The Holy Bible

Part 74 out of 74

which they have been delivered, and the large room which they shall
receive with joy and immortality.
A:62. The sixth order, when it is shewed unto them how their face shall
shine as the sun, and how they shall be made like unto the light of the
stars, being henceforth incorruptible.
A:63. The seventh order, which is greater than all the aforesaid orders,
because they shall rejoice with confidence, and because they shall be
bold without confusion, and shall be glad without fear, for they hasten
to behold the face of him whom in their lifetime they served, and from
whom they shall receive their reward in glory.
A:64. This is the order of the souls of the just, as from henceforth is
announced unto them, and aforesaid are the ways of torture which they
that would not give heed shall suffer from henceforth.
A:65. And I answered and said, Shall time therefore be given unto the
souls after they are separated from the bodies, that they may see that
whereof thou hast spoken unto me?
A:66. And he said, Their freedom shall be for seven days, that for seven
days they may see the things whereof thou hast been told, and afterwards
they shall be gathered together in their habitations.
A:67. And I answered and said, If I have found favour in thy sight, shew
further unto me thy servant whether in the day of judgement the just will
be able to intercede for the ungodly or to intreat the Most High for
A:68. whether fathers for children, or children for parents, or brethren
for brethren, or kinsfolk for their next of kin, or friends for them that
are most dear.
A:69. And he answered me, and said, Since thou hast found favour in my
sight, I will shew thee this also: The day of judgement is a day of
decision, and displayeth unto all the seal of truth; even as now a father
sendeth not his son, or a son his father, or a master his slave, or a
friend him that is most dear, that in his stead he may be sick, or sleep,
or eat, or be healed:
A:70. so never shall any one pray for another in that day, neither shall
one lay a burden on another, for then shall all bear every one his own
righteousness or unrighteousness.



ABDIAS borne in Sichem, of the tribe Ephraim, prophecied the same time
with Amos; so briefly that his prophecie is not parted into chapters:
1. against the Idumeans; foreshewing their destruction; 10. for their
perpetual emnitie against the Iewes, and confederacie with the Chaldees.
17. The captiuitie and relaxation of the Iewes. 19. And redemption of
the whole world by Christ.

THE vision of Abdias. Thus sayth our Lord God to Edom: We haue heard a
bruit from our Lord, and he hath sent a legate to the Gentils: Rise ye,
and let vs arise against him into battel. 2 Behold I haue geuen thee a
litle one in the Gentils: thou art contemptible excedingly. 3 The pride
of thy hart hath extolled thee, dwelling in the clefts of rockes,
exalting thy throne: which sayst in thy hart: Who shal plucke me downe
to the earth. 4 If thou shalt be exalted as an eagle, and if thou shalt
set thy nest among the starres: thence wil I plucke thee downe, sayth
our Lord. 5 If theues had gone in to thee, if robbers by night, how
hadst thou held thy peace. would not they haue stolen thinges sufficent
for themselues. if the grape gathereres had entered in to thee, would
they not haue left thee at the least a cluster. 6 How haue they searched
Esau, haue they sought out his hidden thinges. 7 Euen to the border haue
they cast thee out: al the men of thy league haue mocked thee: the men
of thy peace haue peuailed against thee: they that eate with thee, shal
lay embushments vnder thee: there is no wisedom in him. 8 Why, shal not
I in that day, sayth our Lord, destroy the wise out of Idumea, and
prudence from the mount of Esau, 9 And thy valients of the South shal
feare, that man may perish from the mount of Esau. 10 For the slaughter,
and for the iniquitie against thy brother Iacob, confusion shal couer
thee, and thou shalt perish for euer. 11 In the day when thou stoodest
against him, when strangers tooke his armie, and foreners entered his
gates, and vpon Ierusalem cast lotte: thou also wast as one of them.
12 And thou shalt not dispise in the day of thy brother, in the day of
his peregrination: and thou shalt not reioyce ouer the children of Iuda,
in the day of their perdition: & thou shalt not magnifie thy mouth in
the day of distresse. 13 Neither shalt thou enter the gate of my people
in the day of their ruine: neither shalt thou also dispise in his euils
in the day of his distruction: and thou shalt not be sent out against
his armie in the day of his destruction. 14 Neither shalt thou stand in
the outgoings to kil them that flee: and thou shalt not shut vp his
remnant in the day of tribulation. 15 Because the day of our Lord is at
hand vpon al nations: as thou hast done, so shal it be done to thee:
thy retribution he wil returne vpon thine owne head. 16 For as you haue
drunke vpon my holie mount, shal al Gentils drinke continually: & they
shal drinke, and swallow vp, and they shal be as though they were not.
17 And in mount Sion shal be saluation, and it shal be holie: and the
house of Iacob shal possesse those that had possessed them. 18 And the
house of Iacob shal be a fyre, and the house of Ioseph a flame, and the
house of Esau stubble: and they shal be kindled in them, and shal
deuoure them: and there shal be no remaynes of the house of Esau,
because our Lord hath spoken. 19 And they that are toward the South,
shal inherite the mount of Esau, and they in the champaine countries,
Philisthiims: and they shal possesse the region of Ephraim, and the
region of Samaria: and Beniamin shal possesse Galaad. 20 And the
transmigration of this host of the children of Israel, al places of the
Chananeits euen to Sarepta: and the transmigration of Ierusalem, that is
in Bosphorus, shal possesse the cities of the South. 21 And sauiours
shal ascend into mount Sion to iudge the mount of Esau: and the kingdom
shal be to our Lord.


