The Dog
William Youatt

Part 8 out of 10

beating of the heart was also strong and precipitate. The finger being
introduced into the wound, penetrated between the fourth and fifth rib
on the left side. "Having arrived at the pleuritic sac," says the
Professor, "I gently tapped the surface of the lung, in order to assure
myself that it was not injured; my finger penetrated into the
pericardium, and the point of the heart beat against it."

He bathed the wound with a little diluted wine, and brought the edges of
it as near together as he could, and confined them with a suture,
administering a mild aperient.

On the following day, the animal walked slowly about, seeking for
something to eat; he gave him some milk. On changing the dressing, he
tried whether he could again introduce any sound into the wound; but it
would only penetrate a very little way; indeed, re-union by adhesion had
already taken place.

On the fifth day, the animal was in good spirits; the wound had a
healthy red appearance, and all tended to a speedy cure.

On the eighth day he was sent home to his master, a distance of two
leagues from his house. He saw the dog eighteen months afterwards, and
he was as eager as ever after his game.

The following is a case of rupture of the heart:--A black pointer, of
the Scotch breed, had every appearance of good health, except that she
frequently fell into a fit after having run a little way, and sometimes
even after playing in the yard. She was several times bled during and
after these fits. When I examined her, I could plainly perceive
considerable and violent spasmodic motion of the heart, and the sounds
of the beating of the heart were irregular and convulsive. She was sent
to the infirmary, in order to be cured of an attack of mange; but during
her stay in the hospital she had these fits several times: the attack
almost always followed after she had been playing with other dogs. She
appeared as if struck by lightning, and remained motionless for several
minutes, her gums losing their natural appearance and assuming a bluish
hue. After the lapse of a few minutes, she again arose as if nothing had
been the matter. She was bled twice in eight days, and several doses of
foxglove were administered to her. The fits appeared to become less
frequent; but, playing one day with another dog, she fell and expired

The 'post mortem' examination was made two hours after death. The cavity
of the pericardium contained a red clot of blood, which enveloped the
whole of the heart; it was thicker in the parts that corresponded with
the valve of the heart; and on the left ventricle, and near the base of
the left valve of the heart, and on the external part of that viscus,
was an irregular rent two inches long. It crossed the wall of the valve
of the heart, which was very thin in this place. The size of the heart
was very small, considering the height and bulk of the dog. The walls of
the ventricles, and particularly of the left ventricle, were very thick.
The cavity of the left ventricle was very small; there was evidently a
concentric hypertrophy of these ventricles; the left valve of the heart
was of great size.

The immediate cause of the rupture of the valve of the heart had
evidently been an increase of circulation, brought on by an increase of
exercise; but the remote cause consisted in the remarkable thinness of
the walls of the valve of the heart. This case is remarkable in more
than one respect; first, because examples of rupture of the valve of the
heart are very rare; and, secondly, because this rupture had its seat in
the left valve of the heart, while, usually, in both the human being and
the quadruped, it takes place in the right; and this, without doubt,
because the walls and the valves of the right side are thinner.

Diseases of the investing membrane of the lungs, and the pleura of the
thoracic cavity, and of the substance of the lungs, are more frequent
than those of the heart.


or inflammation of the membrane of the chest and the lungs of the dog,
is not unfrequent. There are few instances of inflammation of the lungs,
or pneumonia, that do not ultimately become connected with or terminate
in pleurisy. The tenderness of the sides, the curious twitching that is
observed, the obstinate sitting up, and the presence of a short,
suppressed, painful cough, which the dog bears with strange impatience,
are the symptoms that principally distinguish it from pneumonia. The
exploration of the chest by auscultation gives a true picture of it in
pleurisy; and, by placing the dog alternately on his chest, his back, or
his side, we can readily ascertain the extent to which effusion exists
in the thoracic cavity; and, if we think proper, we can get rid of the
fluid. It is not a dangerous thing to attempt, although it is very
problematical whether much advantage would accrue from the operation.
With a favourite dog it may, however, be tried; and, to prevent all
accidents, a veterinary surgeon should be entrusted with the case.


or inflammation of the substance of the lungs, is a complaint of
frequent occurrence in the dog, and is singularly marked. The extended
head, the protruded tongue, the anxious, bloodshot eye, the painful
heaving of the hot breath, the obstinacy with which the animal sits up
hour after hour until his feet slip from under him, and the eye closes,
and the head droops, through extreme fatigue, yet in a moment being
roused again by the feeling of instant suffocation, are symptoms that
cannot be mistaken.

Here, from the comparative thinness of the integument and the parietes,
we have the progress of the disease brought completely under our view.
The exploration of the chest of the dog by auscultation is a beautiful
as well as wonderful thing. It at least exhibits to us the actual state
of the lungs, if it does not always enable us to arrest the impending

Mr. Blaine and myself used cordially to agree with regard to the
treatment of pneumonia, materially different from the opinions of the
majority of sportsmen. Epidemic pneumonia was generally fatal, if it was
not speedily arrested in its course. The cure was commenced by bleeding,
and that to a considerable extent, when not more than four-and-twenty or
six-and thirty hours had passed; for, after that, the progress of the
disease could seldom be arrested. Blistering the chest was sometimes
resorted to with advantage; and the cantharides ointment and the oil of
turpentine formed one of the most convenient as well as one of the most
efficacious blisters. A purgative was administered, composed of mutton
broth with Epsom salts or castor oil; to which followed the
administration of the best sedatives that we have in those cases,
namely, nitre, powdered foxglove, and antimonial powder, in the
proportion of a scruple of the first, four grains of the second, and two
grains of the third.

Congestion of the lungs is a frequent termination of pneumonia; and in
that congestion the air-cells are easily ruptured and filled with
blood. That blood assumes a black pulpy appearance, commonly indicated
by the term of 'rottenness', an indication or consequence of the
violence of the disease, and the hopelessness of the case. A different
consequence of inflammation of the lungs is the formation of tubercles,
and, after that, of suppuration and abscess, when, generally speaking,
the case is hopeless. A full account of this is given in the work on the

Two cases of pneumonia will be useful:

Oct. 22d, 1820. A black pointer bitch that had been used lo a warm
kennel, was made to sleep on flat stones without straw. A violent cough
followed, under which she had been getting worse and worse for a
fortnight. Yesterday I saw her. The breathing was laborious. The bitch
was constantly shifting her position, and, whether she lay down or sat
up, was endeavouring to elevate her head. Her usual posture was sitting,
and she only lay down for a minute. The eyes were surrounded, and the
nose nearly stopped with mucus. V. S. [Symbol: ounce] viij. Emet.
Fever-ball twice in the day.

23d. Breathing not quite so laborious. Will not eat. Medicine as before.
Apply a blister on the chest.

24th. Nearly the same. V. S. [Symbol: ounce] vj. Bol. utheri.

26th. Decided amendment. She breathes with much less difficulty. Less
discharge both from eyes and nose. Bol. utheri.

Nov. 7th. Sent home well.

A singular and not uninstructive case came before me. A lady in the
country wrote to me to say, that her terrier was thin, dull, husking,
and perpetually trying to get something from the throat; that her coat
stared, and she frequently panted, I replied, that I apprehended she had
caught cold; and recommended bleeding to the extent of four ounces, a
grain each of calomel and emetic tartar to be given every fourth
morning, and a fever-ball, composed of digitalis, nitre, and tartrate of
antimony, on each intermediate day.

A few days after this I received another letter from her, saying, that
the dog was bled as ordered, and died on the following Thursday. That
another veterinary surgeon had been called in, who said that the first
one had punctured the 'vena cava' in the operation, and that the dog had
bled to death internally; and she wished to know my opinion. I replied,
that the charge proceeded from ignorance or malice, or both. That in one
sense he was right--the jugular, which the other had probably opened,
runs into the vena cava, and may, with some latitude, be considered a
superior branch of it; therefore, thus far the first man had punctured
the vena cava, which I had done many hundred times; but that the point
of union of the four principal veins that form the vena cava was too
securely seated in the upper part of the thorax for any lancet to reach
it. That the rupture of some small arterial vessel might have caused
this lingering death, but that the puncture of a vein would either have
been speedily fatal, or of no consequence; and that, probably, the
animal died of the disease which she had described.


is a troublesome disease to manage. Dogs, and especially those
considerably petted, are subject to frequent cough, requiring a material
difference in the treatment. Sometimes there is a husky cough, not to so
great a degree as in distemper, but followed by the same apparent effort
to get something from the throat, the same attempt to vomit, and the
ejection of mucus, frothy or adhesive, and occasionally discoloured with
bile. It proceeds from irritability or obstruction in some of the
air-passages, and oftenest of the superior ones. An emetic will clear
the fauces, or at least force out a portion of the adhesive matter which
is clogging the bronchial tubes.

A cough of this kind, and attended in its early stages by little fever,
seldom requires anything more for its cure than the exhibition of a few
gentle emetics, consisting of equal portions of calomel and emetic
tartar, given in doses varying from half a grain to one grain and a half
of each.

A harsh hollow cough is attended by more inflammatory action. The
depletive system must be adopted here. A loud and harsh cough will yield
only to the lancet and to purgatives, assisted by sedative medicines
composed of nitre, antimonial powder, and digitalis, or small doses of
syrup of poppies, or more minute doses of the hydrocyanic acid; this
last medicine, however, should be carefully watched, and only given
under surgical advice.

28th October, 1842. A spaniel was apparently well yesterday, but
towards evening a violent cough suddenly came on. It was harsh and
hollow, and terminated in retching. There was a discharge of water from
the eyes; but the nose was cool and moist. Give an emetic, and then two
grains of the James's powder.

29th The animal coughed almost the whole of the night. There was more
watery discharge from the eyes, which appeared to be red and impatient
of light; the nose continued cool, and the dog did not refuse his food.
An aperient ball was given; and twice afterwards in the day, the nitre,
antimonial powder, and digitalis.

30th. The cough is as frequent, but not very loud. Give a mixture of
syrup of poppies and prussic acid morning and night, and the ball as

31st. Nearly in the same state as yesterday, except that he is not so
thirsty, and does not eat so well. Give the mixture three times daily.

Nov. 1st. He had an emetic in the morning, which produced a large
quantity of phlegm, but the cough is no better. No evacuation during the
two last days. Give an aperient ball, and the mixture as before in the

The prussic acid has been fairly tried; it has not in the least
mitigated the cough, but begins to make the dog sick, and altogether to
destroy his appetite. Give three times in the day a mixture consisting
of two-thirds of a drachm of syrup of poppies, and one-third of syrup of
buckthorn. The sickness ceased, and the cough remained as before, I then
gave twice in the day half a grain of calomel, the same of opium, two
each of pulvis antimonialis and digitalis, and four grains of nitre,
morning and noon, with six grains of the Dover's powder at night. This
was continued on the 3d, 4th and 5th of November, when there were longer
intervals of rest, and the dog did not cough so harshly when the fit was
on him.

