The Discovery of the Source of the Nile
John Hanning Speke

Part 2 out of 11

deep-seated spring of fresh water, which bubbles up through many
apertures in a large dome-shaped heap of soft lime--an
accumulation obviously thrown up by the force of the spring, as
the rocks on either side of it are of igneous character. We
arrived at the deserted village of Kirengue. This was not an easy
go-ahead march, for the halt had disaffected both men and mules.
Three of the former bolted, leaving their loads upon the ground;
and on the line of march, one of the mules, a full-conditioned
animal, gave up the ghost after an eighteen hours' sickness.
What his disease was I never could ascertain; but as all the
remaining animals died afterwards much in the same manner, I may
state for once and for all, that these attacks commenced with
general swelling, at first on the face, then down the neck, along
the belly and down the legs. It proved so obstinate that fire
had no effect upon it; and although we cut off the tails of some
to relieve them by bleeding, still they died.

In former days Kirengue was inhabited, and we reasonably hoped to
find some supplies for the jungly march before us. But we had
calculated without our host, for the slave-hunters had driven
every vestige of humanity away; and now, as we were delayed by
our three loads behind, there was nothing left but to send back
and purchase more grain. Such was one of the many days frittered
away in do-nothingness.

This day, all together again, we rose the first spurs of the
well-wooded Usagara hills, amongst which the familiar bamboo was
plentiful, and at night we bivouacked in the jungle.

Rising betimes in the morning, and starting with a good will, we
soon reached the first settlements of Mbuiga, from which could be
seen a curious blue mountain, standing up like a giant
overlooking all the rest of the hills. The scenery here formed a
strong and very pleasing contrast to any we had seen since
leaving the coast. Emigrant Waziraha, who had been driven from
their homes across the Kingani river by the slave-hunters, had
taken possession of the place, and disposed their little conical-
hut villages on the heights of the hill-spurs in such a
picturesque manner, that one could not help hoping they would
here at least be allowed to rest in peace and quietness. The
valleys, watered by little brooks, are far richer, and even
prettier, than the high lands above, being lined with fine trees
and evergreen shrubs; while the general state of prosperity was
such, that the people could afford, even at this late season of
the year, to turn their corn into malt to brew beer for sale; and
goats and fowls were plentiful in the market.

Passing by the old village of Mbuiga, which I occupied on my
former expedition, we entered some huts on the western flank of
the Mbuiga district; and here, finding a coast-man, a great
friend of the little sheikh's, willing to take back to Zanzibar
anything we might give him, a halt was made, and I drew up my
reports. I then consigned to his charge three of the most sickly
of the Hottentots in a deplorable condition--one of the mules,
that they might ride by turns--and all the specimens that had
been collected. With regret I also sent back the camera; because
I saw, had I allowed my companion to keep working it, the heat he
was subjected to in the little tent whilst preparing and fixing
his plates would very soon have killed him. The number of
guinea-fowl seen here was most surprising.

A little lighter and much more comfortable for the good riddance
of those grumbling "Tots," we worked up to and soon breasted the
stiff ascent of the Mabruki Pass, which we surmounted without
much difficult. This concluded the first range of these Usagara
hills; and once over, we dropped down to the elevated valley of
Makata, where we halted two days to shoot. As a travelling Arab
informed me that the whole of the Maroro district had been laid
waste by the marauding Wahehe, I changed our plans again, and
directed our attention to a middle and entirely new line, which
in the end would lead us to Ugogi. The first and only giraffe
killed upon the journey was here shot by Grant, with a little 40-
gauge Lancaster rifle, at 200 yards' distance. Some smaller
animals were killed; but I wasted all my time in fruitlessly
stalking some wounded striped eland--magnificent animals, as
large as Delhi oxen--and some other animals, of which I wounded
three, about the size of hartebeest, and much their shape, only
cream-coloured, with a conspicuous black spot in the centre of
each flank. The eland may probably be the animal first mentioned
by Livingstone, but the other animal is not known.

Though reluctant to leave a place where such rare animals were to
be found, the fear of remaining longer on the road induced us to
leave Kikobogo, and at a good stride we crossed the flat valley
of Makata, and ascended the higher lands beyond, where we no
sooner arrived than we met the last down trader from Unyamuezi,
well known to all my men as the great Mamba or Crocodile. Mamba,
dressed in a dirty Arab gown, with coronet of lion's nails
decorating a thread-bare cutch cap, greeted us with all the
dignity of a savage potentate surrounded by his staff of half-
naked officials. As usual, he had been the last to leave the
Unyamuezi, and so purchased all his stock of ivory at a cheap
rate, there being no competitors left to raise the value of that
commodity; but his journey had been a very trying one. With a
party, at his own estimate, of two thousand souls-- we did not
see anything like that number--he had come from Ugogo to this, by
his own confession, living on the products of the jungle, and by
boiling down the skin aprons of his porters occasionally for a
soup. Famines were raging throughout the land, and the Arabs
preceding him had so harried the country, that every village was
deserted. On hearing our intention to march upon the direct
line, he frankly said he thought we should never get through for
my men could not travel as he had done, and therefore he advised
our deflecting northwards from New Mbumi to join the track
leading from Rumuma to Ugogi. This was a sad disappointment;
but, rather than risk a failure, I resolved to follow his advice.

After reaching the elevated ground, we marched over rolling tops,
covered with small trees and a rich variety of pretty bulbs, and
reached the habitations of Muhanda, where we no sooner appeared
than the poor villagers, accustomed only to rough handling,
immediately dispersed in the jungles. By dint of persuasion,
however, we induced them to sell us provisions, though at a
monstrous rate, such as no merchant could have afforded; and
having spent the night quietly, we proceeded on to the upper
courses of the M'yombo river, which trends its way northwards to
the Mukondokua river. The scenery was most interesting, with
every variety of hill, roll, plateau, and ravine, wild and
prettily wooded; but we saw nothing of the people. Like
frightened rats, as soon as they caught the sound of our
advancing march, they buried themselves in the jungles, carrying
off their grain with them. Foraging parties, of necessity, were
sent out as soon as the camp was pitched, with cloth for
purchases, and strict orders not to use force; the upshot of
which was, that my people got nothing but a few arrows fired at
them by the lurking villagers, and I was abused for my
squeamishness. Moreover, the villagers, emboldened by my lenity,
vauntingly declared they would attack the camp by night, as they
could only recognise in us such men as plunder their houses and
steal their children. This caused a certain amount of alarm
among my men, which induced them to run up a stiff bush-fence
round the camp, and kept them talking all night.

This morning we marched on as usual, with one of the Hottentots
lashed on a donkey; for the wretched creature, after lying in the
sun asleep, became so sickly that he could not move or do
anything for himself, and nobody would do anything for him. The
march was a long one, but under ordinary circumstances would have
been very interesting, for we passed an immense lagoon, where
hippopotami were snorting as if they invited an attack. In the
larger tree-jungles the traces of elephants, buffaloes,
rhinoceros, and antelopes were very numerous; while a rich
variety of small birds, as often happened, made me wish I had
come on a shooting rather than on a long exploring expedition.
Towards sunset we arrived at New Mbimi, a very pretty and fertile
place, lying at the foot of a cluster of steep hills, and pitched
camp for three days to lay in supplies for ten, as this was
reported to be the only place where we could buy corn until we
reached Ugogo, a span of 140 miles. Mr Mbumi, the chief of the
place, a very affable negro, at once took us by the hand, and
said he would do anything we desired, for he had often been to
Zanzibar. He knew that the English were the ruling power in that
land, and that they were opposed to slavery, the terrible effects
of which had led to his abandoning Old Mbumi, on the banks of the
Mukondokua river, and rising here.

The sick Hottentot died here, and we buried him with Christian
honours. As his comrades said, he died because he had determined
to die,--an instance of that obstinate fatalism in their mulish
temperament which no kind words or threats can cure. This
terrible catastrophe made me wish to send all the remaining
Hottentots back to Zanzibar; but as they all preferred serving
with me to returning to duty at the Cape, I selected two of the
MOST sickly, put them under Tabib, one of Rigby's old servants,
and told him to remain with them at Mbumi until such time as he
might find some party proceeding to the coasts; and, in the
meanwhile, for board and lodgings I have Mbumi beads and cloth.
The prices of provisions here being a good specimen of what one
has to pay at this season of the year, I give a short list of
them:--sixteen rations corn, two yards cloth; three fowls, two
yards cloth; one goat, twenty yards cloth; one cow, forty yards
cloth,--the cloth being common American sheeting. Before we left
Mbumi, a party of forty men and women of the Waquiva tribe,
pressed by famine, were driven there to purchase food. The same
tribe had, however killed many of Mbumi's subjects not long
since, and therefore, in African revenge, the chief seized them
all, saying he would send them off for sale to Zanzibar market
unless they could give a legitimate reason for the cruelty they
had committed. These Waquiva, I was given to understand,
occupied the steep hills surrounding this place. They were a
squalid-looking set, like the generality of the inhabitants of
this mountainous region.

This march led us over a high hill to the Mdunhwi river, another
tributary to the Mukondokua. It is all clad in the upper regions
with the slender pole-trees which characterise these hills,
intermingled with bamboo; but the bottoms are characterised by a
fine growth of fig-trees of great variety along with high
grasses; whilst near the villages were found good gardens of
plantains, and numerous Palmyra trees. The rainy season being
not far off, the villagers were busy in burning rubble and
breaking their ground. Within their reach everywhere is the
sarsaparilla vine, but growing as a weed, for they know nothing
of its value.

Rising up from the deep valley of Mdunhwi we had to cross another
high ridge before descending to the also deep valley of Chongue,
as picturesque a country as the middle heights of the Himalayas,
dotted on the ridges and spur-slopes by numerous small conical-
hut villages; but all so poor that we could not, had we wanted
it, have purchased provisions for a day's consumption.

Leaving this valley, we rose to the table of Manyovi, overhung
with much higher hills, looking, according to the accounts of our
Hottentots, as they eyed the fine herds of cattle grazing on the
slopes, so like the range in Kafraria, that they formed their
expectations accordingly, and appeared, for the first time since
leaving the coast, happy at the prospect before them, little
dreaming that such rich places were seldom to be met with. The
Wanyamuezi porters even thought they had found a paradise, and
forthwith threw down their loads as the villagers came to offer
them grain for sale; so that, had I not had the Wanguana a little
under control, we should not have completed our distance that
day, and so reached Manyonge, which reminded me, by its ugliness,
of the sterile Somali land. Proceeding through the semi-desert
rolling table-land--in one place occupied by men who build their
villages in large open squares of flat-topped mud huts, which,
when I have occasion to refer to them in future, I shall call by
their native name tembe--we could see on the right hand the
massive mountains overhanging the Mukondokua river, to the front
the western chain of these hills, and to the left the high crab-
claw shaped ridge, which, extending from the western chain,
circles round conspicuously above the swelling knolls which lie
between the two main rocky ridges. Contorted green thorn-trees,
"elephant-foot" stumps, and aloes, seem to thrive best here, by
their very nature indicating what the country is, a poor stony
land. Our camp was pitched by the river Rumuma, where, sheltered
from the winds, and enriched by alluvial soil, there ought to
have been no scarcity; but still the villagers had nothing to

On we went again to Marenga Mkhaili, the "Salt Water," to
breakfast, and camped in the crooked green thorns by night,
carrying water on for our supper. This kind of travelling--
forced marches--hard as it may appear, was what we liked best,
for we felt that we were shortening the journey, and in doing so,
shortening the risks of failure by disease, by war, by famine,
and by mutiny. We had here no grasping chiefs to detain us for
presents, nor had our men time to become irritable and truculent,
concoct devices for stopping the way, or fight amongst

On again, and at last we arrived at the foot of the western
chain; but not all together. Some porters, overcome by heat and
thirst, lay scattered along the road, while the corporal of the
Hottentots allowed his mule to stray from him, never dreaming the
animal would travel far from his comrades, and, in following
after him, was led such a long way into the bush, that my men
became alarmed for his safety, knowing as they did that the
"savages" were out living like monkeys on the calabash fruit, and
looking out for any windfalls, such as stragglers worth
plundering, that might come in their way. At first the Wanguana
attempted to track down the corporal; but finding he would not
answer their repeated shots, and fearful for their own safety,
they came into camp and reported the case. Losing no time, I
ordered twenty men, armed with carbines, to carry water for the
distressed porters, and bring the corporal back as soon as
possible. They all marched off, as they always do on such
exploits, in high good-humour with themselves for the valour
which they intended to show; and in the evening came in, firing
their guns in the most reckless manner, beaming with delight; for
they had the corporal in tow, two men and two women captives, and
a spear as a trophy. Then in high impatience, all in a breath,
they began a recital of the great day's work. The corporal had
followed on the spoor of the mule, occasionally finding some of
his things that had been torn from the beast's back by the
thorns, and, picking up these one by one, had become so burdened
with the weight of them, that he could follow no farther. In
this fix the twenty men came up with him, but not until they had
had a scrimmage with the "savages," had secured four, and taken
the spear which had been thrown at them. Of the mule's position
no one could give an opinion, save that they imagined, in
consequence of the thickness of the bush, he would soon become
irretrievably entangled in the thicket, where the savages would
find him, and bring him in as a ransom for the prisoners.