He exhorteth them to stand to their old faith, shevving them by examples,
that it is damnable not to continue and be constant: 8 inueighing
against the lecherie, blasphemie, apostasie, banketing of the heretikes,
14 and that their damnation vvas long foretold. 17 Catholikes therfore
to be vnmoueable, to reproue the obstinate, to recouer al not desperate,
to confirme the vveake, and to liue them selues vertuously and vvithout
mortal sinne, vvhich by Gods grace they may doe.

IVDE the seruant of IESVS Christ, and brother of Iames: to them that are
in God the Father beloued, and in IESVS Christ preserued, and called.
2 Mercie to you, and peace and charitie be accomplished.
3 My deerest, taking al care to vvrite vnto you of your common
saluation, I thought it necessarie to vvrite vnto you: beseeching you to
contend for the faith once deliuered to the sainctes. 4 For there are
certaine men secretely entred in (vvhich vvere long ago prescribed vnto
this iudgement) impious, transferring the grace of our God into
riotousnes, and denying the onely Dominator, and our Lord IESVS Christ.
5 But I vvil admonish you, that once knovv al things, that IESVS, sauing
the people out of the land of AEgipt, secondly destroied them vvhich
beleeued not. 6 But the Angels vvhich kept not their pricipalitie, but
forsooke their owne habitation, he hath reserued vnder darkenesse in
eternal bondes vnto the iudgement of the great day. 7 As Sodom and
Gomorrhe, and the cities adioyning in like maner hauing fornicated, and
going after other flesh, vvere made an example, sustaining the paine of
eternal fire. 8 In like maner these also defile the flesh, and despise
dominion, & blaspheme maiestie. 9 Vvhen Micheal the Archangel, disputing
vvith the Diuel, made altercation for the body of Moyses: he durst not
inferre iudgment of blasphemie, but said, Our Lord 'commaund' thee.
10 But these, vvhat things so euer certes they are ignorant of, they
blaspheme: and vvhat things so euer naturally, as dumme beastes, they
knovv, in those they are corrupted.
11 Vvo vnto them, 'vvhich' haue gone in the vvay of Cain: and vvith
the errour of Balaam, haue for revvard povvred out them selues, and haue
perished in the contradiction of Core. 12 These are in their bankets,
spottes, feasting together vvithout feare, feeding them selues, cloudes
vvithout vvater vvhich are caried about of vvindes, trees of autumne,
vnfruitful, tvvise dead, plucked vp by the rootes, 13 raging vvaues of
the sea, foming out their ovvne confusions, vvandering starres: to vvhom
the storme of darkenesse is reserued for euer. 14 And of these
propheceied Enoch, the seuenth from Adam, saying, Behold our Lord is come
in his holy thousandes, 15 to doe iudgement against al, and to reproue al
the impious, of al the vvorkes of their impietie vvherby they haue done
impiously, and of al the hard thinges vvhich impious sinners haue spoken
against him. 16 These are murmurers, ful of complaintes, vvalking
according to their ovvne desires, and their mouth speaketh pride,
admiring persons for gaine sake.
17 But you my deerest, be mindeful of the vvordes vvhich haue been
spoken before by the Apostles of our Lord IESVS Christ, 18 vvho told you,
that in the last time shal come mockers, according to their ovvne desires
vvalking in impieties. 19 These are they vvhich segregate them selues,
sensual, hauing not the Spirit. 20 But you my deerest, building your
selues vpon 'our' most holy faith, in the holy Ghost, praying, 21 keepe
your selues in the loue of God, expecting the mercie of our Lord IESVS
Christ vnto life euerlasting. 22 And these certes reproue being iudged:
23 but them saue, pulling out of the fire. And on other haue mercie in
feare: hating also that vvhich is carnal, the spotted cote.
24 And to him that is able to preserue you vvithout sinne, and to
sette you immaculate before the sight of his glorie in exultation in the
comming of our Lord IESVS Christ, 25 to the onely God our Sauiour by
IESVS Christ our Lord be glorie and magnificence, empire and power before
al worldes, and novv and for al vvorldes euermore. Amen.


