The Discovery of the Source of the Nile
John Hanning Speke

Part 3 out of 11

others, ministers of a chief called Kitambi, or Little Blue
Cloth. After going a day's journey, they said they came to where
Manua Sera was residing with Kitambi, and met with a most
cheerful and kind reception from both potentates, who, on hearing
of my proposition, warmly acceded to it, issued orders at once
that hostilities should cease, and, with one voice, said they
were convinced that, unless through my instrumentality, Manua
Sera would never regain his possessions. Kitambi was quite beside
himself, and wished my men to stop one night to enjoy his
hospitality. Manua Sera, after reflecting seriously about the
treacherous murder of old Maula, hesitated, but gave way when it
had been explained away by my men, and said, "No; they shall go
at once, for my kingdom depends on the issue, and Bana Mzungu
(the White Lord) may get anxious if they do not return promptly."
One thing, however, he insisted on, and that was, the only place
he would meet the Arabs in was Unyanyembe, as it would be beneath
his dignity to settle matters anywhere else. And further, he
specified that he wished all the transactions to take place in
Musa's house.

Next day, 7th, I assembled all the Arabs at Musa's "court," with
all my men and the two chiefs, four men attending, when Baraka,
"on his legs," told them all I proposed for the treaty of peace.
The Arabs gave their assent to it; and Cyclops, for Manua Sera,
after giving a full narrative of the whole history of the war, in
such a rapid and eloquent manner as would have done justice to
our Prime Minister, said his chief was only embittered against
Snay, and now Snay was killed, he wished to make friends with
them. To which the Arabs made a suitable answer, adding, that
all they found fault with was an insolent remark which, in his
wrath, Manua Sera had given utterance to, that their quarrel with
him was owing chiefly to a scurvy jest which he had passed on
them, and on the characteristic personal ceremony of initiation
to their Mussulman faith. Now, however, as Manua Sera wished to
make friends, they would abide by anything that I might propose.
Here the knotty question arose again, what territory they, the
Arabs, would give to Manua Sera? I thought he would not be
content unless he got the old place again; but as Cyclops said
no, that was not in his opinion absolutely necessary, as the
lands of Unyanyembe had once before been divided, the matter was
settled on the condition that another conference should be held
with Manua Sera himself on the subject.

I now (8th and 9th) sent these men all off again, inviting Manua
Sera to come over and settle matters at once, if he would,
otherwise I should go on with my journey, for I could not afford
to wait longer here. Then, as soon as they left, I made Musa
order some of his men off to Rungua, requesting the chief of the
place to send porters to Mininga to remove all our baggage over
to his palace; at the same time I begged him not to fear the
Watuta's threat to attack him, as Musa would come as soon as the
treaty was concluded, in company with me, to build a boma
alongside his palace, as he did in former years, to be nearer his
trade with Karague. I should have mentioned, by the way, that
Musa had now made up his mind not to go further than the borders
of Usui with me, lest I should be "torn to pieces," and he would
be "held responsible on the coast." Musa's men, however, whom he
selected for this business, were then engaged making Mussulmans
of all the Arab slave boys, and said they would not go until they
had finished, although I offered to pay the "doctor's bill," or
allowance they expected to get. The ceremony, at the same time
that it helps to extend their religion, as christening does ours,
also stamps the converts with a mark effective enough to prevent
desertion; because, after it has been performed, their own tribe
would not receive them again. At last, when they did go, Musa,
who was suffering from a sharp illness, to prove to me that he
was bent on leaving Kaze the same time as myself, began eating
what he called his training pills--small dried buds of roses with
alternate bits of sugar-candy. Ten of these buds, he said, eaten
dry, were sufficient for ordinary cases, and he gave a very
formidable description of the effect likely to follow the use of
the same number boiled in rice-water or milk.

Fearful stories of losses and distress came constantly in from
Ugogo by small bodies of men, who stole their way through the
jungles. To-day a tremendous commotion took place in Musa's tembe
amongst all the women, as one had been delivered of still-born
twins. They went about in procession, painted and adorned in the
most grotesque fashion, bewailing and screeching, singing and
dancing, throwing their arms and legs about as if they were
drunk, until the evening set in, when they gathered a huge bundle
of bulrushes, and, covering it with a cloth, carried it up to the
door of the bereaved on their shoulders, as though it had been a
coffin. Then setting it down on the ground, they planted some of
the rushes on either side of the entrance, and all kneeling
together, set to bewailing, shrieking, and howling incessantly
for hours together.

After this (10th to 12th), to my great relief, quite
unexpectedly, a man arrived from Usui conveying a present of some
ivories from a great mganga or magician, named Dr K'yengo, who
had sent them to Musa as a recollection from an old friend,
begging at the same time for some pretty cloths, as he said he
was then engaged as mtongi or caravan director, collecting
together all the native caravans desirous of making a grand march
to Uganda. This seemed to me a heaven-born opportunity of making
friends with one who could help me so materially, and I begged
Musa to seal it by sending him something on my account, as I had
nothing by me; but Musa objected, thinking it better simply to
say I was coming, and if he, K'yengo, would assist me in Usui, I
would then give him some cloths as he wanted; otherwise, Musa
said, the man who had to convey it would in all probability make
away with it, and then do his best to prevent my seeing K'yengo.
As soon as this was settled, against my wish and opinion, a
special messenger arrived from Suwarora, to inquire of Musa what
truth there was in the story of the Arabs having allied
themselves to the Watuta. He had full faith in Musa, and hoped,
if the Arabs had no hostile intentions towards him, he, Musa,
would send him two of theirs; further, Suwarora wished Musa would
send him a cat. A black cat was then given to the messenger for
Suwarora, and Musa sent an account of all that I had done towards
effecting a peace, saying that the Arabs had accepted my views,
and if he would have patience until I arrived in Usui, the four
men required would be sent with me.

In the evening my men returned again with Cyclops, who said, for
his master, that Manua Sera desired nothing more than peace, and
to make friends with the Arabs; but as nothing was settled about
deposing Mkisiwa, he could not come over here. Could the Arabs,
was Manua Sera's rejoinder, suppose for a moment that he would
voluntarily divide his dominion with one whom he regarded as his
slave! Death would be preferable; and although he would trust
his life in the Mzungu's hands if he called him again, he must
know it was his intention to hunt Mkisiwa down like a wild
animal, and would never rest satisfied until he was dead. The
treaty thus broke down; for the same night Cyclops decamped like
a thief, after brandishing an arrow which Manua Sera had given
him to throw down as a gauntlet of defiance to fight Mkisiwa to
death. After this the Arabs were too much ashamed of themselves
to come near me, though invited by letter, and Musa became so ill
he would not take my advice and ride in a hammock, the best
possible cure for his complaint; so, after being humbugged so
many times by his procrastinations, I gave Sheikh Said more
letters and specimens, with orders to take the Tots down to the
coast as soon as practicable, and started once more for the
north, expecting very shortly to hear of Musa's death, though he
promised to follow me the very next day or die in the attempt,
and he also said he would bring on the four men required by
Suwarora; for I was fully satisfied in my mind that he would have
marched with me then had he had the resolution to do so at all.

Before I had left the district I heard that Manua Sera had
collected a mixed force of Warori, Wagogo, and Wasakuma, and had
gone off to Kigue again, whilst the Arabs and Mkisiwa were
feeding their men on beef before setting out to fight him. Manua
Sera, it was said, had vast resources. His father, Fundi Kira,
was a very rich man, and had buried vast stores of property,
which no one knew of but Manua Sera, his heir. The Wanyamuezi
all inwardly loved him for his great generosity, and all alike
thought him protected by a halo of charm-power so effective
against the arms of the Arabs that he could play with them just
as he liked.

On crossing Unyambewa (14th), when I a third time put up with my
old friend the sultana, her chief sent word to say he hoped I
would visit him at his fighting boma to eat a cow which he had in
store for me, as he could not go home and enjoy the society of
his wife whilst the war was going on; since, by so doing, it was
considered he "would lose strength."

On arriving at Mininga, I was rejoiced to see Grant greatly
recovered. Three villagers had been attacked by two lions during
my absence. Two of the people escaped, but the third was seized
as he was plunging into his hut, and was dragged off and devoured
by the animals. A theft also had taken place, by which both
Grant and Sirboko lost property; and the thieves had been traced
over the borders of the next district. No fear, however, was
entertained about the things being recovered, for Sirboko had
warned Ugali the chief, and he had promised to send his Waganga,
or magicians, out to track them down, unless the neighbouring
chief chose to give them up. After waiting two days, as no men
came from Rungua, I begged Grant to push ahead on to Ukani, just
opposite Rungua, with all my coast-men, whilst I remained behind
for the arrival of Musa's men and porters to carry on the rest of
the kit--for I had now twenty-two in addition to men permanently
enlisted, who took service on the same rate of pay as my original
coast-men; though, as usual, when the order for marching was
issued, a great number were found to be either sick or

Two days afterwards, Musa's men came in with porters, who would
not hire themselves for more than two marches, having been
forbidden to do so by their chief on account of the supposed
Watuta invasion; and for these two marches they required a
quarter of the whole customary hire to Karague. Musa's traps,
too, I found, were not to be moved, so I saw at once Musa had not
kept faith with me, and there would be a fresh set of
difficulties; but as every step onwards was of the greatest
importance--for my men were consuming my stores at a fearful
pace--I paid down the beads they demanded, and next day joined
Grant at Mbisu, a village of Ukuni held by a small chief called
Mchimeka, who had just concluded a war of two years' standing
with the great chief Ukulima (the Digger), of Nunda (the Hump).
During the whole of the two years' warfare the loss was only
three men on each side. Meanwhile Musa's men bolted like thieves
one night, on a report coming that the chief of Unyambewa, after
concluding the war, whilst amusing himself with his wife, had
been wounded on the foot by an arrow that fell from her hand. The
injury had at once taken a mortal turn, and the chief sent for
his magicians, who said it was not the fault of the wife--
somebody else must have charmed the arrow to cause such a deadly
result. They then seized hold of the magic horn, primed for the
purpose, and allowed it to drag them to where the culprits dwelt.
Four poor men, who were convicted in this way, were at once put
to death, and the chief from that moment began to recover.

After a great many perplexities, I succeeded in getting a
kirangozi, or leader, by name Ungurue (the Pig). He had several
times taken caravans to Karague, and knew all the languages well,
but unfortunately he afterwards proved to be what his name
implied. That, however, I could not foresee, so, trusting to him
and good-luck, I commenced making fresh enlistments of porters;
but they came and went in the most tantalising manner,
notwithstanding I offered three times the hire that any merchant
could afford to give. Every day seemed to be worse and worse.
Some of Musa's men came to get palm-toddy for him, as he was too
weak to stand, and was so cold nothing would warm him. There
was, however, no message brought for myself; and as the
deputation did not come to me, I could only infer that I was
quite forgotten, of that Musa, after all, had only been
humbugging me. I scarcely knew what to do. Everybody advised me
to stop where I was until the harvest was over, as no porters
could be found on ahead, for Ukuni was the last of the fertile
lands on this side of Usui.

Stopping, however, seemed endless; not so my supplies, I
therefore tried advancing in detachments again, sending the free
men off under Grant to Ukulima's, whilst I waited behind keeping
ourselves divided in the hopes of inducing all hands to see the
advisability of exerting themselves for the general good--as my
men, whilst we were all together, showed they did not care how
long they were kept doing no more fatiguing work than chaffing
each other, and feeding at my expense.