What with the diminution of our supplies, the famished state of
the country, and the difficulties which frowned upon us in
advance, together with unwillingness to give up so good a mule,
with all its gear and ammunition, I must say I felt doubtful as
to what had better be done, until the corporal, who felt
confident he would find the beast, begged so hard that I sent him
in command of another expedition of sixteen men, ordering him to
take one of the prisoners with him to proclaim to his brethren
that we would give up the rest if they returned us the mule. The
corporal then led off his band to the spot where he last saw
traces of the animal, and tracked on till sundown; while Grant
and myself went out pot-hunting and brought home a bag consisting
of one striped eland, one saltiana antelope, four guinea-fowl,
four ringdoves, and one partridge--a welcome supply, considering
we were quite out of flesh.

Next day, as there were no signs of the trackers, I went again to
the place of the elands, wounded a fine male, but gave up the
chase, as I heard the unmistakable gun-firing return of the
party, and straightway proceeded to camp. Sure enough, there
they were; they had tracked the animal back to Marenga Mkhali,
through jungle-- for he had not taken to the footpath. Then
finding he had gone on, they returned quite tired and famished.
To make the most of a bad job, I now sent Grant on to the Robeho
(or windy) Pass, on the top of the western chain, with the mules
and heavy baggage, and directions to proceed thence across the
brow of the hill the following morning, while I remained behind
with the tired men, promising to join him by breakfast-time. I
next released the prisoners, much to their disgust, for they had
not known such good feeding before, and dreaded being turned
adrift again in the jungles to live on calabash seeds; and then,
after shooting six guinea-fowl, turned in for the night.

Betimes in the morning we were off, mounting the Robeho, a good
stiff ascent, covered with trees and large blocks of granite,
excepting only where cleared for villages; and on we went
rapidly, until at noon the advance party was reached, located in
a village overlooking the great interior plateau--a picture, as
it were, of the common type of African scenery. Here, taking a
hasty meal, we resumed the march all together, descended the
great western chain, and, as night set in, camped in a ravine at
the foot of it, not far from the great junction-station Ugogi,
where terminate the hills of Usagara.

Chapter IV

Ugogo, and the Wilderness of Mgunda Mkhali

The Lie of the Country--Rhinoceros-Stalking--Scuffle of Villagers
over a Carcass--Chief "Short-Legs" and His Successors-- Buffalo-
Shooting--Getting Lost--A Troublesome Sultan--Desertions from the
Camp--Getting Plundered--Wilderness March--Diplomatic Relations
with the Local Powers--Manua Sera's Story--Christmas-- The Relief
from Kaze

This day's work led us from the hilly Usagara range into the more
level lands of the interior. Making a double march of it, we
first stopped to breakfast at the quiet little settlement of
Inenge, where cattle were abundant, but grain so scarce that the
villagers were living on calabash seeds. Proceeding thence
across fields delightfully checkered with fine calabash and fig
trees, we marched, carrying water through thorny jungles, until
dark, when we bivouacked for the night, only to rest and push on
again next morning, arriving at Marenga Mkhali (the saline water)
to breakfast. Here a good view of the Usagara hills is obtained.
Carrying water with us, we next marched half-way to the first
settlement of Ugogo, and bivouacked again, to eat the last of our
store of Mbumi grain.

At length the greater famine lands had been spanned; but we were
not in lands of plenty--for the Wagogo we found, like their
neighbours Wasagara, eating the seed of the calabash, to save
their small stores of grain.

The East Coast Range having been passed, no more hills had to be
crossed, for the land we next entered on is a plateau of rolling
ground, sloping southward to the Ruaha river, which forms a great
drain running from west to east, carrying off all the rainwaters
that fall in its neighbourhood through the East Coast Range to
the sea. To the northward can be seen some low hills, which are
occupied by Wahumba, a subtribe of the warlike Masai; and on the
west is the large forest-wilderness of Mgunda Mkhali. Ugogo,
lying under the lee side of the Usagara hills, is comparatively
sterile. Small outcrops of granite here and there poke through
the surface, which, like the rest of the rolling land, being
covered with bush, principally acacias, have a pleasing
appearance after the rains have set in, but are too brown and
desert-looking during the rest of the year. Large prairies of
grass also are exposed in many places, and the villagers have
laid much ground bare for agricultural purposes.

Altogether, Ugogo has a very wild aspect, well in keeping with
the natives who occupy it, who, more like the Wazaramo than the
Wasagara, carry arms, intended for use rather than show. The
men, indeed, are never seen without their usual arms--the spear,
the shield, and the assage. They live in flat-topped, square,
tembe villages, wherever springs of water are found, keep cattle
in plenty, and farm enough generally to supply not only their own
wants, but those of the thousands who annually pass in caravans.
They are extremely fond of ornaments, the most common of which is
an ugly tube of the gourd thrust through the lower lobe of the
ear. Their colour is a soft ruddy brown, with a slight infusion
of black, not unlike that of a rich plum. Impulsive by nature,
and exceedingly avaricious, they pester travellers beyond all
conception, by thronging the road, jeering, quizzing, and
pointing at them; and in camp, by intrusively forcing their way
into the midst of the kit, and even into the stranger's tent.
Caravans, in consequence, never enter their villages, but camp
outside, generally under the big "gouty-limbed" trees--encircling
their entire camp sometimes with a ring-fence of thorns to
prevent any sudden attack.

To resume the thread of the journey: we found, on arrival in
Ugogo, very little more food than in Usagara for the Wagogo were
mixing their small stores of grain with the monkey-bread seeds of
the gouty-limbed tree. Water was so scarce in the wells at this
season that we had to buy it at the normal price of country beer;
and, as may be imagined where such distress in food was existing,
cows, goats, sheep, and fowls were also selling at high rates.

Our mules here gave us the slip again, and walked all the way
back to Marenga Mkhali, where they were found and brought back by
some Wagogo, who took four yards of merikani in advance, with a
promise of four more on return, for the job--their chief being
security for their fidelity. This business detained us two days,
during which time I shot a new variety of florikan, peculiar in
having a light blue band stretching from the nose over the eye to
the occiput. Each day, while we resided here, cries were raised
by the villagers that the Wahumba were coming, and then all the
cattle out in the plains, both far and near, were driven into the
village for protection.

At last, on the 26th, as the mules were brought it, I paid a
hongo or tax of four barsati and four yards of chintz to the
chief, and departed, but not until one of my porters, a Mhehe,
obtained a fat dog for his dinner; he had set his heart on it,
and would not move until he had killed it, and tied it on to his
load for the evening's repast. Passing through the next
villages--a collection called Kifukuro--we had to pay another
small tax of two barsati and four yards of chintz to the chief.
There we breakfasted, and pushed on, carrying water to a bivouac
in the jungles, as the famine precluded our taking the march more

Pushing on again, we cleared out of the woods, and arrived at the
eastern border of the largest clearance of Ugogo, Kanyenye. Here
we were forced to halt a day, as the mules were done up, and
eight of the Wanyamuezi porters absconded, carrying with them the
best part of their loads. There was also another inducement for
stopping here; for, after stacking the loads, as we usually did
on arriving in camp, against a large gouty-limbed tree, a hungry
Mgogo, on eyeing our guns, offered his services to show us some
bicornis rhinoceros, which, he said paid nightly visits to
certain bitter pools that lay in the nullah bottoms not far off.
This exciting intelligence made me inquire if it was not possible
to find them at once; but, being assured that they lived very far
off, and that the best chance was the night, I gave way, and
settled on starting at ten, to arrive at the ground before the
full moon should rise.

I set forth with the guide and two of the sheikh's boys, each
carrying a single rifle, and ensconced myself in the nullah, to
hide until our expected visitors should arrive, and there
remained until midnight. When the hitherto noisy villagers
turned into bed, the silvery moon shed her light on the desolate
scene, and the Mgogo guide, taking fright, bolted. He had not,
however, gone long, when, looming above us, coming over the
horizon line, was the very animal we wanted.

In a fidgety manner the beast then descended, as if he expected
some danger in store--and he was not wrong; for, attaching a bit
of white paper to the fly-sight of my Blissett, I approached him,
crawling under cover of the banks until within eighty yards of
him, when, finding that the moon shone full on his flank, I
raised myself upright and planted a bullet behind his left
shoulder. Thus died my first rhinoceros.

To make the most of the night, as I wanted meat for my men to
cook, as well as a stock to carry with them, or barter with the
villagers for grain, I now retired to my old position, and waited

After two hours had elapsed, two more rhinoceros approached me in
the same stealthy, fidgety way as the first one. They came even
closer than the first, but, the moon having passed beyond their
meridian, I could not obtain so clear a mark. Still they were
big marks, and I determined on doing my best before they had time
to wind us; so stepping out, with the sheikh's boys behind me
carrying the second rifle to meet all emergencies, I planted a
ball in the larger one, and brought him round with a roar and
whooh-whooh, exactly to the best position I could wish for
receiving a second shot; but, alas! on turning sharply round for
the spare rifle, I had the mortification to see that both the
black boys had made off, and were scrambling like monkeys up a
tree. At the same time the rhinoceros, fortunately for me, on
second consideration turned to the right-about, and shuffled
away, leaving, as is usually the case when conical bullets are
used, no traces of blood.

Thus ended the night's work. We now went home by dawn to apprise
all the porters that we had flesh in store for them, when the two
boys who had so shamelessly deserted me, instead of hiding their
heads, described all the night's scenes with such capital mimicry
as to set the whole camp in a roar. We had all now to hurry back
to the carcass before the Wagogo could find it; but though this
precaution was quickly taken, still, before the tough skin of the
beast could be cut through, the Wagogo began assembling like
vultures, and fighting with my men. A more savage, filthy,
disgusting, but at the same time grotesque, scene than that which
followed cannot be conceived. All fell to work armed with
swords, spears, knives, and hatchets--cutting and slashing,
thumping and bawling, fighting and tearing, tumbling and
wrestling up to their knees in filth and blood in the middle of
the carcass. When a tempting morsel fell to the possession of
any one, a stronger neighbour would seize and bear off the prize
in triumph. All right was now a matter or pure might, and lucky
it was that it did not end in a fight between our men and the
villagers. These might be afterwards seen, one by one, covered
with blood, scampering home each with his spoil--a piece of
tripe, or liver, or lights, or whatever else it might have been
his fortune to get off with.

