and Lords of the Council of Scotland for the gentle
comfortment and entertainment of the said ambassador, his train and
company, with preservation and restitution of his goods, as in such
miserable cases to Christian pity, princely honour, and mere justice
appertaineth, but also addressed two gentlemen of good learning,
bravity, and estimation, videlicet Master Lawrence Hussie, Doctor of
the Civil Law, and George Gilpin, with money and other requisites,
into the realm of Scotland, to comfort, aid, assist, and relieve him
and his there, and also to conduct the ambassador into England,
sending with them by post a talmack or speechman, for the better
furniture of the service of the said ambassador, trusting thereby to
have the more ample and speedy redress of restitution; which
personages, using diligence, arrived at Edinburgh (where the Queen's
Court was) the three-and-twentieth day of the said month of
December, who, first visiting the said ambassador, declaring the
causes of their coming and commission, showing the letters addressed
in his favour, the order given them for his solace and furniture of
all such things as he would have, together with their daily and
ready service to attend upon his person and affairs, repaired
consequently to the Dowager Queen, delivering the letters.

Whereupon they received gentle answers with hope and comfort of
speedy restitution of the goods, apparel, jewels, and letters; for
the more apparance whereof the Queen sent first certain
commissioners with a herald of arms to Pettislego, the place of the
shipwreck, commanding by proclamation and other edicts all such
persons (no degree excepted) as had any part of such goods as were
spoiled and taken out or from the ship, to bring them in, and to
restore the same with such further order as Her Grace by advice of
her council thought expedient; by reason whereof, not without great
labours, pains, and charges, (after a long time) divers small
parcels of wax, and other small trifling things of no value, were by
the poorer sort of the Scots brought to the commissioners; but the
jewels, rich apparel, presents, gold, silver, costly furs, and such-
like, were conveyed away, concealed, and utterly embezzled.
Whereupon the Queen, at the request of the said ambassador, caused
divers persons, to the number of one hundred and eighty or more, to
be called personally before her princely presence to answer to the
said spoil, and really to exhibit and bring in all such things as
were spoiled and violently taken, and carried out of the same,
whereof not only good testimony by writing was shown, but also the
things themselves found in the hands of the Scottish subjects, who
by subtle and crafty dealings, by connivance of the commissioners,
so used (or rather abused) themselves towards the same orator and
his attendants, that in effectual restitution was made; but he,
wearied with daily attendance and charges, the 14th day of February
next ensuing, distrusting any real and effectual rendering of the
said goods and merchandises and other the premises, upon leave
obtained of the said Queen, departed towards England, having
attending upon him the said two English gentlemen and others
(leaving, nevertheless, in Scotland three Englishmen to pursue the
delivery of such things as were collected to have been sent by ship
to him into England, which being in April next, and not before,
embarked for London, was not at this present day here arrived), came
the 18th day of February to Barwike (Berwick) within the dominion
and realm of England, where he was by the Queen's Majesty's letters
and commandment honourably received, used, and entertained by the
Right Honourable Lord Wharton, Lord Warden of the East Marches, with
goodly conducting from place to place as the daily journeys done
ordinarily did lie, in such order, manner, and form as to a
personage of such estate appertaineth. He, prosecuting his voyage
until the 27th of February, approached the City of London within
twelve English miles, where he was received with fourscore merchants
with chains of gold and goodly apparel, as well in order of men-
servants in one uniform livery, as also in and upon good horses and
geldings, who conducting him to a merchant's house four miles from
London, received there a quantity of gold, velvet, and silk, with
all furniture thereunto requisite, wherewith he made him a riding
garment, reposing himself that night. The next day being Saturday,
and the last day of February, he was by the merchants adventuring
for Russia, to the number of one hundred and forty persons, and so
many or more servants in one livery as above said, conducted towards
the City of London, where by the way he had not only the hunting of
the fox and such-like sport shown him, but also by the Queen's
Majesty's commandment was received and embraced by the Right
Honourable Viscount Montagu, sent by her Grace for his
entertainment. He being accompanied with divers lusty knights,
esquires, gentlemen, and yeomen to the number of three hundred
horses, led him to the north parts of the City of London, where by
four notable merchants, rich apparelled, was presented to him a
right fair and large gelding, richly trapped, together with a foot-
cloth of Orient crimson velvet, enriched with gold laces, all
furnished in most glorious fashion, of the present and the gift of
the said merchants; whereupon the ambassador at instant desire
mounted, riding on the way towards Smithfield Bars, the first limits
of the liberties of the City of London. The Lord Mayor, accompanied
with all the aldermen in their scarlet, did receive him; and so
riding through the City of London in the middle between the said
Lord Mayor and Viscount Montagu, a great number of merchants and
notable personages riding before, and a large troop of servants and
apprentices following, was conducted through the City of London
(with great admiration and plausibility of the people, running
plentifully on all sides, and replenishing all streets in such sort
as no man without difficulty might pass) into his lodging situate in
Fant Church (Fenchurch) Street, where were provided for him two
chambers richly hung and decked over and above the gallant furniture
of the whole house, together with an ample and rich cupboard of
plate of all sorts, to furnish and serve him at all meals and other
services during his abode in London, which was, as is under-written,
until the third day of May; during which time, daily, divers
aldermen and the gravest personages of the said company did visit
him, providing all kinds of victuals for his table and his servants,
with all sorts of officers to attend upon him in good sort and
condition, as to such an ambassador of honour doth and ought to

It is also to be remembered that, at his first entrance into his
chamber, there was presented unto him on the Queen's Majesty's
behalf for a gift and present, and his better furniture in apparel,
one rich piece of cloth of tissue, a piece of cloth of gold, another
piece of cloth of gold raised with crimson velvet, a piece of
crimson velvet ingrained, a piece of purple velvet, a piece of
damask purpled, a piece of crimson damask, which he most thankfully
accepted. In this beautiful lodging, refreshing and preparing
himself and his train with things requisite, he abode expecting the
King's Majesty's repair out of Flanders into England; whose Highness
arriving the one-and-twentieth of March, the same ambassador the
five-and-twentieth of March, being the Annunciation of Our Lady (the
day twelvemonth he took his leave from the Emperor his master), was
most honourably brought to the King's and Queen's Majesty's Court at
Westminster, where, accompanied first with the said viscount and
other notable personages and the merchants, he arriving at
Westminster Bridge, was there received with six lords, conducted
into a stately chamber, where by the Lords Chancellor, Treasurer,
Privy Seal, Admiral, Bishop of Ely, and other councillors, he was
visited and saluted; and consequently was brought unto the King's
and Queen's Majesty's presence, sitting under a stately cloth of
honour, the chamber most richly decked and furnished, and most
honourably presented. Where, after that he had delivered his
letters, made his oration, given two timber of sables, and the
report of the same both in English and Spanish, in most loving
manner embraced, was with much honour and high entertainment, in
sight of a great confluence of people, lords and ladies, soon after
remitted by water to his former lodging, to the which, within two
days after, by assignment of the King's and Queen's Majesties,
repaired and conferred with him secretly two grave councillors--that
is, the Lord Bishop of Ely and Sir William Peter Knight, Chief
Secretary to their Highnesses, who, after divers secret talks and
conference, reported to their Highnesses their proceedings, the
gravity, wisdom, and stately behaviour of the said ambassador, in
such sort as was much to their Majesties' satisfaction.

Finally, concluding upon such treaties and articles of amity as the
letters of the King's and Queen's Majesties most graciously, under
the Great Seal of England, to him by the said councillors delivered,
doth appear.

The four-and-twentieth of April, being the Feast of St. George
wherein was celebrated the solemnity of the Noble Order of the
Gaiter at Westminster, the same lord ambassador was soon after
required to have an audience; and therefore conducted from the said
lodging to the Court by the Right Noble the Lords Talbot and Lumley
to their Majesties' presence, where (after his oration made, and
thanks both given and received) he most honourably took his leave,
with commendations to the Emperor, which being done, he was with
special honour led unto the chapel, where, before the King and
Queen's Majesties, in sight of the whole Order of the Garter, was
prepared for him a stately seat, wherein he, accompanied with the
Duke of Norfolk, the lords last above mentioned, and many other
honourable personages, was present at the whole service, in
ceremonies which were to him most acceptable. The divine service
ended, he was quickly remitted and reduced to his barge, and so
repaired to his lodgings in like order and gratulation of the people
universally as before.