In the meanwhile the villagers were very merry, brewing and
drinking their pombe (beer) by turns, one house after the other
providing the treat. On these occasions the chief--who always
drank freely, and more than any other--heading the public
gatherings of men and women, saw the large earthen pots placed
all in a row, and the company taking long draughts from bowls
made of plaited straw, laughing as they drank, until, half-
screwed, they would begin bawling and shouting. To increase the
merriment, one or two jackanapes, with zebras' manes tied over
their heads, would advance with long tubes like monster bassoons,
blowing with all their might, contorting their faces and bodies,
and going through the most obscene and ridiculous motions to
captivate their simple admirers. This, however, was only the
feast; the ball then began, for the pots were no sooner emptied
than five drums at once, of different sizes and tones, suspended
in a line from a long horizontal bar, were beaten with fury, and
all the men, women, and children, singing and clapping their
hands in time, danced for hours together.

A report reached me, by some of Sirboko's men, whom he had sent
to convey to us a small present of rice, that an Arab, who was
crossing Msalala to our northward, had been treacherously robbed
of all his arms and guns by a small district chief, whose only
excuse was that the Wanyamuezi had always traded very well by
themselves until the Arabs came into the country; but now, as
they were robbed of their property, on account of the
disturbances caused by these Arabs, they intended for the future
to take all they could get, and challenged the Arabs to do the

My patience was beginning to suffer again, for I could not help
thinking that the chiefs of the place were preventing their
village men going with me in order that my presence here might
ward of the Watuta; so I called up the kirangozi, who had
thirteen "Watoto," as they are called, or children of his own,
wishing to go, and asked him if he knew why no other men could be
got. As he could not tell me, saying some excused themselves on
the plea they were cutting their corn, and others that they
feared the Watuta, I resolved at once to move over to Nunda; and
if that place also failed to furnish men, I would go on to Usui
or Karague with what men I had, and send back for the rest of my
property; for though I could bear the idea of separating from
Grant, still the interests of old England were at stake, and
demanded it.

This resolve being strengthened by the kirangozi's assurance that
the row in Msalala had shaken the few men who had half dreaded to
go with me, I marched over to Hunda, and put up with Grant in
Ukulima's boma, when Grant informed me that the chief had
required four yards of cloth from him for having walked round a
dead lioness, as he had thus destroyed a charm that protected his
people against any more of these animals coming, although,
fortunately, the charm could be restored again by paying four
yards of cloth. Ukulima, however, was a very kind and good man,
though he did stick the hands and heads of his victims on the
poles of his boma as a warning to others. He kept five wives, of
whom the rest paid such respect to the elder one, it was quite
pleasing to see them. A man of considerable age, he did
everything the state or his great establishment required himself.
All the men of his district clapped their hands together as a
courteous salutation to him, and the women curtsied as well as
they do at our court--a proof that they respected him as a great
potentate--a homage rarely bestowed on the chiefs of other small
states. Ukulima was also hospitable; for on one occasion, when
another chief came to visit him, he received his guest and
retainers with considerable ceremony, making all the men of the
village get up a dance; which they did, beating the drums and
firing off guns, like a lot of black devils let loose.

We were not the only travellers in misfortune here, for Masudi,
with several other Arabs, all formed in one large caravan, had
arrived at Mchimeka's, and could not advance for want of men.
They told me it was the first time they had come on this line,
and they deeply regretted it, for they had lost 5000 dollar's
worth of beads by their porters running away with their loads,
and now they did not know how to proceed. Indeed, they left the
coast and arrived at Kaze immediately in rear of us, and had,
like ourselves, found it as much as they could do even to reach
this, and now they were at a standstill for want of porters.

As all hopes of being able to get any more men were given up, I
called on Bombay and Baraka to make arrangements for my going
ahead with the best of my property as I had devised. They both
shook their heads, and advised me to remain until the times
improved, when the Arabs, being freed from the pressure of war,
would come along and form with us a "sufari ku" or grand march,
as Ukulima and every one else had said we should be torn to
pieces in Usui if we tried to cross that district with so few
men. I then told them again and again of the messages I had sent
on to Rumanika in Karague, and to Suwarora in Usui, and begged
them to listen to me, instancing as an example of what could be
done by perseverance the success of Columbus, who, opposed by his
sailors' misgivings, still when on and triumphed, creating for
himself immortal renown.

They gave way at last; so, after selecting all the best of my
property, I formed camp at Phunze, left Bombay with Grant behind,
as I thought Bombay the best and most honest man I had got, from
his having had so much experience, and then went ahead by myself,
with the Pig as my guide and interpreter, and Baraka as my
factotum. The Waguana then all mutinied for a cloth apiece,
saying they would not lift a load unless I gave it. Of course a
severe contest followed; I said, as I had given them so much
before, they could not want it, and ought to be ashamed of
themselves. They urged, however, they were doing double work,
and would not consent to carry loads as they had done at Mgunda
Mkhali again.

Arguments were useless, for, simply because they were tired of
going on, they WOULD not see that as they were receiving pay
every day, they therefore ought to work every day. However, as
they yielded at last, by some few leaning to my side, I gave what
they asked for, and went to the next village, still inefficient
in men, as all the Pig's Watoto could not be collected together.
This second move brought us into a small village, of which Ghiya,
a young man, was chief.

He was very civil to me, and offered to sell me a most charming
young woman, quite the belle of the country; but as he could not
bring me to terms, he looked over my picture-books with the
greatest delight, and afterwards went into a discourse on
geography with considerable perspicacity; seeming fully to
comprehend that if I got down the Nile it would afterwards result
in making the shores of the N'yanza like that of the coast at
Zanzibar, where the products of his country could be exchanged,
without much difficulty, for cloths, beads, and brass wire. I
gave him a present; then a letter was brought to me from Sheikh
Said, announcing Musa's death, and the fact that Manua Sera was
still holding out at Kigue; in answer to which I desired the
sheikh to send me as many of Musa's slaves as would take service
with me, for they ought now, by the laws of the Koran, to be all

On packing up to leave Ghiya's, all the men of the village shut
the bars of the entrance, wishing to extract some cloths from me,
as I had not given enough, they said, to their chief. They soon,
however, saw that we, being inside their own fort, had the best
of it, and they gave way. We then pushed on to Ungurue's,
another chief of the same district. Here the men and women of
the place came crowding to see me, the fair sex all playfully
offering themselves for wives, and wishing to know which I
admired most. They were so importunate, after a time, that I was
not sorry to hear an attack was made on their cattle because a
man of the village would not pay his dowry-money to his father-
in-law, and this set everybody flying out to the scene of action.

After this, as Bombay brought up the last of my skulking men, I
bade him good-bye again, and made an afternoon-march on to
Takina, in the district of Msalala, which we no sooner approached
than all the inhabitants turned out and fired their arrows at us.
They did no harm, however, excepting to create a slight alarm,
which some neighbouring villagers took advantage of to run of
with two of my cows. To be returned to them, but called in vain,
as the scoundrels said, "Findings are keepings, by the laws of
our country; and as we found your cows, so we will keep them."
For my part I was glad they were gone, as the Wanguana never yet
kept anything I put under their charge; so, instead of allowing
them to make a fuss the next morning, I marched straight on for
M'ynoga's, the chief of the district, who was famed for his
infamy and great extortions, having pushed his exactions so far
as to close the road.

On nearing his palace, we heard war-drums beat in every
surrounding village, and the kirangozi would go no farther until
permission was obtained from M'yonga. This did not take long, as
the chief said he was most desirous to see a white man, never
having been to the coast, though his father-in-law had, and had
told him that the Wazungu were even greater people than the
sultan reigning there. On our drawing near the palace, a small,
newly-constructed boma was shown for my residence; but as I did
not wish to stop there, knowing how anxious Grant would be to
have his relief, I would not enter it, but instead sent Baraka to
pay the hongo as quickly as possible, that we might move on
again; at the same time ordering him to describe the position
both Grant and myself were in, and explain that what I paid now
was to frank both of us, as the whole of the property was my own.
Should he make any remarks about the two cows that were stolen, I
said he must know that I could not wait for them, as my brother
would die of suspense if we did not finish the journey and send
back for him quickly. Off went Baraka with a party of men,
stopping hours, of course, and firing volleys of ammunition away.
He did not return again until the evening, when the palace-drums
announced that the hongo had been settled for one barsati, one
lugoi, and six yards merikani. Baraka approached me
triumphantly, saying how well he had managed the business.
M'yonga did not wish to see me, because he did not know the coast
language. He was immensely pleased with the present I had given
him, and said he was much and very unjustly abused by the Arabs,
who never came this way, saying he was a bad man. He should be
very glad to see Grant, and would take nothing from him; and,
though he did not see me in person, he would feel much affronted
if I did not stop the night there. In the meanwhile he would
have the cows brought in, for he could not allow any one to leave
his country abused in any way.

My men had greatly amused him by firing their guns off and
showing him the use of their sword-bayonets. I knew, as a matter
of course, that if I stopped any longer I should be teased for
more cloths, and gave orders to my men to march the same instant,
saying, if they did not--for I saw them hesitate--I would give
the cows to the villagers, since I knew that was the thing that
weighed on their minds. This raised a mutiny. No one would go
forward with the two cows behind; besides which, the day was far
spent, and there was nothing but jungle, they said, beyond. The
kirangozi would not show the way, nor would any man lift a load.
A great confusion ensued. I knew they were telling lies, and
would not enter the village, but shot the cows when they arrived,
for the villagers to eat, to show them I cared for nothing but
making headway, and remained out in the open all night. Next
morning, sure enough, before we could get under way, M'yonga sent
his prime minister to say that the king's sisters and other
members of his family had been crying and tormenting him all
night for having let me off so cheaply--they had got nothing to
cover their nakedness, and I must pay something more. This
provoked fresh squabbles. The drums had beaten and the tax was
settled; I could not pay more. The kirangozi, however, said he
would not move a peg unless I gave something more, else he would
be seized on his way back. His "children' all said the same; and
as I thought Grant would only be worsted if I did not keep
friends with the scoundrel, I gave four yards more merikani, and
then went on my way.

For the first few miles there were villagers, but after that a
long tract of jungle, inhabited chiefly by antelopes and
rhinoceros. It was wilder in appearance than most parts of
Unyamuezi. In this
jungle a tributary nullah to the Gombe, called Nurhungure, is the
boundary-line between the great Country of the Moon and the
kingdom of Uzinza.

Chapter VI


The Politics of Uzinza--The Wahuma--"The Pig's" Trick--First
Taste of Usui Taxation--Pillaged by Mfumbi--Pillaged by Makaka--
Pillaged by Lumeresi--Grant Stripped by M'Yonga--Stripped Again
by Ruhe-- Terrors and Defections in the Camp--Driven back to Kaze
with new Tribulations and Impediments.

Uzinza, which we now entered, is ruled by two Wahuma chieftains
of foreign blood, descended from the Abyssinian stock, of whom we
saw specimens scattered all over Unyamuezi, and who extended even
down south as far as Fipa. Travellers see very little, however,
of these Wahuma, because, being pastorals, they roam about with
their flocks and build huts as far away as they can from
cultivation. Most of the small district chiefs, too, are the
descendants of those who ruled in the same places before the
country was invaded, and with them travellers put up and have
their dealings. The dress of the Wahuma is very simple, composed
chiefly of cow-hide tanned black-- a few magic ornaments and
charms, brass or copper bracelets, and immense number of sambo
for stockings, which looked very awkward on their long legs.
They smear themselves with rancid butter instead of macassar, and
are, in consequence, very offensive to all but the negro, who
seems, rather than otherwise, to enjoy a good sharp nose tickler.
For arms they carry both bow and spear; more generally the
latter. The Wazinza in the southern parts are so much like the
Wanyamuezi, as not to require any especial notice; but in the
north, where the country is more hilly, they are much more
energetic and actively built. All alike live in grass-hut
villages, fenced round by bomas in the south, but open in the
north. Their country rises in high rolls, increasing in altitude
as it approaches the Mountains of the Moon, and is generally well
cultivated, being subjected to more of the periodical rains than
the regions we have left, though springs are not so abundant, I
believe, as they are in the Land of the Moon, where they ooze out
by the flanks of the little granitic hills.