As recorded in the title, the Douay-Rheims version is a translation
primarily from the Latin Vulgate. A brief selection from the preface to
the 1582 edition explains the reasons for this approach. Together with
the glossary the text shows the translators scholarly motivations, but
also provides a glimpse into the charged climate of the period. The
transcriber hopes he did a tolerable job in transliterating the Greek
words in the preface. The glossary contains words newly used in the
language of the day. Some were later dropped from the Challoner
revision, others have found common usage today.


Treating of the causes vvhy this nevv Testament is translated according
to the auncient vulgar Latin text.

THE holy Bible long since translated by vs into English, and the old
Testament lying by vs for lacke of good meanes to publish the vvhole in
such sort as a vvorke of so great charge and importance requireth: vve
haue yet through Gods goodnes at length fully finished for thee (most
Christian reader) all the NEVV TESTAMENT, vvhich is the principal, most
profitable & comfortable peece of holy vvrite: and, as vvel for all
other institution of life and doctrine, as specially for deciding the
doubtes of these daies, more propre and pregnant then the other part not
yet printed.

NOVV TO GIVE thee also intelligence in particular, most gentle Reader, of
such thinges as it behoueth thee specially to knovv concerning our
Translation: Vve translate the old vulgar Latin text, not the common
Greeke text, for these causes.

1. It is so auncient, that it vvas vsed in the Church of God aboue 1300
yeres agoe, as appeareth by the fathers of those times.

2. It is that (by the common receiued opinion and by al probabilitie)
vvhich S. Hierom aftervvard corrected according to the Greeke, by the
appointment of Damasus then Pope, as he maketh mention in his preface
before the foure Euangelistes, vnto the said Damasus: and 'in Catalogo
in fine,' and 'ep. 102.'

3. Consequently it is the same vvhich S. Augustine so commendeth and
allovveth in an Epistle to S. Hierom.

4. It is that, vvhich for the most part euer since hath been vsed in the
Churches seruice, expounded in sermons, alleaged and interpreted in the
Commentaries and vvritings of the auncient fathers of the Latin Church.

5. The holy Councel of Trent, for these and many other important
considerations, hath declared and defined this onely of al other latin
translations, to be authentical, and so onely to be vsed and taken in
publike lessons, disputations, preachings, and expositions, and that no
man presume vpon any pretence to reiect or refuse the same.

6. It is the grauest, sincerest, of greatest maiestie, least partialitie,
as being vvithout al respect of controuersies and contentions, specially
these of our time, as appeareth by those places vvhich Erasmus and others
at this day translate much more to the aduantage of the Catholike cause.

7. It is so exact and precise according to the Greeke, both the phrase
and the word, that delicate Heretikes therfore reprehend it of rudenes.
And that it follovveth the Greeke far more exactly then the Protestants
translations, beside infinite other places, we appeale to these.
Tit. 3,14. 'Curent bonis operibus praeesse.' 'proissasthai.' Engl. bib.
1577, 'to mainteine good vvorks.' and Hebr. 10, 20. 'Viam nobis
initiauit,' 'enekainisen.' English Bib. 'he prepared.' So in these
vvordes, 'Iustificationes,' 'Traditiones,' 'Idola' &c. In al vvhich they
come not neere the Greeke, but auoid it of purpose.