On the 6th, however, no medicine was given; but towards evening the dog
coughed as much as ever, and a decided mucous discharge commenced from
the nose and the eyes, with considerable snorting. An emetic was given,
and the balls resorted to as before.

'7th.' He appeared to be much relieved by the emetic. The cough was
better, the dog ate well, and had regained his usual spirits. The ball
as before.

'9th'. Slight tenesmus now appeared. It quickly became frequent and
violent. The dog strained very much; but the discharge was small in
quantity, and consisted of adhesive mucus. Give two drachms of castor
oil, and the fever ball with opium. The cough is worse, and the dog still
continues to strain, no blood, however, appearing.

'11th'. The opium and oil have had their desired effect, and the cough
is better.

'12th', Except the animal is kept under the influence of opium, the
cough is dreadfully troublesome. I have, however, obtained one point. I
have been permitted to subtract four ounces of blood; but blood had been
mingling with the expectorated mucus before I was permitted to have
recourse to the lancet.

'13th'. The dog is better, and we again have recourse to the fever
mixture, to which, on the '14th', I added a very small portion of the
carbonate of iron, for the dog was evidently getting weak. The sickness
has returned, and the cough is decidedly worse.

'16th'. Rub a small quantity of rheumatic embrocation, and tincture of

'17th.' The first application of the blister had not much effect; but
this morning it began to act. The dog ran about the house as cross as he
could be for more than an hour; there was considerable redness on the
throat and chest. The cough, however, was decidedly better.

'18th'. The cough is better. Again apply the embrocation.

'19th.' The cough and huskiness have returned. Employ an emetic, and
continue the embrocation.

'20th'. The cough is decidedly worse. Continue the embrocation, and give
the fever mixture.

'23d'. The embrocation and medicine have been daily used; but the cough
is as bad as ever. Balls of assafoetida, squills, and opium were had
recourse to.

25th. The second ball produced the most distressing sickness, but the
cough was evidently relieved. The assafoetida was discontinued.

'28th'. The cough, during the last two days, has been gradually getting
worse. It is more laborious and longer, and the intervals between it are
shorter. Give another emetic and continue the other medicine.

30th'. The effect of the emetic was temporary, and the cough is again

'Dec'. 2d'. Very little change.

5th'. The cough appears to be stationary. Again have recourse to the
antimony, digitalis, and nitre.

8th'. The cough is certainly better. Try once more the assafoetida. It
again produced sickness, but of a very mild character.

12th'. The assafoetida was again used used morning and night. The cough
continues evidently to abate.

14th'. The dog coughs very little, not more than half-a-dozen times in
the day. Notwithstanding the quantity of medicine that has been taken,
the appetite is excellent, and the spirits good.

16th'. The cough is still less frequent, but when it occurs it is
attended with retching.

19th'. The cough is daily getting better, and is not heard more than
three or four times in the four-and-twenty hours, and then very slight.

30th'. At length I can say that the cough has ceased. It is seldom that
so much trouble would have been taken with a dog. It is the neglect of
the medical attendance which is often the cause of death. Professor
Delafond, of Alfort, gives a most interesting and complete table of the
usual diagnostic symptoms of pleurisy and pneumonia.


'Commencement of the Inflammation'.
Shivering, usually accompanied by slight colicky pains, and followed by
general or partial sweating. Inspiration always short, unequal, and
interrupted; expiration full; air expired of the natural temperature.
Cough unfrequent, faint, short, and without expectoration. Artery full.
Pulse quick, small, and wiry.

A respiratory murmur, feeble, or accompanied by a slight rubbing through
the whole extent of the chest, or in some parts only.

Slight, dead, grating sound. Distinct resonance through the whole of the
chest, and pain expressed when the sides are tapped or compressed.

Delitescence. Cessation of pain; moderate temperature of the skin;
sometimes profuse general perspiration. Respiration less accelerated;
inspiration easier and deeper. Pulse fuller and softer. Breath of the
natural temperature. Return of the natural respiratory murmur and
resonance. The walls of the chest cease to exhibit increased

'Effusion, false Membranes'.
Inspiration more and more full.

'Auscultation and Percussion.
Complete absence of the respiratory murmur, with the crepitating
wheezing always at the bottom of the chest; sometimes a gurgling noise.
Vesicular respiration very strong in the upper region of the chest, or
in the sac opposite to the effusion.

'Continuance of the Effusion'.
Absence of the respiratory murmur gains the middle region of the chest,
following the level of the fluid. These symptoms may be found on only
one side; a circumstance of frequent occurrence in the dog, but rare in
other animals. The respiratory murmur increases in the superior region
of the chest, or on the side opposite to the effusion. Inspiration
becomes more and more prolonged. Breath always cold. Cough not existing,
or rarely, and always suppressed and interrupted. Exercise producing much
difficulty of respiration.

'Resolution or Re-absorption of the effused fluid, and Organization of
false Membrane, the consequence of Pleurisy'.

Slow but progressive reappearance of the respiratory murmur, and
disappearance of the sounds produced by the fluid. Diminution of the
force of the respiratory murmur in the superior part of the chest, or of
the lung opposite to the sac in which the effusion exists. Gradual
return of the respiratory murmur to the inferior part of the chest.
Inspiration less deep, and returning to its natural state.

'Chronic Pleurisy, with Hydrothorax'.
Inspiration short. Cough dry, sometimes with expectoration; frequent or
capricious; always absence of complete respiratory murmur in the
inferior portion of the chest. Sometimes the gurgling noise during
inspiration and expiration. Strong respiratory murmur in the superior
portion. In dogs these symptoms sometimes have existence only on one
side of the chest. The mucous membranes are infiltrated; serous
infiltration on the lower part of the chest and belly; sometimes of the
scrotum or the inferior extremities; generally of the fore legs. The
animal lies down frequently, and dies of suffocation.


'Commencement of the Inflammation'.
General shivering, rarely accompanied by colicky pains, followed by
partial sweats at the flanks and the inside of the thighs. Inspiration
full, expiration short. Air expired hot. Cough frequently followed by
slight discharge of red-coloured mucus. Artery full. Pulse accelerated,
strong, full, and soft.

Absence of respiratory murmur in places where the lung is congested;
feebleness of that sound in the inflamed parts, with humid crepitating
wheezing. The respiratory murmur increased in the sound parts.

The dead grating sound confined to the inflamed parts. Distinct
resonance at the sound parts; increased sensibility of the walls of the
chest slight, or not existing at all.

Resolution. Temperature of the skin moderate. Sometimes profuse partial
sweats. Laborious respiration subsiding; inspiration less deep. Artery
less full. Pulse yielding. Breath less hot. Gradual and progressive
disappearance of the crepitating 'rale'. Slow return of the resonance.

'Red Hepatization'.
Respiration irregular and interrupted.

'Auscultation and Percussion.
Circumscribed absence of the respiratory murmur, in one point, or in
many distinct parts of the lung. The respiratory murmur increased in one
or more of the sound parts of the lung, or in the sound lung if one is

'Passage to a State of Gray Induration'.
The absence of respiratory murmur indicates extensive hepatization of
one lung; a circumstance, however, of rare occurrence. When the
induration is of both lungs, and equally so, the respiratory murmur and
the inspiration remain the same, except that they become irregular. The
cough dry or humid, frequent, and sometimes varying. Exercise
accompanied by difficulty of respiration, without dyspnoea.

'Resolution or Re-absorption of the Products of Inflammation of the
Parenchymatous Substance of the Lungs'.

Diminution of the force of the respiratory murmur in the sound parts.
Cessation of the crepitating wheezing. Slow return of the respiratory
murmur where it had ceased. Respiration ceases to be irregular or
interrupted, and returns slowly to its natural state, or it remains
interrupted. This indicates the passage from red to gray induration.

'Chronic Pneumonia--(Gray Induration.)'
Inspiration or expiration interrupted, cough unfrequent; suppressed;
rarely with expectoration; always interrupted. Complete absence of
respiratory murmur.

'Softening of the Induration, Ulcerations, Vomicae, &c.'
Mucous and wheezing; mucous rale in the bronchia; discharge from the
nostrils of purulent matter, white, gray, or black, and sometimes fetid.
Paleness of the mucous membranes. The animal seldom lies down, and never
long at a time. Death by suffocation, when the matter proceeding from
the vomicae, or abscesses, obstructs the bronchial passages, or by the
development of an acute inflammation engrafted upon the chronic one.



The 'oesophagus', or gullet, of the dog, is constructed in nearly the
same manner as that of the horse. It consists of a similar muscular tube
passing down the neck and through the chest, and terminating in the
stomach, in which the process of digestion is commenced. The orifice by
which the gullet enters the stomach is termed the 'cardia', probably on
account of its neighbourhood to the heart or its sympathy with it. It is
constantly closed, except when the food is passing through it into the

The 'stomach' has three coats: the outermost, which is the common
covering of all the intestines, called the peritoneum; the second or
muscular coat, consisting of two layers of fibres, by which a constant
motion is communicated to the stomach, mingling the food, and preparing
it for digestion; and the mucous or villous, where the work of digestion
properly commences, the mouths of numerous little vessels opening upon
it, which exude the gastric juice, to mix with the food already
softened, and to convert it into a fluid called the chyme. It is a
simpler apparatus than in the horse or in cattle. It is occasionally the
primary seat of inflammation: and it almost invariably sympathises with
the affections of the other intestines.

The successive contractions of each portion of the stomach, expose by
turns every portion of the alimentary mass to the influence of the
gastric juice, and each is gradually discharged into the alimentary

As the chyme is formed, it passes out of the other orifice of the
stomach, and enters the first intestine or 'duodenum'.

It may be naturally supposed that this process will occasionally be
interrupted by a variety of circumstances. Inflammation of the stomach
of the dog is very difficult to deal with. It is produced by numerous
different causes. There is great and long-continued sickness; even the
most harmless medicine is not retained on the stomach. The thirst is
excessive; there are evident indications of excessive pain, expressed by
the countenance and by groans: there is a singular disposition in the
animal to hide himself from all observation; an indication that should
never be neglected, nor the frequent change from heat to cold, and from
cold to heat.

The mode of treatment is simple, although too often inefficient. The
lancet must be immediately resorted to, and the bleeding continued until
the animal seems about to fall; and to this should quickly succeed
repeated injections. Two or three drops of the croton oil should be
injected twice or thrice in the day, until the bowels are thoroughly
opened. The animal will be considerably better, or the disease cured, in
the course of a couple of days.

There is a singular aptitude in the stomach of the dog to eject a
portion of its contents; but, almost immediately afterwards, the food,
or a portion if not the whole of it, is swallowed again. This is a
matter of daily occurrence. There is a coarse rough grass, the
'cynosurus cristatus', or crested dog's-tail. It is inferior for the
purposes of hay, but is admirably suited for permanent pastures. It
remains green after most other grasses are burnt by a continuance of dry
weather. The dog, if it be in his power, has frequent recourse to it,
especially if he lives mostly in a town. The dry and stimulating food,
which generally falls to his share, produces an irritation of his
stomach, from which lie is glad to free himself; and for this purpose he
has recourse to the sharp leaves of the cynosurus. They irritate the
lining membrane of the stomach and intestines, and cause a portion of
the food to be occasionally evacuated; acting either as an emetic or a
purgative, or both. They seem to be designed by nature to be substituted
for the calomel and tartar emetic, and other drugs, which are far too
often introduced.