After tracking through several miles of low bush-jungle, we came
to the sites of some old bomas that had been destroyed by the
Watuta not long since. Farther on, as we wished to enter a
newly- constructed boma, the chief of which was Mafumbu Wantu (a
Mr Balls), we felt the effects of those ruthless marauders; for
the villagers, thinking us Watuta in disguise, would not let us
in; for those savages, they said, had once tricked them by
entering their village, pretending to be traders carrying ivory
and merchandise, whilst they were actually spies. This was
fortunate for me, however, as Mr Balls, like M'yonga, was noted
for his extortions on travellers. We then went on and put up in
the first village of Bogue, where I wished to get porters and
return for Grant, as the place seemed to be populous. Finding,
however, that I could not get a sufficient number for that
purpose, I directed those who wished for employment to go off at
once and take service with Grant.

I found many people assembled here from all parts of the
district, for the purpose of fighting M'yonga; but the chief
Ruhe, having heard of my arrival, called me to his palace, which,
he said, was on my way, that he might see me, for he never in all
his life had a white man for his guest, and was so glad to hear
of my arrival that he would give orders for the dispersing of his
forces. I wished to push past him, as I might be subjected to
such calls every day; but Ungurue, in the most piggish manner--
for he was related to Ruhe --insisted that neither himself nor
any of his children would advance one step farther with me unless
I complied with their wish, which was a simple conformity with
the laws of their country, and therefore absolute. At length
giving in, I entered Ruhe's boma, the poles of which were decked
with the skulls of his enemies stuck upon them. Instead,
however, of seeing him myself, as he feared my evil eye, I
conducted the arrangements for the hongo through Baraka, in the
same way as I did at M'yonga's, directing that it should be
limited to the small sum of one barsati and four yards kiniki.

The drum was beaten, as the public intimation of the payment of
the hongo, and consequently of our release, and we went on to
Mihambo, on the west border of the eastern division of Uzinza,
which is called Ukhanga. It overlooks the small district of
Sorombo, belonging to the great western division, known as Usui,
and is presided over by a Sorombo chief, named Makaka, whose
extortions had been so notorious that no Arabs now ever went near
him. I did not wish to do so either, though his palace lay in
the direct route. It was therefore agreed we should skirt round
by the east of this district, and I even promised the Pig I would
give him ten necklaces a-day in addition to his wages, if he
would avoid all the chiefs, and march steadily ten miles every
day. By doing so, we should have avoided the wandering Watuta,
whose depredations had laid waste nearly all of this country; but
the designing blackguard, in opposition to my wishes, to
accomplish some object of his own, chose to mislead us all, and
quietly took us straight into Sorombo to Kague, the boma of a
sub-chief, called Mfumbi, where we no sooner arrived than the
inhospitable brute forbade any one of his subjects to sell us
food until the hongo was paid, for he was not sure that we were
not allied with the Watuta to rob his country. After receiving
what he called his dues--one barsati, two yards merikani, and two
yards kiniki--the drums beat, and all was settled with him; but I
was told the head chief Makaka, who lived ten miles to the west,
and so much out of my road, had sent expressly to invite me to
see him. He said it was his right I should go to him as the
principal chief of the district. Moreover he longed for a sight
of a white man; for though he had travelled all across Uganda and
Usoga into Masawa, or the Masai country, as well as to the coast,
where he had seen both Arabs and Indians, he had never yet seen
an Englishman. If I would oblige him, he said he would give me
guides to Suwarora, who was his mkama or king. Of course I knew
well what all this meant; and at the same time that I said I
could not comply, I promised to send him a present of friendship
by the hands of Baraka.

This caused a halt. Makaka would not hear of such an
arrangement. A present, he said, was due to him of course, but of
more importance than the present was his wish to see me. Baraka
and all the men begged I would give in, as they were sure he must
be a good man to send such a kind message. I strove in vain, for
no one would lift a load unless I complied; so, perforce, I went
there, in company, however, with Mfumbi, who now pretended to be
great friends; but what was the result? On entering the palace
we were shown into a cowyard without a tree in it, or any shade;
and no one was allowed to sell us food until a present of
friendship was paid, after which the hongo would be discussed.

The price of friendship was not settled that day, however, and my
men had to go supperless to bed. Baraka offered him one common
cloth, and then another--all of which he rejected with such
impetuosity that Baraka said his head was all on a whirl. Makaka
insisted he would have a deole, or nothing at all. I protested I
had no deoles I could give him; for all the expensive cloths
which I had brought from the coast had been stolen in Mgunda
Mkhali. I had three, however, concealed at the time--which I had
bought from Musa, at forty dollars each--intended for the kings
of Karague and Uganda.

Incessant badgering went on for hours and hours, until at last
Baraka, clean done with the incessant worry of this hot-headed
young chief, told him, most unfortunately, he would see again if
he could find a deole, as he had one of his own. Baraka then
brought one to my tent, and told me of his having bought it for
eight dollars at the coast; and as I now saw I was let in for it,
I told him to give it. It was given, but Makaka no sooner saw it
than he said he must have another one; for it was all nonsense
saying a white man had no rich cloths. Whenever he met Arabs,
they all said they were poor men, who obtained all their
merchandise from the white men on credit, which they refunded
afterwards, by levying a heavy percentage on the sale of their

I would not give way that night; but next day, after fearful
battling, the present of friendship was paid by Baraka's giving
first a dubuani, then one sahari, then one barsati, then one
kisutu, and then eight yards of merikani--all of which were
contested in the most sickening manner--when Baraka, fairly done
up, was relieved by Makaka's saying, "That will do for
friendship; if you had given the deole quietly, all this trouble
would have been saved; for I am not a bad man, as you will see."
My men then had their first dinner here, after which the hongo
had to be paid. This for the time was, however, more easily
settled; because Makaki at once said he would never be satisfied
until he had received, if I had really not got a deole, exactly
double in equivalents of all I had given him. This was a fearful
drain on my store; but the Pig, seeing my concern, merely laughed
at it, and said, "Oh, these savage chiefs are all alike here; you
will have one of these taxes to pay every stage to Uyofu, and
then the heavy work will begin; for all these men, although they
assume the dignity of chief to themselves, are mere officers, who
have to pay tribute to Suwarora, and he would be angry if they
were shortcoming."

The drums as yet had not beaten, for Makaka said he would not be
satisfied until we had exchanged presents, to prove that we were
the best of friends. To do this last act properly, I was to get
ready whatever I wished to give him, whilst he would come and
visit me with a bullock; but I was to give him a royal salute, or
the drums would not beat. I never felt so degraded as when I
complied, and gave orders to my men to fire a volley as he
approached my tent; but I ate the dirt with a good grace, and met
the young chief as if nothing had happened. My men, however,
could not fire the salute fast enough for him; for he was one of
those excitable impulsive creatures who expect others to do
everything in as great a hurry as their minds wander. The moment
the first volley was fired, he said, "Now, fire again, fire
again; be quick, be quick! What's the use of those things?"
(meaning the guns). "We could spear you all whilst you are
loading: be quick, be quick, I tell you." But Baraka, to give
himself law, said: "No; I must ask Bana" (master) "first, as we
do everything by order; this is not fighting at all."

The men being ready, file-firing was ordered, and then the young
chief came into my tent. I motioned him to take my chair, which,
after he sat down upon it, I was very sorry for, as he stained
the seat all black with the running colour of one of the new
barsati cloths he had got from me, which, to improve its
appearance, he had saturated with stinking butter, and had tied
round his loins. A fine-looking man of about thirty, he wore the
butt-end of a large sea-shell cut in a circle, and tied on his
forehead, for a coronet, and sundry small saltiana antelope
horns, stuffed with magic powder, to keep off the evil eye. His
attendants all fawned on him, and snapped their fingers whenever
he sneezed. After passing the first compliment, I gave him a
barsati, as my token of friendship, and asked him what he saw
when he went to the Masai country. He assured me "that there were
two lakes, and not one"; for, on going from Usoga to the Masai
country, he crossed over a broad strait, which connected the big
N'yanza with another one at its north-east corner. Fearfully
impetuous, as soon as this answer was given, he said, "Now I have
replied to your questions, do you show me all the things you have
got, for I want to see everything, and be very good friends. I
did not see you the first day, because you being a stranger, it
was necessary I should first look into the magic horn to see if
all was right and safe; and now I can assure you that, whilst I
saw I was safe, I also saw that your road would be prosperous. I
am indeed delighted to see you, for neither my father, nor any of
my forefathers, ever were honoured with the company of a white
man in all their lives."

My guns, clothes, and everything were then inspected, and begged
for in the most importunate manner. He asked for the picture-
books, examined the birds with intense delight--even trying to
insert under their feathers his long royal fingernails, which are
grown like a Chinaman's by these chiefs, to show they have a
privilege to live on meat. Then turning to the animals, he
roared over each one in turn as he examined them, and called out
their names. My bull's-eye lantern he coveted so much, I had to
pretend exceeding anger to stop his further importunities. He
then began again begging for lucifers, which charmed him so
intensely I thought I should never get rid of him. He would have
one box of them. I swore I could not part with them. He
continued to beg, and I to resist. I offered a knife instead,
but this he would not have, because the lucifers would be so
valuable for his magical observances. On went the storm, till at
last I drove him off with a pair of my slippers, which he had
stuck his dirty feet into without my leave. I then refused to
take his bullock, because he had annoyed me. On his part he was
resolved not to beat the drum; but he graciously said he would
think about it if I paid another lot of cloth equal to the second
deole I ought to have given him.

I began seriously to consider whether I should have this chief
shot, as a reward for his oppressive treachery, and a warning to
others; but the Pig said it was just what the Arabs were
subjected to in Ubena, and they found it best to pay down at
once, and do all they were ordered. If I acted rightly, I would
take the bullock, and then give the cloth; whilst Baraka said,
"We will shoot him if you give the order, only remember Grant is
behind, and if you commence a row you will have to fight the
whole way, for every chief in the country will oppose you."

I then told the Pig and Baraka to settle at once. They no sooner
did so than the drums beat, and Makaka, in the best humour
possible, came over to say I had permission to go when I liked,
but he hoped I would give him a gun and a box of lucifers. This
was too provoking. The perpetual worry had given Baraka a fever,
and had made me feel quite sick; so I said, if he ever mentioned
a gun or lucifers again, I would fight the matter out with him,
for I had not come there to be bullied. He then gave way, and
begged I would allow my men to fire a volley outside his boma, as
the Watuta were living behind a small line of granitic hills
flanking the west of his district, and he wished to show them
what a powerful force he had got with him. This was permitted;
but his wisdom in showing off was turned into ridicule; for the
same evening the Watuta made and attack on his villages and
killed three of his subjects, but were deterred from committing
further damage by coming in contact with my men, who, as soon as
they saw the Watuta fighting, fired their muskets off in the air
and drove them away, they themselves at the same time bolting
into my camp, and as usual vaunting their prowess.

I then ordered a march for the next morning, and went out in the
fields to take my regular observations for latitude. Whilst
engaged in this operation, Baraka, accompanied by Wadimoyo
(Heart's-stream), another of my freeman, approached me in great
consternation, whispering to themselves. They said they had some
fearful news to communicate, which, when I heard it, they knew
would deter our progress: it was of such great moment and
magnitude, they thought they could not deliver it then. I said,
"What nonsense! out with it at once. Are we such chickens that
we cannot speak about matters like men? out with it at once."

