The International Jewish Cook Book
Florence Kreisler Greenbaum

Part 1 out of 12

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Instructor in Cooking and Domestic Science


* * * * *

ROUMANIA, Etc., Etc.




It is with pleasure, and pardonable pride, that the Publishers announce
the appearance of _The International Jewish Cook Book_, which, "though
we do say it ourselves," is the best and most complete _kosher_ cook
book ever issued in this country. It is the direct successor to the
"Aunt Babette Cook Book," which has enjoyed undisputed popularity for
more than a generation and which is no longer published. _The
International Jewish Cook Book_ is, however, far superior to the older
book. It is much larger and the recipes are prepared strictly in
accordance with the Jewish dietary laws.

The author and compiler, Mrs. Florence K. Greenbaum, is a household
efficiency woman, an expert Jewish cook, and thoroughly understands the
scientific combining of foods. She is a graduate of Hunter College of
New York City, where she made a special study of diet and the chemistry
of foods. She was Instructor in Cooking and Domestic Science in the
Young Women's Hebrew Association of New York, and is now Instructor and
Lecturer for the Association of Jewish Home Makers and the Central
Jewish Institute, both under the auspices of the Bureau of Jewish
Education (Kehillah).

Mrs. Greenbaum knows the housewife's problems through years of personal
experience, and knows also how to economize. Many of these recipes have
been used in her household for three generations and are still used
daily in her home. There is no one better qualified to write a Jewish
Cook Book than she.

Suggestions and additional recipes, for inclusion in later editions of
the book, will be gratefully accepted by

THE PUBLISHERS. _New York, February, 1918_.


In compiling these recipes every effort has been made to bear in mind
the resources of the Jewish kitchen, as well as the need of being
economical and practical.

The aim throughout has been to lay special emphasis on those dishes
which are characteristically Jewish--those time-honored recipes which
have been handed down the generations by Jewish housewives (for the
Sabbath, Passover, etc). But the book contains a great many other
recipes besides these, for the Jewish cook is glad to learn from her
neighbors. Here will be found the favorite recipes of Germany, Hungary,
Austria, France, Russia, Poland, Roumania, etc.; also hundreds of
recipes used in the American household. In fact, the book contains
recipes of every kind of food appealing to the Jewish taste, which the
Jewish housewife has been able to adapt to the dietary laws, thus making
the Cook Book truly _International_.

The manner of presentation is clear and simple, and if directions are
followed carefully, will insure success to the inexperienced housewife.
For the book has been largely planned to assist her in preparing
wholesome, attractive meals; to serve the simplest as well as the most
elaborate repast--from appetizer to dessert--without transgressing the
dietary laws. At the same time the book offers many valuable suggestions
and hints to the most expert cook.

In this book are also directions for making meat substitutes and many
economies of the hour, which have been added to meet the needs of the
present day.


The Jewish housewife enjoys the enviable reputation of being a good
cook; in fact she is quite famous for her savory and varied dishes. Her
skill is due not so much to a different method of cooking as to her
ingenuity in combining food materials. The very cuts of meat she has
been always accustomed to use, are those which modern cooks are now
advising all to use. The use of vegetables with just enough meat to
flavor, as for instance in the Shabbos Shalet, is now being highly

While it is not given to each and every woman to be a good cook, she can
easily acquire some knowledge of the principles of cooking, namely:

1. That heat from coal, charcoal, wood, gas or electricity is used as a
medium for toasting, broiling or roasting.

2. That heat from water is used as a medium for boiling, simmering,
stewing or steaming.

3. That heat from fat is used as a medium for deep fat frying.

4. That heat from heated surfaces is used in pan-broiling, saute,
baking, braising or pot-roasting.

The length of time required to cook different articles varies with the
size and weight of same--and here is where the judgment of the housewife
counts. She must understand how to keep the fire at the proper
temperature, and how to manage the range or stove.

In planning meals try to avoid monotony; do not have the same foods for
the same days each week. Try new and unknown dishes by way of variety.
Pay attention to garnishing, thereby making the dishes attractive to the
eye as well as to the palate.

The recipes in this book are planned for a family of five, but in some
instances desserts, puddings and vegetables may be used for two meals.
Cakes are good for several days.

Do not consider the use of eggs, milk and cream an extravagance where
required for certain desserts or sauces for vegetables, as their use
adds to the actual food value of the dish.

As a rule the typical Jewish dish contains a large proportion of fat
which when combined with cereal or vegetable fruits, nuts, sugar or
honey, forms a dish supplying all the nourishment required for a
well-balanced meal. Many of these dishes, when combined with meat,
require but a small proportion of same.

Wherever fat is called for, it is intended that melted fat or dripping
be used. In many of the dishes where fat is required for frying, any of
the good vegetable oils or butter substitutes may be used equally well.
These substitutes may also be used in place of butter or fat when same
is required as an ingredient for the dish itself. In such cases less fat
must be used, and more salt added. It is well to follow the directions
given on the containers of such substitutes.

It is understood that all meats be made _kosher_.

Before preparing any dish, gather all materials, and see that all the
ingredients are at hand.


In the religious and dietary laws of the Jewish people, the term
"kasher" is applied to the preparation of meat and poultry, and means
"to render fit" or "proper" for eating.

1. To render meat "fit" for food, the animal must be killed and cut up
according to the Jewish method of slaughter, and must be purchased from
a Jewish butcher.

2. The meat should be put into a pan, especially reserved for this
purpose, entirely covered with cold water, and left to soak for half an
hour. Before removing the meat from the water every particle of blood
must be washed off. It should then be put upon the salting board (a
smooth wooden board), placed in a slanting position, or upon a board
with numerous perforations, in order to allow the blood to freely flow
down. The meat should then be profusely sprinkled on all sides with
salt, and allowed to remain in salt for one hour. It is then removed,
held over a sink or pan, and well rinsed with cold water three times, so
that all the salt is washed off. Meat left for three days or more
unsoaked and unsalted, may be used only for broiling over coals; it may
not be cooked in any other way.

The ends of the hoofs and the claws of poultry must be cut off before
the feet are _kashered_.

Bones with no meat or fat adhering to them must be soaked separately,
and during the salting should not be placed near the meat.

3. The liver must be prepared apart from the meat. It must be cut open
in both directions, washed in cold water, and broiled over the fire, and
salted while it is broiling. It should be seared on all sides. Water
must then be poured over it, to wash the blood away. It may then be used
in any manner, as the heat has drawn out the blood. Small steaks and
chops may be _kashered_ in the same way.

4. The heart must be cut open, lengthwise, and the tip removed before
being soaked, so that the blood may flow out. The lungs likewise must be
cut open before being soaked. Milt must have veins removed.

5. The head and feet may be _kashered_ with the hair or skin adhering
to them. The head should, however, be cut open, the brain taken out, and
_kashered_ separately.

6. To _kasher_ suet or fat for clarifying, remove skin, and proceed as
with meat.

7. Joints from hind-quarters must not be used, until they have been
"porged," which means that all veins of blood, forbidden fat, and
prohibited sinew have been removed. In New York City no hind-quarter
meat is used by orthodox Jews.

8. All poultry must be drawn, and the inside removed before putting in

Cut the head off and cut the skin along the neck; find the vein which
lies between the tendons, and trace it as far back as possible; at the
back of the neck it divides into two branches, and these must be

Cut off the tips of the wings and the claws of the feet. Proceed as with
meat, first cutting open the heart and the liver. Eggs found inside of
poultry, with or without shells, must be soaked and when salted be
placed in such a position that the blood from the meat does not flow
upon them. Such eggs may not be eaten with milk foods.

In conducting a kosher kitchen care must be taken not to mix meat and
milk, or meat and butter at the same meal.

The utensils used in the cooking and serving of meat dishes may not be
used for milk dishes. They should never be mixed.

Only soaps and scouring powders which contain no animal fat are
permitted to be used in washing utensils. Kosher soap, made according to
directions for making hard soap, may be used in washing meat dishes and

To follow the spirit as well as the letter of the dietary laws,
scrupulous cleanliness should always be observed in the storing,
handling and serving of food.

