The Discovery of the Source of the Nile
John Hanning Speke

Part 10 out of 11


Kamrasi, in answer, begged I would not be afraid; there was no
occasion for alarm; Bombay would be here shortly. I had promised
to wait patiently for his return, and as soon as he did return, I
would be sent off without one day's delay, for I was not his
slave, that he should use violence upon me. Rumanika's men, too,
would be allowed to go, only that the road was unsafe, and he
feared Rumanika would abuse him if any harm befell them.

29th.--To-day I met Kamrasi at his new reception-palace on this
side the Kafu--taking a Bible to explain all I fancied I knew
about the origin and present condition of the Wahuma branch of
the Ethiopians, beginning with Adam, to show how it was the king
had heard by tradition that at one time the people of his race
were half white and half black. Then, proceeding with the Flood,
I pointed out that the Europeans remained white, retaining
Japhet's blood; whilst the Arabs are tawny, after Shem; and the
African's black, after Ham. And, finally, to show the greatness
of the tribe, I read the 14th chapter of 2d Chronicles, in which
it is written how Zerah, the Ethiopian, with a host of a thousand
thousand, met the Jew Asa with a large army, in the valley of
Zephathah, near Mareshah; adding to it that again, at a much
later date, we find the Ethiopians battling with the Arabs in the
Somali country, and with the Arabs and Portuguese at Omwita
(Mombas)--in all of which places they have taken possession of
certain tracts of land, and left their sons to people it.

To explain the way in which the type or physical features of
people undergo great changes by interbreeding, Mtesa was
instanced as having lost nearly every feature of his Mhuma blood,
but the kings of Uganda having been produced, probably for
several generations running, of Waganda mothers. This amused
Kamrasi greatly, and induced me to inquire how his purity of
blood was maintained--"Was the king of Unyoro chosen, as in
Uganda, haphazard by the chief men--or did the eldest son sit by
succession on the throne?" The reply was, "The brothers fought
for it, and the best man gained the crown."

Kamrasi then began counting the leaves of the Bible, an amusement
that every negro that gets hold of a book indulges in; and,
concluding in his mind that each page or leaf represented one
year of time since the beginning of creation, continued his
labour till one quarter of the way through the book, and then
only shut it up on being told, if he desired to ascertain the
number more closely, he had better count the words.

I begged for my picture-books, which were only lent him at his
request for a few days; and then began a badgering verbal
conflict: he would not return them until I drew others like them;
he would not allow me to go to the Little Luta Nzige, west of
this, until Bombay returned, when he would send me with an army
of spears to lead the way, and my men with their guns behind to
protect the rear. This was for the purpose of making us his
tools in his conflict with his brothers. I complained that he
had, without consulting me, ordered away the men who had been
sent, either to fetch me back to Uganda, or else get powder from
me, although they had orders to carry out their king's desire,
under the threat of being burnt with the fire logs they carried;
and all this Kamrasi had professed to do merely out of respect
for my dignity, as I was no slave, that Mtesa should order me
about. I argued, founding on each particular in succession, that
his conduct throughout was most unjustifiable, and anything but
friendly. He then produced an officer, who was to escort my man
Msalima to Karague, giving him orders to collect the sixty men
required on the way; five of Rumanika's men could go with him,
but five must stop, until other Karague men came to say the road
was safe, when he would send by them the present he had prepared
for Rumanika.

Then, turning to us, he said, "Why have you not brought the
medicine-chest and the saw? We wish to see everything you have
got, though we do not wish to rob you." When these things came
for inspection, he coveted the saw, and discovered there were
more varieties of medicine in the chest than had been given him.
This he was told was not the case, because the papers given him
contained mixed medicines--a little being taken from every
bottle. "But there are no pills; why won't you give us pills?
We have men, women, and children who require pills as well as you
do." We were much annoyed by this dogged begging; and as he
said, "Well, if you won't give my anything, I will go," we at
once rose, hat in hand; when, regretting the hastiness of his
speech, he begged us to be seated again, and renewed his demands.
We told him the road to Gani was the only condition on which we
would part with any more medicine; we had asked leave to go a
hundred times, and that was all we now desired. At last he rose
and walked off in a huff; but, repenting before he reached home,
he sent us a pot of pombe, when, in return, I finished the farce
by sending him a box of pills.

30th.--I gave Msalima a letter in the Kisuahili or coast language
to convey to Rumanika, ordering all my property to be sent here,
his account of the things as they left him to be given to Msalima
to convey to the coast, while I sent him one pound of gunpowder
as a sort of agency fee. Msalima also took a map of all the
countries we had passed, with lunar observations, and a letter to
Rigby, by which he, Baraka, and Uledi would be able to draw their
pay on arrival.

31st.--I sent Frij with a letter to the king, containing an
acknowledgment that, on the arrival of the rear property from
Karague, he would be entitled to half of everything, reserving
the other half for any person I might in future send to take them
from him. He accepted the letter, and put it into his mzungu--
the tin box I had given him. He said he would take every care of
the kit from the time it arrived, and would not touch his share
of it till my deputy arrived. An inhabitant of Chopi reported
that he heard Bombay's gun fire the evening before he left home,
and was rewarded with the present of a cow.

1st.--I purchased a small kitten, Felis serval, from an Unyoro
man, who requested me to give it back to him to eat if it was
likely to die, for it is considered very good food in Unyoro.

Bombay at last arrived with Mabruki in high glee, dressed in
cotton jumpers and drawers, presents given them by Petherick's
outpost. Petherick himself was not there. The journey to and fro
was performed in fourteen days' actual travelling, the rest of
the time being frittered away by the guides. The jemadar of the
guard said he commanded two hundred Turks, and had orders to wait
for me, without any limit as to time, until I should arrive, when
Petherick's name would be pointed out to me cut on a tree; but as
no one in camp could read my letter, they were doubtful whether
we were the party they were looking out for.

They were all armed with elephant-guns, and had killed sixteen
elephants. Petherick had gone down the river eight days'
journey, but was expected to return shortly. Kamrasi would not
see Bombay immediately on his return, but sent him some pombe,
and desired an interview the following day.

2d.--I sent Bombay with a farewell present to Kamrasi, consisting
of one tent, one mosquito-curtain, one roll of bindera or red
cotton cloth, one digester pot, one saw, six copper wires, one
box of beads, containing six varieties of the best sort, and a
request to leave his country. Much pleased with the things,
Kamrasi ordered the tent to be pitched before all his court,
pointed out to them what clever people the white people are,
making iron pots instead of earthen ones. Covetous and never
satisfied, however, instead of returning thanks, he said he was
sure I must have more beads than those I sent him; and, instead
of granting the leave asked for, said he would think about it,
and send the Kamraviona in the evening with his answer. This,
when it came, was anything but satisfactory; for we were required
to stop here until the king should have prepared the people on
the road for our coming, so that they might not be surprised, or
try to molest us on the way. Kamrasi, however, returned the
books of birds and animals, requesting a picture of the king of
Uganda to be drawn for him, and gave us one pot of pombe.

3d.--I sent the picture required, and an angry message to Kamrasi
for breaking his word, as he promised us we should go without a
day's delay; and go we must, for I could neither eat nor sleep
from thinking of my home. His only reply to this was, Bana is
always in a preposterous hurry. He answered, that for our
gratification he had directed a dwarf called Kimenya to be sent
to us, and the Kamraviona should follow after. Kimenya, a little
old man, less than a yard high, called on us with a walking-stick
higher than himself, made his salaam, and sat down very
composedly. He then rose and danced, singing without invitation,
and following it up with queer antics. Lastly, he performed the
tambura, or charging-march, in imitation of Wakugnu, repeating
the same words they use, and ending by a demand for simbi, or
cowrie-shells, modestly saying, "I am a beggar, and want simbi;
if you have not 500 to spare, you must at any rate give me 400."

He then narrated his fortune in life. Born in Chopi, he was sent
for by Kamrasi, who first gave him two women, who died; then
another, who ran away; and, finally, a distorted dwarf like
himself, whom he rejected, because he thought the propagation of
his pigmy breed would not be advantageous to society. Bombay
then marched him back to the palace, with 500 simbi strung in
necklaces round his neck. When these two had gone, the
Kamraviona arrived with two spears, one load of flour, and a pot
of pombe, which he requested me to accept, adding that the spears
were given as it was observed I had accepted some from the king
of Uganda; a shield was still in reserve for me, and spears would
be sent for Grant. Then with regard to my going, Kamrasi must
beg us to have patience until he had sent messengers into Kidi,
requesting the natives there not to molest me on the way, for
they had threatened they would do so, and if they persisted, he
would send us with a force by another route via Ugungu--another
attempt to draw us off to fight against his brothers.

I stormed at this announcement as a breach of faith; said I had
given the king my only tent, my only digester, my only saw, my
only wire, my only mosquito-curtains, and my last of everything,
because he had assured me I should have to pay no more chiefs,
and he would give me the road at once. If he did not intend now
to fulfil his promise, I begged he would take back his spears,
for I would only accept them as a farewell present. The
Kamraviona finding me rather warm, with the usual pertinacious
duplicity of a negro, then said, "Well, let that subject drop,
and consider the present Kamrasi promised you when you gave him
the Uganga" (meaning the watch); "Kamrasi's horn is not ready
yet." This second prevarication completely set my dander up. If
I did not believe in his dangers of the way before, it quite
settled my opinion of the worth of his words now. I therefore
tendered him what might be called the ultimatum to this effect.
There was no sincerity in such haggling; I would not submit to
being told lies by kings or anybody else. He must take back the
spears, or give us the road to-morrow; and unless the Kamraviona
would tell him this and bring me an answer at once, the spears
should not remain in my house during the night. Evidently in
alarm, the Kamraviona, with Kidgwiga and Frij in company to bear
him witness, returned to the palace, telling Kamrasi that he saw
we were in thorough earnest. He extracted a promise that Kamrasi
would have a farewell meeting with us either to-morrow or the
next day, when we should have a large escort to Petherick's
boats, and the men would be able to bring back anything that he
wanted; but he could not let us go without a parting interview,
such as we had at Uganda with Mtesa.

The deputation, delighted with their success and the manner in
which it was effected, hurried back to me at once, and said they
were so frightened themselves that they would have skulked away
to their homes and not come near me if they could not have
arranged matters to my satisfaction. Kamrasi would not believe I
had threatened to turn out his spears until Frij testified to
their statements; and he then said, "Let Bana keep the spears and
drink the pombe, for I would not wish him to be a prisoner
against his will." Bombay, after taking back the dwarf, met one
of N'yamasore's officers, just arrived from Uganda on some
important business, and upbraided Mtesa for not having carried
out my instructions. The officer in turn tried to defend Mtesa's
conduct by saying he had given the deserters seventy cows and
four women, as well as orders to join us quickly; but they had
been delayed on the road, because wherever they went they
plundered, and no one liked their company. Had we returned to
Uganda, Mtesa would have given us the road through Masai, which,
in my opinion, is nearer for us than this one.

This officer had been wishing to see us as much as we had been to
see him; but Kamrasi would not allow him to get access to us, for
fear, it was said, lest the Waganda should know where we were
hidden, and enable Mtesa to send an army to come and snatch us
away. As the officer said he would deliver any message I might
wish to send to Uganda, I folded a visiting-card as a letter to
the queen-dowager, intimating that I wished the two men whom I
sent back to Mtesa to be forwarded on to Karague; but desired
that the remainder, who deserted their master in difficulty,
should be placed on an island of the N'yanza to live in exile
until some other Englishman should come to release them; that
their arms should be taken from them and kept in the palace. I
said further, that should Mtesa act up to my desires, I would
then know he was my friend, and other white men would not fear to
enter Uganda; but if he acted otherwise, they would fear lest he
should imprison them, or seize their property of their men. If
these deserters escaped punishment, no white men would ever dare
trust their lives with such men again. The officer said he
should be afraid to deliver such a message to Mtesa direct; but
he certainly would tell the queen every word of it, which would
be even more efficacious.