Then Baraka said, "I have just heard from Makaka, that a man who
arrived from Usui only a few minutes ago has said Suwarora is so
angry with the Arabs that he has detained one caravan of theirs
in his country, and, separating the whole of their men, has
placed each of them in different bomas, with orders to his
village officers that, in case the Watuta came into his country,
without further ceremony they were to be all put to death." I
said, "Oh, Baraka, how can you be such a fool? Do you not see
through this humbug? Makaka only wishes to keep us here to
frighten away the Watuta; for Godsake be a man, and don't be
alarmed at such phantoms as these. You always are nagging at me
that Bombay is the 'big' and you are the 'small' man. Bombay
would never be frightened in this silly way. Now, do you reflect
that I have selected you for this journey, as it would, if you
succeed with me in carrying out our object, stamp you for ever as
a man of great fame. Pray, don't give way, but do your best to
encourage the men, and let us march in the morning." On this, as
on other occasions of the same kind, I tried to impart
confidence, by explaining, in allusion to Petherick's expedition,
that I had arranged to meet white men coming up from the north.
Baraka at last said, "All right--I am not afraid; I will do as
you desire." But as the two were walking off, I heard Wadimoyo
say to Baraka, "Is he not afraid now? won't he go back?"--which,
if anything, alarmed me more than the first intelligence; for I
began to think that they, and not Makaka, had got up the story.

All night Makaka's men patrolled the village, drumming and
shouting to keep off the Watuta, and the next morning, instead of
a march, after striking my tent I found that the whole of my
porters, the Pig's children, were not to be found. They had gone
off and hidden themselves, saying that they were not such fools
as to go any farther, as the Watuta were out, and would cut us up
on the road. This was sickening indeed.

I knew the porters had not gone far, so I told the Pig to bring
them to me, that we might talk the matter over; but say what I
would, they all swore they would not advance a step farther.
Most of them were formerly men of Utambara. The Watuta had
invaded their country and totally destroyed it, killing all their
wives and children, and despoiling everything they held dear to
them. They did not wish to rob me, and would give up their hire,
but not one step more would they advance. Makaka then came
forward and said, "Just stop here with me until this ill wind
blows over"; but Baraka, more in a fright at Makaka than at any
one else, said, No--he would do anything rather than that; for
Makaka's bullying had made him quite ill. I then said to my men,
"If nothing else will suit you, the best plan I can think of is
to return to Mihambo in Bogue, and there form a depot, where,
having stored my property, I shall give the Pig a whole load, or
63 lb., of Mzizima beads if he will take Baraka in disguise on to
Suwarora, and ask him to send me eighty men, whilst I go back to
Unyanyembe to see what men I can get from the late Musa's
establishment, and then we might bring on Grant, and move in a
body together." At first Baraka said, "Do you wish to have us
killed? Do you think if we went to Suwarora's you would ever see
us back again? You would wait and wait for us, but we should
never return." To which I replied, "Oh, Baraka, do not think so!
Bombay, if he were here, would go in a minute. Suwarora by this
time knows I am coming, and you may depend on it he will be just
as anxious to have us in Usui as Makaka is to keep us here, and
he cannot hurt us, as Rumanika is over him, and also expects us."
Baraka then, in the most doleful manner, said he would go if the
Pig would. The Pig, however, did not like it either, but said
the matter was so important he would look into the magic horn all
night, and give his answer next morning as soon as we arrived at

On arrival at Mihambo next day, all the porters brought their pay
to me, and said they would not go, for nothing would induce them
to advance a step farther. I said nothing; but, with "my heart
in my shoes," I gave what I thought their due for coming so far,
and motioned them to be off; then calling on the Pig for his
decision, I tried to argue again, though I saw it was no use, for
there was not one of my own men who wished to go on. They were
unanimous in saying Usui was a "fire," and I had no right to
sacrifice them. The Pig then finally refused, saying three loads
even would not tempt him, for all were opposed to it. Of what
value, he observed, would the beads be to him if his life was
lost? This was crushing; the whole camp was unanimous in
opposing me. I then made Baraka place all my kit in the middle
of the boma, which was a very strong one, keeping out only such
beads as I wished him to use for the men's rations daily, and
ordered him to select a few men who would return with me to Kaze;
when I said, if I could not get all the men I wanted, I would try
and induce some one, who would not fear, to go on to Usui;
failing which, I would even walk back to Zanzibar for men, as
nothing in the world would ever induce me to give up the journey.

This appeal did not move him; but, without a reply, he sullenly
commenced collecting some men to accompany me back to Kaze. At
first no one would go; they then mutinied for more beads,
announcing all sorts of grievances, which they said they were
always talking over to themselves, though I did not hear them.
The greatest, however, that they could get up was, that I always
paid the Wanyamuezi "temporaries" more than they got, though
"permanents." "They were the flesh, and I was the knife"; I cut
and did with them just as I liked, and they could not stand it
any longer. However, they had to stand it; and next day, when I
had brought them to reason, I gave over the charge of my tent and
property to Baraka, and commenced the return with a bad hitching
cough, caused by those cold easterly winds that blow over the
plateau during the six dry months of the years, and which are, I
suppose, the Harmattan peculiar to Africa.

Next day I joined Grant once more, and found he had collected a
few Sorombo men, hoping to follow after me. I then told him all
my mishaps in Sorombo, as well as of the "blue-devil" frights
that had seized all my men. I felt greatly alarmed about the
prospects of the expedition, scarcely knowing what I should do.
I resolved at last, if everything else failed, to make up a raft
at the southern end of the N'yanza, and try to go up to the Nile
in that way. My cough daily grew worse. I could not lie or sleep
on either side. Still my mind was so excited and anxious that,
after remaining one day here to enjoy Grant's society, I pushed
ahead again, taking Bombay with me, and had breakfast at

There I found the Pig, who now said he wished he had taken my
offer of beads, for he had spoken with his chief, and saw that I
was right. Baraka and the Wanguana were humbugs, and had they
not opposed his going, he would have gone then; even now, he
said, he wished I would take him again with Bombay. Though half
inclined to accept his offer, which would have saved a long
trudge to Kaze, yet as he had tricked me so often, I felt there
would be no security unless I could get some coast interpreters,
who would not side with the chiefs against me as he had done.
From this I went on to Sirboko's, and spent the next day with him
talking over my plans. The rafting up the lake he thought a good
scheme; but he did not think I should ever get through Usui until
all the Kaze merchants went north in a body, for it was no use
trying to force my men against their inclinations; and if I did
not take care how I handled them, he thought they would all

My cough still grew worse, and became so bad that, whilst
mounting a hill on entering Ungugu's the second day after, I blew
and grunted like a broken-winded horse, and it became so
distressing I had to halt a day. In two more marches, however, I
reached Kaze, and put up with Musa's eldest son, Abdalla, on the
2nd July, who now was transformed from a drunken slovenly boy
into the appearance of a grand swell, squatting all day as his
old father used to do. The house, however, did not feel the same-
-no men respected him as they had done his father. Sheikh Said
was his clerk and constant companion, and the Tots were well fed
on his goats--at my expense, however. On hearing my fix, Abdalla
said I should have men; and, what's more, he would go with me as
his father had promised to do; but he had a large caravan
detained in Ugogo, and for that he must wait.

At that moment Manua Sera was in a boma at Kigue, in alliance
with the chief of that place; but there was no hope for him now,
as all the Arabs had allied themselves with the surrounding
chiefs, including Kitambi; and had invested his position by
forming a line, in concentric circles, four deep, cutting off his
supplies of water within it, so that they daily expected to hear
of his surrendering. The last news that had reached them brought
intelligence of one man killed and two Arabs wounded; whilst, on
the other side, Manua Sera had lost many men, and was put to such
straits that he had called out if it was the Arabs' determination
to kill him he would bolt again; to which the Arabs replied it
was all the same; if he ran up to the top of the highest mountain
or down into hell, they would follow after and put him to death.

3d.--After much bother and many disappointments, as I was assured
I could get no men to help me until after the war was over, and
the Arabs had been to Ugogo, and had brought up their property,
which was still lying there, I accepted two men as guides--one
named Bui, a very small creature, with very high pretensions, who
was given me by Abdalla--the other, a steady old traveller, named
Nasib (or Fortune), who was given me by Fundi Sangoro. These two
slaves, both of whom knew all the chiefs and languages up to and
including Uganda, promised me faithfully they would go with
Bombay on to Usui, and bring back porters in sufficient number
for Grant and myself to go on together. They laughed at the
stories I told them of the terror that had seized Baraka and all
the Wanguana, and told me, as old Musa had often done before,
that those men, especially Baraka, had from their first leaving
Kaze made up their minds they would not enter Usui, or go
anywhere very far north.

I placed those men on the same pay as Bombay, and then tried to
buy some beads from the Arabs, as I saw it was absolutely
necessary I should increase my fast-ebbing store if I ever hoped
to reach Gondokoro. The attempt failed, as the Arabs would not
sell at a rate under 2000 per cent.; and I wrote a letter to
Colonel Rigby, ordering up fifty armed men laden with beads and
pretty cloths-- which would, I knew, cost me 1000 at the least--
and left once more for the north on the 5th.

Marching slowly, as my men kept falling sick, I did not reach
Grant again until the 11th. His health had greatly improved, and
he had been dancing with Ukulima, as may be seen by the
accompanying woodcut. So, as I was obliged to wait for a short
time to get a native guide for Bui, Nasib and Bombay, who would
show them a jungle-path to Usui, we enjoyed our leisure hours in
shooting guinea-fowls for the pot. A report then came to us that
Suwarora had heard with displeasure that I had been endeavouring
to see him, but was deterred because evil reports concerning him
had been spread. This unexpected good news delighted me
exceedingly; confirmed my belief that Baraka, after all, was a
coward, and induced me to recommend Bombay to make his cowardice
more indisputable by going on and doing what he had feared to do.
To which Bombay replied, "Of course I will. It is all folly
pulling up for every ill wind that blows, because, until one
actually SEES there is something in it, you never can tell
amongst these savages-- 'shaves' are so common in Africa.
Besides, a man has but one life, and God is the director of
everything." "Bravo!" said I, "we will get on as long as you
keep to that way of thinking."

At length a guide was obtained, and with him came some of those
men of the Pig's who returned before; for they had a great desire
to go with me, but had been deterred, they said, by Baraka and
the rest of my men. Seeing all this, I changed my plans again,
intending, on arrival at Baraka's camp, to prevail on the whole
of the party to go with me direct, which I thought they could not
now refuse, since Suwarora had sent us an invitation. Moreover,
I did not like the idea of remaining still whilst the three men
went forwards, as it would be losing time.

These separations from Grant were most annoying, but they could
not be helped; so, when all was settled here, I bade him adieu--
both of us saying we would do our best--and set out on my
journey, thinking what a terrible thing it was I could not
prevail on my men to view things as I did. Neither my experience
with native chiefs, nor my money and guns, were of any use to me,
simply because my men were such incomprehensible fools, though
many of them who had travelled before ought to have known better.

More reports came to us about Suwarora, all of the most inviting
nature; but nothing else worth mentioning occurred until we
reached the border of Msalala, where an officer of M'yonga's, who
said he was a bigger man than his chief, demanded a tax, which I
refused, and the dispute ended in his snatching Nasib's gun out
of his hands. I thought little of this affair myself, beyond
regretting the delay which it might occasion, as M'yonga, I knew,
would not permit such usage, if I chose to go round by his palace
and make a complaint. Both Bui and Nasib, however, were so
greatly alarmed, that before I could say a word they got the gun
back again by paying four yards merikani. We had continued
bickering again, for Bui had taken such fright at this kind of
rough handling, and the "push-ahead" manner in which I persisted
"riding over the lords of the soil," that I could hardly drag the
party along.

However, on the 18th, after breakfasting at Ruhe's, we walked
into Mihambo, and took all the camp by surprise. I found the
Union Jack hoisted upon a flag-staff, high above all the trees,
in the boma. Baraka said he had done this to show the Watuta that
the place was occupied by men with guns--a necessary precaution,
as all the villages in the neighbourhood had, since my departure,
been visited and plundered by them. Lumeresi, the chief of the
district, who lived ten miles to the eastward, had been
constantly pressing him to leave this post and come to his
palace, as he felt greatly affronted at our having shunned him
and put up with Ruhe. He did not want property, he said, but he
could not bear that the strangers had lived with his mtoto, or
child, which Ruhe was, and yet would not live with him. He
thought Baraka's determined obstinacy on this could only be
caused by the influence of the head man of the village, and
threatened that if Baraka did not come to visit him at once, he
would have the head man beheaded. Then, shifting round a bit, he
thought of ordering his subjects to starve the visitors into
submission, and said he must have a hongo equal to Ruhe's. To
all this Baraka replied, that he was merely a servant, and as he
had orders to stop where he was, he could not leave it until I
came; but to show there was no ill-feeling towards him, he sent
the chief a cloth.