We were still in great want of men; but rather than stop a day,
as all delays only lead to more difficulties, I pushed on to
Magomba's palace with the assistance of some Wagogo carrying our
baggage, each taking one cloth as his hire. The chief wazir at
once come out to meet me on the way, and in an apparently affable
manner, as an old friend, begged that I would live in the palace-
-a bait which I did not take, as I knew my friend by experience a
little too well. he then, in the politest possible manner, told
me that a great dearth of food was oppressing the land--so much
so, that pretty cloths only would purchase grain. I now wished
to settle my hongo, but the great chief could not hear of such
indecent haste.

The next day, too, the chief was too drunk to listen to any one,
and I must have patience. I took out this time in the jungles
very profitably, killing a fine buck and doe antelope, of a
species unknown. These animals are much about the same size and
shape as the common Indian antelope, and, like them, roam about
in large herds. The only marked difference between the two is in
the shape of their horns, as may be seen by the woodcut; and in
their colour, in which, in both sexes, the Ugogo antelopes
resemble the picticandata gazelle of Tibet, except that the
former have dark markings on the face.

At last, after thousands of difficulties much like those I
encountered in Uzaramo, the hongo was settled by a payment of one
kisutu, one dubani, four yards bendera, four yards kiniki, and
three yards merikani. The wazir then thought he would do some
business on his own account, and commenced work by presenting me
with a pot of ghee and flour, saying at the same time "empty
words did not show true love," and hoping that I would prove mine
by making some slight return. To get rid of the animal I gave
him the full value of his present in cloth, which he no sooner
pocketed than he had the audacity to accuse Grant of sacrilege
for having shot a lizard on a holy stone, and demanded four
cloths to pay atonement for this offence against the "church."
As yet, he said, the chief was not aware of the damage done, and
it was well he was not; for he would himself, if I only paid him
the four cloths, settle matters quietly, otherwise there would be
no knowing what demands might be made on my cloth. It was
necessary to get up hot temper, else there was no knowing how far
he would go; so I returned him his presents, and told the sheikh,
instead of giving four, to fling six cloths in his face, and tell
him that the holy-stone story was merely a humbug, and I would
take care no more white men ever came to see him again.

Some Wanyamuezi porters, who had been left sick here by former
caravans, now wished to take service with me as far as Kaze; but
the Wagogo, hearing of their desire, frightened them off it. A
report also at this time was brought to us, that a caravan had
just arrived at our last ground, having come up from Whindi,
direct by the line of the Wami river, in its upper course called
Mukondokua, without crossing a single hill all the way; I
therefore sent three men to see if they had any porters to spare,
as it was said they had; but the three men, although they left
their bows and arrows behind, never came back.

Another mule died to-day. This was perplexing indeed, but to
stop longer was useless; so we pushed forward as best we could to
a pond at the western end of the district where we found a party
of Makua sportsmen who had just killed an elephant. They had
lived in Ugogo one year and a half, and had killed in all
seventeen elephants; half the tusks of which, as well as some
portion of the flesh, they gave to Magomba for the privilege of
residing there. There were many antelopes there, some of which
both Grant and I shot for the good of the pot, and he also killed
a crocute hyena. From the pond we went on to the middle of a
large jungle, and bivouacked for the night in a shower of rain,
the second of the season.

During a fierce downpour of rain, the porters all quivering and
quaking with cold, we at length emerged from the jungle, and
entered the prettiest spot in Ugogo--the populous district of
Usekhe--where little hills and huge columns of granite crop out.
Here we halted.

Next day came the hongo business, which was settled by paying one
dubani, one kitambi, one msutu, four yards merikani, and two
yards kiniki; but whilst we were doing it eight porters ran away,
and four fresh ones were engaged (Wanyamuezi) who had run away
from Kanyenye.

With one more march from this we reached the last district in
Ugogo, Khoko. Here the whole of the inhabitants turned out to
oppose us, imagining we had come there to revenge the Arab,
Mohinna, because the Wagogo attacked him a year ago, plundered
his camp, and drove him back to Kaze, for having shot their old
chief "Short-legs." They, however, no sooner found out who we
were than they allowed us to pass on, and encamp in the outskirts
of the Mgunda Mkhali wilderness. To this position in the bush I
strongly objected, on the plea that guns could be best used
against arrows in the open; but none would go out in the field,
maintaining that the Wagogo would fear to attack us so far from
their villages, as we now were, lest we might cut them off in
their retreat.

Hori Hori was now chief in Short-leg's stead, and affected to be
much pleased that we were English, and not Arabs. He told us we
might, he thought, be able to recruit all the men that we were in
want of, as many Wanyanuezi who had been left there sick wished
to go to their homes; and I would only, in addition to their
wages, have to pay their "hotel bills" to the Wagogo. This, of
course, I was ready to do, though I knew the Wanyamuezi had paid
for themselves, as is usual, by their work in the fields of their
hosts. Still, as I should be depriving these of hands, I could
scarcely expect to get off for less than the value of a slave for
each, and told Sheikh said to look out for some men at once,
whilst at the same time he laid in provisions of grain to last us
eight days in the wilderness, and settle the hongo.

For this triple business, I allowed three days, during which
time, always eager to shoot something, either for science or the
pot, I killed a bicornis rhinoceros, at a distance of five paces
only, with my small 40-gauge Lancaster, as the beast stood
quietly feeding in the bush; and I also shot a bitch fox of the
genus Octocyon lalandii, whose ill-omened cry often alarms the
natives by forewarning them of danger. This was rather tame
sport; but next day I had better fun.

Starting in the early morning, accompanied by two of Sheikh
Said's boys, Suliman and Faraj, each carrying a rifle, while I
carried a shot-gun, we followed a footpath to the westward in the
wilderness of Mgunda Mkhali. There, after walking a short while
in the bush, as I heard the grunt of a buffalo close on my left,
I took "Blissett" in hand, and walked to where I soon espied a
large herd quietly feeding. They were quite unconscious of my
approach, so I took a shot at a cow, and wounded her; then, after
reloading, put a ball in a bull and staggered him also. This
caused great confusion among them; but as none of the animals
knew where the shots came from, they simply shifted about in a
fidgety manner, allowing me to kill the first cow, and even fire
a fourth shot, which sickened the great bull, and induced him to
walk off, leaving the herd to their fate, who, considerably
puzzled, began moving off also.

I now called up the boys, and determined on following the herd
down before either skinning the dead cow or following the bull,
who I knew could not go far. Their footprints being well defined
in the moist sandy soil, we soon found the herd again; but as
they now knew they were pursued, they kept moving on in short
runs at a time, when, occasionally gaining glimpses of their
large dark bodies as they forced through the bush, I repeated my
shots and struck a good number, some more and some less severely.
This was very provoking; for all of them being stern shots were
not likely to kill, and the jungle was so thick I could not get a
front view of them. Presently, however, one with her hind leg
broken pulled up on a white-ant hill, and, tossing her horns,
came down with a charge the instant I showed myself close to her.
One crack of the rifle rolled her over, and gave me free scope to
improve the bag, which was very soon done; for on following the
spoors, the traces of blood led us up to another one as lame as
the last. He then got a second bullet in the flank, and, after
hobbling a little, evaded our sight and threw himself into a
bush, where we not sooner arrived than he plunged headlong at us
from his ambush, just, and only just, giving me time to present
my small 40-gauge Lancaster.

It was a most ridiculous scene. Suliman by my side, with the
instinct of a monkey, made a violent spring and swung himself by
a bough immediately over the beast, whilst Faraj bolted away and
left me single-gunned to polish him off. There was only one
course to pursue, for in one instant more he would have been into
me; so, quick as thought, I fired the gun, and, as luck would
have it, my bullet, after passing through the edge of one of his
horns, stuck in the spine of his neck, and rolled him over at my
feet as dead as a rabbit. Now, having cut the beast's throat to
make him "hilal," according to Mussulman usage, and thinking we
had done enough if I could only return to the first wounded bull
and settle him too, we commenced retracing our steps, and by
accident came on Grant. He was passing by from another quarter,
and became amused by the glowing description of my boys, who
never omitted to narrate their own cowardice as an excellent
tale. He begged us to go on in our course, whilst he would go
back and send us some porters to carry home the game.

Now, tracking back again to the first point of attack, we
followed the blood of the first bull, till at length I found him
standing like a stuck pig in some bushes, looking as if he would
like to be put out of his miseries. Taking compassion, I
levelled my Blisset; but, as bad luck would have it, a bough
intercepted the flight of the bullet, and it went "pinging" into
the air, whilst the big bull went off at a gallop. To follow on
was no difficulty, the spoor was so good; and in ten minutes
more, as I opened on a small clearance, Blisset in hand, the
great beast, from the thicket on the opposite side, charged down
like a mad bull, full of ferocity--as ugly an antagonist as ever
I saw, for the front of his head was all shielded with horn. A
small mound fortunately stood between us, and as he rounded it, I
jumped to one side and let fly at his flank, but without the
effect of stopping him; for, as quick as thought, the huge
monster was at my feet, battling with the impalpable smoke of my
gun, which fortunately hung so thick on the ground at the height
of his head that he could not see me, though I was so close that
I might, had I been possessed of a hatchet, have chopped off his
head. This was a predicament which looked very ugly, for my boys
had both bolted, taking with them my guns; but suddenly the
beast, evidently regarding the smoke as a phantom which could not
be mastered, turned round in a bustle, to my intense relief, and
galloped off at full speed, as if scared by some terrible

O what would I not then have given for a gun, the chance was such
a good one! Still, angry though I was, I could not help laughing
as the dastardly boys came into the clearance full of their
mimicry, and joked over the scene they had witnessed in security,
whilst my life was in jeopardy because they were too frightened
to give me my gun. But now came the worst part of the day; for,
though rain was falling, I had not the heart to relinquish my
game. Tracking on through the bush, I thought every minute I
should come up with the brute; but his wounds ceased to bleed,
and in the confusion of the numerous tracks which scored all the
forest we lost our own.

Much disappointed at this, I now proposed to make for the track
we came by in the morning, and follow it down into camp; but this
luxury was not destined to be our lot that night, for the rain
had obliterated all our footprints of the morning, and we passed
the track, mistaking it for the run of wild beasts. It struck me
we had done so; but say what I would, the boys thought they knew
better; and the consequence was that, after wandering for hours
no one knew where--for there was no sun to guide us--I pulled up,
and swore I would wait for the stars, else it might be our fate
to be lost in the wilderness, which I did not much relish. We
were all at this time "hungry as hunters," and beginning to feel
very miserable from being wet through. What little ammunition I
had left I fired off as signals, or made tinder of to get up a
fire, but the wood would not burn. In this hapless condition the
black boys began murmuring, wishing to go on, pretending, though
both held opposite views, that each knew the way; for they
thought nothing could be worse than their present state of

Night with its gloom was then drawing on, heightened by thunder
and lightning, which set in all around us. At times we thought
we heard musketry in camp, knowing that Grant would be sure to
fire signals for us; and doubtless we did so, but its sound and
the thunder so much resembled one another that we distrusted our
ears. At any rate, the boys mistook the west for the east; and
as I thought they had done so, I stood firm to one spot, and
finally lay down with them to sleep upon the cold wet ground,
where we slept pretty well, being only disturbed occasionally by
some animals sniffing at our feet. As the clouds broke towards
morning, my obstinate boys still swore that west was east, and
would hardly follow me when tracking down Venus; next up rose the
moon and then followed the sun, when, as good luck would have it,
we struck on the track, and walked straight into camp.