4th.--I bullied Kamrasi by telling him we must go with this moon,
for the benefit of its light whilst crossing the Kidi wilderness;
as if we did not reach the vessels in time for seasonable
departure down the Nile, we should have to wait another year for
their return from Khartum. "What!" said Kamrasi, "does Bana
forget my promised appointment that I would either see him to-day
or to-morrow? I cannot do so to-day, and therefore to-morrow we
will certainly meet and bid good-bye." The Gani men, who came
with Bombay, said they would escort us to their country,
although, as a rule, they never cross the Kidi wilderness above
once in two years, from fear of the hunting natives, who make
gave of everybody and everything they see; in other words, they
seize strangers, plunder them, and sell them as slaves. To cross
that tract, the dry season is the best, when all the grass is
burnt down, or from the middle of December to the end of March.
I gave them a cow, and they at once killed it, and, sitting down,
commenced eating her flesh raw, out of choice.

5th.--The Kamraviona came to inform us that the king was ready
for the great interview, where we could both speak what we had at
heart, for as yet he had only heard what our servants had to say;
and there was a supplement to the message, of the usual kind,
that he would like a present of a pencil. The pencil was sent in
the first place, because we did not like talking about trifles
when we visited great kings.

The interview followed. It was opened on our side by our saying
we had enjoyed his hospitality a great number of days, and wished
to go to our homes; should be have any message to send to the
great Queen of England, we should be happy to convey it. A long
yarn then emanated from the throne. He defended his over-
cautiousness when admitting us into Unyoro. It was caused at
first by wicked men who did not wish us to visit him; he
subsequently saw through their representations, and now was very
pleased with us as he found us. Of course he could not tie us
down to stopping here against our wish, but, for safety's sake,
he would like us to stop a little longer, until he could send
messengers ahead, requesting the wild men in Kidi not to molest
us. That state trick failing to frighten and stop us, he tried
another, by saying, when we departed, he hoped we would leave two
men with guns behind, to occupy our present camp, and so delude
the people into the belief that merely a party of their
followers, and not the white men themselves, had left his house,
for the purpose of spreading terror in the minds of the people we
might meet, who, not knowing the number of men behind, would
naturally conclude there was a large reserve force ready to
release us in case of necessity.

This foxy speech was too transparent to require one moment's
reflection. In a country where men were property, the fate of
one or two left behind was obvious; and had we doubted that his
object was to get possession of them, his next words would have
sufficiently revealed it. He said, "As you gave men to Mtesa,
why would you refuse them to me?" but was checkmated on being
told, "Should any of those men who deserted us in this country
ever reach their homes, they will all be hung for breaking their
allegiance or oath." "Well," says the king, "I have acceded to
everything you have to say; and the day after to-morrow, when I
shall have had time to collect men to go with you, and selected
the two princes you have promised to educate, we will meet again
and say good-bye; but you must give me a gun and some more
medicine, as well as the powder and ball you promised after
reaching the vessels." This was all acquiesced in, and we wished
to take his portrait, but he would not have it done on any
consideration. The Kamraviona and Kidgwiga followed us home, and
told Bombay the king did not wish us to leave till next moon, and
then he would like us to fight his brothers on the way. This
message, sent in such an underhand manner after the meeting,
Bombay failed to deliver, telling them he should be afraid to do

6th.--The Kamraviona was sent to us with four loads of fish and a
request for ammunition, notwithstanding everything asked for
yesterday had been refused until we reached the vessels.
"Confound Kamrasi!" was the reply; "does he think we came here to
trick kings that he doubts our words? We came to open the road;
and, as sure as we wish it, we will send him everything that has
been promised. Why should he doubt our word more than anybody
else? We are not accustomed to be treated in this manner, and
must beg he won't insult us any more. Then about fighting his
brothers, we have already given answer that we never fight with
black men; and should the king persist in it, we will never take
another thing from his hands. The boys shall not go to England,
neither will any other white men come this way." The Kamraviona
made the following answer:-- "But there are two more things the
king wishes to know about: he has asked the question before, but
forgotten the answers. Is there any medicine for women or
children which will prevent the offspring from dying shortly
after birth?--for it is a common infirmity in this country with
some women, that all their children die before they are able to
walk, whilst others never lose a child. The other matter of
inquiry was, What medicine will attach all subjects to their
king?-- for Kamrasi wants some of that most particularly." I
answered, "Knowledge of good government, attended with wisdom and
justice, is all the medicine we know of; and this his boys can
best learn in England, and instruct him in when they return."

7th.--We went to meet Kamrasi at his Kafu palace to bid good-bye.
After all the huckstering and begging with which he had tormented
us, the state he chose to assume on this occasion was very
ludicrous. He sat with an air of the most solemn dignity, upon
his throne of skins, regarding us like mere slaves, and asking
what things we intended to send to him. On being told we did not
like being repeatedly reminded of our promises, he came down a
little from his dignity, saying, "And what answer have you about
the business on the island?"--meaning the request to fight his
brothers. That, of course, could not be listened to, as it was
against the principle of our country. Grant's rings were then
espied, and begged for, but without success. We told him it was
highly improper to beg for everything he saw, and if he persisted
in it, no one would ever dare to come near him again.

Then, to change the subject, we begged K'yengo's men might be
allowed to go as far as Gani with us; but no reply was given,
until the question was put again, with a request that the reason
might be told us for his not wishing it, as we saw great benefit
would be derived to Unyoro, as the Wanyamuezi instead of trading
merely with Karague and Zanzibar, would bring their ivory through
this country and barter it, thus converting Unyoro into a great
commercial country; when Kamrasi said, "We don't want any more
ivory in Unyoro; for the tusks are already as numerous as grass."
Kidgwiga was then appointed to receive all the things we were to
send back from Gani; our departure was fixed for the 9th; and the
king walked away as coldly as he came, whilst we felt as jolly as
birds released from a cage.

Floating islands of grass were seen going down the Kafu,
reminding us of the stories told at Kaze by Musa Mzuri, of the
violent manner in which, at certain season, the N'yanza was said
to rise and rush with such velocity that islands were uprooted
and carried away. In the evening a pot of pombe was brought,
when the man in charge, half-drunk, amused us with frantic
charges, as if he were fighting with his spear; and after
settling the supposed enemy, he delighted in tramping him under
foot, spearing him repeatedly through and through, then wiping
the blade of the spear in the grass, and finally polishing it on
this tufty head, when, with a grunt of satisfaction, he
shouldered arms and walked away a hero.

8th.--As the king seemed entirely to disregard our comfort on the
journey, we made a request for cows, butter, and coffee, in
answer to which we only got ten cows, the other things not being
procurable without delay. Twenty-four men were appointed us to
escort us and bring back our presents from Gani, which were to
be--six carbines, with a magazine of ammunition, a large brass or
iron water-pot, a hair-brush, lucifers, a dinner-knife, and any
other things procurable that had never been seen in Unyoro.

Two orphan boys, seized by the king as slaves, were brought for
education in England; but as they were both of the common negro
breed, with nothing attractive about them, and such as no one
could love but their mothers, we rejected them, fearing lest no
English boys would care to play with them, and told Kamrasi that
his offspring only could play with our children, and unless I got
some princes of that interesting breed, no one would ever
undertake to teach children brought from this country. The king
was very much disappointed at this announcement; said they were
his adopted children, and the only ones he could part with, for
his own boys were mere balls of fat, and too small to leave home.

Chapter XIX

The March to Madi

Sail down the Kafu--The Navigable Nile--Fishing and Sporting
Population--The Scenery on the River--An Inhospitable Governor--
Karuma Falls--Native Superstitions--Thieveries--Hospitable
Reception at Koki by Chongi.

After giving Kamrasi a sketching-stool, we dropped down the Kafu
two miles in a canoe, in order that the common people might not
see us; for the exclusive king would not allow any eyes but his
won to be indulged with the extraordinary sight of white men in
Unyoro! The palace side of the river, however, as we paddled
away, was thronged with anxious spectators amongst whom the most
conspicuous was the king's favourite nurse. Dr K'yengo's men
were very anxious to accompany us, even telling the king, if he
would allow the road to be opened to their countrymen, all would
hongo, or pay customs-duty to him; but the close, narrow-minded
king could not be persuaded. Bombay here told us Kamrasi at the
last moment wished to give me some women and ivory; and when told
we never accepted anything of that sort, wished to give them to
my head servants; but this being contrary to standing orders
also, he said he would smuggle them down to the boats for Bombay
in such a manner that I should not find out.

We were not expected to march again, but being anxious myself to
see more of the river, before starting, I obtained leave to go by
boat as far as the river was navigable, sending our cattle by
land. To this concession was accompanied a request for a few more
gun-caps, and liberty was given us to seize any pombe which might
be found coming on the river in boats, for the supplies to the
palace all come in this manner. We then took boat again, an
immense canoe, and, after going a short distance, emerged from
the Kafu, and found ourselves on what at first appeared a long
lake, averaging from two hundred at first to one thousand yards
broad before the day's work was out; but this was the Nile again,
navigable in this way from Urondogani.

Both sides were fringed with the huge papyrus rush. The left one
was low and swampy, whilst the right one--in which the Kidi
people and Wanyoro occasionally hunt--rose from the water in a
gently sloping bank, covered with trees and beautiful convolvuli,
which hung in festoons. Floating islands, composed of rush,
grass, and ferns, were continually in motion, working their way
slowly down the stream, and proving to us that the Nile was in
full flood. On one occasion we saw hippopotami, which our men
said came to the surface because we had domestic fowls on board,
supposing them to have an antipathy to that bird. Boats there
were, which the sailors gave chase to; but, as they had no
liquor, they were allowed to go their way, and the sailors,
instead, set to lifting baskets and taking fish from the snares
which fisherman, who live in small huts amongst the rushes, had
laid for themselves.

After arrival, as we found the boatmen wished to make off,
instead of carrying out their king's orders to take us to the
waterfall, we seized all the paddles, and kept their tongues
quiet by giving them a cow to eat. The overland route, by which
Kidgwiga and the cattle went, was not so interesting, by all
accounts, as the river one; for they walked the whole way through
marshy ground, and crossed one drain in boats, where some savages
struggled to plunder our men of their goats.

With a great deal of difficulty, and after hours of delay, we
managed to get under way with two boats besides the original one;
and, after an hour and a half's paddling in the laziest manner
possible, the men seized two pots of pombe and pulled in to Koki,
guided by a king's messenger, who said this was one of the places
appointed by order to pick up recruits for the force which was to
take us to Gani. We found, however, nothing but loss and
disappointment--one calf stolen, and five goats nearly so.
Fortunately, the thief who attempted to run off with the goats
was taken by my men in the act, tied with his hands painfully
tight behind his back, and left, with his face painted white,
till midnight, when his comrades stole into Bombay's hut and
released him. After all these annoyances, the chief officer of
the place offered us a present of a goat, but was sent to the
right-about in scorn. How could he be countenanced as a friend
when the men under him steal from us?