It is very necessary to keep the hands clean, the flours and cereals
clean, the ice-box clean, and the pots and pans clean.






For serving at the beginning of dinner and giving a zest to the
appetite, canapes are extremely useful. They may be either hot or cold
and made of anything that can be utilized for a sandwich filling. The
foundation bread should be two days old and may be toasted or fried
crouton fashion. The nicest way is to butter it lightly, then set it in
a hot oven to brown delicately, or fry in hot fat.

The bread should be cut oblong, diamond shaped, in rounds, or with a
cutter that has a fluted edge. While the toast is quite hot, spread with
the prepared mixture and serve on a small plate with sprigs of
watercress or points of lemon as a garnish.

Another way is to cut the bread into delicate fingers, pile it log-cabin
fashion, and garnish the centre with a stuffed olive. For cheese canapes
sprinkle the toast thickly with grated cheese, well seasoned with salt
and pepper. Set in a hot oven until the cheese melts and serve


Toast lightly diamond-shaped slices of stale bread and spread with a
sardine mixture made as follows:--Skin and bone six sardines, put them
in a bowl and run to a paste with a silver spoon. Add two tablespoons of
lemon juice, a few drops of Worcestershire sauce, a dash of pepper, two
teaspoons of chopped parsley and four tablespoons of creamed butter.
Garnish with a border of whites of hard-boiled eggs, finely chopped, and
on top scatter shredded olives.


Take roe of any fish, remove skin, salt; set aside over night. Next day
beat roe apart, pour boiling water over it and stir; when roe is white,
pour off the water and let drain; then put in pan with two tablespoons
of oil and salt, pepper, a little vinegar, and mix well. Let stand a few
days before using.

This caviar may be substituted in all recipes for the Russian caviar or
domestic caviar may be procured in some shops.


Cut the bread about one-quarter of an inch thick and two inches square
(or round), and after it is toasted spread over each slice a teaspoon of
ice cold caviar. Mix one teaspoon of chopped onion and one teaspoon
chopped parsley; spread the mixture over the caviar and serve with
quarters of lemon.


Cut the bread as for caviar canapes and spread with anchovy paste. Chop
separately the yolks and whites of hard-boiled eggs and cover the
canapes, dividing them into quarters, with anchovies split in two
lengthwise, and using yolks and whites in alternate quarters.


For each person take a thin slice toast covered with anchovy paste. Upon
this place whole egg which has been boiled four minutes, so that it can
be pealed whole and the yolk is still soft. Around the toast put tomato


Chop one yellow onion very fine, add four tablespoons of chicken fat
(melted), salt to taste. Serve on slices of rye bread. If desired, a
hard-boiled egg chopped very fine may be mixed with the onions.


Cook brains, let cool and add salt; beat up with chopped onions, juice
of one and a half lemons and olive oil. Serve on lettuce leaves.


Pit black olives, cut them very thin, and prepare as brain appetizer;
beat well with fork.


Wash thoroughly several fowls' livers and then let them simmer until
tender in a little strong soup stock, adding some sliced mushroom,
minced onion, and a little pepper and salt. When thoroughly done mince
the whole finely, or pound it in a mortar. Now put it back in the
saucepan and mix well with the yolks of sufficient eggs to make the
whole fairly moist. Warm over the fire, stirring frequently until the
mixture is quite thick, taking care that it does not burn.

It should be served upon rounds of toast on a hot dish garnished with


Take as many livers and gizzards of any kind of fowl as you may have on
hand; add to these three tablespoons of chicken or goose fat, a finely
chopped onion, one tablespoon of pungent sauce, and salt and white
pepper to taste. Boil the livers until quite done and drain; when cold,
rub to a smooth paste. Take some of the fat and chopped onion and simmer
together slowly for ten minutes. Strain through a thin muslin bag,
pressing the bag tightly, turn into a bowl and mix with the seasoning;
work all together for a long time, then grease a bowl or cups and press
this mixture into them; when soft cut up the gizzards into bits and lay
between the mixture. You may season this highly, or to suit taste.


Take one-quarter pound chicken livers that have been boiled soft; drain
and rub through grater, add one-quarter cup of fresh mushrooms that have
been fried for three minutes in two tablespoons of chicken fat, chop
these, mix smooth with the liver, moistening with the fat used in frying
the mushrooms, season with salt, pepper, paprika and a little onion and
lemon juice. Spread on rye bread slices. Garnish plate with a red radish
or sprigs of parsley.


Soak herring a few hours, when washed and cleaned, bone and chop. To one
herring take one onion, one sour apple, a slice of white bread which has
been soaked in vinegar, chop all these; add one teaspoon oil, a little
cinnamon and pepper. Put on platter in shape of a herring with head at
top and tail at bottom of dish, and sprinkle the chopped white of a
hard-boiled egg over fish and then the chopped yolk.


Take mashed cream cheese--add butter, cream and a little paprika. You
can chop either green peppers, almonds or olives in this mixture, or the
juice of an onion. Roll into small balls and serve on lettuce leaves.
This is also very good for sandwiches.


Boil eggs hard. Cut slice off the end, so that the egg will stand firm.
Dip egg in French dressing, then with a pastry bag arrange sardellen
butter on the top of egg. Have ready small squares of toasted bread,
spread with a thin layer of sardellen butter, on which to stand the
eggs. Caviar, mixed with some finely chopped onion, pepper and lemon
juice, may be used instead of the sardellen butter, but mayonnaise must
be used over the caviar.


Take six hard-boiled eggs, cut lengthwise, remove yolk and add to same:
one dessertspoon of melted butter, Cayenne pepper, salt and chopped
parsley. Mash this mixture very fine and refill the whites of the eggs
and turn over on platter.

*Sauce.*--One tablespoon of butter, one tablespoon of flour, a pinch of
Cayenne pepper, salt and one pint of milk. Stir this mixture continually
until it thickens; beat the yolk of one egg and pour the hot gravy over
the same. Dress with chopped parsley and eat very hot. Sherry wine can
be added if desired.


Take small yellow tomatoes, scrape out the centre and fill with caviar.
Serve on lettuce or watercress.


Take as many slices of delicately browned toast as people to serve,
several large, firm tomatoes sliced, one green pepper, and store cheese.
Place a slice of tomato on each slice of toast and season with salt and
pepper and a dot of butter. Place several long, curly strips of pepper
around the tomato, and cover with a thin slice of the cheese. Place in
the oven until the cheese is melted. Serve piping hot.


Boil about six pieces of celery root. When soft, peel and mash. Season
with salt, pepper, a little onion powder, a teaspoon of home-made
mustard and plenty of mayonnaise. Shape into pyramids, put mayonnaise on
the top of the pyramid, and on top of that either a little well-seasoned
caviar or some sardellen butter shaped in a pastry bag. Serve on a slice
of beets and a lettuce leaf.


Take one-quarter pound salted sardellen and soak in water over night.
Bone the next morning, put in cloth and press until dry; chop very fine,
almost to a paste; take one-half pound sweet butter, stir to a cream and
add the sardellen. Serve on toasted cracker or bread. Sprinkle with the
grated yellow and grated white of egg.


Hard boil eggs, drop into cold water, remove shells, cut each in half
lengthwise. Turn out yolks into a bowl. Carefully place whites together
in pairs, mash yolks with back of a spoon. For every six yolks put into
bowl one tablespoon melted butter, one-half teaspoon mustard (the kind
prepared for table), one teaspoon salt, dash of cayenne pepper. Rub
these together thoroughly with yolks. Make little balls of this paste
the size of the yolks. Fit one ball into each pair whites.


Mix one package cream cheese with one cup of chopped nut meats, one
teaspoon of chopped parsley, two tablespoons of whipped cream, salt and
red pepper. Roll into balls and serve cold, garnished with parsley and
chopped nuts.