An interesting case of the retention of a sharp instrument in the
stomach is related by Mr. Kent of Bristol.

On the 23d of February, Mr. Harford, residing in Bristol, when feeding a
pointer-dog, happened to let the fork tumble with the flesh, and the dog
swallowed them both. On the following morning, Mr. Kent was desired to
see the animal; and, although he could feel the projection of the fork
outwardly, which convinced him that the dog had in reality swallowed it,
yet, as he appeared well, and exhibited no particular symptoms of pain
or fever, Mr. Kent gave it as his opinion that there was a possibility
that he might survive the danger, and the animal was sent to him, in
order to be more immediately under his care. The treatment he adopted
was, to feed him on cow's liver, with a view to keep the stomach
distended and the bowels open; and he gave him three times a day half a
pint of water, with sufficient sulphuric acid to make it rather strongly
sour to the human tongue, with the intention of assisting the stomach in
dissolving the iron.

On the following Sunday, the skin, at the projecting point, began to
exhibit some indication of ulceration; and on Monday a prong of the fork
might be touched with the point of the finger, when pressed on the
ulcer. Mr. Kent then determined on making an effort to extract the fork
on the following morning, which he accordingly did, and with but little
difficulty, assisted by a medical friend of the owner. The dog was still
fed on cow's liver; his appetite remained good, and with very little
medical treatment the external wound healed. The animal improved rapidly
in flesh during the whole time. He left the infirmary in perfect health,
and remained so, with one inconvenience only, a very bad cough, and his
being obliged to lie at length, being unable to coil himself up in his
usual way.

The fork was a three-pronged one, six and a half inches long. The
handle, which was of ivory, was digested: it was quite gone; and either
the gastric fluid or the acid, or both conjointly, had made a very
apparent impression on the iron.

Dogs occasionally swallow various strange and unnatural substances.
Considerable quantities of hair are sometimes accumulated in the
stomach. Half-masticated pieces of straw are ejected. Straw mingled with
dung is a too convincing proof of rabies. Dog-grass is found irritating
the stomach, or in too great quantities to be ejected, while collections
of earth and dung sometimes threaten suffocation. Pieces of money are
occasionally found, and lead, and sponge. Various species of polypus
irritate the coats of the stomach. Portions of chalk, or stone, or
condensed matters, adhere to each other, and masses of strange
consistence and form are collected. The size which they assume increases
more and more. M. Galy relates an extraordinary account of a dog. It was
about three years old when a tumour began to be perceived in the flank.
Some sharp-pointed substance was felt; the veterinary surgeon cut down
upon it, and a piece of iron, six inches in length, was drawn out.

The following fact was more extraordinary: it is related by M. Noiret. A
hound swallowed a bone, which rested in the superior part of the
oesophagus, behind the pharynx, and caused the most violent efforts to
get rid of it. The only means by which it could be made to descend into
the stomach was by pushing it with the handle of a fork, which, escaping
from the hand of the operator, followed the bone into the stomach. Two
months afterwards, on examining the stomach, the fork was plainly felt
lying in a longitudinal direction, parallel with the position of the
body; the owner of the dog wishing mechanically to accelerate the
expulsion of this body, endeavoured to push it backwards with his hands.
When it was drawn as far back as possible, he inserted two fingers into
the anus, and succeeded in getting hold of the handle, which he drew out
nearly an inch; but, in order to be enabled fully to effect his object,
it was necessary to make an incision into the rectum, and free the
substance from every obstacle that could retain it. This he did not
venture to do, and he was therefore compelled to allow the fork to pass
back into its former position.

About three months after the accident, M. Noiret made an incision, three
inches from above to below, and the same from the front backwards. He
also made an incision through the muscular tissue. Having arrived at the
peritoneum, he made another incision, through which he drew from the
abdomen a part of the floating portion of the large intestines, and
introduced his fingers into the abdominal cavity. He seized the handle
of the fork, which was among the viscera, and free about half-way down,
and drew it carefully towards the opening made in the flank. The other
half of the fork was found to be closely enveloped by the origin of the
mesocolon, which was red, hard, and inflamed. The operator freed it by
cutting through the tissues which held the fork, and then drew it easily
out. The animal was submitted to a proper course of treatment, and in
three weeks afterwards was perfectly cured.

The food, having been converted into chyme by the digestive power of the
stomach, soon undergoes another and very important change. It, or a
portion of it, is converted into chyle. It is mixed with the bile and a
secretion from the pancreas in the duodenum. The white thick liquid is
separated, and contains the nutritive part of the food, and a yellow
pulpy substance is gradually changed into excrement. As these substances
pass on, the separation between them becomes more and more complete. The
chyle is gradually taken up by the lacteals, and the excrement alone

The next of the small intestines is the 'jejunum', so called from its
being generally empty. It is smaller in bulk than the duodenum, and the
chyme passes rapidly through it.

Next in the list is the 'ileum'; but it is difficult to say where the
jejunum terminates and the ileum commences, except that the latter is
usually one-fifth longer than the former.

At the termination of the ileum the 'caecum' makes its appearance, with
a kind of valvular opening into it, of such a nature that everything
that passes along it having reached the blind or closed end, must return
in order to escape; or rather the office of the caecum is to permit
certain alimentary matters and all fluids to pass from the ileum, but to
oppose their return.

The 'colon' is an intestine of very large size, being one of the most
capacious, as well as one of the longest, of the large intestines. It
commences at the caesum caput coli, and soon expands into a cavity of
greater dimensions than even that of the stomach itself. Having attained
this singular bulk, it begins to contract, and continues to do so during
its course round the caecum, until it has completed its second flexure,
where it grows so small as scarcely to exceed in calibre one of the
small intestines; and though, from about the middle of this turn, it
again swells out by degrees, it never afterwards acquires its former
capaciousness; indeed, previously to its junction with the rectum, it
once more materially differs in size.

At the upper part of the margin of the pelvis the colon terminates in
the 'rectum', which differs from the caecum and colon by possessing only
a partial peritoneal covering, and being destitute of bands and cells.
It enlarges towards its posterior extremity, and is furnished with a
circular muscle, the sphincter ani, adapted to preserve the anus closed,
and to retain the faeculent matter until so much of it is accumulated in
the rectum as to excite a desire to discharge it.


a disease of great fatality, often depends upon the condition of the
stomach; but it is not frequent in dogs.

Why the dog is so little subject to 'tetanus', or lock-jaw, I am unable
to explain. Sportsmen say that it sometimes attacks him when, being
heated in the chase, he plunges into the water after the stag. The
French give it the name of 'mal de cerf', from stags being supposed to
be attacked in a similar way, and from the same cause. In the course of
nearly forty years' practice, I have seen but four cases of it. The
first arose from a wound in the foot. The cause of the second I could
not learn. In both the spasmodic action was dreadful as well as
universal. The dogs lay on their sides, the neck and legs stretched out,
and the upper legs kept some inches from the ground by the intensity of
the spasm. They might be taken up by either leg, and not a portion of
the frame change its direction. At the same time, in their countenances,
and by their hoarse cries, they indicated the torture which they

In the third case, which occurred 12th June, 1822, the head was drawn
permanently on one side, and the whole body formed a kind of bow, the
dog walking curiously sideways, often falling as it walked, and
frequently screaming violently. I ordered him to be well rubbed with an
ammoniacal liniment, and balls of tonic and purging medicine to be given
twice in the day. The dog gradually recovered, and was dismissed cured
on the 20th.

On the 16th November, in the same year, a bull-terrier had a similar
complaint. He had been tried in the pit a fortnight before, and severely
injured, and the pain and stiffness of his joints were increasing. The
head was now permanently drawn on one side. The dog was unable to stand
even for a moment, and the eyes were in a state of spasmodic motion. He
was a most savage brute; but I attempted to manage him, and, by the
assistance of the owner, contrived lo bleed him, and to give him a
physic-ball. At the same time I advised that he should be destroyed.

His master would not consent to this; and, as the dog occasionally ate a
little, we contrived to give a grain each of calomel and opium every
sixth hour. In the course of three days he was materially recovered. He
could stand, but was exceedingly weak, I ordered the calomel lo be
omitted, but the opium to be continued. Three days afterwards he was
sent into the country, and, as I heard, perfectly recovered.

The following is a very interesting case of tetanus, detailed by M.
Debeaux, of the Royal French Chasseurs:

A favourite dog was missing. Four days had passed, and no intelligence
could be obtained with regard to him until he returned home, fatigued
and half-starved. He had probably been stolen. In the excess of their
joy, the owners crammed him with meat until he became strangely ill. His
throat was filled with froth, the pupils of his eyes were dilated, the
conjunctiva was strongly injected, his neck was spasmodically
contracted, and the spine of the back was bowed, and most highly
sensible to the touch. M. Debeaux was sent for; it was an hour before he
could attend. The dog was lying on his belly; the four limbs were
extended and stiff. He uttered the most dreadful and prolonged howling
every two or three minutes. The surgeon ordered the application of a
dozen leeches to the chest and belly; laxative medicines were given, and
embrocations applied to the spine and back.

Three days passed, and the symptoms evidently augmented. The excrement
was dark and fetid, and the conjunctiva had a strong yellow tint.
Leeches were again employed; emollient lotions and aperient medicines
were resorted to. The sensibility of the spine and back was worse than
ever; the animal lay on his belly, stretching out his four limbs, his
neck fixed, his jaws immovable, his voice hoarse, and he was utterly
unable to move.

The bathings, lotions, and aperients were continued, with very few
intermissions, until the 14th day, when the muscles began to be a little
relaxed; but he cried whenever he was touched. On the 15th, for the
first time, he began to eat a little, and his natural voice returned;
still, however, the spasms occasionally appeared, but very much
mitigated, and on the 20th the pain had entirely ceased.

On the 5th of the next month he travelled two leagues with his master.
It was cold, and the snow fell. On his reaching home, all the horrible
spasms returned, and it was eleven days before he was completely cured.

Mr. Blaine gives the following account of his experience of this disease:

"It is remarkable, that although dogs are subject to various spasmodic
affections, yet they are so little subject to lock-jaw that I never
met with more than three cases of it among many thousands of diseased
dogs. Two of these cases were 'idiopathic'; one being apparently
occasioned by exposure to cold air all night; the other the cause was
obscure. The third was of that kind called 'sympathetic', and arose
from extreme injury done to one of the feet. In each of these cases
the convulsive spasm was extreme, and the rigidity universal but not
intense. In one case the jaw was only partially locked. Both warm and
cold bathings were tried. Large doses of opium and camphor were given
by the mouth, and also thrown up in clysters. The spine of one was
blistered. Stimulating frictions were applied to all, but in neither
case with any salutary effect." [2]


'Enteritis', or inflammation of the intestine, is a disease to which
dogs are very liable. It may be produced by the action of several
causes. The intestines of the dog are peculiarly irritable, and subject
to take on inflammatory action, and this tendency is often much
increased by the artificial life which they lead. It is a very frequent
complaint among those dogs that are much petted. A cold temperature is
also a common cause of disease in these dogs.