The time of the year hasting the departure of the ambassador, the
merchants having prepared four goodly and well-trimmed ships laden
with all kinds of merchandise apt for Russia, the same ambassador
making provision for such things as him pleased, the same ships in
good order valed (sailed?) down the river of Thames from London to
Gravesend, where the same ambassador, with his train and furniture,
was embarked towards his voyage homeward, which Cod prosper in all

It is also to be remembered that during the whole abode of the said
ambassador in England the agents of the said merchants did not only
prosecute and pursue the matter of restitution in Scotland, and
caused such things to be laden in an English ship hired purposely to
convey the ambassador's goods to London, there to be delivered to
him, but also, during his abode in London, did both invite him to
the mayor and divers worshipful men's houses, feasting and
banqueting him right friendly, showing unto him the most notable and
commendable sights of London, as the King's Palace and house, the
Churches of Westminster and Paul's, the Tower and Guild Hall of
London, and such-like memorable spectacles. And, also, the said
nine-and-twentieth day of April the said merchants, assembling
themselves together in the house of the Drapers' Hall of London,
exhibited and gave unto the said ambassador a notable supper
garnished with music, interludes, and banquets, in the which a cup
of wine being drunk to him in the name and lieu of the whole
company, it was signified to him that the whole company, with most
liberal and friendly hearts, did frankly give to him and his all
manner of costs and charges and victuals, riding from Scotland to
London during his abode there, and until setting of sail aboard the
ship, requesting him to accept the same in good part, as a testimony
and witness of their good hearts, zeal, and tenderness towards him
and his country.

It is to be considered that of the Bona Speranza no word nor
knowledge was had at this present day, nor yet of the arrival of the
ships or goods from Scotland.

The third of May the ambassador departed from London to Gravesend,
accompanied with divers aldermen and merchants, who in good guard
set him aboard the noble ship the Primrose, admiral to the fleet,
where leave was taken on both sides and parts, after many
embracements and divers farewells, not without expressing of tears.

Memorandum, that the first day of May the councillors, videlicet the
Bishop of Ely and Sir William Peter, on behalf of the King's and
Queen's Majesties, repairing to the Lord Ambassador, did not only
deliver unto him their Highnesses' letters of recommendation under
the Great Seal of England to the Emperor, very tenderly and friendly
written, but also, on their Majesties' behalf, gave and delivered
certain notable presents to the Emperor's person, and also gifts for
the Lord Ambassador's proper use and behoof, as by the particulars
under-written appeareth, with such further good words and
commendations as the more friendly have not been heard; whereby it
appeareth how well affected their honours be to have and continue
amity and traffic between their honours and their subjects; which
thing as the King's and Queen's Majesties have shown of their
princely munificences and liberalities, so have likewise the
merchants and fellowship of the adventurers for and to Russia
manifested to the world their good-wills, minds, and zeals borne to
this new-commenced voyage, as by the discourse above mentioned, and
other the notable acts overlong to be recited in this present
memorial, doth and may most clearly appear, the like whereof is not
in any precedent or history to be shown.

Forasmuch as it may be doubted how the ship named the Edward
Bonaventura received shipwreck, what became of the goods, how much
they were spoiled and detained, how little restored, what charges
and expenses ensued, what personages were drowned, how the rest of
the ships either arrived or perished, or how the disposition of
Almighty God had wrought His pleasure in them; how the same
ambassador hath been after the miserable case of shipwreck in
Scotland irreverently abused, and consequently into England received
and conducted, there entertained, used, honoured, and, finally, in
good safety towards his return and repair furnished, and with much
liberality and frank handling friendly dismissed, to the intent that
the truth of the premises may be to the Most Mighty Emperor of
Russia sincerely signified in eschewment of all events and
misfortunes that may chance in this voyage (which God defend!) to
the ambassador's person, train, and goods, this present memorial is
written and authentically made, and by the said ambassador, his
servants whose names be under-written, and train, in presence of the
notary, and witnesses under-named, recognised, and acknowledged.
Given the day, month, and year under-written, of which instrument
into every of the said ships one testimonial is delivered, and the
first remaineth with the said company in London.

Gifts sent to the King and Queen's Majesties of England by the
Emperor of Russia, by the report of the Ambassador, and spoiled by
the Scots after the Shipwreck.

1. First, six timber of sables rich in colour and hair.

2. Item, twenty entire sables exceeding beautiful with teeth, ears,
and claws.

3. Item, four living sables with chains and collars.

4. Item, thirty Lausannes large and beautiful.

5. Item, six large and great skins, very rich and rare, worn only
by the Emperor for worthiness.

6. Item, a large and fair white Jerfawcon, for the wild swan,
crane, goose, and other great fowls. Together with a drum of
silver, the hoops gilt, used for a lure to call the said hawk.

Gifts sent to the Emperor of Russia by the King and Queen's
Majesties of England.

1. First, two rich pieces of cloth of tissue.

2. Item, one fine piece of scarlet.

3. Item, one fine violet in grain.

4. Item, one fine azure cloth.

5. Item, a notable pair of brigandines, with a murrian covered with
crimson velvet and gilt nails.

6. Item, a male and female lions.

Gifts given to the Ambassador at his Departure, over and above such
as were delivered unto him at his first Arrival.

1. First, a chain of gold of one hundred pound.

2. Item, a large basin and ewer, silver and gilt.

3. Item, a pair of pottle pots gilt.

4. Item, a pair of flagons gilt.

Wherein OSEPP NAPEA, the Muscovite Ambassador, returned home into
his Country, with his Entertainment at his Arrival at Colmogro; and
a large description of the Manners of the Country.

The 12th of May, in the year of our Lord 1567, there departed from
Gravesend four good ships, well appointed for merchants, which were
presently bound into the Bay of St. Nicholas in Russia, with which
ships were transported or carried home one Osepp Gregoriwich Napea,
who was sent messenger from the Emperor and Great Duke of Muscovy.
The four ships were these whose names follow, viz.

The Primrose, Admiral.
The John Evangelist, Vice-Admiral.
The Anne, and the Trinity, Attendants.

The 13th of July, the aforesaid four ships came to an anchor in the
Bay of St. Nicholas, before an Abbey called the Abbey of St.
Nicholas, whereas the said messenger, Osepp Gregoriwich Napea, went
ashore, and as many Englishmen as came to serve the Emperor,
remained with him at the Abbey, for the space of six days, until he
had gotten all his things ashore, and laden the same in barques to
go up the river Dwina, unto Vologhda, which is by water 1,000
verstes, and every verste is about three-quarters of an English

The 20th of July, we departed from St. Nicholas, and the 24th of the
same we came to Colmogro, where we remained eight days; and the same
messenger was there of all his acquaintance welcomed home, and had
presents innumerable sent unto him, but it was nothing but meat and
drink; some sent white bread, some rye bread, and some buttered
bread and pancakes, beef, mutton, bacon, eggs, butter, fishes,
swans, geese, ducks, hens, and all manner of victuals--both fish and
flesh--in the best manner that the rude people could devise; for
among them these presents are highly esteemed.

The 29th of July we departed from Colmogro, and the 14th of August
we came to Vstioug, where we remained one day, and changed our
barques, or boats.

The 27th of August we came to Vologhda, where we remained four days,
unlading the barques, and lading our chests and things in small
waggons, with one horse in a piece--which in their tongue are called
"telegos"; and these telegos, they carried our stuff from Vologhda
unto the Moscow, which is 500 verstes; and we were upon the same way
fourteen days; for we went no faster than the telegos.

There are three great towns between the Moscow and Vologhda--that is
to say, Yereslava, Rostave, and Pereslava. Upon one side of
Yereslava runneth a famous river, which is called Volga. It runneth
into the Caspian Sea, and it divideth itself, before it come into
the Mare Caspium, in fifty parts or more: and near unto the same
sea there stands a great city called Boghare; the inhabitants of the
which are called by the same name.

The people of the said city do traffic in the city of Moscow: their
commodities are spices, musk, ambergris, rhubarb, with other drugs.
They bring also many furs, which they buy in Siberia, coming towards
the Moscow. The said people are of the sect of Mahomet.

The 12th of September we came unto the city of Moscow, where we were
brought by Napea and two of the Emperor's gentlemen unto a large
house, where every one of us had his chamber appointed.

The 14th of September we were commanded to come unto the Emperor,
and immediately after our coming we were brought into his presence,
unto whom each of us did his duty accordingly, and kissed his right
hand, his Majesty sitting in his chair of state, with his crown on
his head and a staff of goldsmith's work in his left hand well
garnished with rich and costly stones; and when we had all kissed
his hand and done our duty, his Majesty did declare by his
interpreter that we were all welcome unto him, and into his country,
and thereupon willed us to dine with him that day. We gave thanks
unto his Majesty, and so departed until the dinner was ready.

When dinner-time approached we were brought again into the Emperor's
dining chamber, where we were set on one side of a table that stood
over against the Emperor's table, to the end that he might well
behold us all, and when we came into the aforesaid chamber we found
there ready set these tables following:-

First, at the upper end of one table were set the Emperor's Majesty,
his brother, and the Emperor of Cassan, who is prisoner. About two
yards lower sat the Emperor of Cassan's son, being a child of five
years of age, and beneath him sat the most part of the Emperor's

And at another table near unto the Emperor's table there was set a
monk all alone, who was in all points as well served as the Emperor.
At another table sat another kind of people called Chirkasses, which
the Emperor entertaineth for men of war to serve against his
enemies; of which people and of their country I will hereafter make

All the tables aforesaid were covered only within salt and bread,
and after that we had sat awhile, the Emperor sent unto every one of
us a piece of bread, which was given and delivered unto every man
severally with these words: "The Emperor and Great Duke giveth thee
bread this day;" and in like manner three or four times before
dinner was ended he sent unto every man drink, which was given with
these words: "The Emperor and Great Duke giveth thee to drink."
All the tables aforesaid were served in vessels of pure and fine
gold, as well basins and ewers, platters, dishes, and saucers, as
also of great pots, with an innumerable sort of small drinking-pots
of divers fashions, whereof a great number were set with stone. As
for costly meats, I have many times seen better; but for change of
wines, and divers sorts of meads, it was wonderful; for there was
not left at any time so much void room on the table that one cup
more might have been set, and as far as I could perceive all the
rest were in the like manner served.