8. The Aduersaries them selues, namely Beza, preferre it before al the
rest. (Inpraefat. no. Test an. 1556.) And againe he saith, that the old
Interpreter translated very religiously. (Annot. in 1. Luc. v. 1.)

9. In the rest, there is such diuersitie and dissension, and no end of
reprehending one an other, and translating euery man according to his
fantasie, that Luther said, If the vvorld should stand any long time, vve
must receiue againe (which he thought absurd) the Decrees of Councels,
for preseruing the vnitie of faith, because of so diuers interpretations
of the Scripture. And Beza (in the place aboue mentioned) noteth the
itching ambition of his fellovv-translators, that had much rather
disagree and dissent from the best, then seeme them selues to haue said
or vvritten nothing. And Bezas translation it self, being so esteemed in
our countrie, that the Geneua English Testaments be translated according
to the same, yet sometime goeth so vvide from the Greeke, and from the
meaning of the holy Ghost, that them selues which protest to translate
it, dare not folow it. For example, Luc. 3,36. They haue put these
wordes, 'The sonne of Cainan,' which he wittingly and wilfully left out:
and (Act. 1,14.) they say, 'Vvith the vvomen,' agreably to the vulgar
Latin: where he saith, 'Cum vxoribus,' 'vvith their vviues.'

10. It is not onely better then al other Latin translations, but then the
Greeke text it self, in those places where they disagree.

The proofe hereof is euident, because most of the auncient Heretikes were
Grecians, & therfore the Scriptures in Greeke were more corrupted by
them, as the auncient fathers often complaine. Tertullian noteth the
Greeke text which is at this day (1 Cor. 15,47) to be an old corruption
of Marcion the Heretike, and the truth to be as in our vulgar latin,
'Secundus homo de caelo caelestis,' 'The second man from heauen
heauenly.' So reade other auncient fathers, and Erasmus thinketh it must
needes be so, and Caluin him self folovveth in 'Instit. li. 2. c. 13.
parag. 2.' Againe S. Hierom noteth that the Greeke text (1 Cor. 7, 33)
which is at this day, is not the 'Apostolical veritie' or the true text
of the Apostle: but that which is in the vulgar Latin, 'Qui cum vxore
est, solicitus est quae sunt mundi, quomodo placeat vxori, & diuisus
est.' 'He that is vvith a vvife, is careful of vvorldly things, hovv he
may please his vvife, and is deuided or distracted.' The Ecclesiastical
historie called the Tripartite, noteth the Greeke text that now is
(1 Io. 4, 3) to be an old corruption of the auncient Greeke copies, by
the Nestorian Heretikes, & the true reading to be as in our vulgar Latin,
'Omnis spiritus qui soluit IESVM, Ex Deo non est.' 'Euery spirit that
dissolueth IESVS, is not of God:' and Beza confesseth that Socrates in
his Ecclesiastical historie readeth so in the Greeke.

But the proofe is more preganant out of the Aduersaires them selues.
They forsake the Greeke text as corrupted, and translate according to the
vulgar Latin, namely Beza and his scholers the English translatours of
the Bible, in these places. Hebr. chap. 9. vers. 1. saying, 'The first
couenant,' for that vvhich is in the Greeke. 'The first tabernacle.'
vvhere they put, 'couenant,' not as of the text, but in an other letter,
as to be vnderstood, according to the vulgar Latin, vvhich most sincerely
leaueth it out altogether, saying, 'Habuit quidem & prius iustificationes
&c.' 'The former also in deede had iustifications &c.' Againe, Ro. 11,
vers. 21. They translate not according to the Greek text, 'Tempori
seruientes,' 'seruing the time,' vvhich Beza sayth must needes be a
corruption: but according to the vulgar Latin, 'Domino seruientes,'
'seruing our Lord.' Againe, Apoc. 11, vers. 2. they translate not the
Greeke text, 'Atrium quod intra templum est,' 'the court vvhich is
vvithin the temple:' but cleane contrarie, according to the vulgar
Latin, vvhich Beza saith is the true reading, 'Atrium quod est foris
templum,' 'the court vvhich is vvithout the temple.' Onely in this last
place, one English Bible of the yere 1562, folovveth the errour of the
Greeke. Againe, 2 Tim. 23 vers. 14. they adde, 'but,' more then is in
the Greeke, to make the sense more commodious and easie, according as it
is in the vulgar Latin. Againe, Ia. 5, 12. they leaue the Greeke, and
folovv the vulgar Latin, saying, 'lest you fall into condemnation.' "I
doubt not (saith Beza) but this is the true and sincere reading, and I
suspect the corruption in the Greeke came thus &c." It vvere infinite to
set dovvne al such places, vvhere the Aduersaries (specially Beza) folovv
the old vulgar Latin and the Greeke copie agreable therevnto, condemning
the Greeke text that novv is, of corruption.