Cut the grape-fruit into halves, crosswise, and scoop out the pulp,
rejecting the white inner skin as well as the seeds. Clean the shells;
cut the edges with a sharp knife into scallops and throw them into cold
water. Set the pulp on the ice. At serving time put a teaspoon of
cracked ice in the bottom of each shell; fill with the pulp, mixed
thoroughly with powdered sugar and a little sherry, if desired; and
place a maraschino cherry or bit of bright-colored jelly in the centre
of each. Lay on paper doilies or surround with bits of asparagus fern.


Fill glass with alternate layers of sliced orange and cocoanut; cover
with powdered sugar and place a maraschino cherry on the top of each.


Fill the glasses with sliced peaches; cover with orange or lemon juice;
sweeten to taste; add a little shaved ice and serve.

Apricot and cherry cocktails may be made in the same way.


Mash a pint of ripe, red currants; strain them through cheesecloth; pour
the juice over a pint of red raspberries and set on the ice to chill. At
serving time sweeten to taste and pour into the glasses, putting one
teaspoon of powdered sugar on the top of each.


Take equal parts of banana and fresh or canned pineapple; cut into small
cubes and cover with lemon or pineapple juice. Serve in glasses or
orange shells placed on autumn leaves or sprays of green fern.


Slice five or six large strawberries into each glass and squeeze over
them the juice of an orange. At serving time add one heaping teaspoon of
powdered sugar and one tablespoon of shaved ice.


Cut melon in half, seed and put on ice one hour before serving. When
ready to serve, fill with crushed ice and sprinkle with, powdered sugar.
Allow one-half melon for each person. Very refreshing for summer
luncheons or dinners. For dinner serve before soup.


Select good-sized lemons; cut off tip to stand the lemon upright; cut
top for cover. Scoop out all the lemon pulp, and put in a bowl; put
shells in a bowl of cold water. For six lemons take one box of boneless
sardines, six anchovies, and two green peppers, cut very fine. Wet with
lemon-juice until moist; fill in shells after wiping dry; insert a
pimento on top; put on cover of lemon; serve on doily with horseradish
and watercress.


Mix together two chopped hard-boiled eggs, one tablespoon of chopped red
peppers (canned), a saltspoon of salt, a tiny pinch of mustard and two
tablespoons of grated American cheese with sufficient melted butter to
form a paste; spread over the rounds of fried bread and place in a very
hot oven for about three minutes. Serve on a folded napkin, garnished
with watercress.


Shell and skin freshly roasted peanuts and proceed as in salting


Pour boiling water on the almonds; cool and remove the skins; dry
thoroughly and brown in a hot oven, using a half tablespoon of butter or
olive oil (preferably the oil) to each cup of nuts, which must be shaken
frequently. When brown, sprinkle well with salt and spread on paper to
dry and cool.

A still easier way to prepare the nuts is to cook them over the fire,
using a larger quantity of olive oil. As the oil can be saved and used
again, this method is not necessarily extravagant.


Bread should be twenty-four hours old and cut in thin, even slices. If
fancy forms are desired, shape before spreading with butter. Cream
butter and spread evenly.


Pound the anchovies to a paste and mix with an equal quantity of olives
stoned and finely chopped.


Two cups of chopped celery, two tablespoons of chopped walnuts, two
tablespoons of chopped olives, quarter of a cup of Mayonnaise dressing.
Spread between slices of thin buttered bread.


Spread one piece of bread with any kind of cold fish that has been
shredded and mixed with tartar sauce. Then put a lettuce leaf on that
and then a slice of hard-boiled egg that has been dipped in tartar
sauce. Cover with a slice of buttered bread.


Take equal quantities of nuts and raisins; moisten with cream or grape
juice and spread on thin slices of bread.


Season one cup of cottage cheese with salt, cayenne, and add one pimento
cut in shreds. Cut white and brown bread in finger lengths about one
inch wide. Spread with cheese mixture and place a brown and white slice


Cut thin rounds from rye bread. Spread with the following mixture: take
one cream cheese, rub to a cream, season to taste with salt and paprika,
add one stalk of chopped celery, and one-fourth cup of chopped nut
meats. Spread on buttered bread and place a slice of stuffed olive on
top, in the centre of each piece of bread.


Put fresh lettuce leaves, washed and dried, between thin layers of
bread. Spread with Mayonnaise or Boiled Dressing.


Take either ripe or green olives; remove the seeds; mince and mix
thoroughly with Mayonnaise dressing. Spread between slices of
whole-wheat or graham bread.


Remove the skin and bones from the sardines. Rub to a paste, adding an
equal quantity of chopped hard-boiled eggs, seasoned with salt, cayenne,
lemon juice or vinegar. Moisten with melted butter and spread between
slices of bread.


Wash equal quantities of dates and figs; stone the dates; add blanched
almonds in quantity about one-fourth of the entire bulk; then run the
whole mixture through a food chopper. Moisten with orange juice and
press tightly into baking-powder tins. When ready to use, dip the box in
hot water; turn out the mixture; slice and place between thin slices of
buttered bread.


Remove the stems and chop the figs fine. Put in a double boiler with a
little water and cook until a paste is formed. Add a few drops of lemon
juice; set aside; when cool spread on thin slices of buttered bread.


Hard boil the eggs, place them immediately into cold water. When cold;
remove the shells carefully, cut the eggs in half lengthwise and butter
slightly. Lay one or two sardellen or appetite silds on one half of the
egg and press the one half gently on the other half which has the
sardellen. The egg must appear whole. Now tie lengthwise and across with
the narrowest, various colored ribbons you can find.


One slice each of white and brown bread, cut thin and buttered, and
spread with chestnuts that have been boiled tender, peeled and rubbed
through a sieve, then mashed with hard-boiled eggs to a paste and
moistened with Mayonnaise.


Flake one cup salmon and rub it to a paste. Add mustard, salt, and
cayenne. Spread on the bread, cover with a layer of thin slices of
cucumber, then another piece of bread, press lightly and arrange with
sprigs of parsley on the platter.


If a novel sandwich is wanted, butter alternate slices of brown and
white bread and pile them one above the other in a loaf. Cut the new
loaf across the slices, butter them and pile them so that when this
second loaf is cut, the slices will be in white and brown blocks. Press
the slices very closely together before cutting at all.


The filling for the toasted cheese sandwiches calls for a cup of soft,
mild cheese, finely cut, and stirred over the fire with a tablespoon of
butter until the cheese is melted. Enough milk to moisten, perhaps not
more than one-eighth of a cup, is then added, with salt, mustard, and
paprika to taste, and the whole is stirred until creamy and smooth.
Slices of bread are very thinly buttered, the cheese mixture spread on
generously, each slice covered with another slice, and set away until
the filling cools and hardens, when the sandwiches are toasted on both
sides and served hot.


Slice as many pieces of bread, from a round loaf, as you have persons to
serve. Toast these slices and let cool. Across each slice place three
strips of pimentoes (use the canned pimentoes), on top of that place a
cold poached egg, put a teaspoon of Mayonnaise on the top of the egg and
sprigs of watercress encircling the toast.


Take one box of mustard sardines; bone and mash; add to the mixture one
tablespoon of tomato catsup, one teaspoon of Worcestershire sauce, juice
of one lemon, a pinch of cayenne pepper, as much white pepper as will
cover the end of a knife, two tablespoons of vinegar, and one tablespoon
of olive oil. Mix thoroughly until it becomes a paste. Then spread on
thinly cut bread for sandwiches.


Take a piece of rye bread, cut round (with a biscuit cutter), spread
with mustard; put some caviar in centre of the bread, strips of smoked
salmon around the caviar and strips of pickle around the salmon.


Cut two, slices of white bread and two of brown. Butter three and spread
with a thick paste made of hard-boiled egg very finely chopped and
mixed with mayonnaise dressing. Build the slices up one above the other,
alternating brown and white, and placing the unbuttered slice on top.
Before serving, slice down as you would a layer cake.


Chop four eggs which have been boiled fifteen minutes, add two
tablespoons of chopped olives, season and moisten with olive oil and
vinegar. Spread between thin slices of buttered bread.