Here every one was in a great state of excitement: Grant had been
making the men fire volleys. The little sheikh was warmly
congratulatory as he spoke of the numbers who had strayed away
and had been lost in that wilderness; whilst Bombay admitted he
thought we should turn up again if I did not listen to the advice
of the boys, which was his only fear. Nothing as yet, I now
found, had been done to further our march. The hongo, the sheikh
said, had to precede everything; yet that had not been settled,
because the chief deferred it the day of our arrival, on the plea
that it was the anniversary of Short-legs's death; and he also
said that till then all the Wagogo had been in mourning by
ceasing to wear all their brass bracelets and other ornaments,
and they now wished to solemnise the occasion by feasting and
renewing their finery. This being granted, the next day another
pretext for delay was found, by the Wahumba having made a raid on
their cattle, which necessitated the chief and all his men
turning out to drive them away; and to-day nothing could be
attended to, as a party of fugitive Wanyamuezi had arrived and
put them all in a fright. These Wanyamuezi, it then transpired,
were soldiers of Manua Sera, the "Tippler," who was at war with
the Arabs. He had been defeated at Mguru, a district in
Unyamuezi, by the Arabs, and had sent these men to cut off the
caravan route, as the best way of retaliation that lay in his

At last the tax having been settled by the payment of one dubani,
two barsati, one sahari, six yards merikani, and three yards
kiniki (not, however, until I had our tents struck, and
threatened to march away if the chief would not take it), I
proposed going on with the journey, for our provisions were
stored. but when the loads were being lifted, I found ten more
men were missing; and as nothing now could be done but throw ten
loads away, which seemed to great a sacrifice to be made in a
hurry, I simply changed ground to show we were ready to march,
and sent my men about, either to try to induce the fugitive
Wanyamuezi to take service with me or else to buy donkeys, as the
chief said he had some to sell.

We had already been here too long. A report was now spread that
a lion had killed one of the chief's cows; and the Wagogo,
suspecting that our being here was the cause of this ill luck,
threatened to attack us. This no sooner got noised over the camp
than all my Wanyamuezi porters, who had friends in Ugogo, left to
live with them, and would not come back again even when the
"storm had blown over," because they did not like the incessant
rains that half deluged the camp. The chief, too, said he would
not sell us his donkeys, lest we should give them back to
Mohinna, from whom they were taken during his fight here.
Intrigues of all sorts I could see were brewing, possibly at the
instigation of the fugitive Wanyamuezi, who suspected we were
bound to side with the Arabs-- possibly from some other cause, I
could not tell what; so, to clear out of this pandemonium as soon
as possible I issued cloths to buy double rations, intending to
cross the wilderness by successive relays in double the ordinary
number of days. I determined at the same time to send forward
two freed men to Kaze to ask Musa and the Arabs to send me out
some provisions and men to meet us half-way.

Matters grew worse and worse. The sultan, now finding me unable
to move, sent a message to say if I would not give him some
better cloths to make his hongo more respectable, he would attack
my camp; and advised all the Wanyamuezi who regarded their lives
not to go near me if I resisted. This was by no means pleasant;
for the porters showed their uneasiness by extracting their own
cloths from my bundles, under the pretext that they wished to
make some purchases of their own. I ought, perhaps, to have
stopped this; but I thought the best plan was to show total
indifference; so, at the same time that they were allowed to take
their cloths, I refused to comply with the chief's request, and
begged them to have no fear so long as they saw I could hold my
own ground with my guns.

The Wanyamuezi, however, were panic-stricken, and half of them
bolted, with the kirangozi at their head, carrying off all the
double-ration cloths as well as their own. At this time, the
sultan, having changed tactics, as he saw us all ready to stand
on the defensive, sent back his hongo; but, instead of using
threats, said he would oblige us with donkeys or anything else if
we would only give him a few more pretty cloths. With this
cringing, perfidious appeal I refused to comply, until the
sheikh, still more cringing, implored me to give way else not a
single man would remain with me. I then told him to settle with
the chief himself, and give me the account, which amounted to
three barsati, two sahari, and three yards merikani; but the
donkeys were never alluded to.

With half my men gone, I still ordered the march, though strongly
opposed to the advice of one of old Mamba's men, who was then
passing by on his way to the coast, in command of his master's
rear detachment. He thought it impossible for us to pull through
the wilderness, with its jungle grasses and roots, depending for
food only on Grant's gun and my own; still we made half-way to
the Mdaburu nullah, taking some of Mamba's out to camp with us,
as he promised to take letters and specimens down to the coast
for us, provided I paid him some cloths as ready money down, and
promised some more to be paid at Zanzibar. These letters
eventually reached home, but not the specimens.

The rains were so heavy that the whole country was now flooded,
but we pushed on to the nullah by relays, and pitched on its left
bank. In the confusion of the march, however, we lost many more
porters, who at the same time relieved us of their loads, by
slipping off stealthily into the bush.

The fifteenth was a forced halt, as the stream was so deep and so
violent we could not cross it. To make the best of this very
unfortunate interruption, I now sent on two men to Kaze, with
letters to Musa and Sheikh Snay, both old friends on the former
expedition, begging them to send me sixty men, each carrying
thirty rations of grain, and some country tobacco. The tobacco
was to gratify my men, who said of all things they most wanted to
cheer them was something to smoke. At the same time I sent back
some other men to Khoko, with cloth to buy grain for present
consumption, as some of my porters were already reduced to living
on wild herbs and white ants. I then sent all the remaining men,
under the directions of Bombay and Baraka, to fell a tall tree
with hatchets, on the banks of the nullah, with a view to
bridging it; but the tree dropped to the wrong side, and thwarted
the plan. The rain ceased on the 17th, just as we put the rain-
gauge out, which was at once interpreted to be our Uganga, or
religious charm, and therefore the cause of its ceasing. It was
the first fine day for a fortnight, so we were only too glad to
put all our things out to dry, and rejoiced to think of the
stream's subsiding. My men who went back to Khoko for grain
having returned with next to nothing-- though, of course, they
had spent all the cloths--I sent back another batch with pretty
cloths, as it was confidently stated that grain was so scarce
there, nothing but the best fabrics would but it. This also
proved a dead failure; but although animals were very scarce,
Grant relieved our anxiety by shooting a zebra and an antelope.

After five halts, we forded the stream, middle deep, and pushed
forwards again, doing short stages of four or five miles a-day,
in the greatest possible confusion; for, whilst Grant and I were
compelled to go out shooting all day for the pot, the sheikh and
Bombay went on with the first half of the property and then,
keeping guard over it sent the men back again to Baraka, who kept
rear-guard, to have the rest brought on. Order there was none:
the men hated this "double work;" all the Wanyamuezi but three
deserted, with the connivance of the coast-men, carrying off
their loads with them, under a mutual understanding, as I found
out afterwards, that the coast-men were to go shares in the
plunder as soon as we reached Unyamuezi. The next great obstacle
in this tug-and-pull wilderness-march presented itself on the
24th, when, after the first half of the property had crossed the
Mabunguru nullah, it rose in flood and cut off the rear half. It
soon, however, subsided; and the next day we reached "the
Springs," where we killed a pig and two rhinoceros. Not content,
however, with this fare--notwithstanding the whole camp had been
living liberally on zebra's and antelope's flesh every day
previously-- some of my coast-men bolted on to the little
settlement of Jiwa la Mkoa, contrary to orders, to purchase some
grain; and in doing so, increased our transport difficulties.

Pulling on in the same way again--when not actually engaged in
shooting, scolding and storming at the men, to keep them up to
the mark, and prevent them from shirking their work, which they
were for every trying to do--we arrived on the 28th at the
"Boss," a huge granite block, from the top of which the green
foliage of the forest-trees looked like an interminable cloud,
soft and waving, fit for fairies to dwell upon. Here the
patience of my men fairly gave way, for the village of Jiwa la
Mkoa was only one long march distance from us; and they, in
consequence, smelt food on in advance much sweeter than the wild
game and wild grasses they had been living on; and many more of
them could not resist deserting us, though they might, had we all
pulled together, have gone more comfortably in, as soon as the
rear property arrived next day with Baraka.

All the men who deserted on the 25th, save Johur and Mutwana, now
came into camp, and told us they had heard from travellers that
those men who had been sent on for reliefs to Kaze were bringing
us a large detachment of slaves to help us on. My men had
brought no food either for us or their friends, as the cloths
they took with them, "which were their own," were scarcely
sufficient to purchase a meal--famines being as bad where they
had been as in Ugogo. To try and get all the men together again,
I now sent off a party loaded with cloths to see what they could
get for us; but they returned on the 30th grinning and joking,
with nothing but a small fragment of goat-flesh, telling lies by
the dozens. Johur then came into camp, unconscious that Baraka
by my orders had, during his absence, been inspecting his kit,
where he found concealed seventy-three yards of cloth, which
could only have been my property, as Johur had brought no akaba
or reserve fund from the coast.

The theft having been proved to the satisfaction of every one, I
ordered Baraka to strip him of everything and give him three
dozen lashes; but after twenty-one had been given, the rest were
remitted on his promising to turn Queen's evidence, when it
transpired that Mutwana had done as much as himself. Johur, it
turned out, was a murderer, having obtained his freedom by
killing his master. He was otherwise a notoriously bad
character; so, wishing to make an example, as I knew all my men
were robbing me daily, though I could not detect them, I had him
turned out of camp. Baraka was a splendid detective, and could
do everything well when he wished it, so I sent him off now with
cloths to see what he could to at Jiwa la Mkoa, and next day he
returned triumphantly driving in cows and goats. Three
Wanyamuezi, also, who heard we were given to shooting wild
animals continually, came with him to offer their services as

As nearly all the men had now returned, Grant and I spent New
Year's Day with the first detachment at Jiwa la Mkoa, or Round
Rock-- a single tembe village occupied by a few Wakimbu settlers,
who, by their presence and domestic habits, made us feel as
though we were well out of the wood. So indeed we found it; for
although this wilderness was formerly an entire forest of trees
and wild animals, numerous Wakimbu, who formerly occupied the
banks of the Ruaha to the southward, had been driven to migrate
here, wherever they could find springs of water, by the
boisterous naked pastorals the Warori.

At night three slaves belonging to Sheikh Salem bin Saif stole
into our camp, and said they had been sent by their master to
seek for porters at Kaze, as all the Wanyamuezi porters of four
large caravans had deserted in Ugogo, and they could not move. I
was rather pleased by this news, and thought it served the
merchants right, knowing, as I well did, that the Wanyamuezi,
being naturally honest, had they not been defrauded by foreigners
on the down march to the coast, would have been honest still.
Some provisions were now obtained by sending men out to distant
villages; but we still supplied the camp with our guns, killing
rhinoceros, wild boar, antelope, and zebras. The last of our
property did not come up till the 5th, when another thief being
caught, got fifty lashes, under the superintendence of Baraka, to
show that punishment was only inflicted to prevent further crime.