The big boat gave us the slip, floating away and leaving its
paddles behind. To supply its place, we took six small boats,
turning my men into sailors, and going as we liked. The river
still continued beautiful; but after paddling three hours we
found it bend considerably, and narrow to two hundred yards, the
average depth being from two to three fathoms. At the fourth
hour, imagining our cattle to be far behind, we pulled in, and
walked up a well-cultivated hill to Yaragonjo's, the governor of
these parts. The guide, however, on first sighting his thorn-
fenced cluster of huts, regarding it apparently with the awe and
deference due to a palace, shrank from advancing, and merely
pointed, till he was forced on, and in the next minute we found
ourselves confronted with the heads of the establishment. The
father of the house, surprised at our unexpected manner of
entrance--imagining, probably, we were the king's sorcerers, in
consequence of our hats, sent to fight "the brothers"--without
saying a word, quietly beckoned us to follow him out of the gate
by the same way as we came. Preferring, however, to have a
little talk where we were, we remained.

The eldest son, a fine young man considerably above six feet
high, with large gashes on his body received in war during late
skirmishes with the refractory brothers, now came in, did the
honours, and, on hearing of the importance of his visitors,
directed us to some huts a little distance off, where we could
rest for the night, for there was no accommodation for such a
large party in the palace. The red hill we were now on, with
plantain-gardens, fine huts neatly kept, and dense grasses
covering the country, reminded us of our residence in Uganda.
The people seemed of a decidedly sporting order, for they kept
hippopotamus-harpoons, attached to strong ropes with trimmers of
pith wood, in their huts; and, outside, trophies of their toil in
the shape of a pile of heads, consisting of those of buffalo and
hippopotami. The women, anything but pretty, wore their mbugu
cut into two flounces, fastened with a drawing-string round the
waist; and, in place of stockings, they bound strings of small
iron beads, kept bright and shining, carefully up the leg from
the ankle to the bottom of the calf.

Kidgwiga with our cattle arrived in the morning. A bundle of
cartridges, stolen from one of the men's pouches, which we knew
could only have been done by some comrade, was discovered by
stopping the rations of flesh. The guilty person, to save
detection, threw it on the road, and allowed some of the natives
to pick it up. Strange as it may appear, the only motive for
this petty theft was the hope of being able to sell the
cartridges for a trifle at Gani. Yaragonjo brought us a present
of a goat and plantains. He was sorry he sent us back yesterday
from his house; and invited us to change ground to another
village close by, where he would make arrangements for our
receiving other boats, as the ones we had in possession must go
back. Presuming this to be a very fair proposition, and thinking
we would only have to walk across an elbow of land where the
river bends considerably, we gave him a return-present of beads,
and did as we were bid; but, after moving, it was obvious we had
been sold. We had lost our former boats, and no others were near
us; therefore, feeling angry with Yaragonjo, I walked back to his
palace, taking the presented goat with me, as I knew that would
touch the savage in the most tender part; then flaring up with
the officer for treating the king's orders with contempt, as well
as his guests, by sending us into the jungles like a pack of
thieves, whose riddance from his presence was obviously his only
intent, I gave him his goat again, and said I would have nothing
more to say to him, for I should look to the king for redress.

This frightened him to such an extent that he immediately
produced another and finer goat, which he begged me to accept,
promising to convey all my traps to the next governor's, where
there would be no doubt about our getting boats. He did not
intend to deceive us, but committed an error in not informing us
he had no boats of his own; and, to show his earnestness,
accompanied us to the camp. Here I found the missing calf taken
at Koki, and a large deputation of natives awaiting our arrival.
They told me that the Koki governor had taken such fright in
consequence of my anger when I refused his proffered goat, that
he had traced the calf back to Kitwara, and now wished to take
Kidgwiga a prisoner to Kamrasi's for having seized five cows of
his, and a woman from another governor. As yet I had not heard of
this piece of rough justice; and, on inquiry, found out that he
had been compelled to do as he had done, because those officers,
on finding we had gone ahead in boats would not produce the
complement of men required of them by the king's orders for
escorting us to Gani; but now they sent the men, the woman and
cows could not be returned, as they had been sent overland by the
ordinary route to the ferry on the Nile.

Of course we would not listen to this reference for justice with
Kamrasi, as the woman and cows were still all alive; commended
Kidgwiga for carrying out his orders so well, and told the
officers they had merited their punishment--as how could the
affairs of government be carried on, when subordinate officers
refused immediate compliance? The submkungu of Northern Gueni,
Kasoro, now proffered a goat and plantains, and everything was
settled for the day.

With a full complement of porters, travelling six miles through
cultivation and jungle, we reached the headquarters of governor
Kaeru, where all the porters threw down their loads and bolted,
though we were still two miles from the post. We inquired for
the boats at once, but were told they were some distance off, and
we must wait here for the night. Four pots of pombe were sent
us, and Kaeru thought we would be satisfied and conform. We
suspected, however, that there was some trick at the bottom of
all; so, refusing the liquor, we said, with proper emphasis,
"Unless we are forwarded to the boats at once, and get them on
the following morning, we cannot think of receiving presents from
any one." This served our purpose, for a fresh set of porters was
found like magic, and traps, pombe, and all together, were
forwarded to the journey's end--a snug batch of huts imbedded in
large plantain cultivation surrounded by jungle, and obviously
near the river, as numerous huge harpoons, intended for striking
hippopotami, were suspended from the roof. Kaeru here presented
us with a goat, and promised the boats in the morning.

After fighting for the boats, we still had to wait the day for
Kidgwiga and his men, who said it was all very well our pushing
ahead, indifferent as to whether men were enlisted or not, but he
had to prepare for the future also, as he could never recross the
Kidi wilderness by himself; he must have a sufficient number of
men to form his escort, and these were now grinding corn for the
journey. Numerous visitors called on us here, and consequently
our picture-books were in great request. We gave Kaeru some

After walking two miles to the boats, we entered the district of
Chopi, subject to Unyoro, and went down the river, keeping the
Kikunguru cone in view. On arrival at camp, Viarwanjo, the
officer of the district, a very smart fellow, arrived with a
large escort of spearmen, presented pombe, ordered fowls to be
seized for us, and promised one boat in the morning, for he had
no more disposable, and even that one he felt anxious about lest
the men on ahead should seize it.

I gave Viarwanjo some beads, and dropped down the river in his
only wretched little canoe--he, with Grant and the traps, going
overland. I caught a fever, and so spent the night.

Here I halted to please Magamba, the governor, who is a relation
of the king. He called in great state, presented a cow and
pombe, was much pleased with the picture-books, and wished to
feast his eyes on all the wonders in the hut. He was very
communicative, also, as far as his limited knowledge permitted.
He said the people are only a sub-tribe of the Madi; and the
reason why the right bank of the river is preferred to the left
for travelling is, that Rionga, who lives down the river, is
always on the look-out for Kamrasi's allies, with a view to kill
them. Magamba also, on being questioned, told us about Ururi, a
province of Unyoro, under the jurisdiction of Kimerziri, a noted
governor, who covers his children with bead ornaments, and throws
them into the N'yanza, to prove their identity as his own true
offspring; for should they sink, it stands to reason some other
person must be their father; but should they float, then he
recovers them. One of Kamrasi's cousins, Kaoroti, with his chief
officer, called on us, presenting five fowls as an honorarium.
He had little to say, but begged for medicine, and when given
some in a liquid state, said his sub would like some also; then
Kidgwiga's wife, who was left behind, must have some; and as
pills were given for her, the two men must have dry medicine too,
to take home with them. Severe drain as this was on the
medicine-chest, Magamba and his wife must have both wet and dry;
and even others put in a claim, but were told they were too
healthy to require physicking. Many Kidi men, dressed as in the
woodcut, crossed the river to visit Kamrasi; they could not,
however, pass us without satisfying their curiosity with a look.
Usually these men despise clothes, and never deign to put any
covering on except out of respect, when visiting Kamrasi. Their
"sou'-wester"-shaped wigs are made of other men's hair, as the
negro hair will not grow long enough. A message came from Ukero,
the governor-general of Chopi, to request we would not go down
the river in boats to-morrow, lest the Chopi ferrymen at the
falls should take fright at our strange appearance, paddle
precipitately across the river, hide their boats, and be seen no

We started, leaving all the traps and men to follow, and made
this place in a stride, as a whisper warned me that Kamrasi's
officers, who are as thick as thieves about here, had made up
their minds to keep us each one day at his abode, and show us
"hospitality." Such was the case, for they all tried their powers
of persuasion, which failing, they took the alternative of making
my men all drunk, and sending to camp sundry pots of pombe. The
ground on the line of march was highly cultivated, and
intersected by a deep ravine of running water, whose sundry
branches made the surface very irregular. The sand-paper tree,
whose leaves resemble a cat's tongue in roughness, and which is
used in Uganda for polishing their clubs and spear-handles, was
conspicuous; but at the end of the journey only was there
anything of much interest to be seen. There suddenly, in a deep
ravine one hundred yards below us, the formerly placid river, up
which vessels of moderate size might steam two or three abreast,
was now changed into a turbulent torrent. Beyond lay the land of
Kidi, a forest of mimosa trees, rising gently away from the water
in soft clouds of green. This, the governor of the place, Kija,
described as a sporting-field, where elephants, hippopotami, and
buffalo are hunted by the occupants of both sides of the river.
The elephant is killed with a new kind of spear, with a double-
edged blade a yard long, and a handle which, weighted in any way
most easy, is pear-shaped.

With these instruments in their hands, some men climb into trees
and wait for the herd to pass, whilst others drive them under.
The hippopotami, however, are not hunted, but snared with lunda,
the common tripping-trap with spike-drop, which is placed in the
runs of this animal, described by every South African traveller,
and generally known as far as the Hametic language is spread. The
Karuma Falls, if such they may be called, are a mere sluice or
rush of water between high syenitic stones, falling in a long
slope down a ten-feet drop. There are others of minor
importance, and one within ear-sound, down the river, said to be
very grand.

The name given to the Karuma Falls arose from the absurd belief
that Karuma, the agent or familiar of a certain great spirit,
placed the stones that break the waters in the river, and, for so
doing, was applauded by his master, who, to reward his services
by an appropriate distinction, allowed the stones to be called
Karuma. Near this is a tree which contains a spirit whose
attributes for gratifying the powers and pleasures of either men
or women who summon its influence in the form appropriate to
each, appear to be almost identical with that of Mahadeo's Ligna
in India.

20th.--We halted for the men to collect and lay in a store of
food for the passage of the Kidi wilderness. Presents of fish,
caught in baskets, were sent us by Kija. They were not bad
eating, though all ground animals of the lowest order. At the
Grand Falls below this, Kidgwiga informs us, the king had the
heads of one hundred men, prisoners taken in war against Rionga,
cut off and thrown into the river.

21st and 22d.--The governor, who would not let us go until we saw
him, called on the 22d with a large retinue, attended by a
harpist, and bringing a present of one cow, two loads flour, and
three pots of pombe. He expected a chair to sit upon, and got a
box, as at home he has a throne only a little inferior to
Kamrasi's. He was very generous to Bombay on his former journey
to Gani; and then said he thought the white men were all flocking
this way to retake their lost country; for tradition recorded
that the Wahuma were once half-black and half-white, with half
the hair straight and the other half curly; and how was this to
be accounted for, unless the country formerly belonged to white
men with straight hair, but was subsequently taken by black men?
We relieved his apprehensions by telling him his ancestors were
formerly all white, with straight hair, and lived in a country
beyond the salt sea, till they crossed that sea, took possession
of Abyssinia, and are now generally known by the name of Hubshies
and Gallas; but neither of these names was known to him.