In the dinner-time there came in six singers who stood in the midst
of the chamber, and their faces towards the Emperor, who sang there
before dinner was ended three several times, whose songs or voices
delighted our ears little or nothing.

The Emperor never putteth morsel of meat in his mouth but he first
blesseth it himself, and in like manner as often as he drinketh; for
after his manner he is very religious, and he esteemeth his
religious persons above his noblemen.

This dinner continued about the space of five hours, which being
ended, and the tables taken up, we came into the midst of the
chamber, where we did reverence unto the Emperor's Majesty, and then
he delivered unto every one of us with his own hands a cup of mead,
which when every man had received and drunk a quantity thereof we
were licensed to depart, and so ended that dinner. And because the
Emperor would have us to be merry, he sent to our lodging the same
evening three barrels of mead of sundry sort, of the quantity in all
of one hogshead.

The 16th day of September the Emperor sent home unto our lodging for
every one of us a Tartary horse to ride from place to place as we
had occasion, for that the streets of Moscow are very foul and miry
in the summer.

The 18th of September there were given unto Master Standish, doctor
in physic, and the rest of our men of our occupations, certain
furred gowns of branched velvet and gold, and some of red damask, of
which Master Doctor's gown was furred with sables, and the rest were
furred, some with white ermine, and some with grey squirrel, and all
faced and edged round about with black beaver.

The 1st of October, in the morning, we were commanded to come unto
the Emperor's Court, and when we came thither we were brought unto
the Emperor, unto whom we did our duties accordingly, whereupon he
willed us to dine with him that day, and so with thanks unto his
Majesty we departed until dinner-time, at which time we came and
found the tables covered with bread and salt as at the first; and
after that we were all set upon one side of the table, the Emperor's
Majesty according to his accustomed manner sent unto every man of us
a piece of bread by some of the dukes who attended upon his

And whereas the 14th of September we were served in vessels of gold,
we were now served in vessels of silver, and yet not so abundantly
as was the first of gold; they brought drink unto the table in
silver bowls, which contained at the least six gallons apiece, and
every man had a small silver cup to drink in, and another to dip or
to take his drink out of the great bowl withal. The dinner being
ended, the Emperor gave unto every one of us a cup with mead, which
when we had received, we gave thanks and departed.

Moreover, whensoever the Emperor's pleasure is that any stranger
shall dine with him, he doth send for them in the morning, and when
they come before him, he with his own mouth biddeth them to dinner,
and this order he always observeth.

The 10th of October the Emperor gave unto Master Standish seventy
roubles in money and to the rest of our men of occupations thirty
roubles apiece.

The 3rd of November we dined again with the Emperor, where we were
served as before.

The 6th of December being St. Nicholas' Day, we dined again at the
Emperor's, for that is one of the principal feasts which the
Muscovites hold. We were served in silver vessels, and ordered in
all points as before, and it was past seven of the clock at night
before dinner was ended.

The Emperor's Majesty useth every year in the month of December to
have all his ordnance that is in the city of Moscow carried into the
fields which are without the suburbs of the city, and there to have
it planted and bent upon two houses of wood filled within with
earth. Against which two houses there were two fair white marks set
up, at which marks they discharge all their ordnance, to the end the
Emperor may see what his gunners can do. They have fair ordnance of
brass of all sorts-bases, falcons, minions, sakers, culverins,
cannons (double and royal), basilisks (long and large); they have
six great pieces, whose shot is a yard of height, which shot a man
may easily discern as they flee. They have also a great many of
mortar pieces or pot guns, out of which pieces they shoot wild

The 12th of December the Emperor's Majesty and all his nobility came
into the field on horse-back in most goodly order, having very fine
jennets and Turkey horses garnished with gold and silver abundantly;
the Emperor's Majesty having on him a gown of rich tissue and a cap
of scarlet on his head, set not only with pearls, but also with a
great number of rich and costly stones; his noblemen were all in
gowns of cloth of gold, who did ride before him in good order by
three and three, and before them there went 5,000 arquebusiers,
which went by five and five in a rank in very good order, every of
them carrying his gun upon his left shoulder and his match in his
right hand, and in this order they marched into the field where the
aforesaid ordnance was planted.

And before the Emperor's Majesty came into the field there was a
certain stage made of small poles, which was a quarter of a mile
long, and about three score yards off from the stage of poles were
certain pieces of ice of two feet thick and six feet high set up,
which rank of ice was as long as the stage of poles; and as soon as
the Emperor's Majesty came into the field, the arquebusiers went
upon the stage of poles, where they settled themselves in order.
And when the Emperor's Majesty was settled where he would be, and
where he might see all the ordnance discharged and shot off, the
arquebusiers began to shoot off at the bank of ice as though it had
been in any skirmish or battle, who ceased not shooting until they
had beaten all the ice flat on the ground.

After the hand-guns, they shot off their wild fire up into the air,
which was a goodly sight to behold. And after this they began to
discharge the small pieces of brass, beginning with the smallest,
and so orderly bigger and bigger, until the last and biggest. When
they had shot them all off, they began to charge them again, and so
shot them all off three times after the first order, beginning with
the smallest and ending with the greatest. And note that before
they had ended their shooting, the two houses that they shot unto
were beaten in pieces, and yet they were very strongly made of wood
and filled with earth, being at the least thirty feet thick. This
triumph being ended, the Emperor departed and rode home in the same
order that he came forth into the field. The ordnance is discharged
every year in the month of December, according to the order before

On Christmas Day we were all willed to dine with the Emperor's
Majesty, where for bread, meat, and drink we were served as at other
times before. But for goodly and rich plate we never saw the like
or so much before. There dined that day in the Emperor's presence
above 500 strangers and 200 Russians, and all they were served in
vessels of gold, and that as much as could stand one by another upon
the tables. Besides this there were four cupboards garnished with
goodly plate, both of gold and silver. Among the which there were
twelve barrels of silver containing above twelve gallons apiece, and
at each end of every barrel were six hoops of fine gold. This
dinner continued about six hours.

Every year upon the Twelfth Day they use to bless or sanctify the
river Moska, which runneth through the city of Moscow (Moscovia),
after this manner:-

First, they make a square hole in the ice about three fathoms large
every way, which is trimmed about the sides and edges with white
boards. Then about nine of the clock they come out of the church
with procession towards the river in this wise:-

First and foremost there go certain young men with wax tapers
burning, and one carrying a great lantern. Then follow certain
banners, then the cross, then the images of Our Lady and St.
Nicholas, and of other saints, which images men carry upon their
shoulders. After the images follow certain priests to the number of
100 or more. After them the Metropolitan, who is led between two
priests; and after the Metropolitan came the Emperor, with his crown
upon his head, and after his Majesty all his noblemen orderly. Thus
they followed the procession unto the water, and when they came unto
the hole that was made, the priests set themselves in order round
about it. And at one side of the same pool there was a scaffold of
boards made, upon which stood a fair chair, in which the
Metropolitan was set, but the Emperor's Majesty stood upon the ice.

After this the priests began to sing, to bless, and to cense, and
did their service, and so by the time that they had done the water
was holy, which being sanctified, the Metropolitan took a little
thereof in his hands and cast it on the Emperor, likewise upon
certain of the dukes, and then they returned again to the church
with the priests that sat about the water; but the press that there
was about the water when the Emperor was gone was wonderful to
behold, for there came above 5,000 pots to be filled of that water.
For that Muscovite which hath no part of that water thinks himself

And very many went naked into the water, both men, women, and
children. After the press was a little gone, the Emperor's jennets
and horses were brought to drink of the same water, and likewise
many other men brought their horses thither to drink, and by that
means they make their horses as holy as themselves.

All these ceremonies being ended, we went to the Emperor to dinner,
where we were served in vessels of silver, and in all other points
as we had been beforetime.

The Russians begin their Lent always eight weeks before Easter: the
first week they eat eggs, milk, cheese, and butter, and make great
cheer with pancakes and such other things, one friend visiting
another, and from the same Sunday until our Shrove Sunday there are
but few Russians sober; but they are drunk day by day, and it is
accounted for no reproach or shame among them.

The next week, being our first week of Lent, or our cleansing week,
beginning our Shrove Sunday, they make and keep a great fast. It is
reported, and the people do verily believe, that the Metropolitan
neither eateth nor drinketh any manner of thing for the space of
seven days; and they say that there are many religious men who do
the like.

The Emperor's Majesty eateth but one morsel of bread and drinketh
but one draught of drink but once in the day during that week, and
all men that are of any reputation come not out of their houses
during that time; so that the streets are almost void of company,
saving a few poor folk who wander to and fro. The other six weeks
they keep as we do ours, but not one of them will eat either butter,
cheese, eggs, or milk.