The next day my men came from Kaze with letters from Sheikh Snay
and Musa. They had been detained there some days after arrival,
as those merchants' slaves had gone to Utambara to settle some
quarrel there; but as soon as they returned, Musa ordered them to
go and assist us, giving them beads to find rations for
themselves on the way, as the whole country about Kaze had been
half-starved by famines, though he did send a little rice and
tobacco for me. The whole party left Kaze together; but on
arrival at Tura the slaves said they had not enough beads and
would return for some more, when they would follow my men. This
bit of news was the worst that could have befallen us; my men
were broken-hearted enough before, and this drove the last spark
of spirit out of them. To make the best of a bad job, I now sent
Bombay with two other men off to Musa to see what he could do,
and ordered my other men to hire Wakimbu from village to village.
On the 7th, a nervous excitement was produced in the camp by some
of my men running in and calling all to arm, as the fugitive
chief Manua Sera was coming, with thirty armed followers carrying
muskets. Such was the case: and by the time my men were all
under arms, with their sword-bayonets fixed, drawn up by my tent
the veritable "Tippler" arrived; but, not liking the look of such
a formidable array as my men presented, he passed on a short way,
and then sent back a deputation to make known his desire of
calling on me, which was no sooner complied with than he came in
person, attended by a body-guard. On my requesting him to draw
near and sit, his wooden stool was placed for him. He began the
conversation by telling me he had heard of my distress from want
of porters, and then offered to assist me with some, provided I
would take him to Kaze, and mediate between him and the Arabs;
for, through their unjustifiable interference in his government
affairs, a war had ensued, which terminated with the Arabs
driving him from his possessions a vagabond. Manua Sera, I must
say, was as fine a young man as ever I looked upon. He was very
handsome, and looked as I now saw him the very picture of a
captain of the banditti of the romances. I begged him to tell me
his tale, and, in compliance, he gave me the following

"Shortly after you left Kaze for England, my old father, the late
chief Fundi Kira, died, and by his desire I became lawful chief;
for, though the son of a slave girl, and not of Fundi Kira's
wife, such is the law of inheritance--a constitutional policy
established to prevent any chance of intrigues between the sons
born in legitimate wedlock. Well, after assuming the title of
chief, I gave presents of ivory to all the Arabs with a liberal
hand, but most so to Musa, which caused great jealousy amongst
the other merchants. Then after this I established a property tax
on all merchandise that entered my country. Fundi Kira had never
done so, but I did not think that any reason why I should not,
especially as the Arabs were the only people who lived in my
country exempt from taxation. This measure, however, exasperated
the Arabs, and induced them to send me hostile messages, to the
effect that, if I ever meddled with them, they would dethrone me,
and place Mkisiwa, another illegitimate son, on the throne in my
stead. This," Manua Sera continued, "I could not stand; the
merchants were living on sufferance only in my country. I told
them so, and defied them to interfere with my orders, for I was
not a 'woman,' to be treated with contempt; and this got up a
quarrel. Mkisiwa, seizing at the opportunity of the prize held
out to him by the Arabs as his supporters, then commenced a
system of bribery. Words led to blows; we had a long and tough
fight; I killed many of their number, and they killed mine.
Eventually they drove me from my palace, and placed Mkisiwa there
as chief in my stead. My faithful followers however, never
deserted me; so I went to Rubuga, and put up with old Maula
there. The Arabs followed--drove me to Nguru, and tried to kill
Maula for having fostered me. He, however, escaped them; but
they destroyed his country, and then followed me down to Nguru.
There we fought for many months, until all provisions were
exhausted, when I defied them to catch me, and forced my way
through their ranks. It is needless to say I have been a
wanderer since; and though I wish to make friends, they will not
allow it, but do all they can to hunt me to death. Now, as you
were a friend of my father, I do hope you will patch up this war
for me, which you must think is unjust."

I told Manua Sera I felt very much for him, and I would do my
best if he would follow me to Kaze; but I knew that nothing could
ever be done unless he returned to the free-trade principles of
his father. He then said he had never taken a single tax from the
Arabs, and would gladly relinquish his intention to do so. The
whole affair was commenced in too great a hurry; but whatever
happened he would gladly forgive all if I would use my influence
to reinstate him, for by no other means could he ever get his
crown back again. I then assured him that I would do what I could
to restore the ruined trade of his country, observing that, as
all the ivory that went out of his country, came to ours, and all
imports were productions of our country also, this war injured us
as well as himself. Manua Sera seemed highly delighted, and said
he had a little business to transact in Ugogo at present, but he
would overtake me in a few days. He then sent me one of my
runaway porters, whom he had caught in the woods making off with
a load of my beads. We then separated; and Baraka, by my orders,
gave the thief fifty lashes for his double offence of theft and

On the 9th, having bought two donkeys and engaged several men, we
left Jiwa la Mkoa, with half our traps, and marched to Garaeswi,
where, to my surprise, there were as many as twenty tembes-- a
recently-formed settlement of Wokimbu. Here we halted a day for
the rear convoy, and then went on again by detachments to Zimbo,
where, to our intense delight, Bombay returned to us on the 13th,
triumphantly firing guns, with seventy slaves accompanying him,
and with letters from Snay and Musa, in which they said they
hoped, if I met with Manua Sera, that I would either put a bullet
through his head, or else bring him in a prisoner, that they
might do for him, for the scoundrel had destroyed all their trade
by cutting off caravans. Their fights with him commenced by his
levying taxes in opposition to their treaties with his father,
Fundi Kira, and then preventing his subjects selling them grain.

Once more the whole caravan moved on; but as I had to pay each of
the seventy slaves sixteen yards of cloth, by order of their
masters, in the simple matter of expenditure it would have been
better had I thrown ten loads away at Ugogo, where my
difficulties first commenced. On arrival at Mgongo Thembo--the
Elephant's Back-- called so in consequence of a large granitic
rock, which resembles the back of that animal, protruding through
the ground--we found a clearance in the forest, of two miles in
extent, under cultivation. Here the first man to meet me was the
fugitive chief of Rubuga, Maula. This poor old man--one of the
honestest chiefs in the country--had been to the former
expedition a host and good friend. He now gave me a cow as a
present, and said he would give me ten more if I would assist him
in making friends with the Arabs, who had driven him out of his
country, and had destroyed all his belongings, even putting a
slave to reign in his stead, though he had committed no fault of
intentional injury towards them. It was true Manua Sera, their
enemy, had taken refuge in his palace, but that was not his
fault; for, anticipating the difficulties that would arise, he
did his best to keep Manua Sera out of it, but Manua Sera being
too strong for him, forced his way in. I need not say I tried to
console this unfortunate victim of circumstances as best I could,
inviting him to go with me to Kaze, and promising to protect him
with my life if he feared the Arabs; but the old man, being too
feeble to travel himself, said he would send his son with me.

Next day we pushed on a double march through the forest, and
reached a nullah. As it crosses the track in a southerly
direction, this might either be the head of the Kululu mongo or
river, which, passing through the district of Kiwele, drains
westward into the Malagarazi river, and thence into the
Tanganyika, or else the most westerly tributary to the Ruaha
river, draining eastward into the sea. The plateau, however, is
apparently so flat here, that nothing b a minute survey, or
rather following the watercourse, could determine the matter.
Then emerging from the wilderness, we came into the open
cultivated district of Tura, or "put down"--called so by the
natives because it was, only a few years ago, the first cleared
space in the wilderness, and served as a good halting-station,
after the normal ten day's march in the jungles, where we had now
been struggling more than a month.

The whole place, once so fertile, was now almost depopulated and
in a sad state of ruin, showing plainly the savage ravages of
war; for the Arabs and their slaves, when they take the field,
think more of plunder and slavery than the object they started
on--each man of the force looking out for himself. The
incentives, too, are so great;--a young woman might be caught
(the greatest treasure of earth), or a boy or a girl, a cow or a
goat--all of the fortunes, of themselves too irresistible to be
overlooked when the future is doubtful. Here Sheikh Said broke
down in health of a complaint which he formerly had suffered
from, and from which I at once saw he would never recover
sufficiently well to be ever effective again. It was a sad
misfortune, as the men had great confidence in him, being the
representative of their Zanzibar government: still it could not
be helped; for, as a sick man is, after all, the greatest
possible impediment to a march, it was better to be rid of him
than have the trouble of dragging him; so I made up my mind, as
soon as we reached Kaze, I would drop him there with the Arabs.
He could not be moved on the 16th, so I marched across the plain
and put up in some villages on its western side. Whilst waiting
for the sheikh's arrival, some villagers at night stole several
loads of beads, and ran off with them; but my men, finding the
theft out in time, hunted them down, and recovered all but one
load--for the thieves had thrown their loads down as soon as they
found they were hotly pursued.

Early this morning I called all the head men of the village
together, and demanded the beads to be restored to me; for, as I
was living with them, they were responsible, according to the
laws of the country. They acknowledged the truth and force of my
demand, and said they would each give me a cow as an earnest,
until their chief, who was absent, arrived. This, of course, was
objected to, as the chief, in his absence, must have deputed some
one to govern for him, and I expected him to settle at once, that
I might proceed with the march. Then selecting five of my head
men to conduct the case, with five of their elders, it was
considered my losses were equivalent to thirty head of cattle.
As I remitted the penalty to fifteen head, these were made over
to me, and we went on with the march--all feeling delighted with
the issue but the Hottentots, who, not liking the loss of the
second fifteen cows, said that in Kafirland, where the laws of
the country are the same as here, the whole would have been
taken, and, as it was, they thought I was depriving them of their
rights to beef.

By a double march, the sheikh riding in a hammock slung on a
pole, we now made Kuale, or "Partridge" nullah, which, crossing
the road to the northward, drains these lands to the Malagarazi
river, and thence into the Tanganyika lake. Thence, having spent
the night in the jungle, we next morning pushed into the
cultivated district of Rubuga, and put up in some half-deserted
tembes, where the ravages of war were even more disgusting to
witness than at Tura. The chief, as I have said, was a slave,
placed there by the Arabs on the condition that he would allow
all traders and travellers to help themselves without payment as
long as they chose to reside there. In consequence of this wicked
arrangement, I found it impossible to keep my men from picking
and stealing. They looked upon plunder as their fortune and
right, and my interference as unjustifiable.

By making another morning and evening march, we then reached the
western extremity of this cultivated opening; where, after
sleeping the night, we threaded through another forest to the
little clearance of Kigue, and in one more march through forest
arrived in the large and fertile district of Unyanyembe, the
centre of Unyamuezi--the Land of the Moon--within five miles of
Kaze which is the name of a well in the village of Tbora, now
constituted the great central slave and ivory merchants' depot.
My losses up to this date (23d) were as follows:--One Hottentot
dead and five returned; one freeman sent back with the
Hottentots, and one flogged and turned off; twenty-five of Sultan
Majid's gardeners deserted; ninety-eight of the original
Wanyamuezi porters deserted; twelve mules and three donkeys dead.
Besides which, more than half of my property had been stolen;
whilst the travelling expenses had been unprecedented, in
consequence of the severity of the famine throughout the whole
length of the march.

Chapter V


The Country and People of U-n-ya-muezi--Kaze, the Capital--Old
Musa --The Naked Wakidi--The N'yanza, and the Question of the
River Running in or out--The Contest between Mohinna and "Short-
legs"-- Famine--The Arabs and Local Wars--The Sultana of
Unyambewa--Ungurue "The Pig"--Pillage.

U-n-ya-muezi--Country of Moon--must have been one of the largest
kingdoms in Africa. It is little inferior in size to England,
and of much the same shape, though now, instead of being united,
it is cut up into petty states. In its northern extremities it
is known by the appellation U-sukuma--country north; and in the
southern, U-takama--country south. There are no historical
traditions known to the people; neither was anything ever written
concerning their country, as far as we know, until the Hindus,
who traded with the east coast of Africa, opened commercial
dealings with its people in salves and ivory, possibly some time
prior to the birth of our Saviour, when, associated with their
name, Men of the Moon, sprang into existence the Mountains of the
Moon. These Men of the Moon are hereditarily the greatest
traders in Africa, and are the only people who, for love of
barter and change, will leave their own country as porters and go
to the coast, and they do so with as much zest as our country-
folk go to a fair. As far back as we can trace they have done
this, and they still do it as heretofore. The whole of their
country ranges from 3000 to 4000 feet above the sea-level--a high
plateau, studded with little outcropping hills of granite,
between which, in the valleys, there are numerous fertilising
springs of fresh water, and rich iron ore is found in sandstone.
Generally industrious--much more so than most other negroes--they
cultivate extensively, make cloths of cotton in their own looms,
smelt iron and work it up very expertly, build tembes to live in
over a large portion of their country, but otherwise live in
grass huts, and keep flocks and herds of considerable extent.