On the east, beyond Kidi, he only knew of one clan of Wahuma, a
people who subsist entirely on meat and milk. The sportsmen of
this country, like the Wanyamuezi, plant a convolvulus of
extraordinary size by the side of their huts, and pile the jaw-
bones and horns of their spoils before, as a means of bringing
good-luck. This same flower, held in the hand when a man is
searching for anything that he has lost, will certainly bring him
to the missing treasure. In the evening, Kidgwiga, at the head
of his brave army, made one of their theatrical charges on "Bana"
with spear and shield, swearing they would never desert him on
the march, but would die to a man if it were necessary; and if
they deserted him, then might they be deprived of their heads, or
of other personal possessions not much less valuable.

Just as we were ready for crossing the river, a line of Kidi men
was descried filing through the jungle on the opposite side,
making their way for a new-moon visit to Rionga, who occasionally
leads them into battle against Ukero. The last time they fought,
two men only were killed on Kamrasi's side, whilst nine fell on
Rionga's. There was little done besides crossing, for the last
cow was brought across as sunset--the ferrying-toll for the whole
being one cow, besides a present of beads to the head officer.
Kidgwiga's party sacrificed two kids, one on either side the
river, flaying them with one long cut each down their breasts and
bellies. These animals were then, spread-eagle fashion, laid on
their backs upon grass and twigs, to be steeped over by the
travellers, that their journey might be prosperous; and the spot
selected for the ordeal was chosen in deference to the Mzimu, or
spirit--a sort of wizard or ecclesiastical patriarch, whose
functions were devoted to the falls.

After a soaking night, we were kept waiting till noon for the
forty porters ordered by Kamrasi, to carry our property to the
vessels wherever they might be. Only twenty-five men arrived,
notwithstanding the wife and one slave belonging to a local
officer, who would not supply the men required of him, were
seized and confiscated by Ukero, of Wire. We now mustered twenty
Wanguana, twenty-five country porters, and thirty-one of
Kidgwiga's "children"--making a total, with ourselves, of
seventy-eight souls. By a late arrival a message came from
Kamrasi. Its import was, that we must defer the march, as it was
reported the refractory brother Rionga harboured designs of
molesting us on the way, and therefore the king conceived it
prudent to clear the road by first fighting him. Without heeding
this cunning advice, we made a short march across swamps, and
through thick jungle and long grasses, which proved anything but
pleasant--wet and labouring hard all the way.

It was a rainy day, and we had still to toil on fighting with the
grasses. We marched up the wet margin of swamp all day, crossing
the water at a fork near the end. The same jungle prevails on
all sides, excluding all view; and the only signs of man's
existence in these wilds lay in the meagre path, which is often
lost, and an occasional hut or two, the temporary residence of
the sporting Kidi people.

After toiling five miles through the same terrible grasses, and
crossing swamp after swamp, we were at last rewarded by a
striking view. The jungles had thinned; we found ourselves
unexpectedly standing on the edge of a plateau, on the west of
which, for distance interminable, lay apparently a low flat
country of grass, yellowed by the sun, with a few trees or shrubs
only thinly scattered over the surface; while, from fifteen to
twenty miles in the rear, bearing south by west, stood
conspicuously the hill of Kisuga, said to be situated in Chopi,
not far from the refractory brothers. But this view was only for
the moment; again we dived into the grasses and forced our way
along. Presently elephants were seen, also buffalo; and the
guide, to make the journey propitious, plucked a twig, denuded it
of its leaves and branches, waved it like a wand up the line of
march, muttered some unintelligible words to himself, broke it in
twain, and threw the separated bits on either side of the path.

Immediately after starting, the guide ran up on an ant-hill and
pointed out to us all the glories of the country round. In our
rear we could see back upon Wire and the hill of Kisuga; to the
west were the same low plains of grass; east and by south, the
jungles of Kidi; and to the northward, over downs of grass, the
tops of some hills, which marked the neighbouring village of
Koki, which we were making for. Its appearance in the distance
warned us that we were closing on the habitations of men, and we
were told that Bombay had drunk pombe there. Then plunging
through grass again over our heads, and crossing constant swamps,
we arrived at a stream which drains all these lands to westward,
and rested a while that the men might bathe, and also that they
might set fire to the grass as a telegraph to the settlement of
Koko, to apprise the people of our advance, and be ready with
their pombe ere our arrival. Shortly after, towards the close of
the day's work, as a solitary buffalo was seen grazing by a
brook, I put a bullet through him, and allowed the savages the
pleasure of despatching him in their own wild fashion with

It was a sight quite worthy of a little delay. No sooner was it
observed that the huge beast could not retire, than, with
springing bounds, the men, all spear in hand, as if advancing on
an enemy, went top speed at him, over rise and fall alike, till,
as they neared the maddened bull, he instinctively advanced to
meet his assailants with the best charge his exhausted body could
muster up. Wind, however, failed him soon; he knew his
disadvantage, and tried to hide by plunging in the water,--the
worst policy he could have pursued, for the men from the bank
above him soon covered him with bristling spears, and gained
their victory. Now, what was to be done with this huge carcass?
No one could be induced to leave it. A cow was ordered as a bribe
on reaching camp; but no, the buffalo was bigger than a cow, and
must be quartered on the spot; so, to gain our object, we went
ahead and left the rear men to follow, thus saving a cow in
rations, for we required to slaughter one every day.

By dint of hard perseverance we accomplished ten miles over the
same downs of tall grass with occasional swamps. We saw a herd
of hartebeest, and reached at night a place within easy run of
Koki in Gani.

The weather had now become fine. At length we reached the
habitations of men--a collection of conical huts on the ridge of
a small chain of granitic hills lying north-west. As we
approached the southern extremity of this chain, knots of naked
men, perched like monkeys on the granite blocks were anxiously
awaiting our arrival. The guides, following the usages of the
country, instead of allowing us to mount the hill and look out
for accommodation at once, desired us to halt, and sent on a
messenger to inform Chongi, the governor-general, that we were
visitors from Kamrasi, who desired he would take care of us and
forward us to our brothers. This Mercury brought forth a hearty
welcome; for Chongi had been appointed governor by Kamrasi of
this district, which appears to have been the extreme northern
limit of the originally vast kingdom of Kittara. All the elite
of the place, covered with war-paints, and dressed, so far as
their nakedness was covered at all, like clowns in a fair,
charging down the hill full tilt with their spears, and, after
performing their customary evolutions, mingled with our men, and
invited us up the hill, where we no sooner arrived than Chongi, a
very old man, attended by his familiar, advanced to receive us--
one holding a white hen, the other a small gourd of pombe and a
little twig.

Chongi gave us all a friendly harangue by way of greeting; and
taking the fowl by one leg, swayed it to and fro close to the
ground in front of his assembled visitors. After this ceremony
had been also repeated by the familiar, Chongi then took the
gourd and twig, and sprinkled the contents all over us; retired
to the Uganga, or magic house--a very diminutive hut--sprinkled
pombe over it; and, finally, spreading a cow-skin under a tree,
bade us sit, and gave us a jorum of pombe, making many apologies
that he could not show us more hospitality, as famine had reduced
his stores. What politeness in the midst of such barbarism!!!
Nowhere had we seen such naked creatures, whose sole dress
consisted of bead, iron, or brass ornaments, with some feathers
or cowrie-beads on the head. Even the women contented themselves
with a few fibres hung like tails before and behind. Some of our
men who had seen the Watuta in Utambara, declared these savages
to resemble them in every particular, save one small specialty in
their costume, alluded to in the description of the Zulu Kafir's
dress. The hair of the men was dressed in the same fantastic
fashion, and the women placed half-gourds over the baby as it
rode on its mother's back. They also, like the Kidi people, whom
they much fear, carry diminutive stools to sit upon wherever they

Their habitat extends from this to the Asua river, whilst the
Madi occupy all the country west of this meridian to the Nile,
which is far beyond sight. The villages are composed of little
conical huts of grass, on a framework of bamboo raised above low
mud walls. There are no sultans here of any consequence, each
village appointing its own chief. The granitic hills, like those
of Unyamuezi, are extremely pretty, and clad with trees,
contrasting strangely with the grassy downs of indefinite extend
around, which give the place, when compared with the people, the
appearance of a paradise within the infernal regions. From the
site of Koki we saw the hills behind which, according to Bombay,
Petherick was situated with his vessels; and we also saw a nearer
hill, behind which his advanced post of elephant-hunters were
waiting our arrival.

I tried to ascertain if there were any prefixes, as in the South
African dialects, by which one might determine the difference
between the people and the country; but I was assured that both
here and in the adjacent countries these people saw Chopi, Kidi,
Gani, Madi, Bari, alike for person and place, though Jo in their
language is the equivalent for Wa in South Africa, and Dano takes
the place of Mtu. All the words and system of language were
wholly changed-- as for example, Poko poko wingi bongo, means "we
do not understand"; Mazi, "fire"; Pi, "water"; Pe, "there is
none; Bugra, "cow." In sound, the language of these people
resembles that of the Tibet Tartars. Chongi considers himself
the greatest man in the country, and of noble descent, his great-
grandfather having been a Mhuma, born at Ururi, in Unyoro, and
appointed by the then reigning king to rule over this country,
and keep the Kidi people in check.

30th.--We halted at the earnest solicitation of Chongi, as well
as of the Chopi porters, who said they required a day to lay in
grain, as the Wichwezi, or mendicant sorcerers--for so they
thought fit to designate Petherick's elephant-hunters--had eaten
up the country all about them, and those who went before with
Bombay to visit their camp could get no food.

1st.--We halted again at the request of all parties, and much to
the delight of old Chongi, who supplied us with abundant pombe,
promised a cow, that we should not be put to any extra expense by
stopping, and said that without fail he would furnish us with
guides who knew a short cut across country, by which we might
reach the Wichwesi camp in one march, instead of going by the
circuitous route which Bombay formerly took. The cow, however,
never came, as the old man did not intend to give his own, and
his officers refused to obey his orders in giving one of theirs.

We left Koki with difficulty, in consequence of the Chopi porters
refusing to carry any loads, leaving the burden of lifting them
on the country people, as they said, "We have endured all the
trouble and hardships of bringing these visitors through the
wilderness; and now, as they have visited you, it is your place
to help them on." The consequence was, we had to engage fresh
porters at every village, each in turn saying he had done all the
work which with justice fell to his lot, till at last we arrived
at the borders of a jungle, where the men last engaged, feeling
tired of their work, pleaded ignorance of the direct road, and
turned off to the longer one, where villages and men were in
abundance, thus upsetting all our plans, and doubling the actual

To pass the night half-way was now imperative, as we had been the
whole day travelling without making good much ground. From the
Gani people we had, without any visible change, mingled with the
Madi people, who dress in the same naked fashion as their
neighbours, and use bows and arrows. Their villages were all
surrounded with bomas (fences), and the country in its general
aspect resembled that of Northern Unyamuezi. At one place, the
good-natured simple people, as soon as we reached their village,
spread a skin, deposited a stool upon it, and placed in front two
pots of pombe. At the village where we put up, however, the women
and children of the head man at first all ran away, and the head
man himself was very shy of us, thinking we were some unearthly
creatures. He became more reconciled to us, however, when he
perceived we fed like rational beings; and, calling his family in
by midnight, presented us with pombe, and made many apologies for
having allowed us to dine without a drop of his beer, for he was
very glad to see us.