I was consulted with regard to a dog who was hiding himself in a cold,
dark corner, paved with stone. Every now and then he lifted his head and
uttered a howl closely resembling that of a rabid dog. He fixed his gaze
intently upon me, with a peculiarity of expression which many would have
mistaken for rabid. They, however, who have had the opportunity of
seeing many of these cases, will readily perceive the difference. The
conjunctiva is not so red, the pupil is not so dilated, and the dog
appears to implore pity and not to menace evil.

In this state, if the dog is approached, he will not permit himself to
be touched until he he convinced that no harm is intended. A peculiar
slowness attends each motion; his cries are frequent and piteous; his
belly hot and tender; two cords, in many cases, seem to run
longitudinally from the chest to the pubis, and on these he cannot bear
the slightest pressure. He abhors all food; but his thirst for water,
and particularly cold water, is extreme; he frequently looks round at
his flanks, and the lingering gaze is terminated by a cry or groan. In
the majority of cases there is considerable costiveness; but, in others,
the bowels are freely opened from the beginning.

The peritoneal inflammation is sometimes pure, but oftener involves the
muscular coat of the intestines. Its prevailing cause is exposure to
cold, especially after fatigue, of lying on the wet stones or grass. Now
and then it is the result of neglected rheumatism, especially in old and
petted dogs.

The treatment is simple. Bleed until the pulse falters, put the animal
in a warm bath, and let the belly be gently rubbed while the dog is in
the water, and well fomented afterwards; the drink should consist of
warm broth, or warm milk and water. The bleeding should be repeated, if
little or unsatisfactory relief is obtained; and the examination of the
rectum with the finger, and the removal of any hardened faeces that may
have accumulated there, and the cautious use of enemata, neither too
stimulating nor too forcibly injected, should be resorted to. No
medicine should be employed until the most urgent symptoms are abated.
Castor oil, the mildest of our purgatives--syrup of buckthorn assisting
the purgative property of the oil, and containing in its composition as
much stimulating power as is safe--and the spirit of while poppies--the
most convenient anodyne to mingle with the other medicines--will
generally be successful in allaying the irritation already existing, and
preventing the development of more. Even this must not be given in too
large quantities, and the effect must be assisted by a repetition of the
enemata every fifth or sixth hour. On examination after death the nature
of the disease is sufficiently evident: the peritoneum, or portions of
it, is highly injected with blood, the veins are turgid, the muscular
membrane corrugated and hardened, while often the mucous membrane
displays not a trace of disease. In violent cases, however, the whole of
the intestines exhibit evidence of inflammation.

I was much gratified a few years ago in witnessing the decided manner in
which Professor Spooner expressed himself with regard to the treatment
of enteritis in the dog.

"I should deem it advisable," said he, "to administer a purgative; but
of what would that consist? Calomel? Certainly not. I was surprised to
hear one gentleman assert that he should administer it to the extent
of from five to ten grains, and another to say that he should not
hesitate to exhibit a scruple of calomel to a dog, and to all
carnivorous animals. I should never think of exhibiting it as a
cathartic. I should only administer it in small doses, and for the
purpose of producing its specific effect on the liver, which is the
peculiar property of this drug. Given in larger doses it would not be
retained, and if it got into the intestines it would act as a powerful
drastic purgative." [3]

In our treatment of the horse we have got rid of a great proportion of
the destructive urine-balls and drastic purgatives of the farrier. The
cow is no longer drenched with half-a-dozen deleterious stimulants. A
most desirable change has been effected in the medical treatment of
these animals. Let us not, with regard to the dog, continue to pursue
the destructive course of the keeper or the huntsman.

The following case of enteritis, with rupture of the colon, may be

On March 15, 1840, I was requested to attend a large dog of the bull
breed, three years old, who had not appeared to be well during the last
four or five days.

I had scarcely arrived ere I recognised it to be a case of enteritis. He
had a dreadful shivering fit, to which succeeded heat of the skin and
restlessness. The muzzle was dry and hot, as also was the tongue. The
eyes were sunken and redder than usual; the breathing was accelerated,
but not very laborious; the extremities were cold, while the surface of
the body was hot and painful to the touch. The bowels were constipated,
and had been so during the last week; some dung however was evacuated,
but it was hard and dry, and in small quantities. The pulse was quick,
but full; and there was a slight pain and considerable irritation in the
rectum. I took from him [Symbol: ounce] x. of blood before the desired
effect was produced, and then gave him tinct. opii gr. xiv., et spt.
ether, nit. gutt. viij., cum ol. ricini [Symbol: ounce] iij., and an
opiate enema to allay the irritation of the rectum. This was about 8
o'clock, A.M.

11 A.M.--The bowels have not been moved, and the pain is more intense;
his countenance expresses great anxiety; he frequently lies on his
stomach, and the pulse is small but quick. I gave him a little broth,
and ordered the abdomen to be fomented with hot flannels.

2 P.M.--He has had distressing sickness, and is extremely anxious for
water. I introduced my finger into the rectum, but could not discover
any hardened faeces. Enemata, composed of mag. sulphas and warm water,
were frequently thrown into the intestines; as soon as one came away
another was thrown up.

4 P.M.--No better: gave him pulv. aloes [Symbol: ounce] j.; calomel, gr.
vj. et pulv. opii gr. viij. The fomentations to be continued, and the
abdomen rubbed with a lin. terebinthinae.

5 P.M.--A great change has taken place within the last hour; the hind
extremities are paralysed; the mouth and ears are cold; the pulse is
more hurried and irregular, and almost imperceptible; the respiration is
laborious and irregular, as is the pulse; and the dog is frequently
sick. To be kept quiet.

6 P.M.--Another change: he lies panting and groaning piteously; his
limbs are bathed in sweat, with convulsive struggles. At twenty minutes
past six he died.

A post-mortem examination presented general marks of inflammation; the
small intestines were extremely red, while the large ones were in a
gangrenous state and most offensive, with a rupture of the colon. I did
not expect to meet with the rupture, and am at a loss to account for it.
The liver was of a pale ashen colour, and very light. I put a piece of
it into some water, and it floated on the surface. The other contents of
the abdomen did not show the slightest appearance of disease.

September 2d, 1843.--A black pug-bitch, 18 months old, was yesterday
taken violently sick; the vomiting continued at intervals the greater
part of the day, and she had not eaten during the last 24 hours. I could
not possibly get at her, on account of her ferocity: as she had not had
the distemper, and as I was misled by her age and the watery discharge
from her eyes, and as she had had several motions yesterday, I imagined
that the attack might be the beginning of that disease. Learning that
she was fond of sweet things, I prepared an emetic containing a grain of
calomel and a grain of tartar emetic: she took it readily, and I
promised to call on the following day.

Sept. 3.--The weakness at the eyes had disappeared, but there had been
no motion. On getting at her by main force I found her belly very tense
and rather hot: she had again been sick, was very eager for water, and
still refused to eat. The disease was now evident. As she appeared too
unmanageable for anything else, I produced a physic-ball, in giving
which I was bitten.

Six hours afterwards I again went: no faeces had passed: I administered
two enemas, the second of which was returned with a small quantity of
hardened faeces and an intolerable smell. I ordered the water to be
removed, and broth to be substituted.

Sept. 4.--The dog is in good spirits, has eaten heartily, and had no
motion, probably because it was habitually cleanly, and had not been
taken out of doors. Her owner considered her as quite well, and
dismissed me. Three days afterwards a servant came to say that all was
going on very well.


Chronic inflammation of the 'peritoneal membrane' is a frequent disease
among dogs. The animal loses his appetite and spirits; he sometimes eats
a little and sometimes not; he becomes thin, his belly is tucked up, and
when we closely examine him we find it contracted and hard, and those
longitudinal columns of which I have already spoken are peculiarly dense
and almost unyielding. He now and then utters a half-suppressed whine,
and he occasionally seeks to hide himself. In the greater number of
cases he after a while recovers; but he too often pines away and dies.
On examination after death the case is plain enough. There is
inflammation of the peritoneal membrane, more indicated by undue
congestion of the bowels than by the general blush of the membrane. The
inflammation has now spread to the muscular coat, and the whole of the
intestine is corrugated and thickened.

There is another peritoneal affection, aggravated by combination with a
rheumatic tendency, to which the dog is more disposed than any other
domesticated animal. It has its most frequent origin in cold, or being
too much fed on stimulating and acrid food, and probably from other
causes which have not yet been sufficiently developed.

Here also no drastic purgative is to be admitted; it would be adding
fuel to fire: not a grain of calomel should be used, if the life of the
animal is valued. The castor oil mixture will afford the most certain
relief, a drop or two of the oil of peppermint being added to it.


The dog is also subject to fits of 'colic', principally to be traced to
improper food, or a sudden change of food, or exposure to cold. This is
particularly the case with puppies. There is no redness of the eye, no
heat of the mouth, no quickened respiration; but the animal labours
under fits of pain. He is not quiet for a minute. He gets into one
corner and another, curling himself closely up, but he does not lie
there more than a minute or two; another fit of pain comes on; he utters
his peculiar yelp, and seeks some new place in which he may possibly
find rest.

It is with considerable diffidence that I offer an opinion on this
subject contrary to that of Mr. Blaine. He states that the treatment of
this species of colic is seldom successful, and that which has seemed
the most efficacious has been mercurial purgatives; namely, calomel one
grain, aloes a scruple, and opium a quarter of a grain, until the bowels
are opened. I have seldom found much difficulty in relieving the patient
suffering under this affection; and I gave no aloes nor calomel, but the
oleaginous mixture to which I have so often referred. I should not so
much object to the aloes, for they constitute an excellent purgative for
the dog; nor to a dog that I was preparing for work, or that was
suffering from worms, should I object to two or three grains of calomel
intimately mixed with the aloes: from the combined effect of the two,
some good might be obtained.


Many persons have a very foolish custom of throwing stones, that their
dogs may dive or run after them, and bring them to their owner's feet:
the consequence is, that their teeth are soon worn down, and there are
too many cases on record in which the stone has been swallowed. It has
been impeded in its progress through the intestinal canal, inflammation
has ensued, and the animal has been lost, after having suffered the most
dreadful torture.

Professor Simonds relates a case in which a dog was thus destroyed. The
animal for some days previous to his admission into the hospital had
refused his food, and there was obstinate constipation of the bowels, to
remove which aperient medicine had been given. The pulse was
accelerated, there was distension of the abdomen with evident tenderness
on pressure, the extremities were cold, no faeces were voided, and he
occasionally vomited. Some aperient medicine was given, which was
retained on the stomach, and enemas and external stimulants were
resorted to, but two days afterwards he died.