The explication of certaine vvordes in this translation, not familiar to
the vulgar reader, vvhich might not conueniently be vttered otherwise.


Abstracted. Dravven avvay. [James 1:14]
Acquisition. Getting, purchasing. [Eph 1:14]
Aduent. The comming. [Matt 24:27]
Adulterating. Corrupting. [2 Cor 2:17] The Greeke vvord signifieth to
to make commoditie of the vvord of God, as vulgar Vinteners do of their
vvine. Vvhereby is expressed the peculiar trade of al Heretikes, and
exceding proper to the Protestants, that so corrupt Scriptures
by mixture of their ovvne phantasies, by false translations, glosses,
colorable and pleasant commentaries, to deceiue the tast of the simple,
as tauerners and tapsters do, to make their vvines salable by manifold
artificial deceites. The Apostles contrarievvise, as all Catholikes,
deliuer the Scriptures and vtter the vvord of God sincerely and
entirely, in the same sense and sort as the fathers left them to the
Church, interpreting them by the same Spirit by vvhich they vvere
vvritten or spoken.
Agnition. Knovvledge or acknovvledging. [Philemon 1:6]
Allegorie. A Mystical speache, more then the bare letter. [Gal 4:24]
Here vve learne that the holy Scriptures haue beside the litteral
sense, a deeper spiritual and more principal meaning: which is not
only to be taken of the holy vvordes, but of the very factes and
persons reported: both the speaches and the actions being
significatiue ouer and aboue the letter.
Amen. What is it vvhen our Lord saith, Amen, amen? He doth much commend
and vrge the thing he so vttereth, doubling it. Amen in Hebrue
signifieth verum, a truth. [John 8:34]
Anathema. By vse of Scripture is either that vvhich by separation from
profane vse, and by dedication to God, is holy, dreadful, and not
vulgarly to be touched: or contrarievvise, that which is reiected,
seuered or abandoned from God, as cursed and detested, and therfore is
to be auoided. [Rom 9:3]
Archisynagogue. Cheefe gouerner of a Synagogue. [Mark 5:22]
Assist. Signifieth the Angels standing and attending, alvvaies readie
to doe their ministerie. [Luke 1:19]
Assumption. Christs departure out of this vvorld by his death and
Ascension. [Luke 9:51]
Azymes. Vnleauened bread. [Matt 26:17]


Calumniate. By this vvord is signified violent oppression by vvord or
deede. [Luke 3:14]
Catechizeth, and, Catechized. He catechizeth that teacheth the
principles of the Christian faith: and they that heare and learne,
are catechized, and are therfore called often in the Annotations,
Catechumens. [Gal 6:6]
Character. A marke or stampe. [Apoc 13:16]
Commessations. Immoderate bankets, and belly cheere, vvith vvanton
riotousnes. [Gal 5:21]
Condigne. Comparable. [Rom 8:18]
Contristate. This vvord signifieth to make heauie and sad. [Eph 4:30]
Cooperate. Signifieth vvorking vvith others, likevvise Cooperation,
Cooperatours. [Rom 8:28]
Corbana. This Corbana was a place about the Temple, which receiued the
peoples gifts or offerings. [Matt 27:6]


Depositum. The vvhole doctrine of our Christianity being taught by the
Apostles, and deliuered to their successors, and comming dovvne from
one Bishop to an other, is called the Depositum, as it vvere a thing
laid into their hands, and committed vnto them to keepe. Vvhich
because it passeth from hand to hand, from age to age, from Bishop to
Bishop vvithout corruption, change, or alteration, is al one vvith
Tradition, and is the truth giuen vnto the holy Bishops to keepe, and
not to lay men. [1 Tim 6:20] It may signifie also, Gods graces giuen
vs to keepe. A great comfort to al Christians, that euery of their
goode deedes and sufferings for Christ, and al the vvorldly losses
susteined for defense or confession of their faith, be extant vvith
God, and kept as depositum, to be repaied or receiued againe in heauen.
[2 Tim 1:12,14]
Didrachme. These didrachmes were peeces of money which they payed for
tribute. [Matt 17:23,24]
Dominical day. Sunday. [Apoc 1:10] It is to be marked, that this holy
day by the Apostles tradition also, vvas named Dominicus dies, our
Lordes day, or the Dominike, vvhich is also an old Ecclesiastical vvord
in our language, for the name Sunday is a heathenish calling, as al
other of the vveeke daies be in our language.
Donaries. Giftes offered to God for his Temple, &c. [Luke 21:5]