Chapter XX


Junction of the Two Hemispheres--The First Contact with Persons
Acquainted with European Habits--Interruptions and Plots-- The
Mysterious Mahamed--Native Revelries--The Plundering and Tyranny
of the Turks--The Rascalities of the Ivory Trade--Feeling for the
Nile--Taken to see a Mark left by a European--Buffalo, Eland, and
Rhinoceros Stalking--Meet Baker--Petherick's Arrival at

After receiving more pombe from the chief, and, strange to say,
hot water to wash with--for he did not know how else to show
hospitality better--we started again in the same straggling
manner as yesterday. In two hours we reached the palace of
Piejoko, a chief of some pretensions, and were summoned to stop
and drink pombe. In my haste to meet Petherick's expedition, I
would listen to nothing, but pushed rapidly on, despite all
entreaties to stop, both from the chief and from my porters, who,
I saw clearly, wished to do me out of another day.

Half of my men, however, did stop there, but with the other half
Grant and I went on; and, as the sun was setting, we came in
sight of what we thought was Petherick's outpost, N. lat. 3 10'
33", and E. long. 21 50' 45". My men, as happy as we were
ourselves, now begged I would allow them to fire their guns, and
prepare the Turks for our reception. Crack, bang, went their
carbines, and in another instant crack, bang, was heard from the
northerners' camp, when, like a swarms of bees, every height and
other conspicuous place was covered with men. Our hearts leapt
with an excitement of joy only known to those who have escaped
from long-continued banishment among barbarians, once more to
meet with civilised people, and join old friends. Every minute
increased this excitement. We saw three large red flags heading
a military procession, which marched out of the camp with drums
and fifes playing. I halted and allowed them to draw near. When
they did so, a very black man, named Mahamed, in full Egyptian
regimentals, with a curved sword, ordered his regiment to halt,
and threw himself into my arms, endeavouring to hug and kiss me.
Rather staggered at this unexpected manifestation of affection,
which was like a conjunction of the two hemispheres, I gave him a
squeeze in return for his hug, but raised my head above the reach
of his lips, and asked who was his master? "Petrik," was the
reply. "And where is Petherick now?" "Oh, he is coming." "How
is it you have not got English colours, then?" "The colours are
Debono's." "Who is Debono?" "The same as Petrik; but come along
into my camp, and let us talk it out there;" saying which,
Mahamed ordered his regiment (a ragamuffin mixture of Nubians,
Egyptians, and slaves of all sorts, about two hundred in number)
to rightabout, and we were guided by him, whilst his men kept up
an incessant drumming and fifing, presenting arms and firing,
until we reached his huts, situated in a village kept exactly in
the same order as that of the natives. Mahamed then gave us two
beds to sit upon, and ordered his wives to advance on their knees
and give us coffee, whilst other men brought pombe, and prepared
us a dinner of bread and honey and mutton.

A large shed was cleared for Grant and myself, and all my men
were ordered to disperse, and chum in ones and twos with
Mahamed's men; for Mahamed said, now we had come there, his work
was finished. "If that is the case," I said, "tell us your
orders; there must be some letters." He said, "No, I have no
letters or written orders; though I have directions to take you
to Gondokoro as soon as you come. I am Debono's Vakil, and am
glad you are come, for we are all tired of waiting for you. Our
business has been to collect ivory whilst waiting for you." I
said, "How is it Petherick has not come here to meet me? is he
married?" "Yes, he is married; and both he and his wife ride
fore-and-aft on one animal at Khartum." "Well, then, where is the
tree you told Bombay you would point out to us with Petherick's
name on it?" "Oh, that is on the way to Gondokoro. It was not
Petherick who wrote, but some one else, who told me to look out
for your coming this way. We don't know his name, but he said if
we pointed it out to you, you would know at once."

4th.--After spending the night as Mahamed's guest, I strolled
round the place to see what it was like, and found the Turks were
all married to the women of the country, whom they had dressed in
clothes and beads. Their children were many, with a prospect of
more. Temporary marriages, however, were more common than
others-- as, in addition to their slaves, they hired the
daughters of the villagers, who remained with them whilst they
were trading here, but went back to their parents when they
marched to Gondokoro. They had also many hundreds of cattle,
which it was said they had plundered from the natives, and now
used for food, or to exchange for ivory, or other purposes. The
scenery and situation were perfect for health and beauty. The
settlement lay at the foot of small, well-wooded granitic hills,
even prettier than the outcrops of Unyamuezi, and was intersected
by clear streams.

At noon, all the rear troops arrived with Bombay and Piejoko in
person. This good creature had treated Bombay very handsomely on
his former journey. He said he felt greatly disappointed at my
pushing past him yesterday, as he wished to give me a cow, but
still hoped I would go over and make friends with him. I gave
him some beads and off he walked. Old Chongi's "children," who
had escorted us all the way from Kamrasi's, then took some beads
and cast-off clothes for themselves and their father, and left us
in good-humour.

This reduced the expedition establishment to my men and
Kidgwiga's. With these, now, as there was no letter from
Petherick, I ordered a march for the next morning, but at once
met with opposition. Mahamed told me that there were no vessels
at Gondokoro; we must wait two months, by which time he expected
they would arrive there, and some one would come to meet him with
beads. I said in answer, that Petherick had promised to have
boats there all the year round, so I would not wait. "Then,"
said Mahamed, "we cannot go with you, for there is a famine at
this season at Gondokoro." I said, "Never mind; do you give me
an interpreter, and I will go as I am." "No," said Mahamed, "that
will not do, as the Bari people are so savage, you could not get
through them with so small a force; besides which, just now there
is a stream which cannot be crossed for a month or more."

Unable to stand Mahamed's shifting devices with equanimity any
longer, I accused him of trying to trick me in the same way as
all the common savage chiefs had done wherever I went, because
they wished me to stop for their own satisfaction, quite
disregarding my wishes and interest; so I said I would not stop
there any longer I would raft over the river, and find my way
through the Bari, as I had through the rest of the African
savages. We talked and talked, but could make nothing of it. I
maintained that if he was commissioned to help me, he at least
could not refuse to give me a guide and interpreter; when, if I
failed in the direct route, I would try another, but go I must,
as I could not hold out any longer, being short of beads and
cows. I had just enough, but none to spare. He told me not to
think of such a thing, as he would give me all that was needful,
both for myself and my men; but if I would have patience, he
would collect all his officers, and the next morning would see
what their opinions were on the subject.

5th.--I found that every one of Mahamed's men was against our
going to Gondokoro. They told me, in fact, with one voice, that
it was quite impossible; but they said, if I liked they would
furnish me guides to escort me on ten marches to a depot at the
further end of the Madi country, and if I chose to wait there
until they could collect all their ivory tusks together and join
us, we would be a united party too formidable to be resisted by
the Bari people. This offer of immediate guides I of course
accepted at once, as to keep on the move was my only desire at
that time; for my men were all drunk, and Kidgwiga's were
deserting. Once more on the way, I did not despair of reaching
Gondokoro by myself. In the best good-humour now, I showed
Mahamed our picture-books: and as he said he always drilled his
two hundred men every Friday, I said I would, if he liked,
command them myself. This being agreed to, all the men turned
out in their best, and, to my surprise, they not only knew the
Turkish words of command, but manoeuvred with some show of good
training; though, as might have been expected with men of this
ragamuffin stamp, all the privates gave orders as well as their

When the review was over, I complimented Mahamed on the
efficiency of his corps, and, retiring to my hut, as I thought I
had him now in a good-humour, again discussed our plans for going
ahead the next day. Scarcely able to look me in the face, the
humbugging scoundrel said he could not think of allowing me to go
on without him, for if any accident happened he would be blamed
for it. At the same time, he could not move for a few days, as
he expected a party of men to arrive about the next new moon with
ivory. My hurry he thought was uncalled for; for, as I had
spent so many days with Kamrasi, why could I not be content to do
so with him?

I was provoked beyond measure with this, as it upset all my
plans. Kidgwiga's men were deserting, and I feared I should not
be able to keep my promise to Kamrasi of sending him another
white visitor, who would perhaps do what I had left undone, when
I did not follow up the connection of the Little Luta Nzige with
the Nile. We battled away again, and then Mahamed said there was
not one man in his camp who would go with me until their crops
were cut and taken in; for whilst residing here they grew grain
for their support. We battled again, and Mahamed at last, out of
patience himself, said, "Just look here, what a fix I am in,"
showing me a hut full of ivory. "Who," he said, "is to carry all
this until the natives have got in their crops?" This, I said,
so far as I was concerned, was all nonsense. I merely had asked
him for a guide and interpreter, for go I must. In a huff he
then absconded; and my men--those of them who were not too drunk-
-came and said to me, "For Godsake let us stop here. Mahamed
says the road is too dangerous for us to go alone; he has
promised to carry all our loads for us if we stop; and all
Kamrasi's men are running away, because they are afraid to go

6th.--Next morning I called Kidgwiga, and begged him to procure
two men as guides and interpreters. He said he could not find
any. I then went at Mahamed again, who first said he would give
me the two men I wanted, then went off, and sent word to say he
would not be visible for three days. This was too much for my
patience, so I ordered all my things to be tied up in marching
order, and gave out that I should leave and find out the way
myself the following morning. Like an evil spirit stirred up, my
preparations for going no sooner were heard of than Mahamed
appeared again, and after a long and sharp contest in words, he
promised us guides if I would consent to write him a note,
testifying that my going was against his expressed desire.

This was done; but the next morning (7th), after our things were
put out for the march, all Kidgwiga's men bolted, and no guides
would take service with us. It was now obvious that, even
supposing I succeeded in taking Kidgwiga to Gondokoro, he would
not have a sufficient escort to come back with, unless, indeed,
it happened that Englishmen might be there who might wish to
carry out my investigations by penetrating to the Little Luta
Nzige, and to pay a visit to Kamrasi. I therefore called
Kidgwiga, and after explaining these circumstances, advised him
to go back to Kamrasi. He was loth to leave, he said, until his
commission was fully performed; but as I thought it advisable, he
would consent. I then gave him a double gun and ammunition, as
well as some very rich beads which I obtained from Mahamed's
stores, to take back to Kamrasi, with orders to say that, as soon
as I reached Gondokoro or Khartum, I would send another white man
to him--not by the way I had come through Kidi, but by the left
bank of the Nile: to which Kidgwiga replied, "That will do
famously, for Kamrasi will change his residence soon, and come on
the Nile this side of Rionga's palace, in order that he may cut
in between his brother and the Turks' guns."

After this, I gave a lot of rich beads to Kidgwiga for himself,
and a lot also for the senior officers at the Chopi and Kamrasi's
palaces, and sent the whole set off as happy as birds. When
these men were gone, I tried to get up an elephant-shooting
excursion due west of this, with a view to see where the Nile
was, for I would not believe it was very far off, although no one
as yet, since I left Chopi, either would or could tell me where
the stream had gone to.

8th. Mahamed professed to be delighted I had made up my mind to
such a scheme. He called the heads of the villages to give me
all the information I sought for, and went with me to the top of
a high rock, from which we could see the hills I first viewed at
Chopi, sweeping round from south by east to north, which demarked
the line of the Asua river. The Nile at that moment was, I
believed, not very far off; yet, do or say what I would,
everybody said it was fifteen marches off, and could not be
visited under a month.[FN#25] It would be necessary for me to
take thirty-six of Mahamed's men, besides all my own, to go
there, which, he said, I was welcome to, but I should have to pay
them for their services. This was a damper at once.