On Palm Sunday they have a very solemn procession in this manner

First, they have a tree of a good bigness, which is made fast upon
two sleds, as though it were growing there, and it is hung with
apples, raisins, figs, and dates, and with many other fruits
abundantly. In the midst of the same tree stand five boys in white
vestures, which sing in the tree before the procession. After this
there followed certain young men with wax tapers in their hands
burning and a great lantern, that all the light should not go out;
after them followed two with long banners, and six with round plates
set upon long staves (the plates were of copper, very full of holes,
and thin); then followed six carrying painted images upon their
shoulders; after the images follow certain priests to the number of
one hundred or more, with goodly vestures, whereof ten or twelve are
of white damask set and embroidered round about with fair and Orient
pearls as great as peas, and among them certain sapphires and other
stones. After them followed the one-half of the Emperor's noblemen;
then cometh the Emperor's Majesty and the Metropolitan, after this

First, there is a horse covered with white linen cloth down to the
ground, his ears being made long with the same cloth like to an
ass's ears. Upon this horse the Metropolitan sitteth sidelong, like
a woman; in his lap lieth a fair book, with a crucifix of
goldsmith's work upon the cover, which he holdeth fast with his left
hand; and in his right hand he has a cross of gold, with which cross
he ceaseth not to bless the people as he rideth.

There are, to the number of thirty, men who spread abroad their
garments before the horse, and as soon as the horse is passed over
any of them they take them up again and run before and spread them
again, so that the horse doth always go on some of them. They who
spread the garments are all priests' sons, and for their labours the
Emperor giveth unto them new garments.

One of the Emperor's noblemen leadeth the horse by the head, but the
Emperor himself, going on foot, leadeth the horse by the end of the
rein of his bridle with one of his hands, and in the other of his
hands he had a branch of a palm-tree; after this followed the rest
of the Emperor's noblemen and gentlemen, with a great number of
other people. In this order they went from one church to another
within the castle, about the distance of two flights' shot; and so
returned again to the Emperor's church, where they made an end of
their service; which being done, the Emperor's Majesty and certain
of his noblemen went to the Metropolitan's house to dinner, where of
delicate fishes and good drinks there was no lack.

The rest of this week until Easter Day they keep very solemnly,
continuing in their houses for the most part; and upon Monday or
Thursday the Emperor doth always use to receive the Sacrament, and
so doth most part of his nobles.

Upon Good Friday they continue all the day in contemplation and
prayers, and they use every year on Good Friday to let loose a
prisoner in the stead of Barabbas. The night following they go to
the church, where they sleep unto the next morning; and at Easter
they have the Resurrection, and after every of the Lents they eat
flesh the next week following Friday, Saturday and all.

They have an order at Easter which they always observe, and that is
this:- Every year, against Easter, to dye or colour red with brazil
a great number of eggs of which every man and woman giveth one unto
the priest of their parish upon Easter Day, in the morning; and,
moreover, the common people use to carry in their hands one of these
red eggs, not only upon Easter Day, but also three or four days
after; and gentlemen and gentlewomen have eggs gilded, which they
carry in like manner. They use it, as they say, for a great love,
and in token of the Resurrection, whereof they rejoice; for when two
friends meet during the Easter holidays, they come and take one
another by the hand: the one of them saith, "The Lord or Christ is
risen," the other answereth, "It is so, of a truth;" and then they
kiss and exchange their eggs (both men and women), continuing in
kissing four days together.

The 12th of April being Tuesday in the Easter week, Master Jenkinson
and Master Gray and certain other of us Englishmen dined with the
Emperor, where we were served as we had been beforetime. And after
dinner the Emperor's Majesty gave unto Master Jenkinson and unto
Master Gray, and so orderly unto every one of us, a cup of mead,
according to his accustomed manner, which when every man had
received and given thanks, Master Jenkinson stepped into the midst
of the chamber before the Emperor's Majesty and gave thanks to his
Highness for his goodness unto him extended, desiring his Grace to
license him for to depart; and in like manner did Master Gray. His
Majesty did not only license them to depart, but also granted unto
Master Jenkinson his letters, under his Great Seal, unto all princes
through whose dominions Master Jenkinson should have occasion to
pass, that he might the sooner and quietlier pass by means thereof.
Which being granted, Masters Jenkinson and Gray lowly submitted
themselves, thanking his Majesty. So the Emperor gave unto either
of them a cup of mead to drink, and willed them to depart at their
pleasure in God's peace.

The 14th of April, in the morning, when Master Gray and I were ready
to depart towards England, the Chancellors sent unto us, and willed
us to come to their office in the Chancery, where at our coming they
showed us a great number of the Emperor's jewels and rich robes,
willing us to mark and behold them well, to the end that at our
arrival into England we might make report what we had seen there.

The chiefest was his Majesty's crown, being close under the top very
fair wrought; in mine opinion, the workmanship of so much gold few
men can amend. It was adorned and decked with rich and precious
stones abundantly, among the which one was a ruby, which stood a
handful higher than the top of the crown upon a small wire; it was
as big as a good bean. The same crown was lined with a fair black
sable worth by report forty roubles.

We saw all his Majesty's robes, which were very richly set with
stones; they showed us many other great stones of divers kinds, but
the most part of these were uneven, in manner as they came out of
the work, for they do more esteem the greatness of stones than they
do the proportion of them.

We saw two goodly gowns, which were as heavy as a man could easily
carry, all set with pearls over and over; the guards or borders
round about them were garnished with sapphires and other good stones
abundantly. One of the same gowns was very rich, for the pearls
were very large, round, and Orient. As for the rest of his gowns
and garments, they were of rich tissue and cloth-of-gold, and all
furred with very black sables.

When we had sufficiently perused all these things, they willed
Master Gray, at his arrival in England, to provide, if he could,
such jewels and rich clothes as he had seen there, and better if he
could, declaring that the Emperor would gladly bestow his money upon
such things.

So we took our leave the same time, and departed towards Vologhda



The Emperor's name in their tongue is Evan Vasilivich; that is as
much as to say, John, the son of Vasilie. And by his princely state
he is called Otesara, as his predecessors have been before; which,
to interpret, is "A King that giveth not tribute to any man." And
this word Otesara, his Majesty's interpreters have of late days
interpreted to be an Emperor; so that now he is called Emperor and
Great Duke of all Russia, &c. Before his father, they were neither
called Emperors nor Kings, but only Ruese Velike; that is to say,
Great Duke. And as this Emperor, which now is Ivan Vasilivich, doth
exceed his predecessors in name--that is, from a Duke to an Emperor-
-even so much by report he doth exceed them in stoutness of courage
and valiantness, and a great deal more: for he is no more afraid of
his enemies, which are not a few, than the hobby of the larks.

His enemies with whom he hath wars for the most part are these:-
Litto Poland, Sweden, Denmark, Lifland, the Crimmes, Nagaians, and
the whole nation of the Tartarians, which are a stout and a hardy
people as any under the sun.

This Emperor useth great familiarity, as well unto all his nobles
and subjects, as also unto Strangers which serve him either in his
wars or in occupations: for his pleasure is that they shall dine
oftentimes in the year in his presence; and, besides that, he is
oftentimes abroad, either at one church or another, and walking with
his noblemen abroad. And by this means he is not only beloved of
his nobles and commons, but also had in great dread and fear through
all his dominions, so that I think no prince in Christendom is more
feared of his own than he is, nor yet better beloved. For if he bid
any of his dukes go, they will run; if he give any evil or angry
word to any of them, the party will not come into his Majesty's
presence again for a long time if he be not sent for, but will feign
him to be very sick, and will let the hair of his head grow very
long, without either cutting or shaving, which is an evident token
that he is in the Emperor's displeasure; for when they be in their
prosperity, they account it a shame to wear long hair--in
consideration whereof they use to have their heads shaven.

His Majesty heareth all complaints himself, and with his own mouth
giveth sentence and judgment of all matters, and that with
expedition; but religious matters he meddleth not withal, but
referreth them wholly unto the Metropolitan.

His Majesty retaineth and well rewardeth all strangers that come to
serve him, and especially men of war.

He delighteth not greatly in hawking, hunting, or any other pastime,
nor in hearing instruments or music, but setteth all his whole
delight upon two things: first, to serve God, as undoubtedly he is
very devout in his religion; and the second, how to subdue and
conquer his enemies.

He hath abundance of gold and silver in his own hands or treasury;
but the most part of his know not a crown from a counter, nor gold
from copper--they are so much cumbered (combred) therewithal; and he
that is worth two, three, or four groats is a rich man.


The Metropolitan is next unto God, Our Lady and St. Nicholas
excepted; for the Emperor's Majesty judgeth and affirmeth him to be
of higher dignity than himself: "For that," saith he, "he is God's
spiritual officer, and I, the Emperor, am His temporal officer;" and
therefore his Majesty submitteth himself unto him in many things
concerning religious matters, as in leading the Metropolitan horse
upon Palm Sunday, and giving him leave to sit on a chair upon the
Twelfth Day, when the river Moscow was in blessing, and his Majesty
standing on the ice.