These first explanations over, I entered my tent, in which Baraka
had been living, and there I found a lot of my brass wires on the
ground, lying scattered about. I did not like the look of this,
so ordered Bombay to resume his position of factotum, and count
over the kit. Whilst this was going on, a villager came to me
with a wire, and asked me to change it for a cloth. I saw at
once what the game was; so I asked my friend where he got it, on
which he at once pointed to Baraka. I then heard the men who
were standing round us say one to another in under-tones,
giggling with the fun of it, "Oh, what a shame of him! Did you
hear what Bana said, and that fool's reply to it? What a shame
of him to tell in that way." Without appearing to know, or rather
to hear, the by-play that was going on, I now said to Baraka,
"How is it this man has got one of my wires, for I told you not
to touch or unpack them during my absence?" To which he coolly
replied, in face of such evidence, "It is not one of your wires;
I never gave away one of yours; there are lots more wires besides
yours in the country. The man tells a falsehood; he had the wire
before, but now, seeing your cloth open, wants to exchange it."
"If that is the case," I said, taking things easy, "how is it you
have opened my loads and scattered the wires about in the tent?"
"Oh, that was to take care of them; for I thought, if they were
left outside all night with the rest of the property, some one
would steal them, and I should get the blame of it."

Further parley was useless; for, though both my wires and cloths
were short, still it was better not to kick up a row, when I had
so much to do to keep all my men in good temper for the journey.
Baraka then, wishing to beguile me, as he thought he could do,
into believing him a wonderful man for both pluck and honesty,
said he had had many battles to fight with the men since I had
been gone to Kaze, for there were two strong parties in the camp;
those who, during the late rebellion at Zanzibar, had belonged to
the Arabs that sided with Sultan Majid, and were royalists, and
those who, having belonged to the rebellious Arabs, were on the
opposite side. The battle commenced, he stated, by the one side
abusing the other for their deeds during that rebellion, the
rebels in this sort of contest proving themselves the stronger.
But he, heading the royalist party, soon reduced them to order,
though only for a short while, as from that point they turned
round to open mutiny for more rations; and some of the rebels
tried to kill him, which, he said, they would have done had he
not settled the matter by buying some cows for them. It was on
this account he had been obliged to open my loads. And now he
had told me the case, he hoped I would forgive him if he had done
wrong. Now, the real facts of the case were these--though I did
not find them out at the time:-- Baraka had bought some slaves
with my effects, and he had had a fight with some of my men
because they tampered with his temporary wife--a princess he had
picked up in Phunze. To obtain her hand he had given ten
necklaces of MY beads to her mother, and had agreed to the
condition that he should keep the girl during the journey; and
after it was over, and he took her home, he would, if his wife
pleased him, give her mother ten necklaces more.

Next day Baraka told me his heart shrank to the dimensions of a
very small berry when he saw whom I had brought with me
yesterday-- meaning Bombay, and the same porters whom he had
prevented going on with me before. I said, "Pooh, nonsense; have
done with such excuses, and let us get away out of this as fast
as we can. Now, like a good man, just use your influence with
the chief of the village, and try and get from him five or six
men to complete the number we want, and then we will work round
the east of Sorombo up to Usui, for Suwarora has invited us to
him." This, however, was not so easy; for Lumeresi, having heard
of my arrival, sent his Wanyapara, or grey-beards, to beg I would
visit him. He had never seen a white man in all his life,
neither had his father, nor any of his forefathers, although he
had often been down to the coast; I must come and see him, as I
had seen his mtoto Ruhe. He did not want property; it was only
the pleasure of my company that he wanted, to enable him to tell
all his friends what a great man had lived in his house.

This was terrible: I saw at once that all my difficulties in
Sorombo would have to be gone through again if I went there, and
groaned when I thought what a trick the Pig had played me when I
first of all came to this place; for if I had gone on then, as I
wished, I should have slipped past Lumeresi without his knowing

I had to get up a storm at the grey-beards, and said I could not
stand going out of my road to see any one now, for I had already
lost so much time by Makaka's trickery in Sorombo. Bui then,
quaking with fright at my obstinacy, said, "You must--indeed you
must--give in and do with these savage chiefs as the Arabs when
they travel, for I will not be a party to riding rough-shod over
them." Still I stuck out, and the grey-beards departed to tell
their chief of it. Next morning he sent them back to say he
would not be cheated out of his rights as the chief of the
district. Still I would not give in, and the whole day kept
"jawing" without effect, for I could get no man to go with me
until the chief gave his sanction. I then tried to send Bombay
off with Bui, Nasib, and their guide, by night; but though Bombay
was willing, the other two hung back on the old plea. In this
state of perplexity, Bui begged I would allow him to go over to
Lumeresi and see what he could do with a present. Bui really now
was my only stand-by, so I sent him off, and next had the
mortification to find that he had been humbugged by honeyed
words, as Baraka had been with Makaka, into believing that
Lumeresi was a good man, who really had no other desire at heart
than the love of seeing me. His boma, he said, did not lie much
out of my line, and he did not wish a stitch of my cloth. So far
from detaining me, he would give me as many men as I wanted; and,
as an earnest of his good intentions, he sent his copper hatchet,
the badge of office as chief of the district, as a guarantee for

To wait there any longer after this, I knew, would be a mere
waste of time, so I ordered my men to pack up that moment, and we
all marched over at once to Lumeresi's, when we put up in his
boma. Lumeresi was not in then, but, on his arrival at night, he
beat all his drums to celebrate the event, and fired a musket, in
reply to which I fired three shots. The same night, whilst
sitting out to make astronomical observations, I became deadly
cold--so much so, that the instant I had taken the star, to fix
my position, I turned into bed, but could not get up again; for
the cough that had stuck to me for a month then became so
violent, heightened by fever succeeding the cold fit, that before
the next morning I was so reduced that I could not stand. For
the last month, too, I had not been able to sleep on either side,
as interior pressure, caused by doing so, provoked the cough; but
now I had, in addition, to be propped in position to get any
repose whatever. The symptoms, altogether, were rather alarming,
for the heart felt inflamed and ready to burst, pricking and
twingeing with every breath, which was exceedingly aggravated by
constant coughing, when streams of phlegm and bile were ejected.
The left arm felt half-paralysed, the left nostril was choked
with mucus, and on the centre of the left shoulder blade I felt a
pain as if some one was branding me with a hot iron. All this
was constant; and, in addition, I repeatedly felt severe pains--
rather paroxysms of fearful twinges--in the spleen, liver, and
lungs; whilst during my sleep I had all sorts of absurd dreams:
for instance--I planned a march across Africa with Sir Roderick
Murchison; and I fancied some curious creatures, half-men and
half-monkeys, came into my camp to inform me that Petherick was
waiting in boats at the south-west corner of the N'yanza, etc.,

Though my mind was so weak and excited when I woke up from these
trances, I thought of nothing but the march, and how I could get
out of Lumeresi's hands. He, with the most benign countenance,
came in to see me, the very first thing in the morning, as he
said, to inquire after my health; when, to please him as much as
I could, I had a guard of honour drawn up at the tent door to
fire a salute as he entered; then giving him my iron camp-chair
to sit upon, which tickled him much--for he was very corpulent,
and he thought its legs would break down with his weight--we had
a long talk, though it was as much as I could do to remember
anything, my brain was so excited and weak. Kind as he looked
and spoke, he forgot all his promises about coveting my property,
and scarcely got over the first salutation before he began
begging for many things that he saw, and more especially for a
deole, in order that he might wear it on all great occasions, to
show his contemporaries what a magnanimous man his white visitor
was. I soon lost my temper whilst striving to settle the hongo.
Lumeresi would have a deole, and I would not admit that I had

23d to 31st.--Next morning I was too weak to speak moderately,
and roared more like a madman than a rational being, as, breaking
his faith, he persisted in bullying me. The day after, I took
pills and blistered my chest all over, still Lumeresi would not
let me alone, nor come to any kind of terms until the 25th, when
he said he would take a certain number of pretty common cloths
for his children if I would throw in a red blanket for himself.
I jumped at this concession with the greatest eagerness, paid
down my cloths on the spot; and, thinking I was free at last,
ordered a hammock to be slung on a pole, that I might leave the
next day. Next morning, however, on seeing me actually preparing
to start, Lumeresi found he could not let me go until I increased
the tax by three more cloths, as some of his family complained
that they had got nothing. After some badgering, I paid what he
asked for, and ordered the men to carry me out of the palace
before anything else was done, for I would not sleep another
night where I was. Lumeresi then stood in my way, and said he
would never allow a man of his country to give me any assistance
until I was well, for he could not bear the idea of hearing it
said that, after taking so many cloths from me, he had allowed me
to die in the jungles--and dissuaded my men from obeying my

In vain I appealed to his mercy, declaring that the only chance
left me of saving my life would be from the change of air in the
hammock as I marched along. He would not listen, professing
humanity, whilst he meant plunder; and I now found that he was
determined not to beat the drum until I had paid him some more,
which he was to think over and settle next day. When the next
day came, he would not come near me, as he said I must possess a
deole, otherwise I would not venture on to Karague; for nobody
ever yet "saw" Rumanika without one. This suspension of business
was worse than the rows; I felt very miserable, and became worse.
At last, on my offering him anything that he might consider an
equivalent for the deole if he would but beat the drums of
satisfaction, he said I might consider myself his prisoner
instead of his guest if I persisted in my obstinacy in not giving
him Rumanika's deole; and then again peremptorily ordered all of
his subjects not to assist me in moving a load. After this,
veering round for a moment on the generous tack, he offered me a
cow, which I declined.

1st to 4th.--Still I rejected the offered cow, until the 2nd,
when, finding him as dogged as ever, at the advice of my men I
accepted it, hoping thus to please him; but it was no use, for he
now said he must have two deoles, or he would never allow me to
leave his palace. Every day matters got worse and worse.
Mfumbi, the small chief of Sorombo, came over, in an Oily-Gammon
kind of manner, to say Makaka had sent him over to present his
compliments to me, and express his sorrow on hearing that I had
fallen sick here. He further informed me that the road was closed
between this and Usui, for he had just been fighting there, and
had killed the chief Gomba, burnt down all his villages, and
dispersed all the men in the jungle, where they now resided,
plundering every man who passed that way. This gratuitous,
wicked, humbugging terrifier helped to cause another defeat. It
was all nonsense, I knew, but both Bui and Nasib, taking fright,
begged for their discharges. In fearful alarm and anxiety, I
begged them to have patience and see the hongo settled first, for
there was no necessity, at any rate, for immediate hurry; I
wished them to go on ahead with Bombay, as in four days they
could reach Suwarora's. But they said they could not hear of it-
-they would not go a step beyond this. All the chiefs on ahead
would do the same as Lumeresi; the whole country was roused. I
had not even half enough cloths to satisfy the Wasui; and my
faithful followers would never consent to be witness to my being
"torn to pieces."