Euacuated from Christ. That is, Made voide and hauing no part vvith
him. [Gal 5:4] The scandal of the crosse euacuated, that is, made
voide, cleane taken avvay. [Gal 5:11]
Euangelize. Signifieth such preaching of good tidinges, as concerneth
the Gospel. How is it possible to expresse Euangelizo, but as vve do,
Euangelize? for Euangelium being the Gospel, what is, Euangelizo or to
Euangelize, but to shew the glad tydings of the Gospel, of the time of
grace, of al Christs benefites? Al which signification is lost, by
translating as the English bibles do, "I bring you good tydings."
Eunuches. Gelded men.
Euro-aquilo. A north-eastvvinde. [Acts 27:14]
Exinanited. Abased excedingly. [Phil 2:7]


Gratis. An vsual vvord to signifie, for nothing, freely, for
Godamercie, vvithout desert.


Holocauste. A kinde of sacrifice vvhere al vvas burnt in the honour
of God. [Hebr 10:6]
Hostes. Sacrifices. [1 Cor 10:18]


Inuocated. Called vpon, praied vnto. [Acts 9:21] Hereof vve say,
Inuocation of Saincts, and to inuocate.
Issue. Good euent. [1 Cor 10:13]
Iustice. Taken in the nevv Testament, not as it is contrarie to vvrong
or iniurie, but for that qualitie vvhereof a man is iust and
iustified. [Rom 4:9]


Neophyte. Neophytus is he that vvas lately christened or nevvely
planted in the mystical body of Christ. [1 Tim 3:6]


Paraclete. By interpretation is either a comforter, or an aduocate: and
therfore to translate it by any one of them only, is perhaps to
abridge the sense of this place. [John 14:16]
Parasceue. The Ievves Sabboth-eue, Good friday. [Mark 15:42]
Parasceue is as solemne a word for the Sabboth eue, as Sabboth is for
the Iewes seuenth day, and now among Christians much more solemner,
taken for Good-friday onely. These wordes then we thought it far
better to keepe in the text, and to tel their signification in the
margent or in a table for that purpose, then to disgrace bothe the text
and them with translating them.
Pasche. Easter, and the Paschal lambe. [Luke 22:1]
Pentecost. Vvhitsuntide, &, the space of fiftie daies.
Prefinition. A determination before. [Eph 3:11]
Prepuce. The foreskinne not circumcised, & therfore signifieth the
Gentiles: as circumcision, the Ievves and their state. [Rom 2:25]
Prescience. Foreknovvledge. [Acts 2:23]
Preuaricatour. Transgressor: and preuarication, transgression.
[Rom 2:25]
Loaues of Proposition. So called, because they vvere proposed and set
vpon the table in the Temple, before God. [Matt 12:4]


Repropitiate the sinnes. That is, make a reconciliation for them.
[Heb 2:17]
Resolution. The separation of the body and the soule, the departing out
of this life. [2 Tim 4:6]
Resuscitate the grace. That is, Raise, quicken, renew and reviue the
grace vvhich othervvise languisheth and decaieth. [2 Tim 1:6]


Sabbatisme. A time of resting and ceasing from labours. [Heb 4:9]
Sacrament. For mysterie. [Eph 1:9]
Sancta Sanctorum. The holie of holies, that is, the inmost and holiest
place of the Ievves Temple, as it vvere the Chauncel. [Heb 9:3]
Superedified. Builded vpon Christ the principal stone. [1 Pet 2:5]


Tetrarch. Gouernour or Prince of the 4 part of a countrie. [Matt 14:1]
Thrones. An higher order of Angels. [Col 1:16]


Victims. Sacrifice. [Acts 7:42]


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