All matters of religion are reformed by the Metropolitan: he
heareth the causes and giveth sentence as himself listeth, and is
authorised so to do. Whether it be to whip, hang, or burn, his will
must needs be fulfilled.

They have both monks, friars, and nuns, with a great number of great
and rich monasteries; they keep great hospitality, and do relieve
much poor people day by day. I have been in one of the monasteries
called Troities, which is walled about with brick very strongly,
like a castle, and much ordnance of brass upon the walls of the
same. They told me themselves that they are seven hundred brethren
of them which belong unto that house. The most part of the lands,
towns, and villages which are within forty miles of it belong unto
the same. They showed me the church, wherein were as many images as
could hang about, or upon the walls of the church roundabout; and
even the roof of the church was painted full of images. The chief
image was of Our Lady, which was garnished with gold, rubies,
sapphires, and other rich stones abundantly. In the midst of the
church stood twelve wax tapers of two yards long, and a fathom about
in bigness. There stands a kettle full of wax, with about one
hundredweight, wherein there is always the wick of a candle burning-
-as it were, a lamp which goeth not out day nor night.

They showed me a coffin, covered with cloth-of-gold, which stood
upon one side within their church, in which they told me lay a holy
man, who never ate nor drank, and yet he liveth. And they told me
(supposing that I had believed them) that he healeth many diseases,
and giveth the blind their sight, with many other miracles; but I
was hard of belief, because I saw him work no miracle whilst I was

After this they brought me into their cellars, and made me taste of
divers kinds of drinks, both wine and beer, mead and quassia, of
sundry colours and kinds. Such abundance of drink as they have in
their cellars, I do suppose few princes have more, or so much at

Their barrels or vessels are of an unmeasurable bigness and size,
some of them are three yards long and more, and two yards and more
broad in their heads. They contain six or seven tons apiece. They
have none in their cellars of their own making that are less than a
ton. They have nine or ten great vaults, which are full of those
barrels, which are seldom removed, for they have trunks which come
down through the roof of the vaults in sundry places, through which
they pour the drink down, having the cask right under it to receive
the same, for it should be a great trouble to bring it all down the

They give bread, meat, and drink unto all men that come to them, not
only while they are at their abbey, but also when they depart, to
serve them by the way.

There are a great number of such monasteries in the realm, and the
Emperor's Majesty rideth oftentimes from one to another of them, and
lieth at them three or four days together.

The same monks are as great merchants as any in the land of Russia,
and do occupy buying and selling as much as any other men, and have
boats which pass to and fro in the rivers with merchandise from
place to place where any other of their country do traffic.

They eat no flesh during their lives, as it is reported; but upon
Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, it is lawful for
them to eat eggs, butter, cheese, and milk, and at all times to eat
fish; and after this sort they lead their lives.

They wear all black garments, and so do none other in all the land,
but at that abbey only.

They have no preachers--no, not one in all the land to instruct the
people, so that there are many, and the most part of the poor in the
country, who if one ask them how many gods there be, they will say a
great many, meaning that every image which they have is a god; for
all the country and the Emperor's Majesty himself will bless and bow
and knock their heads before their images, insomuch that they will
cry earnestly unto their images to help them to the things which
they need. All men are bound by their law to have those images in
their houses; and over every gate in all their towns and cities are
images set up, unto which the people bow and bend, and knock their
heads against the ground before them. As often as they come by any
church or cross, they do in like manner. And when they come to any
house, they bless themselves three or four times before they will
salute any man in the house.

They reckon and hold it for great sin to touch or handle any of
their images within the circle of the board where the painting is,
but they keep them very daintily, and rich men deck them over and
about with gold, silver, and stones, and hang them over and about
with cloth-of-gold.

The priests are married as other men are, and wear all their
garments as other men do, except their night-cap, which is cloth of
some sad colour, being round, and reacheth unto the ears; their
crowns are shaven, but the rest of their hair they let grow as long
as Nature will permit, so that it hangeth beneath their ears upon
their shoulders; their beards they never shave. If his wife happen
to die, it is not lawful for him to marry again during his life.

They minister the Communion with bread and wine, after our order,
but he breaketh the bread and putteth it into the cup unto the wine,
and commonly some are partakers with them; and they take the bread
out again with a spoon, together with part of the wine, and so take
it themselves, and give it to others that receive with them after
the same manner.

Their ceremonies are all, as they say, according to the Greek
Church, used at this present day; and they allow no other religion
but the Greeks' and their own, and will not permit any nation but
the Greeks to be buried in their sacred burials or churchyards.

All their churches are full of images, unto the which the people,
when they assemble, do bow and knock their heads, as I have before
said, that some will have knobs upon their foreheads, with knocking,
as great as eggs.

All their service is in the Russian tongue, and they and the common
people have no other prayers but this, "Ghospodi Jesus Christos
esine voze ponuloi nashe." That is to say, "O Lord Jesus Christ,
Son of God, have mercy upon us;" and this is their prayer, so that
the most part of the unlearned know neither Paternoster, nor the
Belief, nor Ten Commandments, nor scarcely understand the one-half
of the service which is read in their churches.


When any child is born, it is not baptised until the next Sunday;
and if it chance that it be not baptised then, it must tarry until
the second Sunday after the birth. And it is lawful for them to
take as many godfathers and godmothers as they will; the more the

When they go to the church, the midwife goeth foremost, carrying the
child; and the godfathers and godmothers follow into the midst of
the church, where there is a small table ready set, and on it an
earthen pot full of warm water, about the which the godfathers and
godmothers with the child settle themselves. Then the clerk giveth
unto every of them a small wax candle burning; then cometh the
priest, and beginneth to say certain words which the godfathers and
godmothers must answer word for word, among which one is, that the
child shall forsake the Devil, and as that name is pronounced, they
must all spit at the word, as often as it is repeated. Then he
blesseth the water which is in the pot, and doth breathe over it;
then he taketh all the candles which the gossips have, and, holding
them all in one hand, letteth part of them drop into the water, and
then giveth every one his candle again. And when the water is
sanctified he taketh the child and holdeth it in a small tub, and
one of the godfathers taketh the pot with warm water, and poureth it
all upon the child's head.

After this, he hath many more ceremonies--as anointing ears and eyes
with spittle, and making certain crosses with oil upon the back,
head, and breast of the child; then, taking the child in his arms,
carrieth it to the images of St. Nicholas and Our Lady, &c., and
speaketh unto the images, desiring them to take charge of the child,
that he may live and believe as a Christian man or woman ought to
do, with many other words. Then, coming back from the images, he
taketh a pair of shears and clippeth the young and tender hairs of
the child's head in three or four places; and then delivereth the
child, whereunto every of the godfathers and godmothers lays a hand.
Then the priest chargeth them that the child be brought up in the
faith and fear of God or Christ, and that it be instructed to cling
and bow to the images, and so they make an end. Then one of the
godfathers must hang a cross about the neck of the child, which he
must always wear; for that Russian who hath not a cross about his
neck, they esteem as no Christian man; and thereupon they say that
we are no Christians, because we do not wear crosses as they do.


Their matrimony is nothing solemnised, but rather in most points
abominable, and, as near as I can learn, in this wise following:-

First, when there is love between the parties, the man sendeth unto
the woman a small chest or box, wherein is a whip, needles, thread,
silk, linen-cloth, shears, and such necessaries as she shall occupy
when she is a wife; and perhaps sendeth therewithal raisins, figs,
or some such things--giving her to understand that, if she do
offend, she must be beaten with the whip; and by the needles,
thread, cloth, &c., that she should apply herself diligently to sew,
and do such things as she could best do; and by the raisins or
fruits he meaneth, if she do well, no good thing shall be withdrawn
from her, nor be too dear for her. And she sendeth unto him a
shirt, handkerchiefs, and some such things of her own making. And
now to the effect.

When they are agreed, and the day of marriage appointed, when they
shall go towards the church, the bride will in no wise consent to go
out of the house, but resisteth and striveth with them that would
have her out, and feigneth herself to weep; yet in the end two women
get her out, and lead her towards the church, her face being covered
close, because of her dissimulation, that it should not be openly
perceived; for she maketh a great noise, as though she were sobbing
and weeping, until she come at the church, and then her face is
uncovered. The man cometh after, among other of his friends, and
they carry with them to the church a great pot with wine or mead.
Then the priest coupleth them together, much after our order, one
promising to love and serve the other during their lives together,
&c.; which being done, they begin to drink. And first the woman
drinketh to the man, and when he hath drunk he letteth the cup fall
to the ground, hasting immediately to tread upon it, and so doth
she, and the one who treads first upon it must have the victory and
be master at all times after, which commonly happeneth to the man,
for he is readiest to set his foot on it, because he letteth it fall
himself. Then they go home again, the woman's face being uncovered.
The boys in the streets cry out and make a noise in the meantime
with very dishonest words.