I knew in my mind all these reports were false, but, rather than
be out of the way when the time came for marching, I agreed to
wait patiently, write the history of the Wahuma, and make
collections, till Mahamed was ready, trusting that I might find
some one at Gondokoro who would finish what I had left undone; or
else, after arriving there, I might go up the Nile in boats and
see for myself. The same evening I was attracted by the sound of
drums to a neighbouring village, where, by the moonlight, I found
the natives were dancing. A more indecent or savage spectacle I
never witnessed. The whole place was alive with naked humanity
in a state of constant motion. Drawing near, I found that a
number of drums were beaten by men in the centre. Next to them
was a deep ring of women, half of whom carried their babies; and
outside these again was a still deeper circle of men, some
blowing horns, but most holding their spears erect. To the sound
of the music both these rings of the opposite sexes kept jumping
and sidling round and round the drummers, making the most
grotesque and obscene motions to one another.

9th to 14th.--Nothing of material consequence happened until the
14th, when eighty of Rionga's men brought in two slaves and
thirty tusks of ivory, as a present to Mahamed. Of course, I
knew this was a bribe to induce Mahamed to fight with Rionga
against Kamrasi; but, counting that no affair of mine, I tried to
induce these men to give me some geographical information of the
countries they had just left. Not one of them would come near
me, for they knew I was friends with Kamrasi; and Mahamed's men,
when they saw mine attempting to converse with them, abused them
for "prying into other men's concerns." "These men," they said,
"are our friends, and not yours; if we choose to give them
presents of cloth and beads, and they give us a return in ivory,
what is that to you?" Mysterious Mahamed next came to me, and
begged for a blanket, as he said he was going off for a few days
to a depot where he had some ivory; and he also wanted to borrow
a musket, as one of his had been burnt.

My suspicions and even apprehensions, were now greatly excited. I
began to think he had prevailed on me to stop here, that I might
hold the place whilst he went to fight Kamrasi with Rionga's men;
so I begged him to listen to my advice, and not attempt to cross
the Nile, "else," I said, "all his guns would be taken from him,
and his passage back cut off." At once he saw the drift of my
thought, and said he was not going towards the Nile, but on the
contrary, he was going with Rionga's men in the opposite
direction, to a place called Paira. "If that is the case," I
said, "why do you want a gun?" "Because there are some other
matters to settle. I shall not be long away, and my men will
take care of you whilst I am gone." I gave him the blanket after
this, but was too suspicious of his object to lend him a gun.

15th to 20th.--I saw Mahamed march his regiment out of the place,
drums and fifes playing, colours flying, a hundred guns firing,
officers riding,--some of them on donkeys and others--yes,
actually on cows! whilst a host of the natives, Rionga's men
included, carrying spears and bows and arrows, looked little like
a peaceful caravan of merchants, but very much resembled a band
of marauders. After this I heard they were not going to Rionga
himself, but were going to show Rionga's men the way that they
made friends with old Chongi of Koki. In reality, Chongi had
invited Mahamed to fight against an enemy of his, in whose
territories immense stores of ivory were said to be buried, and
the people had an endless number of cattle--for they lived by
plunder, and had lifted most of old Chongi's; and this was the
service on which the expedition had set off.

21st to 31st.--I had constantly wondered, ever since I first came
here, and saw the brutal manner in which the Turks treated the
natives, that these Madi people could submit to their "Egyptian
taskmasters," and therefore was not surprised now to find them
pull down their huts and march off with the materials to a
distant site. Every day this sort of migration continued, just as
you see in the picture; and nothing more important occurred until
Christmas-day, when an armadillo was caught, and I heard from
Mahamed's head wife that the Turks had plundered and burnt down
three villages, and in all probability they would return shortly
laden with ivory. This was a true anticipation; for, on the 31st,
Mahamed came in with his triumphant army laden with ivory, and
driving in five slave-girls and thirty head of cattle.

1st to 3d.--I now wished to go on with the journey, as I could
get no true information out of the suspicious blackguards who
called themselves Turks; but Mahamed postponed it until the 5th,
by which time he said he would be able to collect all the men he
wanted to carry his ivory. Rionga's men then departed, and
Mahamed showed some signs of getting ready by ordering one dozen
cows to be killed, the flesh of which was to be divided amongst
those villagers who would carry his ivory, and the skins to be
cut into thongs for binding the smaller tusks of ivory together
in suitable loads.

4th and 5th.--Another specimen of Turkish barbarity came under my
notice, in the head man of a village bringing a large tusk of
ivory to Mahamed, to ransom his daughter with; for she had been
seized as a slave on his last expedition, in common with others
who could not run away fast enough to save themselves from the
Turks. Fortunately for both, it was thought necessary for the
Turks to keep on good terms with the father as an influential
man; and therefore, on receiving the tusk, Mahamed gave back the
girl, and added a cow to seal their friendship.

6th to 10th.--I saw this land-pirate Mahamed take a blackmail
like a negro chief. Some men who had fled from their village
when Mahamed's plundering party passed by them the other day,
surprised that he did not stop to sack their homes, now brought
ten large tusks of ivory to him to express the gratitude they
said they felt for his not having molested them. Mahamed, on
finding how easy it was to get taxes in this fashion, instead of
thanking them, assumed the air of the great potentate, whose
clemency was abused, and told the poor creatures that, though
they had done well in seeking his friendship, they had not
sufficiently considered his dignity, else they would have brought
double that number of tusks, for it was impossible he could be
satisfied at so low a price. "What," said these poor creatures,
"can we do then? for this is all we have got." "Oh," says
Mahamed, "if it is all you have got now in store, I will take
these few for the present; but when I return from Gondokoro, I
expect you will bring me just as many more. Good-bye, and look
out for yourselves."

Tired beyond all measure with Mahamed's procrastination, as I
could not get him to start, I now started myself, much to his
disgust, and went ahead again, leaving word that I would wait for
him at the next place, provided he did not delay more than one
day. The march led us over long rolling downs of grass, where we
saw a good many antelopes feeding; and after going ten miles, we
came, among other villages, to one named Panyoro, in which we
found it convenient to put up. At first all the villagers,
thinking us Turks, bolted away with their cattle and what stores
they could carry; but, after finding out who we were, they
returned again, and gave us a good reception, helping us to rig
up a shed with grass, and bringing a cow and some milk for our

12th.--To-day I went out shooting, but though I saw and fired at
a rhinoceros, as well as many varieties of antelopes, I did not
succeed in killing one head. All my men were surprised as well
as myself; and the villagers who were escorting me in the hope of
getting flesh, were so annoyed at their disappointment, they
offered to cut my fore-finger with a spear and spit on it for
good-luck. Joining in their talk, I told them the powder must be
crooked; but, on inspecting my rifle closer, I found that the
sights had been knocked on one side a little, and this created a
general laugh at all in turn. Going home from the shooting, I
found all the villagers bolting again with their cattle and
stores, and, on looking towards Faloro, saw a party of Turks

As well as I could I reassured the villagers, and brought them
back again, when they said to me, "Oh, what have you done? We
were so happy yesterday when we found out who you were, but now
we see you have brought those men, all our hearts have sunk
again; for they beat us, they make us carry their loads, and they
rob us in such a manner, we know not what to do." I told them I
would protect them if they would keep quiet; and, when the Turks
came, I told them what I had said to the head man. They were the
vanguard of Mahamed's party, and said they had orders to march on
as far as Apuddo with me, where we must all stop for Mahamed,
who, as well as he could, was collecting men. There was a
certain tree near Apuddo which was marked by an Englishman two
years ago, and this, Mahamed thought, would keep us amused.

The next march brought us to Paira, a collection of villages
within sight of the Nile. It was truly ridiculous; here had we
been at Faloro so long, and yet could not make out what had
become of the Nile. In appearance it was a noble stream, flowing
on a flat bed from west to east, and immediately beyond it were
the Jbl (hills) Kuku, rising up to a height of 2000 feet above
the river. Still we could not make out all, until the following
day, when we made a march parallel to the Nile, and arrived at

This was a collection of huts close to a deep nullah which drains
The central portions of Eastern Madi. At this place the Turks
killed a crocodile and ate him on the spot, much to the amusement
of my men, who immediately shook their heads, laughingly, and
said, "Ewa, Allah! are these men, then, Mussulmans? Savages in
our country don't much like a crocodile."

After crossing two nullahs, we reached Apuddo, and at once, I
went to see the tree said to have been cut by an Englishman some
time before. There, sure enough, was a mark, something like the
letters M. I., on its bark, but not distinct enough to be
ascertained, because the bark had healed up. In describing the
individual who had done this, the Turks said he was exactly like
myself, for he had a long beard, and a voice even much resembling
mine. He came thus far with Mahamed from Gondokoro two years
ago, and then returned, because he was alarmed at the accounts
the people gave of the countries to the southward, and he did not
like the prospect of having to remain a whole rainy season with
Mahamed at Faloro. He knew we were endeavouring to come this way,
and directed Mahamed to point out his name if we did so.

We took up our quarters in the village as usual, but the Turks
remained outside, and carried off all the tops of the villagers'
huts to make a camp for themselves. I rebuked them for doing so,
but was mildly told they had no huts of their own. They carried
no pots either for cooking their dinners, and therefore took from
the villagers all that they wanted. It was a fixed custom now,
they told us, and there was no use in our trying to struggle
against it. If the natives were wise, they would make enough to
sell; but as they would not, they must put up with their lot; for
the "government" cannot be baulked of its ivory. Truly there
seemed to be nothing but misery here; food was so scarce the
villagers sought for wild berries and fruits; whilst the Turks
helped themselves out of their half-filled bins--a small reserve
store to last up to the far-distant harvest. Then, to make
matters worse, all the village chiefs were at war with one

At night a party of warriors walked round our village, but feared
to attack it because we were inside. Next morning the villagers
turned out and killed two of the enemy; but the rest, whilst
retreating, sang out that they would not attempt to fight until
"the guns" were gone--after that, the villagers had better look
out for themselves. I now proposed going on if the Apina, or
chief of the village, would give me a guide; but he feared to do
so lest I should come to grief, and Mahamed would then be down
upon him. Struggling was useless, for I had no beads to pay my
way with, and my cows were now all finished; so I took the matter
quietly, and went out foraging with the rifle.

18th and 19th.--Antelopes were numerous, but so wild I could not
get near them. On bending round homewards, however, three
buffaloes, feeding in the distance, on the top of a roll of high
ground beyond where we stood, were observed by the natives, who
had flocked out in the hopes of getting flesh. To stalk them, I
went up wind to near where I expected to find them; then bidding
the natives lie down, I stole along through the grass until at
last I saw three pairs of horns glistening quite close in front
of me. Anxious lest they should take sudden fright, I gently
raised myself, wishing to fire, but I was quite puzzled; there
was no mistake about what they were; still, look from as high as
I would, I could not see their bodies. The thought never struck
me they were lying down in such open ground in the day-time; so,
as I could not go closer without driving them off, I took a shot
with my single rifle at where I judged the chest of the nearest
one ought to be, and then discovered my error. In an instant all
three sprang on their legs and scampered off. I began loading,
but before I had half accomplished my object, those three had
mingled with the three previously seen grazing, and all six
together came charging straight at me. I really thought I should
now catch a toss, if I were not trampled to death; but suddenly,
as they saw me standing, whether from fear or what else I cannot
say, they changed their ferocious-looking design, swerved round,
and galloped off as fast as their legs could carry them. This
was bad luck; but Grant made up for it the next day by killing a
very fine buck nsamma.