Spread bread with thin slices of Neufchatel cheese, cover with finely
chopped olives moistened with mayonnaise dressing.


Take orange marmalade, pecan nuts and cream cheese in equal quantities
and after mixing thoroughly spread on thin slices of buttered bread.


Mince some cold roast or boiled chicken in a chopping bowl, then mix the
gravy with it, adding a few hard-boiled eggs, which have been minced to
a powder. Mix all into a soft paste. Then cut thin slices of bread,
spread the chicken between the slices (if desired you may add a little
mustard); press the pieces gently together.


Grind up chicken in meat chopper. To each cup of chicken add one
tablespoon of mayonnaise, and one tablespoon of chicken soup. Mix into
soft paste, and put in finger-rolls.


Grind up tongue (root will do) in meat chopper; to a cup of ground
tongue add one teaspoon of mustard, one tablespoon of soup, and one
teaspoon of mayonnaise. Mix into soft paste; spread on white bread cut
very thin.


Take either boiled or roast goose (which has been highly seasoned) and
mince in a chopping bowl, add one or two pickles, according to quantity,
or a teaspoon of catsup. Spread thin slices of bread or nice fresh
rolls, with a thin coating of goose oil, slightly salted, then spread
the minced goose and cover with a layer of bread which has been
previously spread.


May be prepared as above, or slice the veal in thin slices and spread
with mustard.


Remove the crust from the bread (unless it is very soft), place the
slices of tongue (cut very thin) and lettuce leaves between the


Soups are wholesome and palatable and should form part of the meal
whenever possible. It is a good plan to have some sort of vegetable or
meat stock always at hand, as this renders the making of the soup both
easy and economical. With milk at hand, cream soups are easily made.


In making soup, bring the cold water in the soup pot with the meat and
bones to a boil slowly, and let it simmer for hours, never boiling and
never ceasing to simmer. If clear soup is not desired soup may be
allowed to boil. Bones, both fresh and those partly cooked, meats of all
kinds, vegetables of various sorts, all may be added to the stock pot,
to give flavor and nutriment to the soup.

One quart of cold water is used to each pound of meat for soup; to four
quarts of water, one each of vegetables of medium size and a bouquet.

Make the soup in a closely covered kettle used for no other purpose.
Remove scum when it first appears; after soup has simmered for four or
five hours add vegetables and a bouquet.

Parsley wrapped around peppercorn, bayleaf, six cloves and other herbs,
excepting sage, and tied, makes what is called a bouquet and may be
easily removed from the soup.

Root celery, parsley, onions, carrots, asparagus and potatoes are the
best vegetables to add to the soup stock. Never use celery leaves for
beef soup. You may use celery leaves in potato soup, but sparingly, with
chopped parsley leaves.

Vegetables, spices and salt should always be added the last hour of
cooking. Strain into an earthen bowl and let cool uncovered, by so doing
stock is less apt to ferment.

A cake of fat forms on the stock when cold, which excludes air and
should not be removed until stock is used. To remove fat run a knife
around edge of bowl and carefully remove the same. A small quantity will
remain, which should be removed by passing a cloth, wrung out of hot
water, around edge and over top of stock. This fat should be clarified
and used for drippings. If time cannot be allowed for stock to cool
before using, take off as much fat as possible with a spoon, and remove
the remainder by passing tissue or any absorbent paper over the surface.

Bouillon should always be thickened with _yolks_ of eggs, beat up with a
spoon of cold water. Ordinary beef soup or tomato soup may be thickened
with flour. To do this properly heat a scant spoon of soup drippings,
stir in briskly a spoon of flour, and add gradually a large quantity of
soup to prevent it becoming lumpy.


Veal, turkey, chicken and fish are used.


Follow directions given for bouillon, adding a slice of beef and
browning some of the meat in the marrow from the bone.


Cut one large beet and one-half pound of onion in thick pieces and put
in kettle with one pound of fat brisket of beef; cover with water and
let cook slowly two hours; add three-fourths of a cup of sugar and a
little citric acid to make it sweet and sour and let cook another hour;
season and serve hot.


Take some red beetroots, wash thoroughly and peel, and then boil in a
moderate quantity of water from two to three hours over a slow fire, by
which time a strong red liquor should have been obtained. Strain off the
liquor, adding lemon juice, sugar, and salt to taste, and when it has
cooled a little, stir in sufficient yolks of eggs to slightly thicken
it. May be used either cold or hot. In the latter case a little
home-made beef stock may be added to the beet soup.

If after straining off the soup the remaining beetroot is not too much
boiled away, it may be chopped fine with a little onion, vinegar and
dripping, flavored with pepper and salt, and used as a vegetable.


Wash one pint of white haricot beans and one pint of coarse barley and
put them into a covered pot or pan with some pieces of fat meat and some
pieces of marrow bone, or the backs of two fat geese which have been
skinned and well spiced with ginger and garlic. Season with pepper and
salt and add sufficient water to cover. Cover the pot up tightly. If one
has a coal range it can be placed in the oven on Friday afternoon and
let remain there until Saturday noon. The heat of the oven will be
sufficient to bake the Schalet if there was a nice clear fire when the
porridge was put in the oven. If this dish cannot be baked at home it
may be sent to a neighboring baker to be placed in the oven there to
remain until Saturday noon, when it is called for. This takes the place
of soup for the Sabbath dinner.


Put on one three-pound chicken to boil in six quarts cold water. Take
one and one-half or two pounds of beef and the same quantity thick part
of veal, put in a baking-pan, set in the stove and brown quickly with
just enough water to keep from burning. When brown, cut the meat in
pieces, add this with all the juice it has drawn, to the chicken soup.
Set on the back of the stove, and cook slowly all day. Set in a cold
place, or on ice over night, and next morning after it is congealed,
skim off every particle of fat.

Melt and season to taste when ready to serve. Excellent for the sick.
When used for the table, cut up carrots and French peas already cooked
can be added while heating.

If cooked on gas stove, cook over the simmering flame the same number of


Take three pounds of beef, cut in dice and cover with three quarts of
cold water. Simmer slowly for four hours. The last hour add one-half cup
each of carrots, celery, onion, and season with one-half teaspoon of
peppercorns and one tablespoon of salt. Strain, cool, remove fat and
clear (allowing one egg-shell broken fine and the slightly beaten white
of one egg to each quart of stock). Add to the stock, stir constantly
until it has reached the boiling point. Boil two minutes and serve.


Take one large chicken, cook with four quarts of water for two or three
hours. Skim carefully, when it begins to boil add parsley root, an
onion, some asparagus, cut into bits. Season with salt, strain and beat
up the yolk of an egg with one tablespoon of cold water, add to soup
just before serving. This soup should not be too thin. Rice, barley,
noodles or dumplings may be added. Make use of the chicken, either for
salad or stew.


Take the carcass of a cold, cooked chicken and break into small pieces.
Add one-half cup of chopped celery and one onion chopped fine. Cover
with cold water; simmer slowly for two hours. Strain, add salt and
pepper to taste.


Cut the chicken into small pieces and place it in a deep earthen dish;
add one quart of water; cover it and set over a kettle of boiling water,
letting it steam until the meat of the chicken has become very tender.
Strain off the broth and let it stand over night. In the morning remove
the fat and return the liquid to the original earthen dish.


Have soup stock ready. Boil in water until tender one cup green peas,
three carrots cut up in small pieces, and some cabbage chopped fine.
Brown two tablespoons of flour in a skillet in hot fat, then stir in the
vegetables. Fry some livers and gizzards of fowls, if handy, and add,
then stir in the strained soup stock.


May be made either of beef or mutton, adding all kinds of vegetables.
Boil one-half cup of rice separately in a farina kettle. Strain the beef
or mutton broth. Add the rice and boil one-half hour longer, with
potatoes, cut into dice shape; use about two potatoes; then add the
beaten yolk of an egg. Strained stock of chicken broth added to this
soup makes it very palatable and nutritious for the sick.