When they come home, the wife is set at the upper end of the table,
and the husband next unto her. They fall then to drinking, till
they be all drunk; they perchance have a minstrel or two. And two
naked men, who led her from the church, dance naked a long time
before all the company. When they are weary of drinking, the bride
and the bridegroom get them to bed (for it is in the evening always
when any of them are married); and when they are going to bed, the
bridegroom putteth certain money--both gold and silver, if he have
it--into one of his boots, and then sitteth down in the chamber,
crossing his legs; and then the bride must pluck off one of his
boots, which she will, and if she happen on the boot wherein the
money is, she hath not only the money for her labour, but is also at
such choice as she need not ever from that day forth to pull off his
boots; but if she miss the boot wherein the money is, she doth not
only lose the money, but is also bound from that day forwards to
pull off his boots continually.

Then they continue in drinking and making good cheer three days
following, being accompanied with certain of their friends; and
during the same three days he is called a duke, and she a duchess,
although they be very poor persons. And this is as much as I have
learned of their matrimony; but one common rule is amongst them--if
the woman be not beaten with the whip once a week, she will not be
good, and therefore they look for it orderly; and the women say that
if their husbands did not beat them, they should not love them.

They use to marry there very young--their sons at sixteen and
eighteen years old, and the daughters at twelve or thirteen years,
or younger. They use to keep their wives very closely--I mean,
those that be of any reputation; so that a man shall not see one of
them but at a chance, when she goeth to church at Christmas or at
Easter, or else going to visit some of her friends.

The most part of the women use to ride astride in saddles with
stirrups, as men do, and some of them on sleds, which in summer is
not commendable.

The husband is bound to find the wife colours to paint her withal,
for they use ordinarily to paint themselves; it is such a common
practice among them that it is counted for no shame. They grease
their faces with such colours that a man may discern them hanging on
their faces almost a fight-shot off. I cannot so well liken them as
to a miller's wife, for they look as though they were beaten about
the face with a bag of meal; but their eyebrows they colour as black
as jet.

The best property that the women have, is that they can sew well,
and embroider with silk and gold excellently.


When any man or woman dieth, they stretch him out, and put a new
pair of shoes on his feet, because he hath a great journey to go;
then do they wind him in a sheet, as we do; but they forget not to
put a testimony in his right hand, which the priest giveth him to
testify unto St. Nicholas that he died a Christian man or woman.
And they put the corse always in a coffin of wood, although the
party be very poor--and when they go towards the church, the friends
and kinsmen of the party departed carry in their hands small wax
candles, and they weep and howl and make much lamentation.

They that be hanged or beheaded, or suchlike, have no testimony with
them; how they are received into heaven, it is a wonder, without
their passport.

There are a great number of poor people among them who die daily for
lack of sustenance, which is a pitiful case to behold; for there
hath been buried in a small time, within these two years, above
eighty persons young and old, who have died only for lack of
sustenance; for if they had straw and water enough, they would make
shift to live; for a great many are forced in the winter to dry
straw and stamp it, and to make bread thereof--or, at the least,
they eat it instead of bread. In the summer they make good shift
with grass, herbs, and roots; barks of trees is good meat with them
at all times. There is no people in the world, as I suppose, that
live so miserably as do the poor in those parts; and the most part
of them that have sufficient for themselves, and also to relieve
others that need, are so unmerciful that they care not how many they
see die of famine or hunger in the streets.

It is a country full of diseases, divers and evil; and the best
remedy is for any of them, as they hold opinion, to go often unto
the hothouses, as a manner every man hath one of his own, which he
heateth commonly twice every week, and all the household sweat and
wash themselves therein.

To the White Sea and to the Mouth of the Vistula in the Time of
Alfred the Great, with Notes on the Geography of Europe inserted by
KING ALFRED, In his Translation of Orosius.


One of King Alfred's labours for the enlightenment of his countrymen
was a translation of the "Universal History of Orosius, from the
Creation to the year of our Lord 416." This book had long been in
high repute by the familiar name of "Orosius" among students and
teachers in the monasteries; and it retained its credit so, that
after the invention of printing it was one of the first works put
into type, and appeared in numerous editions. The author was a
Spanish Christian of the fifth century. Born at Tarragona and
educated in Spain, he crossed over to Africa about the year 414, and
received instruction from St. Augustine upon knotty questions of the
origin of the soul and other matters. In Augustine's works are
contained the "Consultation of Orosius with Augustine on the Error
of the Priscillianists and Origenists," and a letter from Augustine
to Orosius against them. Augustine sent Orosius to consult Jerome,
who was in Palestine; and in his letter of introduction said,
"Behold, there has come to me a religious young man, in catholic
peace a brother, in age a son, in rank a co-presbyter, Orosius--of
active talents, ready eloquence, ardent application, longing to be
in God's house a vessel useful for disproving false and destructive
doctrines, which have killed the souls of Spaniards much more
grievously than the barbarian sword their bodies." In Palestine,
towards the latter half of the year 415, Orosius attacked the
Pelagians by writing against them a treatise on Free Will, and
presenting a memorial against them to the Council of Diospolis. It
was at the request of St Augustine that Orosius wrote his History.
The sack of Rome by Alaric having caused the Christians of Rome to
doubt the efficacy of their faith, Augustine, while he himself wrote
his "De Civitate Dei" to show from the history of the Church that
the preaching of the Gospel could not augment the world's misery,
incited Orosius to show the same thing in a compendium of profane
history also. Orosius began his work in the year 410, when
Augustine had got through ten books of his, and he finished it about
the year 416. Like a good old-fashioned controversialist, he made
very light of the argument of terror from the sack of Rome by
Alaric, so representing the event that King Alfred, in his
translation, thus abridged the detail:-

"Alaric, the most Christian and the mildest of kings, sacked Rome
with so little violence, that he ordered no man should be slain, and
that nothing should be taken away or injured that was in the
churches. Soon after that, on the third day, they went out of the
city of their own accord. There was not a single house burnt by
their order."

In translating and adapting this book to the uses of his time, King
Alfred did not trouble himself at all with its old ecclesiastical
character, as what Pope Gelasius I. had called a book written "with
wonderful brevity against heathen perversions. Looking to it
exclusively as a digest of historical and geographical information,
Alfred abridged, omitted, imitated, added, with a single regard to
his purpose of producing a text-book of that class of knowledge.
Omitting the end of the fifth book and the beginning of the sixth,
and so running two books into one, he made the next and last book
the sixth instead of the seventh, as it is in the original.

The "History of Orosius" itself is bald, confused; but it was
enriched and improved by Alfred's addition to the first book of much
new matter, enlarging knowledge of the geography of Europe, which he
calls Germania, north of the Rhine and Danube. Alfred adds also to
the same book geographical narratives taken from the lips of two
travellers. One was Ohthere, a Norwegian, who sailed from
Halgoland, on the coast of Norway, round the North Cape into the
Cwen-Sae, or White Sea, and entered the mouth of the river Dwina,
the voyage ending where there is now Archangel, the most northern of
the Russian seaports. Ohthere afterwards made a second voyage from
Halgoland along the west and south coast of Norway to the Bay of
Christiania, and Sciringeshael, the port of Skerin, or Skien, near
the entrance of the Christiania fjord. He then sailed southward,
and reached in five days the Danish port aet Haedum, the capital
town called Sleswic by the Saxons, but by the Danes Haithaby. The
other traveller was Wulfstan, who sailed in the Baltic, from Slesvig
in Denmark to Frische Haff within the Gulf of Danzig, reaching the
Drausen Sea by Elbing. These voyages were taken from the
travellers' own lips. Of Wulfstan's, the narrative passes at one
time into the form of direct personal narration--"Wulfstan said that
he went . . . that he had . . . And then we had on our left the land
of the Burgundians [Bornholmians], who had their own king. After
the land of the Burgundians we had on our left," &c. The narrative
of the other voyage opens with the sentence, "Ohthere told his lord,
King Alfred." These three additions to "Orosius"--the Description
of Europe, the two voyages of Ohthere, and the voyage of Wulfstan--
may be considered Alfred's own works.

The Description is the king's own account of Europe in his time, and
the only authentic record of the Germanic nations, written by a
contemporary, so early as the ninth century.

Ohthere was a man of great wealth and influence in Norway, as wealth
was there reckoned; for he had 600 reindeer, including six decoy-
deer; but though accounted one of the first men in the land, he had
only twenty horned cattle, twenty sheep, and twenty swine. The
little that he ploughed he ploughed with horses, and his chief
revenue was in tribute of skin and bone from the Finns. The fame of
his voyages attracted to him the attention of King Alfred. He said
that he dwelt "Northmost of all northmen," in Halgoland; and wishing
to find out how far the land lay due north, and whether any man
dwelt north of him--for the sake also of taking the walruses, "which
have very good bone in their teeth; of these teeth they brought some
to the king; and their hides are very good for ship-ropes"--he
sailed northward. Ohthere may have obtained some of his wealth by
whale-fishing. He says that "in his own country is the best whale-
hunting; they are eight-and-forty ells long, and the largest fifty
ells long;" of these he said "that he was one of six who killed
sixty in two days;" meaning, no doubt, that his vessel was one of
six. He relates only what he saw. "The Biarmians," he says, "told
him many stories both about their own land and about the countries
which were around them, but he knew not what was true, because he
did not see it himself."