The Wanyamuezi, however, are not a very well-favoured people in
physical appearance, and are much darker than either the Wazaramo
or the Wagogo, though many of their men are handsome and their
women pretty; neither are they well dressed or well armed, being
wanting in pluck and gallantry. Their women, generally, are
better dressed than the men. Cloths fastened round under the
arms are their national costume, along with a necklace of beads,
large brass or copper wire armlets, and a profusion of thin
circles, called sambo, made of the giraffe's tail-hairs bound
round by the thinnest iron or copper wire; whilst the men at home
wear loin-cloths, but in the field, or whilst travelling, simply
hang a goat-skin over their shoulders, exposing at least three-
fourths of their body in a rather indecorous manner. In all
other respects they ornament themselves like the women, only,
instead of a long coil of wire wound up the arm, they content
themselves with having massive rings of copper or brass on the
wrist; and they carry for arms a spear and bow and arrows. All
extract more or less their lower incisors, and cut a [upside-down
V shape] between their two upper incisors. The whole tribe are
desperate smokers, and greatly given to drink.

On the 24th, we all, as many as were left of us, marched into the
merchant's depot, S. lat. 5 0' 52", and E. long. 33 1'
34",[FN#7] escorted by Musa, who advanced to meet us, and guided
us into his tembe, where he begged we would reside with him until
we could find men to carry our property on to Karague. He added
that he would accompany us; for he was on the point of going
there when my first instalment of property arrived, but deferred
his intention out of respect to myself. He had been detained at
Kaze ever since I last left it in consequence of the Arabs having
provoked a war with Manua Sera, to which he was adverse. For a
long time also he had been a chained prisoner; as the Arabs,
jealous of the favour Manua Sera had shown to him in preference
to themselves, basely accused him of supplying Manua Sera with
gunpowder, and bound him hand and foot "like a slave." It was
delightful to see old Musa's face again, and the supremely
hospitable, kind, and courteous manner in which he looked after
us, constantly bringing in all kind of small delicacies, and
seeing that nothing was wanting to make us happy. All the
property I had sent on in advance he had stored away; or rather,
I should say, as much as had reached him, for the road expenses
had eaten a great hole in it.

Once settled down into position, Sheikh Snay and the whole
conclave of Arab merchants came to call on me. They said they
had an army of four hundred slaves armed with muskets ready to
take the field at once to hunt down Manua Sera, who was cutting
their caravan road to pieces, and had just seized, by their
latest reports, a whole convoy of their ammunition. I begged
them strongly to listen to reason, and accept my advice as an old
soldier, not to carry on their guerilla warfare in such a
headlong hurry, else they would be led a dance by Manua Sera, as
we had been by Tantia Topee in India. I advised them to allow me
to mediate between them, after telling them what a favourable
interview I had had with Manua Sera and Maula, whose son was at
that moment concealed in Musa's tembe. My advice, however, was
not wanted. Snay knew better than any one how to deal with
savages, and determined on setting out as soon as his army had
"eaten their beef-feast of war."

On my questioning him about the Nile, Snay still thought the
N'yanza was the source of the Jub river[FN#8] as he did in our
former journey, but gave way when I told him that vessels
frequented the Nile, as this also coincided with his knowledge of
navigators in vessels appearing on some waters to the northward
of Unyoro. In a great hurry he then bade me good-bye; when, as
he thought it would be final, I gave him, in consideration of his
former good services to the last expedition, one of the gold
watches given me by the Indian Government. I saw him no more,
though he and all the other Arabs sent me presents of cows,
goats, and rice, with a notice that they should have gone on
their war-oath before, only, hearing of my arrival, out of due
respect to my greatness they waited to welcome me in. Further,
after doing for Manua Sera, they were determined to go on to
Ugogo to assist Salem bin Saif and the other merchants on, during
which, at the same time, they would fight all the Wagogo who
persisted in taking taxes and in harassing caravans. At the
advice of Musa, I sent Maula's son off at night to tell the old
chief how sorry I was to find the Arabs so hot-headed I could not
even effect an arrangement with them. It was a great pity; for
Manua Sera was so much liked by the Wanyamuezi, they would, had
they been able, have done anything to restore him.

Next day the non-belligerent Arabs left in charge of the station,
headed by my old friends Abdulla and Mohinna, came to pay their
respects again, recognising in me, as they said, a
"personification of their sultan," and therefore considering what
they were doing only due to my rank. They regretted with myself
that Snay was so hot-headed; for they themselves thought a treaty
of peace would have been the best thing for them, for they were
more than half-ruined already, and saw no hope for the future.
Then, turning to geography, I told Abdulla all I had written and
lectured in England concerning his stories about navigators on
the N'yanza, which I explained must be the Nile, and wished to
know if I should alter it in any way: but he said, "Do not; you
may depend it will all turn out right;" to which Musa added, all
the people in the north told him that when the N'yanza rose, the
stream rushed with such violence it tore up islands and floated
them away.

I was puzzled at this announcement, not then knowing that both
the lake and the Nile, as well as all ponds, were called N'yanza:
but we shall see afterwards that he was right; and it was in
consequence of this confusion in the treatment of distinctly
different geographical features under one common name by these
people, that in my former journey I could not determine where the
lake had ended and the Nile began. Abdulla again--he had done so
on the former journey--spoke to me of a wonderful mountain to the
northward of Karague, so high and steep no one could ascend it.
It was, he said, seldom visible, being up in the clouds, where
white matter, snow or hail, often fell. Musa said this hill was
in Ruanda, a much larger country than Urundi; and further, both
men said, as they had said before, that the lands of Usoga and
Unyoro were islands, being surrounded by water; and a salt lake,
which was called N'yanza, though not the great Victoria N'yanza
lay on the other said of the Unyoro, from which direction
Rumanika, king of Karague, sometimes got beads forwarded to him
by Kamrasi, king of Unyoro, of a different sort from any brought
from Zanzibar. Moreover, these beads were said to have been
plundered from white men by the Wakidi,--a stark-naked people who
live up in trees--have small stools fixed on behind, always ready
for sitting--wear their hair hanging down as far as the rump, all
covered with cowrie-shells--suspend beads from wire attached to
their ears and their lower lips--and wear strong iron collars and

This people, I was told, are so fierce in war that no other tribe
can stand against them, though they only fight with short spears.
When this discourse was ended, ever perplexed about the
Tanganyika being a still lake, I enquired of Mohinna and other
old friends what they thought about the Marungu river: did it run
into or out of the lake? and they all still adhered to its
running into the lake-- which, after all, in my mind, is the most
conclusive argument that it does run out of the lake, making it
one of a chain of lakes leading to the N'yanza, and through it by
the Zambezi into the sea; for all the Arabs on the former journey
said the Rusizi river ran out of the Tanganyika, as also the
Kitangule ran out of the N'yanza, and the Nile ran into it, even
though Snay said he thought the Jub river drained the N'yanza.
All these statements were, when literally translated into
English, the reverse of what the speakers, using a peculiar Arab
idiom, meant to say; for all the statements made as to the flow
of rivers by the negroes--who apparently give the same meaning to
"out" and "in" as we do--contradicted the Arabs in their
descriptions of the direction of the flow of these rivers.

Mohinna now gave us a very graphic description of his fight with
Short-legs, the late chief of Khoko. About a year ago, as he was
making his way down to the coast with his ivory merchandise, on
arrival at Khoko, and before his camp was fortified with a ring-
fence of thorns, some of his men went to drink at a well, where
they no sooner arrived than the natives began to bean them with
sticks, claiming the well as their property. This commenced a
row, which brought out a large body of men, who demanded a
bullock at the point of their spears. Mohinna hearing this, also
came to the well, and said he would not listen to their demand,
but would drink as he wished, for the water was the gift of God.
Words then changed to blows. All Mohinna's pagazis bolted, and
his merchandise fell into the hands of the Wagogo. Had his camp
been fortified, he think he would have been too much for his
enemies; but, as it was, he retaliated by shooting Short-legs in
the head, and at once bolted back to Kaze with a few slaves as
followers, and his three wives.

The change that had taken place in Unyanyembe since I last left
it was quite surprising. Instead of the Arabs appearing
merchants, as they did formerly, they looked more like great
farmers, with huge stalls of cattle attached to their houses;
whilst the native villages were all in ruins--so much so that, to
obtain corn for my men, I had to send out into the district
several days' journey off, and even then had to pay the most
severe famine prices for what I got. The Wanyamuezi, I was
assured, were dying of starvation in all directions; for, in
addition to the war, the last rainy season had been so light, all
their crops had failed.

27th and 28th.--I now gave all my men presents for the severe
trials they had experienced in the wilderness, forgetting, as I
told them, the merciless manner in which they had plundered me;
but as I have a trifle more in proportion, to the three sole
remaining pagazis, because they had not finished their work, my
men were all discontented, and wished to throw back their
presents, saying I did not love them, although they were
"perminents," as much as the "temperaries." They, however, gave
in, after some hours of futile arguments, on my making them
understand, through Baraka, that what they saw me give to the
pagazis would, if they reflected, only tend to prove to them that
I was not a bad master who forgot his obligations when he could
get no more out of his servants.

I then went into a long inquiry with Musa about our journey
northward to Karague; and as he said there were no men to be
found in or near Unyanyembe, for they were either all killed or
engaged in the war, it was settled he should send some of his
head men on to Rungua, where he had formerly resided, trading for
some years, and was a great favourite with the chief of the
place, by name Kiringuana. He also settled that I might take out
of his establishment of slaves as many men as I could induce to
go with me, for he thought them more trouble than profit, hired
porters being more safe; moreover, he said the plan would be of
great advantage to him, as I offered to pay, both man and master,
each the same monthly stipend as I gave my present men. This was
paying double, and all the heavier a burden, as the number I
should require to complete my establishment to one hundred armed
men would be sixty. He, however, very generously advised me not
to take them, as they would give so much trouble; but finally
gave way when I told him I felt I could not advance beyond
Karague unless I was quite independent of the natives there--a
view in which he concurred.

29th and 30th.--Jafu, another Indian merchant here, and co-
partner of Musa, came in from a ten days' search after grain, and
described the whole country to be in the most dreadful state of
famine. Wanyamuezi were lying about dead from starvation in all
directions, and he did not think we should ever get through Usui,
as Suwarora, the chief, was so extortionate he would "tear us to
pieces"; but advised our waiting until the war was settled, when
all the Arabs would combine and go with us. Musa even showed
fear, but arranged, at my suggestion, that he should send some
men to Rumanika, informing him of our intention to visit him, and
begging, at the same time, he would use his influence in
preventing our being detained in Usui.

I may here explain that the country Uzinza was once a large
kingdom, governed by a king named Ruma, of Wahuma blood. At his
death, which took place in Dagara's time (the present Rumanika's
father), the kingdom was contested by his two sons, Rohinda and
Suwarora, but, at the intercession of Dagara, was divided--
Rohinda taking the eastern, called Ukhanga, and Suwarora the
western half of the country, called Usui. This measure made Usui
feudatory to Karague, so that much of the produce of the
extortions committed in Usui went to Karague, and therefore they
were recognised, though the odium always rested on Suwarora, "the
savage extortioner," rather than on the mild-disposed king of
Karague, who kept up the most amicable relations with every one
who visited him.

Musa, I must say, was most loud in his praises of Rumanika; and
on the other hand, as Musa, eight years ago, had saved Rumanika's
throne for him against an insurrection got up by his younger
brother Rogero, Rumanika, always regarding Musa as his saviour,
never lost an opportunity to show his gratitude, and would have
done anything that Musa might have asked him. Of this matter,
however, more in Karague.

31st.--To-day, Jafu, who had lost many ivories at Khoko when
Mohinna was attacked there, prepared 100 slaves, with Said bin
Osman, Mohinna's brother, with a view to follow down Snay, and,
combining forces, attack Hori Hori, hoping to recover their
losses; for it appeared to them the time had now come when their
only hope left in carrying their trade to a successful issue, lay
in force of arms. They would therefore not rest satisfied until
they had reduced Khoko and Usekhe both, by actual force, to
acknowledge their superiority, "feeding on them" until the
Ramazan, when they would return with all the merchants detained
in Ugogo, and, again combining their forces, they would fall on
Usui, to reduce that country also.