The intestines were examined, and the offending body was found to be a
common pebble. The dog had long been accustomed to fetch stones out of
the water. One of these stones had passed through the stomach into the
intestines, and, after proceeding some distance along them, had been
impacted there. The inflammation was most intense so far as the stone
had gone; but in the part of the intestine to which it had not reached
there was not any. This was an interesting and instructive case, and
should make its due impression.

Another account of the strange contents of the intestines of a bitch may
be here introduced.

A valuable pointer-bitch was sent to the infirmary of Mr. Godwin of
Litchfield. She presented a very emaciated appearance, and had done so
for four or five months. Her evacuations for a day or two were very thin
and copious, and afterwards for several days nothing was passed. When
pressing the abdomen with both hands, a hard substance was distinctly
felt in the inferior part of the umbilical region. She was destroyed,
and, upon 'post-mortem' examination, a calculus was discovered in the
ileum about the size and shape of a hen's egg, the nucleus of which was
a portion of hair. The coats of the intestines were considerably
thickened and enlarged, so as to form a kind of sac for its retention.
Anterior to this was another substance, consisting of a ball of hair,
covered with a layer of earthy matter about the eighth of an inch thick,
and next to this another ball of hair of less dimensions, intermixed
with a gritty substance. The stomach contained a large quantity of hair,
and a portion of the omentum, about the size of n crown piece, was
thickly studded with small white calculi, the largest about the size of
a pea, and exceedingly hard.


If 'peritonitis'--inflammation--is neglected, or drastic purgatives are
too often and too plentifully administered, a peculiar contraction of
the muscular membrane of the intestine takes place, and one portion of
the bowel is received within another--there is 'intussusception'. In
most cases, a portion of the anterior intestine is received into that
which is posterior to it. Few of us have opened a dog that had been
labouring under this peculiar affection without being struck with the
collapsed state of the canal in various parts, and in some much more
than in others. Immediately posterior to this collapsed portion, it is
widened to a considerable extent. The peristaltic motion of the
intestine goes on, and the consequence is, that the constricted portion
is received into that which is widened, the anterior portion is
invaginated in the posterior: obstruction of the intestinal passage is
the necessary consequence, and the animal dies, either from the general
disturbance of the system which ensues, or the inflammation which is set
up in the invaginated part.

I will say nothing of medical treatment in this case; for I do not know
the symptoms of intussusception, or how it is to be distinguished from
acute inflammation of the bowels. Acute inflammation will not long exist
without producing it; and, if its existence should be strongly
suspected, the treatment would be the same as for inflammation.

The domesticated dog, from the nature of his food, more than from any
constitutional tendency, is liable to constipation. This should never be
neglected. If two or three days should pass without an evacuation, the
case should be taken in hand; otherwise inflammation will be very soon
established. In order to procure an evacuation, the aloetic ball, with
one or two grains of calomel, should be given. Beyond that, however, I
should not dare to go; but, if the constipation continued, I should have
recourse to the castor-oil mixture. I should previously examine and
empty the rectum, and have frequent recourse to the enema-syringe; and I
should continue both. It would be my object to evacuate the intestinal
canal with as little increased action as possible.


is the discharge of faeces more frequently than usual, and thinner than
their natural consistence, but otherwise not materially altered in
quality; and the mucous coat of the intestines being somewhat congested,
if not inflamed. It is the consequence of over-feeding, or the use of
improper food. Sometimes it is of very short continuance, and disappears
without any bad consequence; the health being unaffected, and the
character of the faeces not otherwise altered than by assuming a fluid
character. It may not be bad practice to wait a day, or possibly two, as
it is desirable for the action of the intestines to be restored without
the aid of art. I should by no means give a physic-ball, or a grain of
calomel, in simple diarrhoea. I should fear the establishment of that
species of purging which is next to be described. The castor-oil mixture
usually affords the best hope of success.

Habitual diarrhoea is not an unfrequent disease in petted dogs: in some
it is constitutional, in others it is the effect of neglected
constipation. A state of chronic inflammation is induced, which has
become part of the constitution of the dog; and, if repressed in the
intestines, it will appear under a more dangerous form in some other


is a far more serious complaint. In most cases a considerable degree of
inflammation of the mucous coat exists, and the mucus is separated from
the membrane beneath, and discharged per anum. The mucus thus separated
from the intestinal membrane assumes an acrid character. It not only
produces inflammation of the membrane, dangerous and difficult to treat,
but it excoriates the anus and neighbouring parts, and produces pain and

This disease has sometimes been fatally misunderstood. A great deal of
irritation exists in the intestinal membrane generally, and in the lower
part of the rectum particularly. The faeces passing over this denuded
surface cause a considerable degree of pain, and there is much
straining, and a very small bit or portion of faces is evacuated. This
has often been seen by the careless observer; and, as he has taken it as
an indication of costiveness, some drastic purgative has been
administered, and the animal quickly killed.

No one that had ascertained the real nature of the disease would
administer calomel in any form or combination; but the anodyne mixture
as an enema, and also administered by the mouth, is the only medicine
from which benefit can be expected.


is a disease when it becomes habitual. It is connected with disease of
the intestinal canal. Many dogs have a dry constipated habit, often
greatly increased by the bones on which they are too frequently fed.
This favours the disposition to mange and to many diseases depending on
morbid secretions. It produces indigestion, encourages worms, blackens
the teeth, and causes fetid breath. The food often accumulates in the
intestines, and the consequence is inflammation of these organs. A dog
should never be suffered to remain costive more than a couple of days.
An aloetic ball or some Epsom salts should then be administered; and
this failing to produce the desired effect, the castor-oil mixture, with
spirits of buckthorn and white poppies, should be administered, and the
use of the clyster-pipe resorted to. It may be necessary to introduce
the finger or the handle of a spoon when the faecal matter is more than
usually hard, and it is with difficulty broken down; small doses of
castor-oil should be afterwards resorted to, and recourse occasionally
be had to boiled liver, which the dog will rarely refuse. The best
means, however, of preventing costiveness in dogs, as well as in men, is
regular exercise. A dog who is kept chained up in a kennel should be
taken out and have a certain quantity of exercise once in the
twenty-four hours. When this cannot be done, the food should consist
chiefly of well-boiled farinaceous matter.


Another disease, which is not confined to the abdominal cavity, is
dropsy: but, as in the dog it most commonly assumes that form which is
termed ascites, or dropsy of the abdomen, it may be noticed in this
place. It is seldom an idiopathic or primary affection, but is
generally the consequence of some other disease, most commonly of an
inflammatory kind.

Dropsy is a collection of fluid in some part of the frame, either from
increased exhalation, or from diminished absorption, the consequence
of inflammation. The divisions of dropsy are into active and passive, or
acute and chronic. The causes are also very properly arranged as
predisposing and exciting. The diseases on which dropsy most frequently
supervenes are fevers and visceral inflammations and obstructions. The
dog is peculiarly subject to 'ascites' or 'dropsy of the belly', and the
quantity of fluid contained in the abdomen is sometimes almost
incredible. It is usually accompanied or characterised by a weak,
unequal, small, and frequent pulse--paleness of the lips, tongue, and
gums--flaccidity of the muscles, hurried breathing on the least
exertion, feebleness of the joints, swellings of the lower limbs,
effusion of fluid into the integuments or among the muscles, before
there is any considerable effusion into the thorax or the abdomen, and
an unhealthy appearance of the cutaneous surface. The urine seldom
coagulates. This form of dropsy is usually seated in the abdomen or
cellular tissue.

The treatment of ascites is seldom perfectly successful. The great
extent of the peritoneum, the number and importance of the viscera with
which it is connected, and of the absorbent glands which it encloses,
the number and weakness of the veins which transmit their blood to the
portal vessels, and the absence of valves, in some measure account for
the frequent accumulation of fluid in this cavity. It appears in both
sexes from the usual causes of inflammatory disease. Unwholesome diet,
the drastic operation of purgatives, external injuries, the suppression
of accustomed secretions and discharges, all are exciting causes of

The animal has suffered materially from mange, which has been apparently
cured: the itchiness and eruption altogether disappear, but many weeks
do not elapse ere ascites begins to be seen, and the abdomen is
gradually distended with fluid. When this appears in young and healthy
animals, it may be conquered; but when there has been previous disease
of almost any kind, comparatively few patients permanently recover.
Irritability of the stomach, and a small and accelerated pulse, are
unfavourable. If the operation of tapping has taken place, at all times
there is danger; but, if there is a thick, brown, albuminous or fetid
discharge, it is very unlikely that any permanent advantage will result
from the operation.

We will introduce a few cases as they occur in our clinical records.

'November 7th, 1821'.--A spaniel, nine years old, had been, during four
months, alternately asthmatic or mangy, or both. Within the last few
days she had apparently increased in size. I was sent for. The first
touch of the abdomen betrayed considerable fluctuation. She likewise had
piles, sore and swelled. I ordered an alterative ball to be given
morning and night.

'8th'. One of the balls has been given, and two doses of castor oil; but
no effect has been produced. An injection was administered.

'9th'. A small evacuation of water has been produced, and the bowels
have been slightly opened. Give a dose of the castor-oil mixture.

'10th'. The obstruction has been removed; the enlargement is somewhat
diminished; much water has passed. Give an alterative ball every

'14th'. The alteratives have been continued, and there is a slow but
evident decrease of the abdomen.

'18th'. I cannot detect any effusion in the abdomen. Give a pill every
alternate day for a fortnight. At the expiration of this period the dog
was apparently well.

'April 23d', 1822.--A terrier, ten years old, had cough and mange, which
ceased. The belly for the first time began to enlarge, and on feeling
the dog considerable fluctuation was evident. He would not eat, but he
drank immoderately. Give daily a ball consisting of tonic and physic
mist., with powdered digitalis and tartrate of iron.

'May 6th'.--He is in better spirits, feeds tolerably well, but is rather
increased in size. Give daily a ball of tartrate of iron, digitalis,
ginger, and a grain of calomel.

22'd'. Much thinner, the belly very considerably diminished: a slight
fluctuation is still to be perceived. Continue medicine, with a
half-grain only of calomel.

'July 17th'.--The medicine has been regularly given, and the water of
the abdomen has rapidly disappeared, until a fortnight ago: since that
time it has been once more filling. The medicine was ordered to be

'August 6th'.--The medicine has once more produced its proper effect,
and the fluid has disappeared.

On the '16th', however, the fluctuation was again too plainly felt, and
the owner determined to have nothing more to do with the case. The
animal was never brought again, nor could I trace it. The dog might have
been saved if the owner had done it justice.