Take one calf's head, wash well; put on to boil with four and one-half
quarts of water; add two red peppers, onions, celery, carrots, cloves,
salt to taste, and a little cabbage; boil six hours; also, have ready
some meat stock; the next day put fat in a skillet with two large
tablespoons of flour; let it brown; then, take the calf's head and cut
all the meat from it in pieces; add the calf's tongue, cut in dice.
Slice hard-boiled eggs, one glass of sherry; and one lemon sliced; put
all in the stock; allow it to come just to a boil.


Cut three pounds of neck of lamb or lean shoulder into small pieces;
cover closely and boil with three quarts of water, slowly, for two
hours; add two tablespoons well-washed rice to the boiling soup. Cook
an hour longer, slowly; watch carefully and stir from time to time.
Strain and thicken it with a little flour; salt and pepper to taste.
Particularly nice for invalids.


Add to three quarts of liquor, in which fowls have been boiled, the
following vegetables: three onions, two carrots, and one head of celery
cut in small dice. Keep the kettle over a high heat until soup reaches
the boiling point; then place where it will simmer for twenty-five
minutes. Add one tablespoon of curry powder, one tablespoon of flour
mixed together; add to the hot soup and cook five minutes. Pass through
a sieve. Serve with small pieces of chicken or veal cut in it.


When the soup stock has been strained and every particle of fat removed,
return it to the kettle to boil. When it boils hard stir in carefully
quarter of a cup of farina, do this slowly to prevent the farina from
forming lumps. Stir into the soup bowl the yolk of one egg, add a
teaspoon of cold water. Pour the soup into the bowl gradually and stir
constantly until all has been poured into the bowl. Serve at once.


Soak one-half cup of green kern in a bowl of water over night. Put on
two pounds of soup meat, add a carrot, an onion, a stalk of celery, a
sprig of parsley, one or two tomatoes, a potato, in fact any vegetable
you may happen to have at hand. Cover up closely and let it boil slowly
over a low heat three or four hours. Put the green kern on to boil in
water slightly salted, as it boils down keep adding soup stock from the
kettle of soup on the stove, always straining through a hair sieve,
until all has been used. Serve as it is or strain through a colander and
put pieces of toasted bread into the soup.

Another way of using the green kern is to grind it to a powder.


For six persons, select a piece of meat off the neck, about two and
one-half pounds; add three quarts of water, an onion, one celery root,
two carrots, a large potato, some parsley, three tomatoes and the
giblets of poultry. Cook in a closely covered kettle, letting the soup
simmer for four or five hours. Remove every bit of scum that rises.
Strain; add salt and remove every particle of fat; put in noodles; boil
about five minutes and serve at once. If allowed to stand it will become


Take one quart of hot bouillon, add a quarter pound barley which has
been boiled in water; and one ounce of dried mushrooms which have been
thoroughly washed and cut in pieces, an onion, carrot, bayleaf, parsley
and dill. Boil all these and when the vegetables are nearly tender,
remove from soup, add the meat from the bouillon, cut up in small
pieces, let soup come to a boil and serve.


Wash two large oxtails and cut into pieces. Cut one onion fine and fry
in one tablespoon of drippings. When brown, add oxtails to brown, then
put into soup kettle with four quarts cold water. Add one tablespoon of
salt, one tablespoon of mixed herbs, four cloves, four peppercorns.
Simmer for three or four hours. Skim off fat, strain. Vegetables cut
into fancy shapes and boiled twenty minutes may be added.


Make your soup stock as usual, adding a pint of washed pea-pods to the
soup. Heat a tablespoon of drippings, put in the peas, with a little
chopped parsley, cover closely and let simmer; keep adding soup stock
when dry. When the peas are tender put into the strained soup. Season
with one teaspoon of salt and two teaspoons of sugar, add drop dumplings
to this soup before serving.


Make a beef soup, and an hour before wanted add a pigeon. Boil slowly,
with all kinds of vegetables, provided your patient is allowed to have
them. Strain, add the beaten yolk of an egg, salt to taste.


Cut up any bones or meat of cold turkey, and cook like soup made of
left-over chicken and chicken bones.


Take one quart of ripe tomatoes, stew with one quart of okra, cut into
small rings. Put this on to boil with about two quarts or water and a
piece of soup meat (no bone), chop up an onion, a carrot and a sprig of
parsley, add this to the soup. Fricassee one chicken with some rice,
dish up with the soup, putting a piece of chicken and one tablespoon of
rice into each soup plate before adding the soup. Let the soup simmer
four or five hours; season with salt and pepper. A little corn and Lima
beans may be added; they should be cooked with the soup for several
hours. Cut the soup meat into small cubes and leave in the soup to


Take one pound of meat, cover with water and boil till meat is tender.
Boil rice in another pan until it is creamy, when ready to serve, add
one beaten egg and juice of half a lemon.

Broken rice is best for this dish.


Take one cup of barley, two onions cut fine, one-half cup of carrots
diced, one teaspoon of salt, pepper to taste; add two quarts of water
and simmer two or three hours. When water has evaporated add soup; if
you are making fresh soup, keep adding the "top soup," strained, to the
barley and let boil until tender, one-half cup of celery root boiled
with the barley improves the flavor.


Soak one cup of picked and cleaned dried split peas in cold water over
night, drain, put on with two quarts cold water, a smoked beef-cheek or
any other smoked meat; let boil slowly but steadily four hours or more;
add one-half cup of celery, diced, one small onion cut fine, one
teaspoon of salt, one-eighth teaspoon of pepper, cook until the meat and
peas are tender. Remove meat when tender. Skim fat off the top of the
soup. Heat one tablespoon of the fat in a frying pan, add one tablespoon
of flour and gradually the rest of the soup. Season to taste and serve
with the smoked meat, adding croutons.


Soak two cups of lentils over night in cold water. Drain and add to a
sliced onion which has been browned in two tablespoons of drippings;
when these have been fried for five minutes, add three stalks of celery
cut in small pieces or some celery seed, pepper and salt to taste, and
two quarts of warm water, boil all these slowly, stirring occasionally
until the lentils are quite soft. Pass all through a sieve, return to
saucepan heat again and serve.


Made same as Dried Pea Soup. One cup of strained tomatoes may be added
or small slices of sausage.


Take one pound of soup meat and two soup bones, put on to boil in
boiling water. Cut two leeks in slices like noodles, some cooked
tomatoes which have been cooled and strained, some cauliflower, two
tablespoons of sugar, a pinch sour salt, pepper and salt and let cook
steadily. When the soup is done thicken it with two egg yolks that have
been beaten up with a little salt and some cold water. Do not cook after
adding yolks of eggs.


Take a large soup bone or two pounds of soup meat, the latter preferred,
one or two onions, a few potatoes, a few carrots, a turnip, soup greens
and a can of tomatoes or a quart of fresh ones, cook two hours, and in
season add two ears of sweet corn grated. Season with salt and pepper.
Thicken with a tablespoon of flour, dissolved in cold water. A nice
addition to this soup is a handful of noodles cut into round disks with
a thimble.


Boil a piece of veal, off the neck, and one or two veal bones in two
quarts of water, add a sprig of parsley, one onion, cut up into small
pieces. Strain and thicken with the yolks of two eggs slightly beaten
with a tablespoon of cold water. Season with salt and pepper to taste.


Take a small soup bone, cover with cold water. Cut one-half a cup each
of celery, carrots, and onion. Brown in fat, cooking five to ten
minutes; add one tablespoon of chopped parsley and one-half cup of
potatoes. Add to soup bone and cook one hour. Season with salt and
pepper. Remove bone and serve.


Cream soups are all made by blending two tablespoons of butter with two
tablespoons of flour and then adding slowly one cup of cold milk or half
cream and milk. One cup for a thin soup or puree, to one quart of
liquid. More according to the thickness of soup desired. Any cooked
vegetable or fish may be added to the cream sauce. Less milk is used
when the water in which the vegetables are cooked is added.

