The International Jewish Cook Book
Florence Kreisler Greenbaum

Part 7 out of 12

gradually the yolks of four eggs. Sift into this three cups of flour,
adding two teaspoons of baking-powder in the last sifting and add one
cup of sweet milk alternately with the flour to the creamed butter,
sugar and yolks. Spice with one teaspoon of cinnamon and add the
stiff-beaten whites of the eggs. Lastly, stir in two cups of
huckleberries which have been carefully picked over and well dredged
with flour. Be careful in stirring in the huckleberries that you do not
bruise them. You will find a wooden spoon the best for this purpose, the
edges not being so sharp. Bake in a moderately hot oven; try with a
straw, if it comes out clean, your cake is baked. This will keep fresh
for a long while.


One cup of hot water, one-half cup of butter; boil together, and while
boiling stir in one cup of sifted flour dry; take from the stove and
stir to a thin paste, and after this cools add three eggs unbeaten, and
stir vigorously for five minutes. Drop in tablespoonfuls on a buttered
tin and bake in a quick oven twenty-five minutes, opening the oven door
no oftener than is absolutely necessary, and being careful that they do
not touch each other in the pan. This amount will make twelve puffs.
Cream for puffs: one cup of milk, one cup of sugar, one egg, three
tablespoons of flour, vanilla to flavor. Stir the flour in a little of
the milk; boil the rest, turn this in and stir until the whole thickens.
When both this and the puffs are cool open the puff a little way with a
sharp knife and fill them with the cream.


To make eclairs spread the batter, prepared as in foregoing recipe, in
long ovals and when done cover with plain or chocolate frosting, as
follows: Boil one cup of brown sugar with one-half cup of molasses, one
tablespoon of butter and two tablespoons of flour. Boil for one-half
hour, then stir in one-fourth pound of grated chocolate wet in
one-fourth cup of sweet milk and boil until it hardens on the spoon.
Flavor with vanilla. Spread this upon the eclairs.


Cream yolks of six eggs with one-half pound of powdered sugar; add
three-fourths cup of flour sifted three times; then add beaten whites of
six eggs lightly and carefully into the mixture. Butter pie plates on
under side and sprinkle with flour lightly over the butter and spread
the mixture very thin. This amount makes one cake of twelve layers.
Remove layers at once with a spatula.

*Filling.*--Cream one-half pound of sweet butter and put on ice
immediately; take one-half pound of sweet chocolate and break it into a
cup of strong liquid coffee; add one-half pound of granulated sugar and
let it boil until you can pull it almost like candy; remove from fire
and stir the chocolate until it is quite cold. When cold add the
chocolate mixture to the creamed butter. This filling is spread thin
between the layers, spread the icing thicker on top and sides of the
cake. This is very fine, but care must be taken in baking and removing
the layers, as layers are as thin as wafers. Bake and make filling a day
or two before needed.


Weigh any number of eggs, take the same weight of sugar and one-half the
weight of flour; the grated rind and juice of one lemon to five eggs.
For mixing this cake, see the directions given in "To Bake Cakes"; the
mixture should be very light and spongy, great care being used not to
break down the whipped whites. The oven should be moderate at first, and
the heat increased after a time. The cake must not be moved or jarred
while baking. The time will be forty to fifty minutes according to size
of cake. Use powdered sugar for sponge-cake. Rose-water makes a good
flavoring when a change from lemon is wanted.


Separate the whites and yolks of four eggs, beat the whites stiff, and
beat into them one-half cup of granulated sugar. Beat the yolks to a
very stiff froth and beat into them one-half cup of granulated sugar.
This last mixture must be beaten for exactly five minutes. Add the juice
and grated rind of one small lemon; beat yolks and whites together well,
then stir in very gently one scant cup of flour that has been sifted
three times. Remember that every stroke of the spoon after the flour is
added toughens the cake just that much, so fold the flour in just enough
to mix well. If baked in small patty pans they taste just like lady
fingers. Bake twenty or twenty-five minutes in moderate oven.


Make a sponge cake batter, and bake in long tins, not too large. The
batter should not exceed the depth of one-fourth of an inch, spread it
evenly and bake it in a quick oven (line the tins with buttered paper).
As each cake is taken from the oven, turn it upside down on a clean
board or paper. Spread with a thin layer of currant or cranberry jelly,
and lay the other cake on top of it. With a hot, sharp knife cut into
strips like dominoes; push them with the knife about an inch apart, and
ice them with ordinary white icing, putting a tablespoonful on each
piece, the heat of the cake will soften it, and with little assistance
the edges and sides may be smoothly covered. Set the cakes in a warm
place, where the frosting will dry. Make a horn of stiff white paper
with just a small opening; at the lower end. Put in one spoon of dark
chocolate icing and close the horn at the top, and by pressing out the
icing from the small opening, draw a line of it across the centre of
each cake, and then make dots like those on dominoes. Keep the horn
supplied with the icing.