As soon as dropsy appears to be established, proper medicines must be
resorted to. Foxglove, nitre, and ginger should be first tried in the
proportional doses of one, ten, and eight grains, given morning and
night. If this does not succeed, iodine from half-a-grain to a grain may
be given morning and night, and a weak solution of iodine rubbed on the

This being ineffectual, recourse may be had to tapping, taking care that
the trocar is not plunged sufficiently deep to wound the intestines. The
place for the operation is directly on the 'linea alba', or middle line
of the belly, and about midway between the pubis and the navel. The
whole of the intestinal fluid may be suffered to escape. A bandage
should then be applied round the belly, and retained there a week or

Mr. Blaine very properly states, that the difference between fatness and
dropsy is, that the belly hangs pendulous in dropsy, while the back bone
stands up, and the hips are protruded through the skin; while the hair
is rough, and the feeling of the coat is peculiarly harsh. It may be
distinguished from pregnancy by the teats enlarging, in the latter case,
as gestation advances, and the young ones may occasionally be felt to
move. In addition to this it may be stated, that the presence of water
is readily and unerringly detected. If the right hand is laid on one
side of the belly, and the other side is gently struck with the left
hand, an undulating motion will be readily perceived.

In old dogs, dropsy, under the title of "anasarca," is an unfrequent but
occasional accompaniment of ascites. If pressure is made on any
particular parts, they yield and continue depressed for a longer or
shorter period of time, and slowly and by degrees regain their natural
form. The skin is dry and distended, and with no natural action; the
circulation is languid and small, the muscular powers are diminished,
the animal is unquiet, the thirst is great, the tongue is pale, the
appetite diminished, and the limbs are swelled. The best mode, of
treatment is the infliction of some very small punctures in the
distended skin, and the application of gentle friction. The majority of
cases of this kind are usually fatal, and so is almost every case of
encysted dropsy.

A dog had cough in February, 1825. Various medicines were administered,
and at length the cough almost suddenly ceased, and evident ascites
appeared. The thirst was insatiable, the dog would not touch food, and
he was unable to lie down more than two minutes at a time.

Digitalis, cream of tartar, and hydrarg. submur. were given on the 9th

On the 13th he was much worse, and apparently dying. He had been unable
to rise for the last twelve hours, and lay panting. I punctured the
abdomen, and four quarts of fluid were evacuated.

'14th'. The panting continues. The dog will not eat, but he can lie down
in any posture.

'15th'. The panting is diminished, the appetite is returning, and water
continues to ooze from the wound,

'17th'. The wound healed on the night of the 15th, and already the fluid
begins to collect. The medicine still continued.

'20th'. The spirits good, and strength improving; but the belly is
evidently filling, and matter is discharged from both the nose and eyes.

'26th'. The swelling a little diminished, respiration easy, and the dog
walking comfortably about, and feeding well.

'May 13th'.--The swelling, which for some days past diminished, is now
again increasing; but the dog is strong and breathes easily. Medicine as

'24th.'. The dog is thinner, weaker, filling fast, and the thirst
excessive. [Symbol: Rx]: Crem. tart., ferri tart. [Symbol: ounce] ij.,
pulv. flor. anthemid. [Symbol: ounce] iiij., conser. ros. q. s.: divide
in bol. xii.: cap. in dies.

'27th'. During two days he has been unable to lie down more than a
minute at a time. Again tapped: fully as much fluid was evacuated as
before; but there is now blood mingling with it.

30th. Much relieved by the tapping, and breathes with perfect ease;
but, now that the enormous belly is reduced, the dog is very thin. Bol.

June 8th. Within the last three days the animal has filled again with
extraordinary rapidity. [Symbol: Rx;]: Ferr. tart. [Symbol: scruple] j.,
opii. gr. 1/4, pulv. gentianae [Symbol: scruple] j., cons. ros. q. s.: f.
bol. capiend. in dies.

13th. Is again strangely distended; I advised, or rather solicited,
that it might be destroyed; but this not being granted, I once more
tapped him. At least a gallon of dark-coloured fluid was evacuated.

22d. Again rapidly filling, but not losing either flesh or strength.

July 4th.--Once more punctured, and a gallon of dark-coloured fluid

12th. Again filling and rapidly losing flesh and strength.

26th. Once more tapped: immediately after which he appeared to be
revived, but almost immediately began again to fill.

Aug. 2d.--He had eaten tolerably; appeared to have nothing more than
usual the matter with him, when, being missed for an hour, he was found
dead. No examination was permitted.

In 1824 a spaniel, six years old, was brought to the infirmary. It had
had an asthmatic cough, which had left it. It was now hollow in the
flanks, the belly pendulous, and an evident fluctuation of water. The
owner would not consent to any operation. An aloetic physic-ball,
however, was given every fifth day, and a ball, composed of tartrate of
iron, digitalis, nitre, and antimonial powder, on every intermediate
morning and night. The water evidently accumulated; the dog was sent
for, and died in the course of a week.

There are a few medicines that may be useful in arresting the effusion
of the fluid; but they too often fail in producing any considerable
benefit. The fox-glove is, perhaps, possessed of the greatest power,
combined with nitre, squills, and bitartrate of potash. At other times
chamomile, squills, and spirit of nitrous ether, may be tried.

The following case, treated by the administration of iodine, by
Professor Dick, is important:--

A black and tan coloured retriever was sent to me labouring under
ascites. He was tapped, and two quarts of fluid abstracted. Tonics,
combined with diuretics were given, but the fluid continued to
accumulate, and in three weeks he was again tapped, and another two
quarts drawn away. The disease still went on, and a fortnight afterwards
a similar quantity was withdrawn. Various remedies were tried in order
to check the power of the disease, but without effect, and the abdomen
again became as much distended with the effused serum as before.

He was then put under a course of iodine, which soon began to show its
beneficial influence by speedily allaying his excessive thirst; and in
about a month the whole of the effused fluid was absorbed, although from
the size of the abdomen it must have amounted to a similar quantity to
that drawn off on the previous occasions. The dog's appetite soon
returned; he gained flesh rapidly, and has continued quite well, and,
from being a perfect skeleton, soon became overloaded with fat.

Induced by the great benefit derived in this case from the iodine, I
took the opportunity of trying it on a Newfoundland dog similarly
affected. He was put on a course of iodine, and the quantity of the drug
was gradually increased. As absorption rapidly commenced, the fluid was
completely taken up; but, partly in consequence of pushing the medicine
too far, and partly from extensive disease in the liver, unfavourable
symptoms took place, and he sunk rather unexpectedly. Still, however,
from the obvious and decided advantage derived from the medicine, I have
no doubt that iodine will be found one of the most efficient remedies in
dropsy in dogs.

Iodine is a truly valuable drug. When first introduced into veterinary
practice it was observed that it readily accomplished the reduction of
the enlarged glands that frequently remain after catarrh; but it was
presently evident that it reduced almost every kind of tumour, even the
growth of tubercles in the lungs. Professor Morton, in his Manual of
Pharmacy, has admirably described the different combinations of iodine.


of the dog seems to follow a law of comparative anatomy, that its bulk
shall be in an inverse proportion of that of the lungs. The latter are
necessarily capacious; for they need a large supply of arterial blood,
in order to answer to their rapid expenditure when the utmost exertion
of strength and speed is required. The liver is, therefore, restricted
in its size and growth. Nevertheless, it has an important duty to
fulfil, namely, to receive the blood that is returned from the
intestines, to separate from the blood, or to secrete, by means of it,
the bile; and then to transmit the remaining portion of it to the lungs,
where it undergoes the usual process of purification, and is changed to
arterial blood. In the performance of this office, the liver often
undergoes a state of inflammation, and disease ensues, inveterate, and
setting at defiance every means of cure. Both the skin and the urine
become tinged with a yellow effusion. The animal is dull, and gradually
wastes away.

In a few days the yellow hue becomes more intense, and particularly on
the cuticle, the conjunctiva, the iris, the gums, and the lips. A state
of fever becomes more and more perceptible, and there are alternations
of cold and heat. The pulse varies from 80 to 120; the dry tongue hangs
from the mouth; the appetite ceases, but the animal is peculiarly
desirous of cold water. The dog becomes restless; he seeks to hide
himself; and he groans, if the parts in the neighbourhood of the liver
are pressed upon.

Frequent vomitings now appear, slimy, and evidently containing gall. The
animal becomes visibly thinner, obstinately refuses all solid food, and
only manifests thirst. He begins to stagger as he walks; he withdraws
himself from observation; he anxiously seeks some dark place where he
may lay himself with his chest and belly resting on the cold ground, his
fore legs stretched out before him, and his hind legs almost as far
behind him. The fever increases, the skin becomes of a dark yellow
colour, the mucous membrane of the mouth and conjunctiva is of a dirty
red, the expired air is evidently hot, the gaze is anxious, the urine is
of a saffron yellow, or even darker: in short, there now appears every
symptom of inflammation of the liver, with jaundice.

As the disease proceeds the animal begins to vomit masses of a yellowish
green substance, occasionally mixed with blood. He wastes away to a
skeleton, he totters in his walk, he is half unconscious, the pulse
becomes weak and interrupted, the temperature sinks, and death ensues.

The duration and course of the disease are deceptive. It occasionally
proceeds so insidiously that several days are suffered to pass before
the owner perceives any marks of disease, or seeks any aid. The duration
of the disease is usually from ten to twelve days. It terminates in
congestion of blood in the liver, or a gradual restoration to health.
The latter can only take place in cases where the inflammation has
proceeded very slowly; where the commencement and progress of the
disease could be discovered by debility and slight yellowness of the
skin, and especially where speedy recourse has been had to medical aid.

The predisposing causes of this disease are often difficult to discover.
The dog, in warm climates, seems to have a natural disposition to it. As
exciting causes, atmospheric influence may be reckoned, sultry days,
cold nights, and damp weather. Other occasional causes may be found in
violent falls, bruises, and overfeeding. Fat petted dogs that are easily
overheated by exertion are often attacked by this disease. The result of
the disease depends on its duration, course, and complication. If it is
attended to early, it can generally be cured. If it has existed for
several days, and the fever has taken on a typhoid character--if the
yellow hue is perceptible--the appetite failing, and vomiting ensuing,
the cure is doubtful; and, if inflammation of the stomach has taken
place, with high fever, vomiting of blood, wasting away, and fits
occurring, there is no chance of cure.

When simple jaundice alone is visible, a moderate laxative of sulphate
of magnesia and tartaric acid, in conjunction with some aromatic and
mucilaginous fluid, or, quite in the beginning of the disease, an
emetic, will be found of considerable service; but, when the yellow
colour has become more intense, and the animal will no longer eat, and
the fever and weakness are increased, it is necessary to give calomel,
tartar-emetic, camphor, and opium, in the form of pills, and to rub some
strong liniment on the region of the liver: the doses of calomel,
however, must be very small. If inflammation of the stomach appears,
mucilaginous fluids only must be given. Bleeding may be of service in
the commencement of the disease, but afterward it is hurtful.

This is an account of hepatitis as it occasionally appears, and
particularly on the Continent; but it does not often assume so virulent
a character in our country. There is often restlessness, thirst, and
sickness, accompanied by much prostration of strength; or general heat
and tenderness. Occasionally there is purging; but much oftener
constipation, that bids defiance to almost every medicine. The principal
or almost only hope of cure consists in bleeding, physicking, and
blistering on the right side.