Wulfstan was perhaps a Jutlander, and his voyage was confined to the
Baltic. Neither his account nor that of Ohthere contradicts the
opinion then held, that Scandinavia was a large island, and the Gulf
of Bothnia or Cwaener Sea flowed into the North Sea.


Translated in 1807 by the Rev. James Ingram, M.A., Professor of
Anglo-Saxon at the University of Oxford.

Now will we describe the geography of Europe, so far, at least, as
our knowledge of it extends. From the river Tanais, westward to the
river Rine (which takes its rise from the Alps and runs directly
north thenceforward on to the arm of the ocean that surrounds
Bryttania), then southward to the river Danube (whose source is near
the river Rine, running afterwards in its course along the confines
of Northern Greece, till it empties itself into the Mediterranean),
and northward even unto the ocean, which men call Cwen-sea; within
these boundaries are many nations; but the whole of this tract of
country is called Germany.

Then to the north of the source of the Danube, and to the east of
the Rine, are the Eastern Franks, and to the south of them are the
Suabians; on the opposite bank of the Danube, and to the south and
east, are the Bavarians, in that part which is called Regnesburh.
Due east from thence are the Bohemians, and to the north-east the
Thyringians, to the north of these are the Old Saxons, to the north-
west are the Frieslanders, and to the west of the Old Saxons is the
mouth of the Elbe, as also Friesland. Hence to the west-north is
that land which is called Angleland, Sealand, and some part of Den-
marc; to the north is Apdrede, and to the east-north the wolds,
which are called the Heath-wolds. Hence eastward is the land of the
Veneti (who are also called Silesae), extending south-west over a
great part of the territory of the Moravians. These Moravians have
to the west the Thyringians and Bohemians, as also part of Bavaria,
and to the south, on the other side of the Danube, is the country of
the Carinthians, lying southward even to the Alps. To the same
mountains also extend the boundaries of the Bavarians and the
Suabians. Thence to the eastward of Carinthia, beyond the waste, is
the land of the Bulgarians. To the east of them is the land of the
Greeks, and to the east of Moravia is Wisle-land; to the east of
that are the Dacae, who were originally a tribe of Goths. To the
north-east of the Moravians are the Dalamensae; east of the
Dalamensians are the Horithi, and north of the Dalamensians are the
Servians; to the west also are the Silesians. To the north of the
Horiti is Mazovia, and north of Mazovia are the Sarmatians, quite to
the Riphaean mountains. To the west of the Southern Danes is the
arm of the ocean that surrounds Britannia, and to the north of them
is the arm of the sea called Ost Sea; to the east and to the north
of them are the Northern Danes, both on the continent and on the
islands; to the east of them are the Afdrede; and to the south is
the mouth of the Elb, with some part of Old Saxony. The Northern
Danes have to the north of them the same arm of the sea called Ost
Sea; to the east of them is the nation of the Estonians, and the
Afdrede to the south. The Estonians have to the north of them the
same arm of the sea, and also the Winedae and Burgundae, and to the
South are the Heath-wolds. The Burgundians have the same arm of the
sea to the west of them, and the Sweons to the north; to the east of
them are the Sarmatians, and to the south the Servians. The Sweons
have to the south of them the same arm of the sea, called Ost Sea;
to the east of them the Sarmatians; and to the north, over the
wastes, is Cwenland; to the west-north of them are the Scride-
Finnas, and to the west the Northmen.

"Ohthere told his lord, King Alfred, that he lived to the north of
all the Northmen. He says that he dwelt on the mainland to the
northward, by the west sea; that the land, however, extends to a
very great length thence onward to the north; but it is all waste,
except in a few places where the Finlanders occasionally resort, for
hunting in the winter, and in the summer for fishing along the sea-
coast. He said that he was determined to find out, on a certain
time, how far this country extended northward, or whether any one
lived to the north of the waste. With this intent he proceeded
northward along the coast, leaving all the way the waste land on the
starboard, and the wide sea on the backboard, for three days. He
was then as far north as the whale-hunters ever go. He then
continued his voyage, steering yet northward, as far as he could
sail within three other days. Then the land began to take a turn to
the eastward, even unto the inland sea, but he knows not how much
farther. He remembers, however, that he stayed there waiting for a
western wind, or a point to the north, and sailed thence eastward by
the land as far as he could in four days. Then he was obliged to
wait for a due north wind, because the land there began to run
southward, quite to the inland sea; he knows not how far. He sailed
thence along the coast southward, as far as he could in five days.
There lay then a great river a long way up in the land, into the
mouth of which they entered, because they durst not proceed beyond
the river from an apprehension of hostilities, for the land was all
inhabited on the other side of the river. Ohthere, however, had not
met with any inhabited land before this since he first set out from
his own home. All the land to his right, during his whole voyage,
was uncultivated and without inhabitants, except a few fishermen,
fowlers, and hunters, all of whom were Finlanders; and he had
nothing but the wide sea on his left all the way. The Biarmians,
indeed, had well cultivated their land; though Ohthere and his crew
durst not enter upon it; but the land of the Torne-Finnas was all
waste, and it was only occasionally inhabited by hunters, and
fishermen, and fowlers.

"The Biarmians told him many stories, both about their own land and
about the other countries around them; but Ohthere knew not how much
truth there was in them, because he had not an opportunity of seeing
with his own eyes. It seemed, however, to him, that the Finlanders
and the Biarmians spoke nearly the same language. The principal
object of his voyage, indeed, was already gained; which was, to
increase the discovery of the land, and on account of the horse-
whales, because they have very beautiful bone in their teeth, some
of which they brought to the king, and their hides are good for
ship-ropes. This sort of whale is much less than the other kinds,
it is not longer commonly than seven ells: but in his own country
(Ohthere says) is the best whale-hunting; there the whales are eight
and forty ells long, and the largest fifty; of these, he said, he
once killed (six in company) sixty in two days. He was a very rich
man in the possession of those animals, in which their principal
wealth consists, namely, such as are naturally wild. He had then,
when he came to seek King Alfred, six hundred deer, all tamed by
himself, and not purchased. They call them reindeer. Of these six
were stall-reins, or decoy deer, which are very valuable amongst the
Finlanders, because they catch the wild deer with them.

"Ohthere himself was amongst the first men in the land, though he
had not more than twenty rother-beasts, twenty sheep, and twenty
swine; and what little he ploughed, he ploughed with horses. The
annual revenue of these people consists chiefly in a certain tribute
which the Finlanders yield them. This tribute is derived from the
skins of animals, feathers of various birds, whalebone, and ship-
ropes, which are made of whales' hides and of seals. Everyone pays
according to his substance; the wealthiest man amongst them pays
only the skins of fifteen marterns, five reindeer skins, one bear's
skin, ten bushels of feathers, a cloak of bear's or otter's skin,
two ship-ropes (each sixty ells long), one made of whale's and the
other of seal's skin.

"Ohthere moreover said that the land of the Northmen was very long
and very narrow; all that is fit either for pasture or ploughing
lies along the sea coast, which, however, is in some parts very
cloddy; along the eastern side are wild moors, extending a long way
up parallel to the cultivated land. The Finlanders inhabit these
moors, and the cultivated land is broadest to the eastward; and,
altogether, the more northward it lies, the more narrow it is.
Eastward it may perhaps be sixty miles broad, in some places
broader; about the middle, thirty miles, or somewhat more; and
northward, Ohthere says (where it is narrowest), it may be only
three miles across from the sea to the moors, which, however, are in
some parts so wide, that a man could scarcely pass over them in two
weeks, though in other parts perhaps in six days. Then parallel
with this land southward is Sweoland, on the other side of the
moors, extending quite to the northward; and running even with the
northern part of it is Cwenaland. The Cwenas sometimes make
incursions against the Northmen over these moors, and sometimes the
Northmen on them; there are very large meres of fresh water beyond
the moors, and the Cwenas carry their ships overland into the meres,
whence they make depredations on the Northmen; they have ships that
are very small and very light.

"Ohthere said that the shire which he inhabited is called Halgoland.
He says that no human being abode in any fixed habitation to the
north of him. There is a port to the south of this land, which is
called Sciringes-heal. Thither he said that a man could not sail in
a month, if he watched in the night, and every day had a fair wind;
and all the while he shall sail along the coast; and on his right
hand first is Island, and then the islands which are between Island
and this land. Then this land continues quite to Sciringes-heal;
and all the way on the left is Norway. To the south of Sciringes-
heal a great sea runs up a vast way into the country, and is so wide
that no man can see across it. (Jutland is opposite on the other
side, and then Sealand.) This sea lies many hundred miles up into
the land. Ohthere further says that he sailed in five days from
Sciringes-heal to that port which men call AEt-Haethum, which stands
between the Winedae, the Saxons, and the Angles, and is subject to
the Danes.

"When Ohthere sailed to this place from Sciringes-heal, Denmark was
on his left, and on his right the wide sea, for three days; and for
the two days before he came to Haethum, on his right hand was
Jutland, Sealand, and many islands; all which lands were inhabited
by the English, before they came hither; and for these two days the
islands which are subject to Denmark were on his left."