When these men had gone, a lunatic set the whole place in
commotion. He was a slave of Musa's, who had wounded some men
previously in his wild excesses, and had been tied up; but now,
breaking loose again, he swore he would not be satisfied until he
killed some "big man." His strength was so great no one could
confine him, though they hunted him into a hut, where, having
seized a gun and some arrows, he defied any one to put hands on
him. Here, however, he was at last reduced to submission and a
better state of his senses by starvation: for I must add, the
African is much give to such mental fits of aberration at certain
periods: these are generally harmless, but sometimes not; but
they come and they go again without any visible cause.

1st.--Musa's men now started for Rungua, and promised to bring
all the porters we wanted by the first day of the next moon. We
found that this would be early enough, for all the members of the
expedition, excepting myself, were suffering from the effects of
the wilderness life--some with fever, some with scurvy, and some
with ophthalmia--which made it desirable they should all have
rest. Little now was done besides counting out my property, and
making Sheikh Said, who became worse and worse, deliver his
charge of Cafila Bashi over to Bombay for good. When it was
found so much had been stolen, especially of the best articles, I
was obliged to purchase many things from Musa, paying 400 per
cent, which he said was their value here, over the market price
of Zanzibar. I also got him to have all my coils of brass and
copper wire made into bracelet, as is customary, to please the
northern people.

7th.--To-day information was brought here that whilst Manua Sera
was on his way from Ugogo to keep his appointment with me, Sheikh
Snay's army came on him at Tura, where he was ensconced in a
tembe. Hearing this, Snay, instead of attacking the village at
once, commenced negotiations with the chief of the place by
demanding him to set free his guest, otherwise they, the Arabs,
would storm the tembe. The chief, unfortunately, did not comply
at once, but begged grace for one night, saying that if Manua
Sera was found there in the morning they might do as they liked.
Of course Manua bolted; and the Arabs, seeing the Tura people all
under arms ready to defend themselves the next morning, set at
them in earnest, and shot, murdered, or plundered the whole of
the district. Then, whilst Arabs were sending in their captures
of women, children, and cattle, Manua Sera made off to a district
called Dara, where he formed an alliance with its chief, Kifunja,
and boasted he would attack Kaze as soon as the travelling season
commenced, when the place would be weakened by the dispersion of
the Arabs on their ivory excursions.

The startling news set the place in a blaze, and brought all the
Arabs again to seek my advice for they condemned what Snay had
done in not listening to me before, and wished to know if I could
not now treat for them with Manua Sera, which they thought could
be easily managed, as Manua Sera himself was not only the first
to propose mediation, but was actually on his way here for the
purpose when Snay opposed him. I said nothing could give me
greater pleasure than mediating for them, to put a stop to these
horrors, but it struck me the case had now gone too far. Snay,
in opposition to my advice, was bent on fighting; he could not be
recalled and unless all the Arabs were of one mind, I ran the
risk of committing myself to a position I could not maintain. To
this they replied that the majority were still at Kaze, all
wishing for peace at any price, and that whatever terms I might
wish to dictate they would agree to. Then I said, "What would you
do with Mkisiwa? you have made him chief, and cannot throw him
over." "Oh, that," they said, "can be easily managed; for
formerly, when we confronted Manua Sera at Nguru, we offered to
give him as much territory as his father governed, though not
exactly in the same place; but he treated our message with
disdain, not knowing then what a fix he was in. Now, however, as
he has seen more, and wishes for peace himself, there can be no
difficulty." I then ordered two of my men to go with two of
Musa's to acquaint Manua Sera with what we were about, and to
know his views on the subject; but these men returned to say
Manua Sera could not be found, for he was driven from "pillar to
post" by the different native chiefs, as, wherever he went, his
army ate up their stores, and brought nothing but calamities with
them. Thus died this second attempted treaty. Musa then told me
it was well it turned out so; for Manua Sera would never believe
the Arabs, as they had broken faith so often before, even after
exchanging blood by cutting incision in one another's legs--the
most sacred bond or oath the natives know of.

As nothing more of importance was done, I set out with Grant to
have a week's shooting in the district, under the guidance of an
old friend, Fundi Sangoro, Musa's "head gamekeeper," who assured
me that the sable antelope and blanc boc, specimens of which I
had not yet seen, inhabited some low swampy place called N'yama,
or "Meat," not far distant, on the left bank of the Wale nullah.
My companion unfortunately got fever here, and was prevented from
going out, and I did little better; for although I waded up to my
middle every day, and wounded several blanc boc, I only bagged
one, and should not have got even him, had it not happened that
some lions in the night pulled him down close to our camp, and
roared so violently that they told us the story. The first thing
in the morning I wished to have at them; but they took the hint
of daybreak to make off, and left me only the half of the animal.
I saw only one sable antelope. We all went back to Kaze,
arriving there on the 24th.

25th to 13th.--Days rolled on, and nothing was done in
particular-- beyond increasing my stock of knowledge of distant
places and people, enlarging my zoological collection, and taking
long series of astronomical observations--until the 13th, when
the whole of Kaze was depressed by a sad scene of mourning and
tears. Some slaves came in that night--having made their way
through the woods from Ugogo, avoiding the track to save
themselves from detection-- and gave information that Snay, Jafu,
and five other Arabs, had been killed, as well as a great number
of slaves. The expedition, they said, had been defeated, and the
positions were so complicated nobody knew what to do. At first
the Arabs achieved two brilliant successes, having succeeded in
killing Hori Hori of Khoko, when they recovered their ivory, made
slaves of all they could find, and took a vast number of cattle;
then attacking Usekhe they reduced that place to submission by
forcing a ransom out of its people. At this period, however,
they heard that a whole caravan, carrying 5000 dollars' worth of
property, had been cut up by the people of Mzanza, a small
district ten miles north of Usekhe; so, instead of going on to
Kanyenye to relieve the caravans which were waiting there for
them, they foolishly divided their forces into three parts. Of
these they sent one to take their loot back to Kaze, another to
form a reserve force at Mdaburu, on the east flank of the
wilderness, and a third, headed by Snay and Jafu, to attack
Mzanza. At the first onset Snay and Jafu carried everything
before them, and became so excited over the amount of their loot
that they lost all feelings of care or precaution.

In this high exuberance of spirits, a sudden surprise turned
their momentary triumph into a total defeat; for some Wahumba,
having heard the cries of the Wagogo, joined in their cause, and
both together fell on the Arab force with such impetuosity that
the former victors were now scattered in all directions. Those
who could run fast enough were saved--the rest were speared to
death by the natives. Nobody knew how Jafu fell; but Snay, after
running a short distance, called one of his slaves, and begged
him to take his gun, saying, "I am too old to keep up with you;
keep this gun for my sake, for I will lie down here and take my
chance." He never was seen again. But this was not all their
misfortunes; for the slaves who brought in this information had
met the first detachment, sent with the Khoko loot, at Kigua,
where, they said, the detachment had been surprised by Manua
Sera, who, having fortified a village with four hundred men,
expecting this sort of thing, rushed out upon them, and cut them
all up.

The Arabs, after the first burst of their grief was over, came to
me again in a body, and begged me to assist them, for they were
utterly undone. Manua Sera prevented their direct communication
with their detachment at Mdaburu, and that again was cut off from
their caravans at Kanyenye by the Mzanza people, and in fact all
the Wagogo; so they hoped at least I would not forsake them,
which they heard I was going to do, as Manua Sera had also
threatened to attack Kaze. I then told them, finally that their
proposals were now beyond my power, for I had a duty to perform
as well as themselves, and in a day or two I should be off.

14th to 17th.--On the 14th thirty-nine porters were brought in
from Rungua by Musa's men, who said they had collected one
hundred and twenty, and brought them to within ten miles of this,
when some travellers frightened all but thirty-nine away, by
telling them, "Are you such fools as to venture into Kaze now?
all the Arabs have been killed, or were being cut up and pursued
by Manua Sera." This sad disappointment threw me on my "beam-
ends." For some reason or other none of Musa's slaves would take
service, and the Arabs prevented theirs from leaving the place,
as it was already too short of hands. To do the best under these
circumstances, I determined on going to Rungua with what kit
could be carried, leaving Bombay behind with Musa until such time
as I should arrive there, and, finding more men, could send them
back for the rest. I then gave Musa the last of the gold watches
the Indian Government had given me;[FN#9] and, bidding Sheikh
Said take all our letters and specimens back to the coast as soon
as the road was found practicable, set out on the march
northwards with Grant and Baraka, and all the rest of my men who
were well enough to carry loads, as well as some of Musa's head
men, who knew where to get porters.

After passing Masange and Zimbili, we put up a night in the
village of Iviri, on the northern border of Unyanyembe, and found
several officers there, sent by Mkisiwa, to enforce a levy of
soldiers to take the field with the Arabs at Kaze against Manua
Sera; to effect which, they walked about ringing bells, and
bawling out that if a certain percentage of all the inhabitants
did not muster, the village chief would be seized, and their
plantations confiscated. My men all mutinied here for increase of
ration allowances. To find themselves food with, I had given
them all one necklace of beads each per diem since leaving Kaze,
in lieu of cloth, which hitherto had been served out for that
purpose. It was a very liberal allowance, because the Arabs
never gave more than one necklace to every three men, and that,
too, of inferior quality to what I served. I brought them to at
last by starvation, and then we went on. Dipping down into a
valley between two clusters of granitic hills, beautifully
clothed with trees and grass, studded here and there with rich
plantations, we entered the district of Usagari, and on the
second day forded the Gombe nullah again--in its upper course,
called Kuale.

Rising again up to the main level of the plantation, we walked
into the boma of the chief of Unyambewa, Singinya, whose wife was
my old friend the late sultana Ungugu's lady's-maid. Immediately
on our entering her palace, she came forward to meet me with the
most affable air of a princess, begged I would always come to her
as I did then, and sought to make every one happy and
comfortable. Her old mistress, she said, died well stricken in
years; and, as she had succeeded her, the people of her country
invited Singinya to marry her, because feuds had arisen about the
rights of succession; and it was better a prince, whom they
thought best suited by birth and good qualities, should head
their warriors, and keep all in order. At that moment Singinya
was out in the field fighting his enemies; and she was sure, when
he heard I was here, that he would be very sorry he had missed
seeing me.

We next went on to the district of Ukumbi, and put up in a
village there, on approaching which all the villagers turned out
to resist us, supposing we were an old enemy of theirs. They
flew about brandishing their spears, and pulling their bows in
the most grotesque attitudes, alarming some of my porters so much
that they threw down their loads and bolted. All the country is
richly cultivated, though Indian corn at that time was the only
grain ripe. The square, flat-topped tembes had now been left
behind, and instead the villagers lived in small collections of
grass huts, surrounded by palisades of tall poles.

Proceeding on we put up at the small settlement of Usenda, the
proprietor of which was a semi-negro Arab merchant called
Sangoro. He had a large collection of women here, but had himself
gone north with a view to trade in Karague. Report, however,
assured us that he was then detained in Usui by Suwarora, its
chief, on the plea of requiring his force of musketeers to
prevent the Watuta from pillaging his country, for these Watuta
lived entirely on plunder of other people's cattle.

With one move, by alternately crossing strips of forest and
cultivation, studded here and there with small hills of granite,
we forded the Qaunde nullah--a tributary to the Gombe--and
entered the rich flat district of Mininga, where the gingerbread-
palm grows abundantly. The greatest man we found here was a
broken-down ivory merchant called Sirboko, who gave us a good hut
to live in. Next morning, I believe at the suggestion of my
Wanguana, with Baraka at their head, he induced me to stop there;
for he said Rungua had been very recently destroyed by the
Watuta, and this place could afford porters better than it. To
all appearance this was the case, for this district was better
cultivated than any place I had seen. I also felt a certain
inclination to stop, as I was dragging on sick men, sorely
against my feelings; and I also thought I had better not go
farther away from my rear property; but, afraid of doing wrong in
not acting up to Musa's directions, I called up his head men who
were with me, and asked them what they thought of the matter, as
they had lately come from Rungua. On their confirming Sirboki's
story, and advising my stopping, I acceded to their
recommendation, and immediately gave Musa's men orders to look
out for porters.