20th.--I went again after the herd of six buffaloes, as I thought
one was wounded, and after walking up a long sloping hill for
three miles towards the east, I found myself at once in view of
the Nile on one hand, and the long-heard-of Asua river on the
other, backed by hills even higher than the Jbl Kuku. The bed of
the Asua seemed very large, but, being far off, was not very
distinct, nor did I care to go and see it them; for at that
moment, straight in front of me, five buffaloes, five giraffes,
two eland and sundry other antelopes, were too strong a

The place looked like a park, and I began stalking in it, first
at the eland, as I wanted to see if they corresponded with those
I shot in Usagara; but the gawky giraffes, always in the way,
gave the alarm, and drove all but two of the buffaloes away. At
these two I now went with my only rifle, leaving the servants and
savages behind. They were out in the open grass feeding
composedly, so that I stole up to within forty yards of them, and
then, in a small naked patch of ground, I waited my opportunity,
and put a ball behind the shoulder of the larger one. At the
sound of the gun, in an instant both bulls charged, but they
pulled up in the same naked ground as myself, sniffing and
tossing their horns, while looking out for their antagonist, who,
as quick as themselves, had thrown himself flat on the ground.

There we were, like three fools, for twenty minutes or so; one of
the buffaloes bleeding at the mouth and with a broken hind-leg,
for the bullet had traversed his body, and the other turning
round and round looking out for me, while I was anxiously
watching him, and by degrees loading my gun. When ready, I tried
a shot at the sound one, but the cap snapped and nearly betrayed
me, for they both stared at the spot where I lay--the sound one
sniffing the air and tossing his horns, but the other bleeding
considerably. Some minutes more passed in this manner, when they
allowed me to breathe freer by walking away. I followed, of
course, but could not get a good chance; so, as the night set in,
I let them alone for the time being, to get out the following

21st and 22d.--At the place where I left off, I now sprang a
large herd of fifty or more buffaloes, and followed them for a
mile, when the wounded one, quite exhausted from the fatigue,
pulled up for a charge, and allowed me to knock him over. This
was glorious fun for the villagers, who cut him up on the spot
and brought him home. Of course, one half the flesh was given to
them, in return for which they brought us some small delicacies
to show their gratitude; for, as they truly remarked, until we
came to their village they never knew what it was to get a
present, or any other gift by a good thrashing.

23d.--To-day I tried the ground again, and, whilst walking up the
hill, two black rhinoceros came trotting towards us in a very
excited manner. I did not wish to fire at them, as what few
bullets remained in my store I wished to reserve in better sport,
and therefore for the time being, let them alone. Presently,
however, they separated; one passed in front of us, stopped to
drink in a pool, and then lay down in it. Not heeding him, I
walked up the hill, whilst the other rhinoceros, still trotting,
suddenly turned round and came to drink within fifty yards of us,
obstructing my path; this was too much of a joke; so, to save
time, I gave him a bullet, and knocked him over. To my surprise,
the natives who were with me would not touch his flesh, though
pressed by me to "n'yam n'yam," or to eat. I found that they
considered him an unclean beast; so, regretting I had wasted my
bullet, I went farther on and startled some buffaloes.

Though I got very near them, however, a small antelope springing
up in front of me scared them away, and I could not get a front
shot at any of them. Thus the whole day was thrown away, for I
had to return empty-handed.

24th to 30th.--Grant and I after this kept our pot boiling by
shooting three more antelopes; but nothing of consequence
transpired until the 30th, when Bukhet, Mahamed's factotum,
arrived with the greater part of the Turk's property. He then
confirmed a report we had heard before, that, some days
previously, Mahamed had ordered Bukhet to go ahead and join us,
which he attempted to do; but, on arrival at Panyoro, his party
had a row with the villagers, and lost their property. Bukhet
then returned to Mahamed and reported his defeat and losses; upon
hearing which, Mahamed at once said to him, "What do you mean by
returning to me empty-handed? go back at once and recover your
things else how can I make my report at Gondokoro?" With these
peremptory orders Bukhet went back to Panyoro, and commenced to
attack it. The contest did not last long; for, after three of
Bukhet's men had been wounded, he set fire to the villages,
killed fifteen of the natives, and, besides recovering his own
lost property, took one hundred cows.

31st.--To-day Mahamed came in, and commenced to arrange for the
march onwards. This, however, was no easy matter, for the Turks
alone required six hundred porters--half that number to carry
their ivory, and the other half to carry their beds and bedding;
whilst from fifty to sixty men was the most a village had to
spare, and all the village chiefs were at enmity with one
another. The plan adopted by Mahamed was, to summon the heads of
all the villages to come to him, failing which, he would seize
all their belongings. Then, having once got them together, he
ordered them all to furnish him with so many porters a-head,
saying he demanded it of them, for the "great government's
property" could not be left on the ground. Their separate
interests must now be sacrificed, and their feuds suspended: and
if he heard, on his return again, that one village had taken
advantage of the other's weakness caused by their employment in
his service, he would then not spare his bullets,-- so they might
look out for themselves.

Some of the Turks, having found ninty-nine eggs in a crocodile's
nest, had a grand feast. They gave us two of the eggs, which we
ate, but did not like, for they had a highly musky flavour.

1st.--On the 1st of February we went ahead again, with Bukhet and
the first half of Mahamed's establishment, as a sufficient number
of men could not be collected at once to move all together. In a
little while we struck on the Nile, where it was running like a
fine Highland stream between the gneiss and mica-schist hills of
Kuku, and followed it down to near where the Asua river joined
it. For a while we sat here watching the water, which was
greatly discoloured, and floating down rushes. The river was not
as full as it was when we crossed it at the Karuma Falls, yet,
according to Dr Khoblecher's[FN#26] account, it ought to have
been flooding just at this time: if so, we had beaten the stream.
Here we left it again as it arched round by the west, and forded
the Asua river, a stiff rocky stream, deep enough to reach the
breast when waded, but not very broad. It did not appear to me as
if connected with Victoria N'yanza, as the waters were falling,
and not much discoloured; whereas judging from the Nile's
condition, it ought to have been rising. No vessel ever could
have gone up it, and it bore no comparison with the Nile itself.
The exaggerated account of its volume, however, given by the
expeditionists who were sent up the Nile by Mehemet Ali, did not
surprise us, since they had mistaken its position; for we were
now 3 42' north, and therefore had passed their "farthest point"
by twenty miles.

In two hours more we reached a settlement called Madi, and found
it deserted. Every man and woman had run off into the jungles
from fright, and would not come back again. We wished ourselves
at the end of the journey; thought anything better than this kind
of existence--living entirely at the expense of others; even the
fleecings in Usui felt less dispiriting; but it could not be
helped, for it must always exist as long as these Turks are
allowed to ride rough-shod over the people. The Turks, however,
had their losses also; for on the way four Bari men and one Bari
slave-girl slipped off with a hundred of their plundered cattle,
and neither they nor the cattle could be found again. Mijalwa
was here convicted of having stolen the cloth of a Turk whilst
living in his hut when he was away at the Paira plundering and
got fifty lashes to teach him better behaviour for the future.

A party of fifty men came from Labure, a station on ahead of
this, to take service as porters, knowing that at this season the
Turks always come with a large herd of plundered cattle, which
they call government property, and give in payment to the men who
carry their tusks of ivory across the Bari country.

We now marched over a rolling ground, covered in some places with
bush-jungle, in others with villages, where there were fine
trees, resembling oaks in their outward appearance; and stopping
one night at the settlement of Barwudi, arrived at Labure, where
we had to halt a day for Mahamed to collect some ivory from a
depot he had formed near by. We heard there was another ivory
party collecting tusks at Obbo, a settlement in the country of
Panuquara, twenty miles east of this.

Next we crossed a nullah draining into the Nile, and, travelling
over more rolling ground, flanked on the right by a range of
small hills, put up at the Madi frontier station, Mugi, where we
had to halt two days to collect a full complement of porters to
traverse the Bari country, the people of which are denounced as
barbarians by the Turks, because they will not submit to be
bullied into carrying their tusks for them. Here we felt an
earthquake. The people would not take beads, preferring, they
said, to make necklaces and belts out of ostrich-eggs, which they
cut into the size of small shirt-buttons, and then drill a hole
through their centre to string them together. A passenger told
us that three white men had just arrived in vessels at Gondokoro;
and the Bari people, hearing of our advance, instead of trying to
kill us with spears, had determined to poison all the water in
their country. Mahamed now disposed of half of his herd of cows,
giving them to the chiefs of the villages in return for porters.
These, he said, were all that belonged to the government; for the
half of all captures of cows, as well as all slaves, all goats,
and sheep, were allowed to the men as part of their pay.

When all was settled we marched, one thousand strong, to Wurungi;
and next day, by a double march, arrived at Marson, in the Bari
country. I wished still to put up in the native villages, but
Mahamed so terrified all my men, by saying these Bari would kill
us in the night if we did not all sleep together in one large
camp, that we were obliged to submit. The country, still flanked
on the right by hills, was undulating and very prettily wooded.
Villages were numerous, but as we passed them the inhabitants all
fled from us, save a few men, who, bolder than the rest, would
stand and look on at us as we marched along. Both night and
morning the Turks beat their drums; and whenever they stopped to
eat they sacked the villages.

Pushing on by degrees, stopping at noon to eat, we came again in
sight of the Nile, and put up at a station called Doro, within a
short distance of the well-known hill Rijeb, where Nile voyagers
delight in cutting their names. The country continued the same,
but the grass was conspicuously becoming shorter and finer every
day--so much so, that my men all declared it was a sign of our
near approach to England. After we had settled down for the
night, and the Turks had finished plundering the nearest
villages, we heard two guns fired, and immediately afterwards the
whole place was alive with Bari people. Their drums were beaten
as a sign that they would attack us, and the war-drums of the
villages around responded by beating also. The Turks grew
somewhat alarmed at this, and as darkness began to set in, sent
out patrols in addition to their nightly watches. The savages
next tried to steal in on us, but were soon frightened off by the
patrols cocking their guns. Then, seeing themselves defeated in
that tactic, they collected in hundreds in front of us, set fire
to the grass, and marched up and down, brandishing ignited grass
in their hands, howling like demons, and swearing they would
annihilate us in the morning.

We slept the night out, nevertheless, and next morning walked in
to Gondokoro, N. Lat. 4 54' 5", and E. long. 31 46' 9", where
Mahamed, after firing a salute, took us in to see a Circassian
merchant, named Kurshid Agha. Our first inquiry was, of course,
for Petherick. A mysterious silence ensued; we were informed
that Mr Debono was THE man we had to thank for the assistance we
had received in coming from Madi; and then in hot haste, after
warm exchanges of greeting with Mahamed's friend, who was
Debono's agent here, we took leave, to hunt up Petherick.
Walking down the bank of the river--where a line of vessels was
moored, and on the right hand a few sheds, one-half broken down,
with a brick-built house representing the late Austrian Church
Mission establishment--we saw hurrying on towards us the form of
an Englishman, who, for one moment, we believed was the Simon
Pure; but the next moment my old friend Baker, famed for his
sports in Ceylon, seized me by the hand. A little boy of his
establishment had reported our arrival, and he in an instant came
out to welcome us. What joy this was I can hardly tell. We
could not talk fast enough, so overwhelmed were we both to meet
again. Of course we were his guests in a moment, and learned
everything that could be told. I now first heard of the death of
H.R.H. the Prince-Consort, which made me reflect on the inspiring
words he made use of, in compliment to myself, when I was
introduced to him by Sir Roderick Murchison, a short while before
leaving England. Then there was the terrible war in America, and
other events of less startling nature, which came on us all by
surprise, as years had now passed since we had received news from
the civilised world.