Purees are made from vegetables or fish, forced through a strainer and
retained in soup, milk and seasonings. Generally thicker than cream

Use a double boiler in making cream sauces and the cream sauce
foundation for soups.

To warm over a thick soup it is best to put it in a double boiler. It
must not be covered. If one does not have a double boiler set soup
boiler in a pan of hot water over fire.

Cream soups and purees are so nutritious that with bread and butter,
they furnish a satisfactory meal.


Blanch, and grind or pound one-half pound almonds, let simmer slowly in
one pint of milk for five minutes. Melt one tablespoon of butter, blend
with one of flour. Do not allow to bubble. Add one cup of milk and
thicken slightly. Then add the almond mixture and simmer again until
creamy. Remove from fire and add one cup of cream. Season with salt and
pepper to taste. Cream may be whipped or left plain.


Break three stalks of celery in one-inch pieces and pound in a mortar.
Cook in double boiler with one slice of onion and three cups of milk for
twenty minutes. Remove onion, heat two tablespoons of butter, add two
tablespoons of flour, one-fourth teaspoon of pepper, one teaspoon of
salt; first two-thirds of a cup, and gradually the rest of the celery
broth, add one cup of cream; cook until smooth and serve at once.


Proceed as with cream of celery soup, substituting one-half bundle of
fresh asparagus or an equal amount of canned for the stalk of celery.
Or, the tips of a bundle of asparagus may be cut off for table use and
the remainder used for soup. In either case the asparagus will be better
if mashed through a colander, thus removing the woody portions.


Take a solid head of cauliflower, scald it to take away the strong
taste; separate the flowers and proceed as with cream of celery soup.


Take a can of corn or six ears of corn. Run a sharp knife down through
the center of each row of kernels, and with the back of a knife press
out the pulp, leaving the husk on the cob. Break the cobs and put them
on to boil in sufficient cold water to cover them. Boil thirty minutes
and strain the liquor. Return the liquor to the fire, and when boiling
add the corn pulp and bay leaf. Cook fifteen minutes; add the cream
sauce and serve.


Place two cups of milk, two cups of water, one small onion, salt and
pepper to taste in a saucepan, and boil for ten minutes, add two
herrings which have been previously soaked and cut in small pieces; cook
until herring is tender.


Heat a quart of milk or cream, add a tablespoon of sweet butter and
thicken with a spoon of flour or corn starch, wet with cold milk. Pour,
boiling, over pieces of toasted bread cut into dices; crackers may also
be used.


Skin and bone one and one-half pounds of codfish or haddock. Cut six
large tomatoes, six large potatoes, two large onions in small pieces,
add salt, pepper, three pints of water and cook one hour. Add one-half
pint of cream, one-fourth cup of butter, and paprika. Cook five minutes
and serve.


Omit fish and use same ingredients, sprinkle with chopped parsley and


Heat two tablespoons of butter, add one and one-half pounds of sliced
turnips or artichokes and stir them in the butter, add one tablespoon of
flour, a little salt, three cups of hot milk, three cups of hot water,
stirring them in slowly. When the vegetables are done rub them through a
sieve, put them back in the saucepan, add a little sugar and more
seasoning, if required, and heat thoroughly. A little cream or butter
may be put into the tureen, and the soup stirred into it.


Wash, pick over and cook two quarts of spinach for twenty minutes;
drain, chop and rub through a sieve and return to the water in which it
was cooked, add one-half cup of chopped onions, cook until thoroughly
done, thicken with a white sauce made by melting two tablespoons of
butter to which is added two tablespoons of flour; stir until smooth,
add two cups of milk; season with one-half teaspoon of salt and pepper
and add the spinach mixture.


Proceed as with spinach, substituting lettuce for spinach.


Cook one quart tomatoes (fresh or canned) with one pint water until
done, and strain through a sieve. Meanwhile melt two tablespoons of
butter, add two tablespoons of flour, add gradually one and one-half
cups of milk (or half cream and half milk), one teaspoon of salt, one
teaspoon of sugar, one-quarter teaspoon of pepper; add a little chopped
parsley and celery, and let this boil for fifteen minutes. Just before
ready to serve add one-fourth teaspoon of baking soda to the hot
strained tomatoes, pour gradually into the cream sauce stirring
constantly and serve at once.


Soak one cup of lentils over night. Drain and boil slowly for one hour
in water containing one-half teaspoon of baking soda, drain and boil
again very gently in fresh water; when the lentils are tender drain off
most of the liquid and return to the fire. Add two tablespoons of
butter, or butter substitute, two teaspoons of salt, and one-half
teaspoon of sugar. Bring three cups of milk to a boil in the
double-boiler. Just before serving mash the lentils through a strainer
directly into the milk. Serve in cups and pass croutons with the soup.


Slice two or three large onions; fry them in a tablespoon of butter
until they are soft and red, then add three tablespoons of flour and
stir until it is a little cooked. To this add slowly a pint of boiling
water, stirring all the time, so it will be smooth.

Boil and mash three good-sized potatoes. Add to them slowly a quart of
scalded milk, stirring well so it will be smooth. Add the potato and
milk mixture to the onion mixture. Season with salt and pepper. Let it
get very hot, and pass it through a strainer into the tureen. Sprinkle
over the top a little parsley chopped very fine, and a few croutons.


Put one cup of white wine and one-half cup of cold water on to boil, add
a few pieces of stick cinnamon and seven lumps of cut loaf sugar; while
boiling scald a cup of sweet cream in double boiler. Have ready the
well-beaten yolks of two eggs, pour over this the hot cream, stirring
all the time, then pour in the boiling wine, being careful to stir well
or it will curdle. Very nice for invalids. Can be eaten hot or cold.


Brown one-half cup of chopped onion in one tablespoon of butter, add one
and a half quarts of boiling water, two cups of shredded cabbage
one-half cup of chopped carrot, one leek, one tablespoon of chopped
peppers, one tablespoon of chopped celery. Boil rapidly for ten minutes,
then gently for one hour. Add one medium-sized potato diced and a
tomato, one and a half teaspoons of salt and one-quarter teaspoon of
pepper, a pinch of paprika and thyme. Cook one hour longer. Have the
cover partially off the kettle during the entire time. Ten minutes
before serving thicken with two tablespoons of flour mixed with
one-fourth cup of cold milk.


Heat a spoon of butter in a spider, add a spoon of flour, stir briskly,
but do not let it get black; pour boiling water over it, add salt and
caraway seeds.


Heat two tablespoons of fresh butter in a spider, add four tablespoons
of flour to it and brown to light golden brown, then add one quart
water, stirring constantly. Season with salt and pepper and a little
nutmeg. Add one pint of milk, let boil up once or twice and serve at


To one pint of beer add one cup of water, let come to a boil, season
with salt and cinnamon if desired. Beat two egg yolks well with a little
sugar and flour mixed, add one cup of milk, stir until smooth, stir all
together in the hot beer mixture, let come almost to the boiling point,
fold in the beaten whites of the two eggs and serve at once with
croutons. If desired for a meat meal equal parts of water and beer may
be used instead of milk.


Let the milk stand until it jellies, but does not separate. Put it into
a saucepan and let simmer one minute. Then thicken with two generous
tablespoons of flour; blend to a smooth paste with butter. Strain
through a fine sieve and serve in cups or soup plates and sprinkle the
top with maple sugar.


Boil and mash three or four potatoes, one tablespoon of butter, one-half
tablespoon of flour, and one teaspoon of chopped onion, letting the
onion cook in the butter a few minutes before adding the flour. When
this is cooked add to it a pint of milk, making a thin, white sauce. Add
this to the mashed potato and pass the whole through a strainer. Return
it to the fire for a few minutes to heat and blend it. Season it with
salt and pepper. Sprinkle on the soup chopped parsley and a few

*For Fleischig Soup.*--This soup may be made with fat instead of butter,
and the water in which the potatoes have been boiled may be used instead
of the milk; any left-over meat gravy will give the soup a rich flavor.