Of bilious disease, assuming the character of inflammation, we have too
many cases. It may be spontaneous or brought on by the agency of other
affections. Long-continued and inveterate mange will produce it. It is
often connected with, or produced by, distemper, or a dull inflammatory
disease of the liver, and it is generally accompanied by pustular
eruption on the belly. The skin is usually tinged of a yellow hue, and
the urine is almost invariably impregnated with bile. The suffusion
which takes place is recognised among sportsmen by the term "yellows."
The remedy should be some mercurial, with gentian and aloes given twice
in the day, and mercurial ointment well rubbed in once in the day. If
this treatment is steadily pursued, and a slight soreness induced in the
mouth, the treatment will usually be successful. Mr. Blaine observes,

"A moderate soreness of the mouth is to be encouraged and kept up. I
have never succeeded in removing the complaint without it."


M. W. Leblanc, of Paris, has given an interesting account of the causes
and treatment of 'jaundice' in the dog.

The prevailing symptom of this disease in the dog is a yellow
discoloration of the skin and the mucous membranes of greater or less
intensity. It generally announces the existence of very serious disease,
as inflammation of the liver and its excretory ducts, or of the
gall-bladder, or the stomach, or small intestines, or contraction or
'obliteration' of the excretory ducts of the liver, in consequence of
inflammation of these vessels, or the presence of concrete substances
formed from the bile. The dogs in which he found the most decided traces
of this disease laboured under diarrhea, with stools of a reddish brown
or black colour for one, two or three days.

The causes of jaundice are chiefly over-fatigue (thus, greyhounds are
more subject to it than pointers), immersions in water, fighting,
emetics or purgatives administered in over-doses, the repeated use of
poisonous substances not sufficiently strong at once to destroy the
animal, the swallowing of great quantities of indigestible food, and
contusions of the abdominal viscera, especially about the region of the
liver. The most serious, if not the most common cause, is cold after
violent and long-continued exercise; and especially when the owners of
dogs, seeing them refuse their food after a long chase, give them
powerful purgatives or emetics.

The treatment should have strict relation to the real or supposed cause
of jaundice, and its most evident concomitant circumstances. Some of
these symptoms are constant and others variable. Among the first,
whatever be the cause of the disease, we reckon acceleration of the
pulse; fever, with paroxysms of occasional intensity; and a yellow or
reddish-yellow discoloration of the urine. Among the second are
constipation, diarrhoea, the absence or increase of colour in the faecal
matter, whether solid or fluid. When they are solid, they are usually
void of much colour; when, on the contrary, there is diarrhea, the faeces
are generally mingled with blood more or less changed. Sometimes the
dejections are nearly black, mixed with mucus. It is not unusual for a
chest affection to be complicated with the lesions of the digestive
organs, which are the cause of jaundice.

With these leading symptoms there are often others connected that are
common to many diseases; such as dryness and heat of the mouth, a fetid
smell, a staggering gait, roughness of the hair, and particularly of
that of the back; an insatiable thirst, accompanied by the refusal of
all food; loss of flesh, which occasionally proceeds with astonishing
rapidity; a tucked-up flank, with hardness and tenderness of the
anterior part of the belly.

The jaundice which is not accompanied with fever, nor indeed with any
morbid change but the colour of the skin, will require very little
treatment. It will usually disappear in a reasonable time, and M.
Leblanc has not found that any kind of treatment would hasten that

When any new symptom becomes superadded to jaundice, it must be
immediately combated. Fever, injection of the vessels of the
conjunctiva, constipation, diarrhoea, or the discoloration of the urine,
require one bleeding at least, with some mucilaginous drinks. Purgatives
are always injurious at the commencement of the disease.

"I consider," says M. Leblanc, "this fact to be of the utmost
importance. Almost the whole of the dogs that have been brought to me
seriously ill with jaundice, have been purged once or more; and either
kitchen salt, or tobacco, or jalap, or syrup of buckthorn, or emetic
tartar, or some unknown purgative powders, have been administered.

"Bleeding should be resorted to, and repeated if the fever continues,
or the animal coughs, or the respiration be accelerated. When the
pulse is subdued, and the number of pulsations are below the natural
standard--if the excrements are still void of their natural colour--if
the constipation continues, or the animal refuses to feed--an ounce of
manna dissolved in warm water should be given, and the dog often
drenched with linseed tea. If watery diarrhoea should supervene, and
the belly is not hot nor tender, a drachm or more, according to the
size of the dog, of the sulphate of magnesia or soda should be
administered, and this medicine should be repeated if the purging
continues; more especially should this aperient be had recourse to
when the faeces are more or less bloody, there being no fever nor
peculiar tenderness of the belly.

"When the liquid excrement contains much blood, and that blood is of a
deep colour, all medicines given by the mouth should be suspended, and
frequent injections should be thrown up, consisting of thin starch,
with a few drops of laudanum. Too much cold water should not be
allowed in this stage of the disease. Injections, and drinks composed
of starch and opium, are the means most likely to succeed in the black
diarrhoea, which is so frequent and so fatal, and which almost always
precedes the fatal termination of all the diseases connected with

"In simple cases of jaundice the neutral salts have seldom produced
much good effect; but I have obtained considerable success from the
diascordium, in doses of half a drachm to a drachm.

"Great care should be taken with regard to the diet of the dog that
has had jaundice, with bloody or black diarrhoea; for the cases of
relapse are frequent and serious and almost always caused by improper
or too abundant food. A panada of bread, with a little butter, will
constitute the best nourishment when the dog begins to recover his
appetite. From this he may be gradually permitted to return to his
former food. Most especially should the animal not be suffered to take
cold, or to be left in a low or damp situation. This attention to the
food of the convalescent dog may be thought to be pushed a little too
far; but experience has taught me to consider it of the utmost
importance, and it is neither expensive nor troublesome."


The spleen is generally regarded as an appendage to the absorbent
system. Tiedemann and Gmelin consider that its specific function is to
secrete from the blood a fluid which possesses the property of
coagulation, and which is carried to the thoracic duct, and then, being
united with the chyle, converts it into blood, and causes an actual
communication between the arterial and absorbent systems. According,
however, to Dr. Bostock, there is a fatal objection to this, namely,
that animals have been known to live an indefinite length of time after
the removal of the spleen, without any obvious injury to their
functions, which could not have been the case if the spleen had been
essentially necessary for so important a process.

A knowledge of the diseases of the spleen in the dog appears to be less
advanced than in any other animal. In the cases that I have seen, the
earliest indications were frequent vomiting, and the discharge of a
yellow, frothy mucus. The animal appeared uneasy, shivering, the ears
cold, the eyes unnaturally protuberant, the nostrils dilated, the flanks
agitated, the respiration accelerated, and the mucous membranes pale.
The best treatment I know is the administration, twice in the day, of a
ball composed of a grain of calomel and the same quantity of aloes, and
five grains of ginger. The dog frequently cries out, both when he is
moved and when he lies on his bed. In the course of three days the
yellow mucus is generally disappearing, and the expression of pain is
materially diminished.

If the bowels are much constipated after two days have passed, two
scruples of aloes may be given, and a grain of calomel; frequent
injections may also be administered.

We are almost totally ignorant of the functions of the 'pancreas'. It
probably is concerned in assimilating the food, and converting the chyme
of the stomach into chyle.


is a serious and dangerous malady. This organ is essentially vascular in
its texture; and although it is small in volume, yet, on account of the
quantity of blood which it contains, and the rapidity with which its
secretions are performed, it is disposed to frequent and dangerous
inflammation. The immediate causes of inflammatory action in this viscus
are blows and contusions in the lumbar region; hard work long continued,
and the imprudent use of stimulating substances employed as
aphrodisiacs; the presence of calculi in the kidney, and the arrest of
the urine in the bladder. The whole of the kidney may be affected with
anaemia or defect of blood, or this may be confined to the cortical
substance, or even to the tubular. The kidneys are occasionally much
larger than usual, without any other change of structure; or simple
hypertrophy may affect but one of them. They are subject to atrophy,
which may be either general or partial; or one of the kidneys may be
completely wanting, and this evidently the consequence of violence or

Hydatids, though seldom met with in the human kidney, are not
unfrequently found in that of the dog. All these are circumstances that
have not received sufficient attention.


are of more frequent occurrence than is generally imagined, but they are
not confined to the kidneys; there is scarcely a portion of the frame in
which they have not been found, particularly in the brain, the glandular
substance, and the coats of the intestines.

I cannot say with Mr. Blaine that I have seen not less than 40 or 50
calculi in my museum; but I have seen too many fearful examples of the
complaint. There has been usually great difficulty in the urinary
evacuation; and at length one of the calculi enters the urethra, and so
blocks up the flow of the urine that mortification ensues.

M. Lautour relates a case of renal calculus in a dog. He had
occasionally voided his urine with some difficulty, and had walked
slowly and with evident pain. August 30, 1827, a sudden exacerbation
came on, and the dog was dreadfully agitated. He barked and rolled
himself on the ground almost every minute; be made frequent attempts to
void his urine, which came from him drop by drop. When compelled to
walk, his hind and fore legs seemed to mingle together, and his loins
were bent into a perfect curve; his flanks were drawn in; he could
scarcely be induced to eat; and he evidently suffered much in voiding
his faeces. Mild and demulcent liquids were his only food. Warm baths and
injections were applied almost unceasingly, and in eight days he seemed
to have perfectly gained his health.

In March, in the following year, the symptoms returned with greater
intensity. His hind limbs were dragged after him; he rapidly lost flesh,
and his howlings were fearful and continuous. The same mode of treatment
was adopted without any good effect, and, his cries continuing, he was

The stomach and intestines were healthy. The bladder was enlarged from
the thickness and induration of its parietes; the mucous membrane of it
was covered with ecchymoses; the kidneys were three or four times their
natural size; and the pelvis contained a calculus weighing 126 grains,
composed of 58 grains of uric acid and 58 of ammonia, with 10 grains of
phosphate of lime.

Of the nature and causes of urinary calculi in the bladder we know very
little. We only know that some solid body finds its way or is formed
there, gradually increases in size, and at length partially or entirely
occupies the bladder. Boerhaave has given a singular and undeniable
proof of this. He introduced a small round pebble into the bladder of a
dog. The wound perfectly healed. A few months afterwards the animal was
killed, and there was found a calculus of considerable size, of which
the pebble was the nucleus.

Occasionally the pressure of the bladder on the calculus which it
contains is exceedingly great, so much so, indeed, as to crush the
calculus. A small calculus may sometimes be forcibly extracted, or cut
down upon and removed; but when the calculus is large, a catheter or
bougie must be passed up the penis as far as the curve in the urethra,
and then somewhat firmly held with the left hand, and pressing against
the urethra. A scalpel should be taken, and an incision made into the
urethra. The catheter being now withdrawn, and the finger or a pair of
forceps introduced into the bladder, the calculus may be grasped and

There are some instances in which as many as 20 or 30 small calculi have
been taken from the bladder of a dog. Twice I have seen calculi
absolutely crushed in the bladder of a dog; and Mr. Blaine says that he
found no fewer than 40 or 50 in the bladder of a Newfoundland dog. One
of them had passed out into the urethra, and had so blocked up the
passage that the flow of urine was prevented, and the animal died of

With much pleasure I refer to the details of Mr. Blaine with regard to
the management of 'vesical calculi'.