5th and 6th.--The whole day and half of the next went in
discussions. At last, able for the first time to sit up a
little, I succeeded in prevailing on Bui to promise he would go
to Usui as soon as the hongo was settled, provided, as he said, I
took on myself all responsibilities of the result. This cheered
me so greatly, I had my chair placed under a tree and smoked my
first pipe. On seeing this, all my men struck up a dance, to the
sound of the drums, which they carried on throughout the whole
night, never ceasing until the evening of the next day. These
protracted caperings were to be considered as their
congratulation for my improvement in health; for, until I got
into my chair, they always thought I was going to die. They then
told me, with great mirth and good mimicry, of many absurd scenes
which, owing to the inflamed state of my brain, had taken place
during my interviews with Lumeresi. Bombay at this time very
foolishly told Lumeresi, if he "really wanted a deole," he must
send to Grant for one. This set the chief raving. He knew there
was one in my box, he said, and unless I gave it, the one with
Grant must be brought; for under no circumstances would he allow
of my proceeding northwards until that was given him. Bui and
Nasib then gave me the slip, and slept that night in a
neighbouring boma without my knowledge.

7th to 9th.--As things had now gone so far, I gave Lumeresi the
deole I had stored away for Rumanika, telling him, at the same
time as he took it, that he was robbing Rumanika, and not myself;
but I hoped, now I had given it, he would beat the drums. The
scoundrel only laughed as he wrapped my beautiful silk over his
great broad shoulders, and said, "Yes, this will complete our
present of friendship; now then for the hongo--I must have
exactly double of all you have given." This Sorombo trick I
attributed to the instigation of Makaka, for these savages never
fail to take their revenge when they can. I had doubled back
from his country, and now he was cutting me off in front. I
expected as much when the oily blackguard Mfumbi came over from
his chief to ask after my health; so, judging from my experience
with Makaka, I told Lumeresi at once to tell me what he
considered his due, for this fearful haggling was killing me by
inches. I had no more deoles, but would make that up in brass
wire. He then fixed the hongo at fifteen masango or brass wire
bracelets, sixteen cloths of sorts, and a hundred necklaces of
samisami or red coral beads, which was to pay for Grant as well
as myself. I paid it down on the spot; the drums beat the
"satisfaction," and I ordered the march with the greatest relief
of mind possible.

But Bui and Nasib were not to be found; they had bolted. The
shock nearly killed me. I had walked all the way to Kaze and
back again for these men, to show mine a good example--had given
them pay and treble rations, the same as Bombay and Baraka--and
yet they chose to desert. I knew not what to do, for it appeared
to me that, do what I would, we would never succeed; and in my
weakness of body and mind I actually cried like a child over the
whole affair. I would rather have died than have failed in my
journey, and yet failure seemed at this juncture inevitable.

8th.--As I had no interpreters, and could not go forward myself,
I made up my mind at once to send back all my men with Bombay, to
Grant; after joining whom, Bombay would go back to Kaze again for
other interpreters, and on his return would pick up Grant, and
bring him on here. This sudden decision set all my men up in a
flame; they swore it was no use my trying to go on to Karague;
they would not go with me; they did not come here to be killed.
If I chose to lose my life, it was no business of theirs, but
they would not be witness to it. They all wanted their discharge
at once; they would not run away, but must have a letter of
satisfaction, and then they would go back to their homes at
Zanzibar. But when they found they lost all their arguments and
could not move me, they said they would go back for Grant, but
when they had done that duty, then they would take their leave.

10th to 15th.--This business being at last settled, I wrote to
Grant on the subject, and sent all the men off who were not sick.
Thinking then how I could best cure the disease that was keeping
me down, as I found the blister of no use, I tried to stick a
packing needle, used as a seton, into my side; but finding it was
not sharp enough, in such weak hands a mine, to go through my
skin, I got Baraka to try; and he failing too, I then made him
fire me, for the coughing was so incessant I could get no sleep
at night. I had now nothing whatever to think of but making
dodges for lying easy, and for relieving my pains, or else for
cooking strong broths to give me strength, for my legs were
reduced to the appearance of pipe-sticks, until the 15th, when
Baraka, in the same doleful manner as in Sorombo, came to me and
said he had something to communicate, which was so terrible, if I
heard it I should give up the march. Lumeresi was his authority,
but he would not tell it until Grant arrive. I said to him, "Let
us wait till Grant arrives; we shall then have some one with us
who won't shrink from whispers"--meaning Bombay; and so I let the
matter drop for the time being. But when Grant came, we had it
out of him, and found this terrible mystery all hung on
Lumeresi's prognostications that we never should get through Usui
with so little cloth.

16th to 19th.--At night, I had such a terrible air-catching fit,
and made such a noise whilst trying to fill my lungs, that it
alarmed all the camp, so much so that my men rushed into my tent
to see if I was dying. Lumeresi, in the morning, then went on a
visiting excursion into the district, but no sooner left than the
chief of Isamiro, whose place lies close to the N'yanza, came
here to visit him (17th); but after waiting a day to make friends
with me, he departed (18th), as I heard afterwards, to tell his
great Mhuma chief, Rohinda, the ruler of Ukhanga, to which
district this state of Bogue belongs, what sort of presents I had
given to Lumeresi. He was, in fact, a spy whom Rohinda had sent
to ascertain what exactions had been made from me, as he, being
the great chief, was entitled to the most of them himself. On
Lumeresi's return, all the men of the village, as well as mine,
set up a dance, beating the drums all day and all night.

20th to 21st.--Next night they had to beat their drums for a very
different purpose, as the Watuta, after lifting all of Makaka's
cattle in Sorombo, came hovering about, and declared they would
never cease fighting until they had lifted all those that
Lumeresi harboured round his boma; for it so happened that
Lumeresi allowed a large party of Watosi, alias Wahuma, to keep
their cattle in large stalls all round his boma, and these the
Watuta had now set their hearts upon. After a little reflection,
however, they thought better of it, as they were afraid to come
in at once on account of my guns.

Most gladdening news this day came in to cheer me. A large mixed
caravan of Arabs and coast-men, arriving from Karague, announced
that both Rumanika and Suwarora were anxiously looking out for
us, wondering why we did not come. So great, indeed, was
Suwarora's desire to see us, that he had sent four men to invite
us, and they would have been here now, only that one of them fell
sick on the way, and the rest had to stop for him. I cannot say
what pleasure this gave me; my fortune, I thought, was made; and
so I told Baraka, and pretended he did not believe the news to be
true. Without loss of time I wrote off to Grant, and got these
men to carry the letter.

Next day (22d) the Wasui from Suwarora arrived. They were a very
gentle, nice-dispositioned-looking set of men--small, but well
knit together. They advanced to my tent with much seeming grace;
then knelt at my feet, and began clapping their hands together,
saying, at the same time, "My great chief, my great chief, I hope
you are well; for Suwarora, having heard of your detention here,
has sent us over to assure you that all those reports that have
been circulated regarding his ill-treatment of caravans are
without foundation; he is sorry for what has happened to deter
your march, and hopes you will at once come to visit him." I
then told them all that had happened--how Grant and myself were
situated--and begged them to assist me by going off to Grant's
camp to inspire all the men there with confidence, and bring my
rear property to me--saying, as they agreed to do so, "Here are
some cloths and some beads for your expenses, and when you return
I will give you more." Baraka at once, seeing this, told me they
were not trustworthy, for at Mihambo an old man had come there
and tried to inveigle him in the same manner, but he kicked him
out of the camp, because he knew he was a touter, who wished
merely to allure him with sweet words to fleece him afterwards.
I then wrote to Grant another letter to be delivered by these

Lumeresi no sooner heard of the presents I had given them, than
he flew into a passion, called them imposters, abused them for
not speaking to him before they came to me, and said he would not
allow them to go. High words then ensued. I said the business
was mine, and not his; he had no right to interfere, and they
should go. Still Lumeresi was obstinate, and determined they
should not, for I was his guest; he would not allow any one to
defraud me. It was a great insult to himself, if true, that
Suwarora should attempt to snatch me out of his house; and he
could not bear to see me take these strangers by the hand, when,
as we have seen, it took him so long to entice me to his den, and
he could not prevail over me until he actually sent his copper

When this breeze blew over, by Lumeresi's walking away, I told
the Wasui not to mind him, but to do just as I bid them. They
said they had their orders to bring me, and if Lumeresi would not
allow them to go for Grant, they would stop where they were, for
they knew that if Suwarora found them delaying long, he would
send more men to look after them. There was no peace yet,
however; for Lumeresi, finding them quietly settled down eating
with my men, ordered them out of his district, threatening force
if they did not comply at once. I tried my best for them, but the
Wasui, fearing to stop any longer, said they would take leave to
see Suwarora, and in eight days more they would come back again,
bringing something with them, the sight of which would make
Lumeresi quake. Further words were now useless, so I gave them
more cloth to keep them up to the mark, and sent them off.
Baraka, who seemed to think this generosity a bit of insanity,
grumbled that if I had cloths to throw away it would have been
better had I disposed of them to my own men.

Next day (26th), as I was still unwell, I sent four men to Grant
with inquiries how he was getting on, and a request for
medicines. The messengers took four days to bring back the
information that Bombay had not returned from Kaze, but that
Grant, having got assistance, hoped to break ground about the 5th
of next month. They brought me at the same time information that
the Watuta had invested Ruhe's, after clearing off all the cattle
in the surrounding villages, and had proclaimed their intention
of serving out Lumeresi next. In consequence of this, Lumeresi
daily assembled his grey-beards and had councils of war in his
drum-house; but though his subjects sent to him constantly for
troops, he would not assist them.

Another caravan then arrived (31st) from Karague, in which I
found an old friend, of half Arab breed, called Saim, who whilst
I was residing with Sheikh Snay at Kaze on my former expedition,
taught me the way to make plantain-wine. He, like the rest of
the porters in the caravan, wore a shirt of fig-tree bark called
mbugu. As I shall have frequently to use this word in the course
of the Journal, I may here give an explanation of its meaning.
The porter here mentioned told me that the people about the
equator all wore this kind of covering, and made it up of
numerous pieces of bark sewn together, which they stripped from
the trees after cutting once round the trunk above and below, and
then once more down the tree from the upper to the lower circular
cutting. This operation did not kill the trees, because, if they
covered the wound, whilst it was fresh, well over with plaintain-
leaves, shoots grew down from above, and a new bark came all over
it. The way they softened the bark, to make it like cloth, was
by immersion in water, and a good strong application of a mill-
headed mallet, which ribbed it like corduroy. [FN#10] Saim told
me he had lived ten years in Uganda, had crossed the Nile, and
had traded eastward as far as the Masai country. He thought the
N'yanza was the sources of the Ruvuma river; as the river which
drained the N'yanza, after passing between Uganda and Usoga, went
through Unyoro, and then all round the Tanganyika lake into the
Indian Ocean, south of Zanzibar. Kiganda, he also said, he knew
as well as his own tongue; and as I wanted an interpreter, he
would gladly take service with me. This was just what I wanted--
a heaven-born stroke of luck. I seized at his offer with
avidity, gave him a new suit of clothes, which made him look
quite a gentleman, and arranged to send him next day with a
letter to Grant.

1st and 2d.--A great hubbub and confusion now seized all the
place, for the Watuta were out, and had killed a woman of the
place who had formerly been seized by them in war, but had since
escaped and resided here. To avenge this, Lumeresi headed his
host, and was accompanied by my men; but they succeeded in
nothing save in frightening off their enemies, and regaining
possession of the body of the dead woman. Then another hubbub
arose, for it was discovered that three Wahuma women were missing
(2d); and, as they did not turn up again, Lumeresi suspected the
men of the caravan, which left with Saim, must have taken them
off as slaves. He sent for the chief of the caravan, and had him
brought back to account for this business. Of course the man
swore he knew nothing about the matter, whilst Lumeresi swore he
should stop there a prisoner until the women were freed, as it
was not the first time his women had been stolen in this manner.
About the same time a man of this place, who had been to Sorombo
to purchase cows, came in with a herd, and was at once seized by
Lumeresi; for, during his absence, one of Lumeresi's daughters
had been discovered to be with child, and she, on being asked who
was the cause of it, pointed out that man. To compensate for
damage done to himself, as his daughter by this means had become
reduced to half her market-value, Lumeresi seized all the cattle
this man had brought with him.