Cook one quart of green peas until very tender. Then mash through
colander. To this amount heat one quart of milk in double boiler. Add
butter, salt and pepper to taste, and last the mashed green peas.


Put a small piece of butter in saucepan and then six or eight leeks cut
in small pieces. Keep turning for about five minutes so they will get
brown; add water for amount desired; season with salt and pepper and put
in piece of stale bread. Strain through the strainer. Put in croutons
and serve with grated cheese.


Put on to boil one cup of good red wine and one-half cup of water,
sweeten to taste, add three whole cloves and three small pieces of
cinnamon bark, let boil ten minutes, and pour while boiling over the
well-beaten yolk of one egg. Eat hot or cold. This quantity serves one


Soak peas in lukewarm water over night. Use one quart of peas to one
gallon of water. Boil about two hours with the following vegetables: a
few potatoes, a large celery root, a little parsley and a little onion,
a small carrot cut up in cubes and a small clove of garlic. When boiled
down to half the quantity, press all through colander. If soup is too
thin, take a tablespoon of flour blended with a little cold water in a
saucepan and add to the peas already strained. Serve with croutons.


Brown slightly one minced onion in one tablespoon of butter, add one can
of tomatoes or a quart of medium sized tomatoes cut in small pieces,
season with salt, pepper, one tablespoon of sugar and a pinch of
paprika. Simmer a half hour, strain and thicken with one tablespoon of
flour moistened with cold water, add the strained tomatoes and one cup
of boiled rice; let come to a boil and serve.


Thicken three cups of milk with one-half tablespoon of flour and cook
thoroughly in a double boiler, stirring very often. When ready to serve
add one cup of grated cheese and season with salt and paprika.


Soak one pint of beans over night, drain, add cold water and rinse
thoroughly. Fry two tablespoons of chopped onion in two tablespoons of
butter, put in with the beans, add two stalks of celery or a piece of
celery root and two quarts of water. Cook slowly until the beans are
soft, three or four hours, add more boiling water as it boils away; rub
through a strainer, add one-eighth teaspoon of pepper, one-fourth
teaspoon of mustard, a few grains of cayenne. Heat one tablespoon of
butter in saucepan with two tablespoons of flour, then two-thirds cup
and then the rest of the soup gradually; cut a lemon (removing seeds)
and two hard-boiled eggs in slices and serve in the soup.


Take a half cup of coarse barley and two quarts of water. Let boil for
one hour and skim. Then add two onions, a bunch of carrots, parsley, two
turnips, one green pepper and six tomatoes (all chopped fine). Add a few
green peas, lima beans, two ears of corn cut from cob; pepper and salt
to taste. Cook for one hour or more until done. Then add a small piece
of butter, quarter teaspoon of sage and thyme, if you like, and if soup
is too thick add more water.


Mix the beer with one-third water, boil with sugar and the grated crust
of stale rye bread, add stick cinnamon and a little lemon juice. Pour
over small pieces of zwieback (rusk). Some boil a handful of dried
currants. When done add both currants and juice.


Cut two small beets in strips, cover with water and let cook until
tender, add citric acid (sour salt) and a little sugar to make sweet and
sour, a little salt, and three-quarter cup of sour cream. Serve cold.
Sweet cream may be used and while hot gradually poured over the
well-beaten yolks of two eggs, keeping the soup over the stove and
stirring all the time until thick and smooth. Remove from stove and
serve cold.


This soup is a summer soup and is to be eaten cold. Cook two tablespoons
of sago in one cup of boiling water until tender, add more as water
boils down. Put one quart of large red or black cherries, one cup of
claret, one tablespoon of broken cinnamon, one-fourth cup of sugar, and
one-half lemon sliced fine, up to boil and let boil fifteen minutes; add
the cooked sago, let boil up and pour very gradually over the
well-beaten yolks of two eggs. Serve cold. Raspberry, strawberry,
currant, gooseberry, apple, plum or rhubarb soups are prepared the same
way, each cooked until tender and sweetened to taste. The juice of lemon
may be used instead of the wine.


Take two pounds of plums, cherries, or red currants and raspberries,
which carefully pick and wash, and boil to a pulp with a pint of water.
Let it slightly cool and then stir in the beaten yolk of an egg and a
little sugar. Strain the soup, which should be served cold.


Take a pound of sour grass (sorrel), remove leaves, wash well, cut and
squeeze well. Peel three potatoes, mince a bunch of young onions, salt
and set on to boil, when boiling add the sour grass and let boil well,
add two tablespoons of sugar, and a bit of sour salt, let simmer a bit,
afterward add two well-beaten eggs. Do not boil this soup after adding
the eggs. This soup is to be eaten cold. It can be kept for some time in



Beat one large egg slightly with one-fourth teaspoon of salt, add enough
flour to make a stiff dough; work it well for fifteen or twenty minutes,
adding flour when necessary. When the dough is smooth place on slightly
floured board and roll out very thin and set aside on a clean towel for
an hour or more to dry. Fold in a tight roll and cut crosswise in fine
threads. Toss them up lightly with fingers to separate well, and spread
them on the board to dry. When thoroughly dry, put in a jar covered with
cheese cloth for future use. Drop by handfuls in boiling soup, ten
minutes before serving.

Noodles for vegetables or for puddings are made in the same way, but to
each egg, one-half egg-shell full of cold water may be added. The strips
are cut one-half inch wide.


Take noodle dough, roll out thin in same manner as noodles, when dry cut
in three-inch strips, place the strips on top of one another, then cut
into one-half inch strips, crosswise, cut again to form one-half inch
squares. Dry same as noodles. Drop by handfuls in boiling soup.


Roll noodle dough into pieces two and one-half inches square. Place on
each one tablespoon of force-meat, then fold squares into three corned
pockets, pressing edges well together. Drop in boiling soup or salted
water and boil fifteen minutes.


Chop one pound of beef, soup meat, cold veal, or take lamb chopped very
fine, season with one teaspoon of salt, one-eighth teaspoon of pepper,
ginger or nutmeg, one-half teaspoon of onion juice, mix with one egg.
This force-meat may also be made into balls one-half inch in diameter,
roll the balls in flour and cook them in the boiling soup, or fry them
in fat.


Sift one cup of flour, one-fourth teaspoon of salt, one teaspoon of
baking powder, stir in scant one-half cup of milk or water and mix to a
smooth batter. Drop one teaspoonful at a time in the boiling soup; cover
kettle, let boil five minutes and serve at once.


Cut stale bread into cubes, place in pan and brown in the oven; or
butter the bread, cut into cubes and then brown the same way. Fry small
cubes of stale bread in deep hot fat until brown or fry them in a little
butter or fat in a hot spider until brown.


Into the yolk of one egg stir enough flour until it is too stiff to
work. Grate on coarse grater, and spread on board to dry. After soup is
strained, put in and boil ten minutes before serving.


Beat one egg well, add one-half teaspoon of salt, three-fourths cup of
flour and one-third cup of water, stirring to a stiff, smooth batter.
Drop by teaspoons into boiling soup ten minutes before serving.


Beat slightly the yolks of two eggs, add two tablespoons of milk and a
few grains of salt. Pour into small buttered cup, place in pan of hot
water and bake until firm; cool, remove from cup and cut in fancy shapes
with French vegetable cutters.


Peel, wash and grate one large Irish potato, or two medium-sized ones.
Put it in a sieve and let hot water run over it until it is perfectly
white. Have the white of one egg beaten to a very stiff froth, then stir
in the potatoes and twenty minutes before serving add it to the boiling
soup. Beat the yolk of one egg up in the soup tureen, and pour the hot
soup over it, stirring carefully at first.


Put in a double boiler one kitchen spoon of fresh butter, stir in one
cup of milk. When it begins to boil stir in enough farina to thicken.
Take off the stove and when cold add the yolks of two eggs and the
stiffly-beaten whites, and a little salt and nutmeg and one-half cup of
grated almonds if desired. Let cool, then make into little balls, and
ten minutes before soup is to be served, drop in boiler and let boil up
once or twice.