Beat the yolks of three eggs until light and creamy, add one-quarter
pound of powdered sugar (sifted) and continue beating; add flavoring to
taste, vanilla, lemon juice, grated rind of lemon or orange. To the
whites of the three eggs add one-half saltspoon of salt and beat until
very stiff. Stir in lightly one-half cup of flour and then fold in the
beaten whites very gently. Press the mixture through a pastry tube on a
baking-tin, covered with paper in portions one-half inch wide by four
inches long, or drop on oblong molds; sift a little powdered sugar on
top of each cake, and bake from ten to fifteen minutes in a moderate
oven. Do not let brown. Remove immediately from pan, brush the flat
surface of one cake with white of egg and press the underside of a
second cake upon the first.


Take three eggs creamed with one cup of granulated sugar, one cup of
flour sifted with two teaspoons of baking-powder, add one-half cup of
boiling water. Bake in broad pan--while hot, remove from pan and lay on
cloth wet with cold water. Spread with jelly and roll quickly. Sprinkle
with powdered sugar.


Sift one cup of pastry flour once, then measure and sift three times.
Add a pinch of salt to the whites of eight or nine eggs or just one cup
of whites, beat about one-half, add one-half teaspoon of cream of
tartar, then beat the whites until they will stand of their own weight;
add one and one-fourth cups of sugar, then flour, not by stirring but
folding over and over until thoroughly mixed in; flavor with one-half
teaspoon of vanilla or almond extract. Bake in an ungreased pan, patent
tube pan preferred. Place the cake in an oven that will just warm it
enough through until the batter has raised to the top of the mold, then
increase the heat gradually until the cake is well browned over; if by
pressing the top of the cake with the finger it will spring back without
leaving the imprint of the finger the cake is done through. Great care
should be taken that the oven is not too hot to begin with as the cake
will rise too fast and settle or fall in the baking. Bake thirty-five to
forty minutes. When done, invert the pan; when cool remove from pan.


Beat yolks of five eggs lightly, add one teaspoon of vanilla, or grated
rind of one lemon. In another bowl beat seven whites to a froth with a
scant one-half teaspoon of cream of tartar, then beat until whites are
very stiff. Gradually add one cup of granulated sugar, sifted three
times, to the beaten whites. Fold whites and sugar, when beaten, into
the beaten yolks. Sift one cup of flour three times, then put into
sifter and shake lightly, fold into the cake. Bake forty minutes in
ungreased cake pan. As directed for sponge cake invert pan. Remove cake
when it has cooled.


Beat one cup of powdered sugar with the yolks of four eggs; when very
light, add one cup of sifted flour in which has been mixed one teaspoon
of baking-powder, add three tablespoons of cold water, one-half teaspoon
of vanilla, one tablespoon essence of mocha, add the stiffly-beaten
whites and bake fifteen to twenty minutes in two layer pans in a
moderate oven. Spread when cold with one-half pint of cream to which has
been added one tablespoon of mocha essence, one and one-half tablespoon
of powdered sugar and then well whipped. Garnish with pounded almonds.


Make a sponge cake batter of four eggs, one cup of pulverized sugar, a
pinch of salt and one cup of flour. Beat the eggs with the sugar until
very light. Beat until the consistency of dough and add the grated peel
of a lemon, and last the sifted flour. No baking-powder necessary. Bake
in jelly tins. Cut the peaches quite fine and sugar bountifully. Put
between layers. Eat with cream.

The same recipe may be used for Strawberry Shortcake.


Take seven peeled and cored apples, six tablespoons of sugar, two
tablespoons of butter, and cook together until apples are soft. Cream
six eggs; add to them one pint of sour cream, one tablespoon of vanilla,
one-half teaspoon of cinnamon, and sugar to taste; then pour into the
cooked apples and let all boil together till thick. Remove from stove.
Take three cups of finely rolled zwieback, and in the bottom of a
well-greased pan put a layer of two cups of crumbs, then a layer of the
apple mixture, a layer of the remaining crumbs, and lastly lumps of
butter over all. Bake one hour.