3d to 10th.--When two days had elapsed, one of the three missing
Wahuma women was discovered in a village close by. As she said
she had absconded because her husband had ill-treated her, she
was flogged, to teach her better conduct. It was reported they
had been seen in M'yonga's establishment; and I was at the same
time informed that the husbands who were out in search of them
would return, as M'yonga was likely to demand a price for them if
they were claimed, in virtue of their being his rightful property
under the acknowledged law of buni, or findings-keepings.

For the next four days nothing but wars and rumours of wars could
be heard. The Watuta were out in all directions plundering
cattle and burning villages, and the Wahuma of this place had
taken such fright, they made a stealthy march with all their
herds to a neighbouring chief, to whom it happened that one of
Lumeresi's grey-beards was on a visit. They thus caught a
Tartar; for the grey-beard no sooner saw them than he went and
flogged them all back again, rebuking them on the way for their
ingratitude to their chief, who had taken them in when they
sought his shelter, and was now deserted by them on the first
alarm of war.

10th.--Wishing now to gain further intelligence of Grant, I
ordered some of my men to carry a letter to him; but they all
feared the Watuta meeting them on the way, and would not. Just
then a report came in that one of Lumeresi's sons, who had gone
near the capital of Ukhanga to purchase cows, was seized by
Rohinda in consequence of the Isamiro chief telling him that
Lumeresi had taken untold wealth from me, and he was to be
detained there a prisoner until Lumeresi either disgorged, or
sent me on to be fleeced again. Lumeresi, of course, was greatly
perplexed at this, and sought my advice, but could get nothing
out of me, for I laughed in my sleeve, and told him such was the
consequence of his having been too greedy.

11th to 15th.--Masudi with his caravan arrived from Mchimeka--
Ungurue "the Pig," who had led me astray, was, by the way, his
kirangozi or caravan-leader. Masudi told us he had suffered most
severely from losses by his men running away, one after the
other, as soon as they received their pay. He thought Grant
would soon join me, as, the harvest being all in, the men about
Rungua would naturally be anxious for service. He had had
fearful work with M'yonga, having paid him a gun, some gunpowder,
and a great quantity of cloth; and he had to give the same to
Ruhe, with the addition of twenty brass wires, one load of
mzizima, and one load of red coral beads. This was startling,
and induced me to send all the men I could prudently spare off to
Grant at once, cautioning him to avoid Ruhe's, as Lumeresi had
promised me he would not allow one other thing to be taken from
me. Lumeresi by this time was improving, from lessons on the
policy of moderation which I had been teaching him; for when he
tried to squeeze as much more out of Masudi as Ruhe had taken, he
gave way, and let him off cheaply at my intercession. He had seen
enough to be persuaded that this unlimited taxation or plunder
system would turn out a losing game, such as Unyamyembe and Ugogo
were at that time suffering from. Moreover, he was rather put to
shame by my saying, "Pray, who now is biggest--Ruhe or yourself?
for any one entering this country would suspect that he was, as
he levies the first tax, and gives people to understand that, by
their paying it, the whole district will be free to them; such at
any rate he told me, and so it appears he told Masudi. If you
are the sultan, and will take my advice, I would strongly
recommend your teaching Ruhe a lesson, by taking from him what
the Arabs paid, and giving it back to Masudi.

At midnight (16th) I was startled in my sleep by the hurried
tramp of several men, who rushed in to say they were Grant's
porters-- Bogue men who had deserted him. Grant, they said, in
incoherent, short, rapid, and excited sentences, was left by them
standing under a tree, with nothing but his gun in his hand. All
the Wanguana had been either killed or driven away by M'yonga's
men, who all turned out and fell upon the caravan, shooting,
spearing, and plundering, until nothing was left. The porters
then, seeing Grant all alone, unable to help him, bolted off to
inform me and Lumeresi, as the best thing they could do. Though
disbelieving the story in all its minutiae, I felt that something
serious must have happened; so, without a moment's delay, I sent
off the last of my men strong enough to walk to succour Grant,
carrying with them a bag of beads. Baraka then stepped outside my
tent, and said in a loud voice, purposely for my edification,
"There, now, what is the use of thinking any more about going to
Karague? I said all along it was impossible"; upon hearing which
I had him up before all the remaining men, and gave him a
lecture, saying, happen what would, I must die or go on with the
journey, for shame would not allow me to give way as Baraka was
doing. Baraka replied, he was not afraid --he only meant to
imply that men could not act against impossibilities.
"Impossibilities!" I said; "what is impossible? Could I not go on
as a servant with the first caravan, or buy up a whole caravan if
I liked? What is impossible? For Godsake don't try any more to
frighten my men, for you have nearly killed me already in doing

Next day (17th) I received a letter from Grant, narrating the
whole of his catastrophes:--

"In the Jungles, near M'yonga's, 16th Sept. 1861.

"My dear Speke,--The caravan was attacked, plundered, and the men
driven to the winds, while marching this morning into M'yonga's

"Awaking at cock-crow, I roused the camp, all anxious to rejoin
you; and while the loads were being packed, my attention was
drawn to an angry discussion between the head men and seven or
eight armed fellows sent by Sultan M'yonga, to insist upon my
putting up for the day in his village. They were summarily told
that as YOU had already made him a present, he need not expect a
visit from ME. Adhering, I doubt not, to their master's
instructions, they officiously constituted themselves our guides
till we chose to strike off their path, when, quickly heading our
party, they stopped the way, planted their spears, and DARED our

"This menace made us firmer in our determination, and we swept
past the spears. After we had marched unmolested for some seven
miles, a loud yelping from the woods excited our attention, and a
sudden rush was made upon us by, say two hundred men, who came
down seemingly in great glee. In an instant, at the caravan's
centre, they fastened upon the poor porters. The struggle was
short; and with the threat of an arrow or spear at their breasts,
men were robbed of their cloths and ornaments, loads were yielded
and run away with before resistance could be organised; only
three men of a hundred stood by me, the others, whose only
thought was their lives, fled into the woods, where I went
shouting for them. One man, little Rahan--rip as he is--stood
with cocked gun, defending his load, against five savages with
uplifted spears. No one else could be seen. Two or three were
reported killed; some were wounded. Beads, boxes, cloths, etc.,
lay strewed about the woods. In fact, I felt wrecked. My
attempt to go and demand redress from the sultan was resisted,
and, in utter despair, I seated myself among a mass of rascals
jeering round me, and insolent after the success of the day.
Several were dressed in the very cloths, etc., they had stolen
from my men.

"In the afternoon, about fifteen men and loads were brought me,
with a message from the sultan, that the attack had been a
mistake of his subjects--that one man had had a hand cut off for
it, and that all the property would be restored!

Yours sincerely, J. W. Grant."

Now, judging from the message sent to Grant by M'yonga, it
appeared to me that his men had mistaken their chief's orders,
and had gone one step beyond his intentions. It was obvious that
the chief merely intended to prevent Grant from passing through
or evading his district without paying a hongo, else he would not
have sent his men to invite him to his palace, doubtless with
instructions, if necessary, to use force. This appears the more
evident from the fact of his subsequent contrition, and finding
it necessary to send excuses when the property was in his hands;
for these chiefs, grasping as they are, know they must conform to
some kind of system, to save themselves from a general war, or
the avoidance of their territories by all travellers in future.
To assist Grant, I begged Lumeresi to send him some aid in men at
once; but he refused, on the plea that M'yonga was at war with
him, and would kill them if they went. This was all the more
provoking, as Grant, in a letter next evening, told me he could
not get all his men together again, and wished to know what
should be done. He had recovered all the property except six
loads of beads, eighty yards of American sheeting, and many minor
articles, besides what had been rifled more or less from every
load. In the same letter he asked me to deliver up a Mhuma woman
to a man who came with the bearers of his missive, as she had
made love to Saim at Ukulima's, and had bolted with my men to
escape from her husband.

On inquiring into this matter, she told me her face had been her
misfortune, for the man who now claimed her stole her from her
parents at Ujiji, and forcibly made her his wife, but ever since
had ill-treated her, often thrashing her, and never giving her
proper food or clothing. It was on this account she fell in love
with Saim; for he, taking compassion on her doleful stories, had
promised to keep her as long as he travelled with me, and in the
end to send her back to her parents at Ujiji. She was a
beautiful woman, with gazelle eyes, oval face, high thin nose,
and fine lips, and would have made a good match for Saim, who had
a good deal of Arab blood in him, and was therefore, in my
opinion, much of the same mixed Shem-Hamitic breed. But as I did
not want more women in my camp, I have her some beads, and sent
her off with the messenger who claimed her, much against my own
feelings. I had proposed to Grant that, as Lumeresi's
territories extended to within eight miles of M'yonga's, he
should try to move over the Msalala border by relays, when I
would send some Bogue men to meet him; for though Lumeresi would
not risk sending his men into the clutches of M'yonga, he was
most anxious to have another white visitor.

20th and 21st.--I again urged Lumeresi to help on Grant, saying
it was incumbent on him to call M'yonga to account for
maltreating Grant's porters, who were his own subjects, else the
road would be shut up--he would lose all the hongos he laid on
caravans--and he would not be able to send his own ivory down to
the coast. This appeal had its effect: he called on his men to
volunteer, and twelve porters came forward, who no sooner left,
than in came another letter from Grant, informing me that he had
collected almost enough men to march with, and that M'yonga had
returned on of the six missing loads, and promised to right him
in everything.

Next day, however, I had from Grant two very opposite accounts--
one, in the morning, full of exultation, in which he said he
hoped to reach Ruhe's this very day, as his complement of porters
was then completed; while by the other, which came in the
evening, I was shocked to hear that M'yonga, after returning all
the loads, much reduced by rifling, had demanded as a hongo two
guns, two boxed ammunition, forty brass wires, and 160 yards of
American sheeting, in default of which he, Grant, must lend
M'yonga ten Wanguana to build a boma on the west of his district,
to enable him to fight some Wasona who were invading his
territory, otherwise he would not allow Grant to move from his
palace. Grant knew not what to do. He dared not part with the
guns, because he knew it was against my principle, and therefore
deferred the answer until he heard from me, although all his
already collected porters were getting fidgety, and two had
bolted. In this fearful fix I sent Baraka off with strict orders
to bring Grant away at any price, except the threatened sacrifice
of men, guns, and ammunition, which I would not listen to, as one
more day's delay might end in further exactions; at the same
time, I cautioned him to save my property as far as he could, for
it was to him that M'yonga had formerly said that what I paid him
should do for all.

Some of M'yonga's men who had plundered Grant now "caught a
Tartar." After rifling his loads of a kilyndo, or bark box of
beads, they, it appeared, received orders from M'yonga to sell a
lot of female slaves, amongst whom were the two Wahuma women who
had absconded from this. The men in charge, not knowing their
history, brought them for sale into this district, where they
were instantly recognised by some of Lumeresi's men, and brought
in to him. The case was not examined at once, Lumeresi happening
to be absent; so, to make good their time, the men in charge
brought their beads to me to be exchanged for something else, not
knowing that both camps were mine, and that they held my beads
and not Grant's. Of course I took them from them, but did not
give them a flogging, as I knew if I did so they would at once
retaliate upon Grant. The poor Wahuma women, as soon as Lumeresi
arrived, were put to death by their husbands, because, by
becoming slaves, they had broken the laws of their race.