Hearing this, all my Wanguana danced with delight; and I, fearing
there was some treachery, called Musa's men again, saying I had
changed my mind, and wished to go on in the afternoon; but when
the time came, not one of our porters could be seen. There was
now no help for it; so, taking it coolly, I gave Musa's men
presents, begged them to look sharp in getting the men up, and
trusted all would end well in the long-run. Sirboko's attentions
were most warm and affecting. He gave us cows, rice, and milk,
with the best place he had to live in, and looked after us as
constantly and tenderly as if he had been our father. It seemed
quite unjust to harbour any suspicion against him.

He gave the following account of himself:--He used to trade in
ivory, on account of some Arabs at Zanzibar. On crossing Usui,
he once had a fight with one of the chiefs of the country and
killed him; but he got through all right, because the natives,
after two or three of their number had been killed, dispersed,
and feared to come near his musket again. He visited Uganda when
the late king Sunna was living, and even traded Usoga; but as he
was coming down from these northern countries he lost all his
property by a fire breaking out in a village he stopped in, which
drove him down here a ruined man. As it happened, however, he
put up with the chief of this district, Ugali--Mr Paste--at a
time when the Watuta attacked the place and drove all the
inhabitants away. The chief, too, was on the point of bolting,
when Sirboko prevented him by saying, "If you will only have
courage to stand by me, the Watuta shall not come near--at any
rate, if they do, let us both die together." The Watuta at that
time surrounded the district, crowning all the little hills
overlooking it; but fearing the Arabs' guns might be many, they
soon walked away, and left them in peace. In return for this
magnanimity, and feeling a great security in firearms, Ugali then
built the large enclosure, with huts for Sirboko, we were now
living in. Sirboko, afraid to return to the coast lest he should
be apprehended for debt, has resided here ever since, doing odd
jobs for other traders, increasing his family, and planting
extensively. His agricultural operations are confined chiefly to
rice, because the natives do not like it enough to be tempted to
steal it.

25th to 2d.--I now set to work, collecting, stuffing, and
drawing, until the 2d, when Musa's men came in with three hundred
men, whom I sent on to Kaze at once with my specimens and
letters, directing Musa and Bombay to come on and join us
immediately. Whilst waiting for these men's return, one of
Sirboko's slaves, chained up by him, in the most piteous manner
cried out to me: "Hai Bana wangi, Bana wangi (Oh, my lord, my
lord), take pity on me! When I was a free man I saw you at
Uvira, on the Tanganyika lake, when you were there; but since
then the Watuta, in a fight at Ujiji, speared me all over and
left me for dead, when I was seized by the people, sold to the
Arabs, and have been in chains ever since. Oh, I saw, Bana
wangi, if you would only liberate me I would never run away, but
would serve you faithfully all my life." This touching appeal
was too strong for my heart to withstand, so I called up Sirboko,
and told him, if he would liberate this one man to please me he
should be no loser; and the release was effected. He was then
christened Farham (Joy), and was enrolled in my service with the
rest of my freed men. I then inquired if it was true the Wabembe
were cannibals, and also circumcised. In one of their slaves the
latter statement was easily confirmed. I was assure that he was
not a cannibal; for the whole tribe of Wabembe, when they cannot
get human flesh otherwise, give a goat to their neighbours for a
sick or dying child, regarding such flesh as the best of all. No
other cannibals, however, were known of; but the Masai, and their
cognates, the Wahumba, Wataturu, Wakasange, Wanyaramba, and even
the Wagogo and Wakimbu, circumcise.

On the 15th I was surprised to find Bombay come in with all my
rear property and a great quantity of Musa's, but with out the
old man. By a letter from Sheikh Said I then found that, since my
leaving Kaze, the Arabs had, along with Mkisiwa, invested the
position of Manua Sera at Kigue, and forced him to take flight
again. Afterwards the Arabs, returning to Kaze, found Musa
preparing to leave. Angry at this attempt to desert them, they
persuaded him to give up his journey north for the present; so
that at the time Bombay left, Musa was engaged as public
auctioneer in selling the effects of Snay, Jafu, and others, but
privately said he would follow me on to Karague as soon as his
rice was cut. Adding a little advice of his own, Sheikh Said
pressed me to go on with the journey as fast as possible, because
all the Arabs had accused me of conspiring with Manua Sera, and
would turn against me unless I soon got away.

2d to 30th.--Disgusted with Musa's vacillatory conduct, on the
22d I sent him a letter containing a bit of my mind. I had given
him, as a present, sufficient cloth to pay for his porters, as
well as a watch and a good sum of money, and advised his coming
on at once, for the porters who had just brought in my rear
property would not take pay to go on to Karague; and so I was
detained again, waiting whilst his head man went to Rungua to
look for more. Five days after this, a party of Sangoro's
arrived from Karague, saying they had been detained three months
in Usui by Suwarora, who had robbed them of an enormous quantity
of property, and oppressed them so that all their porters ran
away. Now, slight as this little affair might appear, it was of
vital importance to me, as I found all my men shaking their heads
and predicting what might happen to us when we got there; so, as
a forlorn hope, I sent Baraka with another letter to Musa,
offering to pay as much money for fifty men carrying muskets as
would buy fifty slaves, and, in addition to that, I offered to
pay them what my men were receiving as servants. Next day (23d)
the chief Ugali came to pay his respects to us. He was a fine-
looking young man, about thirty years old, the husband of thirty
wives, but he had only three children. Much surprised at the
various articles composing our kit, he remarked that our
"sleeping-clothes"--blankets--were much better than his royal
robes; but of all things that amused him most were our picture-
books, especially some birds drawn by Wolf.

Everything still seemed going against me; for on the following
day (24th) Musa's men came in from Rungua to say the Watuta were
"out." They had just seized fifty head of cattle from Rungua, and
the people were in such a state of alarm they dared not leave
their homes and families. I knew not what to do, for there was
no hope left but in what Baraka might bring; and as that even
would be insufficient, I sent Musa's men into Kaze, to increase
the original number by thirty men more.

Patience, thank God, I had a good stock of, so I waited quietly
until the 30th, when I was fairly upset by the arrival of a
letter from Kaze, stating that Baraka had arrived, and had been
very insolent both to Musa and to Sheikh Said. The bearer of the
letter was at once to go and search for porters at Rungua, but
not a word was said about the armed men I had ordered. At the
same time reports from the other side came in, to the effect that
the Arabs at Kaze and Msene had bribed the Watuta to join them,
and overrun the whole country from Ugogo to Usui; and, in
consequence of this, all the natives on the line I should have to
take were in such dread of that terrible wandering race of
savages, who had laid waste in turn all the lands from N'yassa to
Usui on their west flank, that not a soul dared leave his home.
I could now only suppose that this foolish and hasty
determination of the Arabs, who, quite unprepared to carry out
their wicked alliance to fight, still had set every one against
their own interests as well as mine, had not reached Musa, so I
made up my mind at once to return to Kaze, and settle all matters
I had in my heart with himself and the Arabs in person.

This settled, I next, in this terrible embarrassment, determined
on sending back the last of the Hottentots, as all four of them,
though still wishing to go on with me, distinctly said they had
not the power to continue the march, for they had never ceased
suffering from fever and jaundice, which had made them all yellow
as guineas, save one, who was too black to change colour. It
felt to me as if I were selling my children, having once
undertaken to lead them through the journey; but if I did not
send them back then, I never could afterwards, and therefore I
allowed the more substantial feelings of humanity to overcome
these compunctions.

Next morning, then, after giving the Tots over in charge of some
men to escort them on to Kaze quietly, I set our myself with a
dozen men, and the following evening I put up with Musa, who told
me Baraka had just left without one man--all his slaves having
become afraid to go, since the news of the Arab alliance had
reached Kaze. Suwarora had ordered his subjects to run up a line
of bomas to protect his frontier, and had proclaimed his
intention to kill every coast-man who dared attempt to enter
Usui. My heart was ready to sink as I turned into bed, and I was
driven to think of abandoning everybody who was not strong enough
to go on with me carrying a load.

3d to 13th.--Baraka, hearing I had arrived, then came back to me,
and confirmed Musa's words. The Arabs, too, came flocking in to
beg, nay implore, me to help them out of their difficulties. Many
of them were absolutely ruined, they said; others had their
houses full of stores unemployed. At Ugogo those who wished to
join them were unable to do so, for their porters, what few were
left, were all dying of starvation; and at that moment Manua Sera
was hovering about, shooting, both night and day, all the poor
villagers in the district, or driving them away. Would to God,
they said, I would mediate for them with Manua Sera--they were
sure I would be successful--and then they would give me as many
armed men as I liked. Their folly in all their actions, I said,
proved to me that anything I might attempt to do would be futile,
for their alliance with the Watuta, when they were not prepared
to act, at once damned them in my eyes as fools. This they in
their terror acknowledged, but said it was not past remedy, if I
would join them, to counteract what had been done in that matter.
Suffice it now to say, after a long conversation, arguing all the
pros and cons over, I settled I would write out all the articles
of a treaty of peace, by which they should be liable to have all
their property forfeited on the coast if they afterwards broke
faith; and I begged them to call the next day and sign it.

They were no sooner gone, however, than Musa assured me they had
killed old Maula of Rubuga in the most treacherous manner, as
follows:--Khamis, who is an Arab of most gentlemanly aspect, on
returning from Ugogo attended by slaves, having heard that Maula
was desirous of adjusting a peace, invited him with his son to do
so. When old Maula came as desired, bringing his son with him,
and a suitable offering of ivory and cattle, the Arab induced
them both to kneel down and exchange blood with him, when, by a
previously concerted arrangement, Khamis had them shot down by
his slaves. This disgusting story made me quite sorry, when next
day the Arabs arrived, expecting that I should attempt to help
them; but as the matter had gone so far, I asked them, in the
first place, how they could hope Manua Sera would have any faith
in them when they were so treacherous, or trust to my help, since
they had killed Maula, who was my protege? They all replied in a
breath, "Oh, let the past be forgotten, and assist us now! for in
you alone we can look for a preserver."

At length an armistice was agreed to; but as no one dared go to
negotiated it but my men, I allowed them to take pay from the
Arabs, which was settled on the 4th by ten men taking four yards
of cloth each, with a promise of a feast on sweetmeats when they
returned. Ex Mrs Musa, who had been put aside by her husband
because she was too fat for her lord's taste, then gave me three
men of her private establishment, and abused Musa for being
wanting in "brains." She had repeatedly advised him to leave this
place and go with me, lest the Arabs, who were all in debt to
him, should put him to death; but he still hung on to recover his
remaining debts, a portion having been realised by the sale of
Snay's and Jafu's effects; for everything in the shape of
commodities had been sold at the enormous price of 500 per cent--
the male slaves even fetching 100 dollars per head, though the
females went for less. The Hottentots now arrived, with many more
of my men, who, seeing their old "flames," Snay's women, sold off
by auction, begged me to advance them money to purchase them
with, for they could not bear to see these women, who were their
own when they formerly stayed here, go off like cattle no one
knew where. Compliance, of course, was impossible, as it would
have crowded the caravan with women. Indeed, to prevent my men
every thinking of matrimony on the march, as well as to incite
them on through the journey, I promised, as soon as we reached
Egypt, to give them all wives and gardens at Zanzibar, provided
they did not contract marriages on the road.

On the 6th, the deputation, headed by Baraka, returned
triumphantly into Kaze, leading in two of Manua Sera's ministers-
-one of them a man with one eye, whom I called Cyclops--and tow


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