"Wulfstan said that he went from Haethum to Truso in seven days and
nights, and that the ship was running under sail all the way.
Weonodland was on his right, and Langland, Laeland, Falster, and
Sconey, on his left, all which land is subject to Denmark. "Then on
our left we had the land of the Burgundians, who have a king to
themselves. Then, after the land of the Burgundians, we had on our
left the lands that have been called from the earliest times
Blekingey, and Meore, and Eowland, and Gotland, all which territory
is subject to the Sweons; and Weonodland was all the way on our
right, as far as Weissel-mouth. The Weissel is a very large river,
and near it lie Witland and Weonodland. Witland belongs to the
people of Eastland; and out of Weonodland flows the river Weissel,
which empties itself afterwards into Estmere. This lake, called
Estmere, is about fifteen miles broad. Then runs the Ilfing east
(of the Weissel) into Estmere, from that lake on the banks of which
stands Truso. These two rivers come out together into Estmere, the
Ilfing east from Eastland, and the Weissel south from Weonodland.
Then the Weissel deprives the Ilfing of its name, and, flowing from
the west part of the lake, at length empties itself northward into
the sea, whence this point is called the Weissel-mouth. This
country called Eastland is very extensive, and there are in it many
towns, and in every town is a king. There is a great quantity of
honey and fish; and even the king and the richest men drink mare's
milk, whilst the poor and the slaves drink mead. There is a vast
deal of war and contention amongst the different tribes of this
nation. There is no ale brewed amongst the Estonians, but they have
mead in profusion.

"There is also this custom with the Estonians, that when anyone dies
the corpse continues unburnt with the relations and friends for at
least a month, sometimes two; and the bodies of kings and
illustrious men, according to their respective wealth, lie sometimes
even for half a year before the corpse is burned, and the body
continues above ground in the house, during which time drinking and
sports are prolonged till the day on which the body is consumed.
Then, when it is carried to the funeral pile, the substance of the
deceased, which remains after these drinking festivities and sports,
is divided into five or six heaps; sometimes into more, according to
the proportion of what he happens to be worth. These heaps are so
disposed that the largest heap shall be about one mile from the
town; and so gradually the smaller at lesser intervals, till all the
wealth is divided, so that the least heap shall be nearest the town
where the corpse lies.

"Then all those are to be summoned together who have the fleetest
horses in the land, for a wager of skill, within the distance of
five or six miles from these heaps; and they all ride a race toward
the substance of the deceased. Then comes the man that has the
winning horse toward the first and largest heap, and so each after
other, till the whole is seized upon. He procures, however, the
least heap who takes that which is nearest the town; and then
everyone rides away with his share, and keeps the whole of it. On
account of this custom fleet horses in that country are wonderfully
dear. When the wealth of the deceased has been thus exhausted, then
they carry out his corpse from the house and burn it, together with
his weapons and clothes; and generally they spend his whole
substance by the long continuance of the body within the house,
together with what they lay in heaps along the road, which the
strangers run for, and take away.

"It is also an established custom with the Estonians that the dead
bodies of every tribe or family shall be burned, and if any man
findeth a single bone unconsumed, they shall be fined to a
considerable amount. These Estonians also have the power of
producing artificial cold; and it is thus the dead body continues so
long above ground without putrefying, on which they produce this
artificial cold; and, though a man should set two vessels full of
ale or of water, they contrive that either shall be completely
frozen over; and this equally the same in the summer as in the

Now will we speak about those parts of Europe that lie to the south
of the river Danube; and first of all, concerning Greece. The sea
which flows along the eastern side of Constantinople (a Grecian
city) is called Propontis. To the north of this Grecian city an arm
of the sea shoots up westward from the Euxine; and to the west by
north the mouths of the river Danube empty themselves south-east
into the Euxine. To the south and west of these mouths are the
Moessians, a tribe of Greeks; to the west of the city are the
Thracians; and to the west also are the Macedonians. To the south
of this city, towards the southern part of that arm of the sea which
is called the Egean, Athens and Corinth are situated. And to the
west by south of Corinth is the land of Achaia, near the
Mediterranean. To the west of Achaia, along the Mediterranean, is
Dalmatia, on the north side of the sea; to the north of Dalmatia are
the boundaries of Bulgaria and Istria. To the south of Istria is
that part of the Mediterranean which is called the Adriatic; to the
west are the Alps; and to the north that desert which is between the
Carinthians and the Bulgarians.

Italy, which is of great length west by north, and also east by
south, is surrounded by the Mediterranean on every side but towards
the west-north. At that end of it lie the Alps, which begin
westward from the Mediterranean, in the Narbonense country, and end
eastward in Dalmatia, near the [Adriatic] sea.

With respect to the territory called Gallia Belgica, to the east of
it is the river Rine, to the south the Alps, to the west by south
the sea called the British Ocean, and to the north, on the other
side of the arm of the ocean, is Britannia. The land to the west of
the river Loire is AEquitania; to the south of AEquitania is some
part of the Narbonense; to the west by south is the territory of
Spain; and to the south the ocean. To the south of the Narbonense
is the Mediterranean, where the Rone empties itself into the sea,
having Provence both on the east and west. Over the Pyrenean wastes
is Ispania citerior, to the west of which, by north, is AEquitania,
and the province of Gascony to the north. Provence has to the north
of it the Alps; to the south of it is the Mediterranean; to the
north-east of it are the Burgundians; and the people of Gascony to
the west.

Spain is triangular, and entirely guarded on the outside by the sea,
either by the great ocean or by the Mediterranean, and also well
guarded within over the land. One of the angles lies south-west
against the island of Gades, the second eastward against the
Narbonense territory, and the third north-west against Braganza, a
town of Gallicia. And against Scotland (i.e., Ireland), over the
arm of the sea, in a straight line with the mouth of the Shannon, is
Ispania ulterior. To the west of it is the ocean; and to the south
and east of it, northward of the Mediterranean, is Ispania citerior;
to the north of which are the lands of Equitania; to the north-east
is the weald of the Pyrenees, to the east the Narbonense, and to the
south the Mediterranean.

With regard to the island Britannia, it is of considerable length to
the north-east, being eight hundred miles long and only two hundred
miles broad. To the south of it, on the other side of the arm of
the sea, is Gallia Belgica; to the west, on the other side of an arm
of the sea, is the island Ibernia, and to the northward the Orkney
Isles. Igbernia, which we call Scotland, is surrounded on every
side with the ocean; and hence, because the rays of the setting sun
strike on it with less interruption than on other countries, the
weather is milder there than it is in Britain. Thence, to the west-
north of Ibernia, is that utmost land called Thila, which is known
to a few men only, on account of its exceeding great distance.

Thus have we now sufficiently described all the landmarks of Europe,
according to their respective situations.


In Memory of a Brother Drowned at Sea.


Sweet Flower! belike one day to have
A place upon thy poet's grave,
I welcome thee once more:
But He, who was on land, at sea,
My Brother, too, in loving thee,
Although he loved more silently,
Sleeps by his native shore.

Ah! hopeful, hopeful was the day
When to that ship he bent his way,
To govern and to guide:
His wish was gained: a little time
Would bring him back in manhood's prime
And free for life, these hills to climb;
With all his wants supplied.

And full of hope day followed day
While that stout Ship at anchor lay
Beside the shores of Wight;
The May had then made all things green;
And, floating there, in pomp serene,
That Ship was goodly to be seen,
His pride and his delight!

Yet then, when called ashore, he sought
The tender peace of rural thought:
In more than happy mood
To your abodes, bright daisy Flowers!
He then would steal at leisure hours,
And loved you glittering in your bowers,
A starry multitude.

But hark the word!--the ship is gone; -
Returns from her long course:- anon
Sets sail:- in season due,
Once more on English earth they stand:
But, when a third time from the land
They parted, sorrow was at hand
For Him and for his crew.

Ill-fated Vessel?--ghastly shock!
- At length delivered from the rock,
The deep she hath regained;
And through the stormy night they steer;
Labouring for life, in hope and fear,
To reach a safer shore--how near,
Yet not to be attained!

"Silence!" the brave Commander cried;
To that calm word a shriek replied,
It was the last death-shriek.
- A few (my soul oft sees that sight)
Survive upon the tall mast's height;
But one dear remnant of the night -
For Him in vain I seek.

Six weeks beneath the moving sea
He lay in slumber quietly;
Unforced by wind or wave
To quit the Ship for which he died,
(All claims of duty satisfied);
And there they found him at her side;
And bore him to the grave.

Vain service! yet not vainly done
For this, if other end were none,
That He, who had been cast
Upon a way of life unmeet
For such a gentle Soul and sweet,
Should find an undisturbed retreat
Near what he loved, at last -

That neighbourhood of grove and field
To Him a resting-place should yield,
A meek man and a brave!
The birds shall sing and ocean make
A mournful murmur for HIS sake;
And Thou, sweet Flower, shalt sleep and wake
Upon his senseless grave.


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