Two yolks of eggs beaten very light, add a pinch of salt, pepper and
finely-chopped parsley. Add six blanched almonds grated, enough sifted
flour to make stiff batter, then add the stiffly-beaten whites of eggs
and one-half teaspoon of baking powder. Drop by teaspoons in soup ten
minutes before serving.


Beat one egg, add one-eighth teaspoon of salt, three tablespoons of
flour and one-fourth cup of water, stir until smooth. Pour slowly from a
considerable height from the end of a spoon into the boiling soup. Cook
two or three minutes and serve hot; add one teaspoon of chopped parsley
to the soup.


Rub the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs to a smooth paste, add a little
salt and grated nutmeg and one-half teaspoon of melted butter. Add the
chopped whites of two eggs and a raw egg yolk to be able to mold the
dough into little marbles, put in boiling soup one minute.


Take three tablespoons of flour; stir with one egg and one-half cup of
milk; pour this in a pan in which some butter was melted; stir until it
loosens from the pan. When it is cold, add two more eggs and some salt,
and shortly before needed form in little dumplings and put in boiling
hot soup for five minutes.


Scald some flour with milk or water, mix in a small piece of butter and
salt, and boil until thick. When cool beat in yolk of an egg, if too
stiff add the beaten white.


Break into a cup the whites of three eggs; fill the cup with milk; put
it with a tablespoon of fresh butter and one cup of sifted flour in a
spider and stir as it boils until it leaves the spider clean. Set aside
until cool and stir in the yolks of three eggs. Season with salt, pepper
and nutmeg, mix thoroughly and drop by teaspoons in the boiling soup ten
minutes before ready to be served.


Brown a small onion minced in one tablespoon of chicken fat, add a small
liver chopped fine, chopped parsley, two tablespoons of flour. Season
with nutmeg, red and white pepper, and add two eggs. Drop with teaspoon
in the boiling soup, let cook ten minutes--serve.


Beat one egg until light, add three-fourths teaspoon of salt, one-half
cup of flour and two tablespoons of water. Put through colander into
deep hot fat and fry until brown. Drain and pour hot broth over them.


Separate three eggs, beat the yolks, and add one cup of soup stock,
one-fourth teaspoon of salt, then add the beaten whites. Pour into a
greased cup and place in pan of hot water and steam until firm; cool,
remove from cup and cut into small dumplings with a teaspoon; pour the
boiling soup over and just before serving add chopped parsley.


Fish that is not fresh is a very dangerous food and great care should be
taken in selecting only fish fit to eat. If the fish is hard in body and
the eyes are clear and bright, the gills a bright red and slimy, the
flesh so firm that when pressed the marks of the fingers do not remain,
the scales not dry or easy to loosen, then the fish is fresh.

In the refrigerator fish will taint butter and other foods if placed in
the same compartment, so that in most cases it is better to lay it on a
plate on a pan of ice, or wrap it in parchment or waxed paper and put it
in the ice box.

Pickerel weighing more than five pounds should not be bought. If belly
is thick it is likely that there is another fish inside. This smaller
fish or any found in any other fish may not be used as food.

Salt fish should be soaked in fresh water, skin side up, to draw out the

Each fish is at its best in its season, for instance:--

Bluefish, Butterfish, Sea, Striped Bass, Porgies, Sea-trout or Weakfish
are best from April to September.

Fluke and Flounders are good all year round, but the fluke is better
than the flounder in summer. Carp may be had all year, but care must be
taken that it has not been in polluted water.

Cod, Haddock, Halibut, Mackerel, Redsnapper, Salmon, Whitefish are good
all year.

In the different states of the United States there are laws governing
the fishing for trout, so the season for that fish differs in the
various states.

Black Bass, Perch, Pickerel and Pike are in season from June 1st to
December 1st.

Shad, April to June.

Smelts, November 10th to April.


The fish may be cleaned at the market, but needs to be looked over
carefully before cooking.

To remove the scales hold the fish by the tail and scrape firmly toward
the head with a small sharp knife, held with the blade slanting toward
the tail. Scrape slowly so that the scales will not fly, and rinse the
knife frequently in cold water. If the fish is to be served whole, leave
the head and tail on and trim the fins; otherwise remove them.


To open small fish cut under the gills and squeeze out the contents by
pressing upward from the middle with the thumb and finger. To open large
fish split them from the gills halfway down the body toward the tail;
remove the entrails and scrape and clean, opening far enough to remove
all the blood from the backbone, and wiping the inside thoroughly with a
cloth wrung out of cold, salted water.


To skin a fish remove the fins along the back and cut off a narrow strip
of the skin the entire length of the back. Then slip the knife under the
skin that lies over the bony part of the gills and work slowly toward
the tail. Do the same with the other side.


To bone a fish clean it first and remove the head. Then, beginning at
the tail, run a sharp knife under the flesh close to the bone, scraping
the flesh away clean from the bone. Work up one side toward the head;
then repeat the same process on the other side of the bone. Lift the
bone carefully and pull out any small bones that may be left in the


To cook fish properly is very important, as no food, perhaps, is so
insipid as fish if carelessly cooked. It must be well done and properly
salted. A good rule to cook fish by is the following: Allow ten minutes
to the first pound and five minutes for each additional pound; for
example: boil a fish weighing five pounds thirty minutes. By pulling out
a fin you may ascertain whether your fish is done; if it comes out
easily and the meat is an opaque white, your fish has boiled long
enough. Always set your fish on to boil in hot water, hot from the
teakettle, adding salt and a dash of vinegar to keep the meat firm; an
onion, a head of celery and parsley roots are always an acceptable
flavor to any kind of boiled fish, no matter what kind of sauce you
intend to serve with the fish. If you wish to serve the fish whole, tie
it in a napkin and lay it on an old plate at the bottom of the kettle;
if you have a regular "fish kettle" this is not necessary. In boiling
fish avoid using too much water.

To thicken sauces, where flour is used, take a level teaspoon of flour
to a cup of sauce, or the yolk of an egg to a cup of sauce.


Wash and dry the fish, rubbing inside and outside with salt; stuff with
a bread stuffing and sew. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and place in a
hot oven without water. As soon as it begins to brown add hot water and
butter and baste every ten minutes. Bake until done, allowing an hour or
more for a large fish, twenty or thirty minutes for a small one. Remove
to a hot platter; draw out the strings; garnish with slices of lemon
well covered with chopped parsley and serve with Hollandaise sauce.


For broiling, large fish should be split down the back and head and tail
removed; salmon and halibut should be cut into one-inch slices, and
smelts and other small fish left whole. Wipe the fish as dry as
possible; sprinkle with salt and pepper and if the fish is dry and white
brush the flesh side well with olive oil or butter. Put in a
well-greased broiler, placing the thickest parts of the fish toward the
middle or back of the broiler. Hold over a hot fire until the flesh side
is nicely browned; then cook the skin side just long enough to make the
skin crisp. Small fish require from ten to fifteen minutes, large fish
from fifteen to twenty-five. To remove from the broiler loosen one side
first, then the other, and lift carefully with a cake turner. Place on a
platter; spread with butter and stand in the oven for a few minutes.
Garnish with lemon and serve with Maitre d'Hotel butter.


Scale the fish with the utmost thoroughness, remove the entrails, wash
very thoroughly, and salt both inside and out. Then cut the fish into
convenient slices, place them on a strainer and leave them there for an

Meanwhile, place some flour in one plate and some beaten eggs in
another, and heat a large frying-pan half full of oil or butter. Now
wipe your fish slices thoroughly with a clean cloth, dip them first in
flour and then in beaten eggs and finally fry until browned.

In frying fish very hot oil is required. If a crumb of bread will brown
in twenty seconds the oil is hot enough. Put fish in a frying basket,
then into the hot oil and cook five minutes. Drain on brown paper and
arrange on platter. Do not stick knife or fork into fish while it is

When the oil has cooled, strain it, pour it into a jar, cover it and it
will be ready for use another time. It can be used again for fish only.



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