22d to 24th.--At last I began to recover. All this exciting
news, with the prospect of soon seeing Grant, did me a world of
good,-- so much so, that I began shooting small birds for
specimens-- watching the blacksmiths as they made tools, spears,
ad bracelets-- and doctoring some of the Wahuma women who came to
be treated for ophthalmia, in return for which they gave me milk.
The milk, however, I could not boil excepting in secrecy, else
they would have stopped their donations on the plea that this
process would be an incantation or bewitchment, from which their
cattle would fall sick and dry up. I now succeeded in getting
Lumeresi to send his Wanyapara to go and threaten M'yonga, that
if he did not release Grant at once, we would combine to force
him to do so. They, however, left too late, for the hongo had
been settled, as I was informed by a letter from Grant next day,
brought to my by Bombay, who had just returned from Kaze after
six weeks' absence. He brought with him old Nasib and another
man, and told me both Bui and Nasib had hidden themselves in a
Boma close to Lumeresi's the day when my hongo was settled; but
they bolted the instant the drums beat, and my men fired guns to
celebrate the event, supposing that the noise was occasioned by
our fighting with Lumeresi. These cowards then made straight for
Kaze, when Fundi Sangoro gave Nasib a flogging for deserting me,
and made him so ashamed of his conduct that he said he would
never do it again. Bui also was flogged, but, admitting himself
to be a coward, was set to the "right-about." With him Bombay
also brought three new deoles, for which I had to pay 160
dollars, and news that the war with Manua Sera was not then over.
He had effected his escape in the usual manner, and was leading
the Arabs another long march after him.

Expecting to meet Grant this morning (25th), I strolled as far as
my strength and wind would allow me towards Ruhe's; but I was
sold, for Ruhe had detained him for a hongo. Lumeresi also
having heard of it, tried to interpose, according to a plan
arranged between us in case of such a thing happening, by sending
his officers to Ruhe, with an order not to check my "brother's"
march, as I had settled accounts for all. Later in the day,
however, I heard from Grant that Ruhe would not let him go until
he had paid sixteen pretty cloths, six wires, one gun, one box of
ammunition, and one load of mzizima beads, coolly saying that I
had only given him a trifle, under the condition that, when the
big caravan arrived, Grant would make good the rest. I
immediately read this letter to Lumeresi, and asked him how I
should answer it, as Grant refused to pay anything until I gave
the order.

To which Lumeresi replied, Ruhe, "my child," could not dare to
interfere with Grant after his officers arrived, and advised me
to wait until the evening. At all events, if there were any
further impediments, he himself would go over there with a force
and release Grant. In the evening another messenger arrived from
Grant, giving a list of his losses and expenses at M'yonga's.
They amounted to an equivalent of eight loads, and were as
follows: --100 yards cloth, and 4600 necklaces of beads (these
had been set aside as the wages paid to the porters, but being in
my custody, I had to make them good); 300 necklaces of beads
stolen from the loads; one brass wire stolen; one sword-bayonet
stolen; Grant's looking-glass stolen; one saw stolen; one box
ammunition stolen. Then paid in hongo, 160 yards cloth; 150
necklaces; one scarlet blanket, double; one case ammunition; ten
brass wires. Lastly, there was one donkey beaten to death by the
savages. This was the worst of all; for this poor brute carried
me on the former journey to the southern end of the N'yanza, and
in consequence was a great pet.

As nothing further transpired, and I was all in the dark (26th),
I wrote to Grant telling him of my interviews with Lumeresi, and
requesting him to pay nothing; but it was too late, for Grant, to
my inexpressible delight, was the next person I saw; he walked
into camp, and then he was a good laugh over all our misfortunes.
Poor Grant, he had indeed had a most troublesome time of it. The
scoundrel Ruhe, who only laughed at Lumeresi's orders, had
stopped his getting supplies of food for himself and his men;
told him it was lucky that he came direct to the palace, for full
preparations had been made for stopping him had he attempted to
avoid it; would not listen to any reference being made to avoid
myself; badgered and bullied over every article that he
extracted; and, finally, when he found compliance with his
extortionate requests was not readily granted, he beat the
wardrums to frighten the porters, and ordered the caravan out of
his palace, to where he said they would find his men ready to
fight it out with them. It happened that Grant had just given
Ruhe a gun when my note arrived, on which they made an agreement,
that it was to be restored, provided that, after the full
knowledge of all these transactions had reached us, it was both
Lumeresi's and my desire that it should be so.

I called Lumeresi (27th), and begged he would show whether he was
the chief or not, by requiring Ruhe to disgorge the property he
had taken from me. His Wanyapara had been despised, and I had
been most unjustly treated. Upon this the old chief hung down
his head, and said it touched his heart more than words could
tell to hear my complaint, for until I came that way no one had
come, and I had paid him handsomely. He fully appreciated the
good service I had done to him and his country by opening a road
which all caravans for the future would follow if property dealt
with. Having two heads in a country was a most dangerous thing,
but it could not be helped for the present, as his hands were too
completely occupied already. There were Rohinda, the Watuta, and
M'yonga, whom he must settle with before he could attend to Ruhe;
but when he was free, then Ruhe should know who was the chief.
To bring the matter to a climax, Mrs. Lumeresi then said she
ought to have something, because Ruhe was her son, whilst
Lumeresi was only her second husband and consort, for Ruhe was
born to her by her former husband. She therefore was queen.

Difficulties now commenced again (28th). All the Wanguana
struck, and said they would go no further. I argued--they
argued; they wanted more pay--I would not give more. Bombay, who
appeared the only one of my men anxious to go on with Grant and
myself, advised me to give in, else they would all run away, he
said. I still stuck out, saying that if they did go, they should
be seized on the coast and cast into jail for desertion. I had
sent for fifty more men on the same terms as themselves, and
nothing in the world would make me alter what had been
established at the British Consulate. There all their
engagements were written down in the office-book, and the Consul
was our judge.

29th to 4th.--This shut them up, but at night two of them
deserted; the Wanyamuezi porters also deserted, and I had to find
more. Whilst this was going on, I wrote letters and packed up my
specimens, and sent them back by my late valet, Rahan, who also
got orders to direct Sheikh Said to seize the two men who
deserted, and take them down chained to the coast when he went
there. On the 4th, Lumeresi was again greatly perplexed by his
sovereign Rohinda calling on him for some cloths; he must have
thirty at least, else he would not give up Lumeresi's son.
Further, he commanded in a bullying tone that all the Wahuma who
were with Lumeresi should be sent to him at once, adding, at the
same time, if his royal mandate was not complied with as soon as
he expected, he would at once send a force to seize Lumeresi, and
place another man in his stead to rule over the district.

Lumeresi, on hearing this, first consulted me, saying his chief
was displeased with him, accusing him of being too proud, in
having at once two such distinguished guests, and meant by these
acts only to humble him. I replied, if that was the case, the
sooner he allowed us to go, the better it would be for him; and,
reminding him of his original promise to give me assistance on to
Usui, said he could do so now with a very good grace.

Quite approving himself of this suggestion, Lumeresi then gave me
one of his officers to be my guide--his name was Sangizo. This
man no sooner received his orders than, proud of his office as
the guide of such a distinguished caravan, he set to work to find
us porters. Meanwhile my Wasui friends, who left on the 25th of
August, returned, bearing what might be called Suwarora's mace--a
long rod of brass bound up in stick charms, and called
Kaquenzingiriri, "the commander of all things." This they said
was their chief's invitation to see us, and sent this
Kaquenzingiriri, to command us respect wherever we went.

5th.--Without seeing us again, Lumeresi, evidently ashamed of the
power held over him by this rod of Suwarora's, walked off in the
night, leaving word that he was on his way to Ruhe's, to get back
my gun and all the other things that had been taken from Grant.
The same night a large herd of cattle was stolen from the boma
without any one knowing it; so next morning, when the loss was
discovered, all the Wahuma set off on the spoor to track them
down; but with what effect I never knew.

As I had now men enough to remove half our property, I made a
start of it, leaving Grant to bring up the rest. I believe I was
a most miserable spectre in appearance, puffing and blowing at
each step I took, with shoulder drooping, and left arm hanging
like a dead leg, which I was unable ever to swing. Grant,
remarking this, told me then, although fro a friendly delicacy he
had abstained from saying so earlier, that my condition, when he
first saw me on rejoining, gave him a sickening shock. Next day
(7th) he came up with the rest of the property, carried by men
who had taken service for that one march only.

Before us now lay a wilderness of five marches' duration, as the
few villages that once lined it had all been depopulated by the
Sorombo people and the Watuta. We therefore had to lay in
rations for those days, and as no men could be found who would
take service to Karague, we filled up our complement with men at
exorbitant wages to carry our things on to Usui. At this place,
to our intense joy, three of Sheikh Said's boys came to us with a
letter from Rigby; but, on opening it, our spirits at once fell
far below zero, for it only informed us that he had sent us all
kinds of nice things, and letters from home, which were packed up
in boxes, and despatched from the coast on the 30th October 1860.

The boys then told me that a merchant, nickname Msopora, had left
the boxes in Ugogo, in charge of some of those Arabs who were
detained there, whilst he went rapidly round by the south,
following up the Ruaha river to Usanga and Usenga, whence he
struck across to Kaze. Sheikh Said, they said, sent his
particular respects to me; he had heard of Grant's disasters with
great alarm. If he could be of service, he would readily come to
me; but he had dreamed three times that he saw me marching into
Cairo, which, as three times were lucky, he was sure would prove
good, and he begged I would still keep my nose well to the front,
and push boldly on. Manua Sera was still in the field, and all
was uncertain. Bombay then told me-- he had forgotten to do so
before--that when he was last at Kaze, Sheikh said told him he
was sure we would succeed if both he and myself pulled together,
although it was well known no one else of my party wished to go

With at last a sufficiency of porters, we all set out together,
walking over a new style of country. Instead of the constantly-
recurring outcrops of granite, as in Unyamuezi, with valleys
between, there were only two lines of little hills visible, one
right and one left of us, a good way off; whilst the ground over
which we were travelling, instead of being confined like a
valley, rose in long high swells of sandstone formation, covered
with small forest-trees, among which flowers like primroses, only
very much larger, and mostly of a pink colour, were frequently
met with. Indeed, we ought all to have been happy together, for
all my men were paid and rationed trebly--far better than they
would have been if they had been travelling with any one else;
but I had not paid all, as they thought, proportionably, and
therefore there were constant heartburnings, with strikes and
rows every day. It was useless to tell them that they were all
paid according to their own agreements--that all short-service
men had a right to expect more in proportion to their work than
long-service ones; they called it all love and partiality, and in
their envy would think themselves ill-used.

At night the kirangozi would harangue the camp, cautioning all
hands to keep together on the line of march, as the Watuta were
constantly hovering about, and the men should not squabble and
fight with their master, else no more white men would come this
way again. On the 11th we were out of Bogue, in the district of
Ugomba, and next march brought us into Ugombe (12th), where we
crossed the Ukongo nullah, draining westwards to the Malagarai
river. Here some of the porters, attempting to bolt, were
intercepted by my coast-men and had a fight of it, for they fired
arrows, and in return the coast-men cut their bows. The whole
camp, of course, was in a blaze at this; their tribe was
insulted, and they would not stand it, until Bombay put down
their pride with a few strings of beads, as the best means of
restoring peace in the camp.

At this place we were visited by the chief of the district, Pongo
(Bush-boc), who had left his palace to see us and invite us his
way, for he feared we might give him the slip by going west into
Uyofu. He sent us a cow, and said he should like some return; for
Masudi, who had gone ahead, only gave him a trifle, professing to
be our vanguard, and telling him that as soon as we came with the
large caravan we would satisfy him to his heart's content. We
wished for an interview, but he would not see us, as he was
engaged looking into his magic horn, with an endeavour to see
what sort of men we were, as none of our sort had ever come that
way before.

The old sort of thing occurred again. I sent him one kitambi and
eight yards kiniki, explaining how fearfully I was reduced from
theft and desertions, and begging he would have mercy; but
instead of doing so he sent the things back in a huff, after a
whole day's delay, and said he required, besides, one sahari, one
kitambi, and eight yards kiniki. In a moment I sent them over,
and begged he would beat the drums; but no, he thought he was
entitled to ten brass wires, in addition, and would accept them
at his palace the next day, as he could not think of allowing us
to leave his country until we had done him that honour, else all
the surrounding chiefs would call him inhospitable.


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