"When a small calculus," says he, "obstructs the urethra, and can be
felt, it may be attempted to be forced forward through the urethra to
the point of the penis, whence it may be extracted by a pair of
forceps. If it cannot be so moved, it may be cut down upon and removed
with safety; but when one or more stones are within the bladder, we
must attempt lithotomy, after having fully satisfied ourselves of
their existence there by the introduction of the sound; to do which it
must be remembered that the urethra of the dog in passing the bladder
proceeds nearly in a direct line backwards, and then, making an acute
angle, it passes again forwards to the bladder. It must be therefore
evident, that when it becomes necessary to introduce a catheter,
sound, or bougie, it must first be passed up the penis to the
extremity of this angle; the point of the instrument must then be cut
down upon, and from this opening the instrument may be readily passed
forward into the bladder. The examination made, and a stone detected,
it may, if a very small one, be attempted to be pushed forward by
means of a finger passed up the anus into the urethra; but, as this
could be practicable only where the dog happened to be a large one, it
is most probable that nothing short of the operation of lithotomy
would succeed. To this end, the sound being introduced, pass a very
small gorget, or otherwise a bistoury, along its groove into the
bladder, to effect an opening sufficient to admit of the introduction
of a fine pair of forceps, by which the stone may be laid up and
'Blaine's Canine Pathology', p. 180.


is of frequent occurrence in the dog; it is also occasionally observed
in the horse and the ox. It sometimes appears as an epizootic. It is
generally announced by anxiety, agitation, trembling of the hinder
limbs, frequent attempts to urine, vain efforts to accomplish it, the
evacuation small in quantity, sometimes clear and aqueous, and at other
times mucous, laden with sediment, thick and bloody, escaping by jets,
painfully and with great difficulty, and then suddenly rushing out in
great quantity. To this list of symptoms colic may often be added. The
animal drinks with avidity, but seldom eats much, unless at the
commencement of the complaint. The skin is hard and dry, he looks at his
flanks, and his back and flanks are tender when pressed upon.

During the latter portion of my connexion with Mr. Blaine, this disease
assumed an epidemic character. There was a great drought through almost
every part of the country. The disease was characterised by general
uneasiness; continual shifting of the posture; a tucked-up appearance;
an anxious countenance; a quick and noisy pulse; continued panting; the
urine voided in small quantities, sometimes discharged drop by drop, or
complete stoppage of it. The belly hot, swelled, and tender to the
touch; the dog becoming strangely irritable, and ready to bite even his

'1st May', 1824.--Two dogs had been making ineffectual attempts to void
their urine for nearly two days. The first was a terrier, and the other
a Newfoundland. The terrier was bled, placed in a warm bath, and an
aloetic ball, with calomel, administered. He was bled a second time in
the evening, and a few drops of water were discharged. On the following
day, the urine slowly passed involuntarily from him; but when he
attempted to void any, his efforts were totally ineffectual. Balls
composed of camphor, pulv. uva ursi, tinct. ferri mur., mass purg., and
pulv. lini. et gum. arab., were administered morning, noon, and night.

On the 5th the urine still passed involuntarily. Cold lotions were
employed, and tonic and astringent medicines administered, with castor
oil. He gradually got well, and no trace of the disease remained until
June the 6th, when he again became thin and weak, and discharged much
bloody urine, but apparently without pain. The uva ursi, oak bark, and
powdered gum-arabic were employed.

On the 12th he had become much better, and so continued until the 1st of
July, when he again exhibited the same complaint more violently than
before. He was exceedingly tender on the loins, and screamed when he
was touched. He was bled, returned to his uva ursi and powdered gum, and
recovered. I saw him two years afterwards apparently well.

The Newfoundland dog exhibited a similar complaint, with nearly the same

'May' 1.--He was disinclined to move; his belly was hard and hot, and he
was supposed to be costive. Gave an aloetic ball with iron.

2d. He has endeavoured, in vain, several times to void his urine. He
walks stiffly with his back bound. Subtract eight ounces of blood; give
another physic-ball, and apply cold affusion to the loins.

3d. He frequently attempts to stale, and passes a little urine at each
time; he still walks and stands with his back bound. Syr. papav. et
rhamni, with tinct. ferr. mur., a large spoonful being given morning and

4th. He again tries, ineffectually, to void his urine. Mist. et pulv.

5th. Unable to void a drop of urine; nose hot; tongue hangs down; pants
considerably; will not eat; the countenance has an anxious character.
Bleed to twelve ounces; apply cold affusion. Medicine as before, with
cold affusion.

6th. Appears to be in very great pain; not a drop of water has passed
from him. Medicine and other treatment as before. In the evening he lay
down quietly. On the next morning he was found dead. All the viscera
were sound except the bladder, which was ruptured; the abdomen contained
two quarts of bloody fluid. The mucous membrane of the bladder appeared
to be in the highest state of inflammation. It was almost black with
extravasated blood. On the neck of the bladder was an enlargement of the
size of a goose's egg, and almost filling the cavity of the pelvis. On
cutting into it, more than two ounces of pus escaped.

On June 29, 1833, a poodle was brought to me. He had not been observed
to pass any urine for two days. He made frequent attempts to void it,
and cried dreadfully. The bladder could be felt distended in the
abdomen. I put him into a warm bath, and took from him a pound of blood.
He seemed to be a little relieved. I did not leave him until after
midnight, but was soon roused by his loud screams, and the dog was also
retching violently. The cries and retching gradually abated, and he
died. The bladder had burst, and the parietes were in a dreadful state
of inflammation.

A dog had laboured under incontinence of urine more than two months. The
water was continually dropping from him. The servant told me that, three
months before, he had been shut into a room two days, and, being a
cleanly animal, would not stale until he was liberated. Soon after that
the incontinence of urine was observed. I gave the usual tonic balls,
with a small portion of opium, night and morning, and ordered cold water
to be frequently dashed on the perinaeum. A month afterwards he was quite

Comparatively speaking, 'profuse staling' is not a common disease,
except when it is the consequence of bad food, or strong diuretics, or
actual inflammation. The cause and the result of the treatment are often
obscure. Bleeding, purging, and counter irritation, would be indicated
to a certain extent, but the lowering system must not be carried too
far. The medicine would probably be catechu, uva ursi, and opium.

At times blood mingles with the urine, with or without coagulation. The
cause and the source of it may or may not be determined. Generally
speaking it is the result of some strain or blow.

A terrier bitch, in January, 1820, had incontinence of urine. No
swelling or injury could be detected. I used with her the simple tonic

10th January'.--She is now considerably better, and only a few drops
are observed.

2d February'.--The disease which had seemingly been conquered began
again to reappear; the medicine had been neglected. Again have recourse
to it.

4'th March'.--The disease now appears to be quite checked by the cold
lotion and the balls.


This is a singular account, and stands almost alone.

The patient was a valuable spaniel belonging to that breed known as "The
Duke of Norfolk's," and now possessed in its full perfection by the Earl
of Albemarle. Professor Simonds shall give his own account:

I was informed that almost from a puppy to the time when he was two
years old, the dog had always been delicate in his appearance, and was
observed to void his urine with difficulty; but there were not
sufficient indications of disease for the owner to suppose that medical
attendance was necessary until within a few days of his death, and then,
finding that the act of staling was effected with increased difficulty,
and accompanied with extreme pain; that the dog refused his food, was
feverish; that at length there were frequent or ineffective efforts to
expel the urine, the dog crying out from extremity of pain, and it was
sufficiently evident that great mischief was going on, he was placed
under my care; and even then he was walked a mile and a half to my

My attention was immediately directed to him; the man who brought him
informing me that he seemed much easier since he left home. On
examination, I at once pronounced that he could not recover; in fact,
that he was rapidly sinking; but, from his then state, I could give no
opinion with regard to the precise nature or extent of his disease. He
was placed upon a bed in an appropriate apartment, with directions not
to be disturbed, and in a few hours he died.

The 'post-mortem' appearances were the abdomen containing from four to
five pints of fluid, having much the character of, but more bloody than,
that found in cases of ascites. The peritoneum seemed to be dyed from
its immersion in this fluid, as it showed a general red hue, not
apparently deeper in some parts than in others. There was an absence, to
a great extent, of that beautiful appearance and well-marked course of
the minute blood-vessels which accompany many cases of original
peritonitis. Extending the examination, I found the bladder to be
ruptured, and that the fluid of which I have spoken was to a large
extent composed of urine, mingled with some other secretion from the
peritoneal investure of the abdomen and its viscera, probably produced
from the presence of an irritant, the urine being brought into direct
contact with the membrane. Farther research showed that this rupture of
the bladder was caused in the manner which I have stated. The
'post-mortem' examination displayed a chronic enlargement of the
prostate gland of a considerable size, causing by its pressure a
mechanical obstruction to the passage of the urine. Death in this
instance was not immediately brought about by the abnormal state of the
original organ affected; but the prostate gland, having early in the
life of the animal become diseased, and, being gradually increased in
size, became a cause of still more serious disease, attacking more
important organs.


There are various kinds of worms to which the dog is subject; they have
occasionally been confounded with each other; but they are essentially
different in the situations which they occupy, and the effects which
they produce.

The 'ascarides' are small thread-like worms, generally not more than six
or ten lines in length, of a white colour, the head obtuse, and the tail
terminating in a transparent prolongation. They are principally found in
the rectum. They seem to possess considerable agility; and the itching
which they set up is sometimes absolutely intolerable. To relieve this,
the dog often drags the fundament along the ground.

All the domesticated animals are subject to the annoyance which these
worms occasion. They roll themselves into balls as large as a nut, and
become entangled so much with each other that it is difficult to
separate them. Sometimes they appear in the stomach, and in such large
masses that it is almost impossible to remove them by the act of
vomiting. It has been said that packets of ascarides have been collected
in the stomach containing more than one hundred worms. These collections
are rarely or never got entirely rid of. Enormous doses of medicine may
be given, and the worms may not be seen again for several weeks; but, at
length, they reappear as numerous as ever.

Young dogs are exceedingly subject to them, and are with great
difficulty perfectly freed from their attacks. Another species of worm
is the 'teres'. It would resemble the earth-worm in its appearance, were
it not white instead of a red colour. They are very common among dogs,
especially young dogs, in whom they are often attended by fits.
Occasionally they crawl into the stomach, and there produce a great deal
of irritation.

Another, and the most injurious of the intestinal worms, is the
'taenia', or 'tape-worm'. It is many inches in length, almost flat in
the greater part of its extent, and its two extremities are nearly or
quite equal. Tape-worms associate in groups like the others, but they


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