Baker then said he had come up with three vessels--one dyabir and
two nuggers--fully equipped with armed men, camels, horses,
donkeys, beads, brass wire, and everything necessary for a long
journey, expressly to look after us, hoping, as he jokingly said,
to find us on the equator in some terrible fix, that he might
have the pleasure of helping us out of it. He had heard of
Mahamed's party, and was actually waiting for him to come in,
that he might have had the use of his return-men to start with
comfortably. Three Dutch ladies[FN#27], also, with a view to
assist us in the same way as Baker (God bless them), had come
here in a steamer, but were driven back to Khartum by sickness.
Nobody had even dreamt for a moment it was possible we could come
through. An Italian, named Miani, had gone farther up the Nile
than any one else; and he, it now transpired, was the man who had
cut his name on the tree by Apuddo. But what had become of
Petherick? He was actually trading at N'yambara, seventy miles
due west of this, though he had, since I left him in England,
raised a subscription of 1000, from those of my friends to whom
this Journal is most respectfully dedicated as the smallest
return a grateful heart can give for their attempt to succour me,
when knowing the fate of the expedition was in great jeopardy.

Instead of coming up the Nile at once, as Petherick might have
done --so I was assured--he waited, whilst a vessel was building,
until the season had too far advanced to enable him to sail up
the river. In short, he lost the north winds at 7 north, and
went overland to his trading depot at N'yambara. Previously,
however, he had sent some boats up to this, under a Vakil, who
had his orders to cross to his trading depot at N'yambara, and to
work from his trading station due south, ostensibly with a view
to look after me, though contrary to my advice before leaving him
in England, in opposition to his own proposed views of assisting
me when he applied for help to succour me, and against the
strongly-expressed opinions of every European in the same trade
as himself; for all alike said they knew he would have gone to
Faloro, and pushed south from that place, had his trade on the
west of the Nile not attracted him there.

Baker now offered me his boats to go down to Khartum, and asked
me if there was anything left undone which it might be of
importance for him to go on and complete, by survey or otherwise;
for, although he should like to go down the river with us, he did
not wish to return home without having done something to
recompense him for the trouble and expense he had incurred in
getting up his large expedition. Of course I told him how
disappointed I had been in not getting a sight of the Little Luta
Nzige. I described how we had seen the Nile bending west where
we crossed in Chopi, and then, after walking down the chord of an
arc described by the river, had found it again in Madi coming
from the west, whence to the south, and as far at least as Koshi,
it was said to be navigable, probably continuing to be so right
into the Little Luta Nzige. Should this be the case, then, by
building boats in Madi above the cataracts, a vast region might
be thrown open to the improving influences of navigation.
Further, I told Baker of my contract with Kamrasi, and of the
property I had left behind, with a view to stimulate any
enterprising man who might be found at this place to go there,
make good my promise, and, if found needful, claim my share of
the things, for the better prosecution of his own travels there.
This Baker at once undertook, though he said he did not want my
property; and I drew out suggestions for him how to proceed. He
then made friends with Mahamed, who promised to help him on to
Faloro, and I gave Mahamed and his men three carbines as an

I should now have gone down the Nile at once if the moon had been
in "distance" for fixing the longitude; but as it was not, I had
to remain until the 26th, living with Baker. Kurshid Agha became
very great friends with us, and, at once making a present of a
turkey, a case of wine, and cigars, said he was only sorry for
his own sake that we had found a fellow-countryman, else he would
have had the envied honour of claiming us as his guests, and had
the pleasure of transporting us in his vessels down to Khartum.

The Rev. Mr Moorlan, and two other priests of the Austrian
Mission, were here on a visit from their station at Kich, to see
the old place again before they left for Khartum; for the
Austrian Government, discouraged by the failure of so many years,
had ordered the recall of the whole of the establishment for
these regions. It was no wonder these men were recalled; for, out
of twenty missionaries who, during the last thirteen years, had
ascended the White river for the purpose of propagating the
Gospel, thirteen had died of fever, two of dysentary, and two had
retired broken in health, yet not one convert had been made by

The fact is, there was no government to control the population or
to protect property; boys came to them, looked at their pictures,
and even showed a disposition to be instructed, but there it
ended; they had no heart to study when no visible returns were to
be gained. One day the people would examine the books, at
another throw them aside, say their stomachs were empty, and run
away to look for food. The Bari people at Gondokoro were
described as being more tractable than those of Kich, being of a
braver and more noble nature; but they were all half-starved--not
because the country was too poor to produce, but because they
were too lazy to cultivate. What little corn they grew they
consumed before it was fully ripe, and then either sought for
fish in the river or fed on tortoises in the interior, as they
feared they might never reap what they sowed.

The missionaries never had occasion to complain of these blacks,
and to this day they would doubtless have been kindly inclined to
Europeans, had the White Nile traders not brought the devil
amongst them. Mr Moorlan remembers the time when they brought
food for sale; but now, instead, they turn their backs upon all
foreigners, and even abuse the missionaries for having been the
precursors of such dire calamities. The shell of the brick
church at Gondokoro, and the cross on the top of a native-built
hut in Kich, are all that will remain to bear testimony of these
Christian exertions to improve the condition of these heathens.
Want of employment, I heard was the chief operative cause in
killing the poor missionaries; for, with no other resource left
them to kill time, they spent their days eating, drinking,
smoking, and sleeping, till they broke down their constitutions
by living too fast.

Mr Moorlan became very friendly, and said he was sorry he could
not do more for us. His headquarters were at Kich, some way down
the river, where, as we passed, he hoped at least he might be
able to show us as much attention and hospitality as lay in his
power. Mosquitoes were said to be extremely troublesome on the
river, and my men begged for some clothes, as Petherick, they
said, had a store for me under the charge of his Vakil. The
storekeeper was then called, and confirming the story of my men,
I begged him to give me what was my own. It then turned out that
it was all Petherick's, but he had orders to give me on account
anything that I wanted. This being settled, I took ninety-five
yards of the commonest stuff as a makeshift for mosquito-curtains
for my men, besides four sailor's shirts for my head men.

On the 18th, Kurshid Agha was summoned by the constant fire of
musketry, a mile or two down the river, and went off in his
vessels to the relief. A party of his had come across from the
N'yambara country with ivory, and on the banks of the Nile, a few
miles north of this, were engaged fighting with the natives. He
arrived just in time to settle the difficulty, and next day came
back again, having shot some of the enemy and captured their
cows. Petherick, we heard, was in a difficulty of the same kind,
upon which I proposed to go down with Baker and Grant to succour
him; but he arrived in time, in company with his wife and Dr
James Murie, to save us the trouble, and told me he had brought a
number of men with him, carrying ivory, for the purpose now of
looking after me on the east bank of the Nile, by following its
course up to the south, though he had given up all hope of seeing
me, as a report had reached him of the desertion of my porters at
Ugogo. He then offered me his dyabir, as well as anything else
that I wanted that lay within his power to give. Suffice it to
say, I had, through Baker's generosity, at that very moment
enough and to spare; but at his urgent request I took a few more
yards of cloth for my men, and some cooking fat; and, though I
offered to pay for it, he declined to accept any return at my

Though I naturally felt much annoyed at Petherick--for I had
hurried away from Uganda, and separated from Grant at Kari,
solely to keep faith with him--I did not wish to break
friendship, but dined and conversed with him, when it transpired
that his Vakil, or agent, who went south from the N'yambara
station, came amongst the N'yam N'yam, and heard from them that a
large river, four days' journey more to the southward, was
flowing from east to west, beyond which lived a tribe of "women,"
who, when they wanted to marry, mingled with them in the stream
and returned; and then, again, beyond this tribe of women there
lived another tribe of women and dogs. Now, this may all seem a
very strange story to those who do not know the negro's and
Arab's modes of expression; but to me it at once came very
natural, and, according to my view, could be interpreted thus: --
The river, running from east to west, according to the native
mode of expressing direction, could be nothing but the Little
Luta Nzige running the opposite way, according to fact and our
mode of expression. The first tribe of women were doubtless the
Wanyoro-- called women by the naked tribes on this side because
they wear bark coverings--an effeminate appendage, in the naked
man's estimation; and the second tribe must have been in allusion
to the dog-keeping Waganda, who also would be considered women,
as they wear bark clothes. In my turn, I told Petherick he had
missed a good thing by not going up the river to look for me;
for, had he done so, he would not only have had the best ivory-
grounds to work upon, but, by building a vessel in Madi above the
cataracts, he would have had, in my belief, some hundred miles of
navigable water to transport his merchandise. In short, his
succouring petition was most admirably framed, had he stuck to
it, for the welfare of both of us.[FN#28]

We now received our first letters from home, and in one from Sir
Roderick Murchison I found the Royal Geographical Society had
awarded me their "founder's medal" for the discovery of the
Victoria N'yanza in 1858.


My journey down to Alexandria was not without adventure, and
carried me through scenes which, in other circumstances, it might
have been worth while to describe. Thinking, however, that I
have already sufficiently trespassed on the patience of the
reader, I am unwilling to overload my volume with any matter that
does not directly relate to the solution of the great problem
which I went to solve. Having now, then, after a period of
twenty-eight months, come upon the tracks of European travellers,
and met them face to face, I close my Journal, to conclude with a
few explanations, for the purpose of comparing the various
branches of the Nile with its affluences, so as to show their
respective values.

The first affluent, the Bahr el Ghazal, took us by surprise; for
instead of finding a huge lake, as described in our maps, at an
elbow of the Nile, we found only a small piece of water
resembling a duck-pond buried in a sea of rushes. The old Nile
swept through it with majestic grace, and carried us next to the
Geraffe branch of the Sobat river, the second affluent, which we
found flowing into the Nile with a graceful semicircular sweep
and good stiff current, apparently deep, but not more than fifty
yards broad.

Next in order came the main stream of the Sobat, flowing into the
Nile in the same graceful way as the Geraffe, which in breadth it
surpassed, but in velocity of current was inferior. The Nile by
these additions was greatly increased; still it did not assume
that noble appearance which astonished us so much, immediately
after the rainy season, when we were navigating it in canoes in

I here took my last lunar observations, and made its mouth N.
lat. 9 20' 48", E. long. 31 24' 0". The Sobat has a third
mouth farther down the Nile, which unfortunately was passed
without my knowing it; but as it is so well known to be
unimportant, the loss was not great.

Next to be treated of is the famous Blue Nile, which we found a
miserable river, even when compared with the Geraffe branch of
the Sobat. It is very broad at the mouth, it is true, but so
shallow that our vessel with difficulty was able to come up it.
It has all the appearance of a mountain stream, subject to great
periodical fluctuations. I was never more disappointed that with
this river; if the White river was cut off from it, its waters
would all be absorbed before they could reach Lower Egypt.

The Atbara river, which is the last affluent, was more like the
Blue river than any of the other affluences, being decidedly a
mountain stream, which floods in the rains, but runs nearly dry
in the dry season.

I had now seen quite enough to satisfy myself that the White
river which issues from the N'yanza at the Ripon Falls, is the
true or parent Nile; for in every instance of its branching, it
carried the palm with it in the distinctest manner, viewed, as
all the streams were by me, in the dry season, which is the best
time for estimating their relative perennial values.

Since returning to England, Dr Murie, who was with me at
Gondokoro, has also come home; and he, judging from my account of
the way in which we got ahead of the flooding of the Nile between
the Karuma Falls and Gondokoro, is of opinion that the Little
Luta Nzige must be a great backwater to the Nile, which the
waters of the Nile must have been occupied in filling during my
residence in Madi; and then about the same time that I set out
from Madi, the Little Luta Nzige having been surcharged with
water, the surplus began its march northwards just about the time
when we started in the same direction. For myself, I believe in


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