Cream the yolks of six eggs with one cup of granulated sugar. Add
three-fourths cup of sifted chocolate, three-fourths cup of flour
(sifted twice), one and one-half teaspoon of vanilla. Add the beaten
whites. Bake thirty minutes. When cold; cut in half and fill with the
following: One cup of milk, yolks of two eggs, one cup of chopped
walnuts. Boil, stirring constantly to prevent curdling. Sweeten to
taste, and after removing from the fire add one tablespoon of rum.
Spread while hot.


Cream one-half pound of butter with one-half pound of sugar; drop in,
one at a time, the yolks of six eggs. Add one small wine glass of rum,
one-fourth pound of corn-starch, and one-fourth pound of flour that have
been thoroughly mixed; one teaspoon of baking-powder, the beaten whites
of six eggs. Bake one hour in a moderate oven.


Take one-half pound of almonds and blanch by pouring boiling water over
them, and pound in a mortar or grate on grater (the latter is best).
Beat yolks of eight eggs vigorously with one cup of sugar, add one-half
lemon, grated peel and juice, one tablespoon of brandy, and four
lady-fingers grated, the almonds, and fold in the stiffly-beaten whites
of eggs. Bake in moderate oven one hour.


Take one-fourth pound of sweet almonds and one-eighth pound of bitter
ones mixed. Blanch them the day previous to using and then grate or
pound them as fine as powder. Beat until light the yolks of nine eggs
with eight tablespoons of granulated sugar. Add the grated peel of one
lemon and one-half teaspoon of mace or vanilla. Beat long and steadily.
Add the grated almonds and continue the stirring in one direction. Add
the juice of the lemon to the stiff-beaten whites. Grate four stale lady
fingers, add and bake slowly for one hour at least.


Take six eggs, seven tablespoons of granulated sugar, seven tablespoons
of bread crumbs, one-eighth pound of chopped almonds, one-half teaspoon
of allspice, one tablespoon of jelly, grated rind and juice of one
lemon, one teaspoon of cinnamon, one-half teaspoon of cloves, one-half
wine glass of brandy. Beat yolks of eggs well and add sugar and beat
until it blisters, add bread crumbs, almonds, jelly, spice, lemon, and
brandy. Then add beaten whites, and bake slowly about forty minutes.


Beat the yolks of four eggs very light with one cup of sugar; add one
cup of sifted dry rye bread crumbs to which one teaspoon of
baking-powder and a pinch of salt have been added. Moisten one-half cup
of ground almonds with two tablespoons of sherry, add and lastly fold in
the beaten whites of eggs. Bake in ungreased form in moderate oven.


Beat the yolks of six eggs with one and one-eighth cups of sugar, add
one-half box of zwieback, which has been rolled very fine, add one
teaspoon of baking-powder, season with one tablespoon of rum or sherry
wine and one-half teaspoon of bitter almond extract. Lastly fold in the
stiffly-beaten whites of the six eggs and bake in ungreased form in
moderate oven three-quarters of an hour.


Separate the yolks and whites of ten eggs. Beat the yolks with two cups
of pulverized sugar. When thick add one and three-fourth cups of sifted
dry rye bread crumbs, one-half pound of sweet almonds, also some bitter
ones, grated or powdered as fine as possible, one-fourth pound of
citron shredded fine, one cake of chocolate grated, the grated peel of
one lemon, the juice of one orange and one lemon, one tablespoon of
cinnamon, one teaspoon of allspice, one-half teaspoon of cloves, and a
wine glass of brandy. Bake very slowly in ungreased form. Frost with a
chocolate icing, made as follows: Melt a small piece of chocolate. Beat
the white of an egg stiff with scant cup of sugar, and stir into the
melted chocolate and spread with a knife.


Beat up four eggs with one cup of sifted powdered sugar. Beat until it
looks like a heavy batter. When you think you cannot possibly beat any
longer stir one cup of sifted flour with one-half teaspoon of
baking-powder. Stir it into batter gradually and lightly, adding three
tablespoons of water. Bake in jelly tins. Filling: Scald one-fourth
pound of almonds (by pouring boiling water over them), remove skins, put
them on a pie plate and set them in the oven to brown slightly.
Meanwhile, melt three tablespoons of white sugar, without adding water,
stirring it all the while. Stir up the almonds in this, then remove them
from the fire and lay on a platter separately to cool. Make an icing of
the whites of three eggs beaten very stiff, with one pound of pulverized
sugar, and flavor with rose-water. Spread this upon layers and cover
each layer with almonds. When finished frost the whole cake, decorating
with almonds.


Take nine eggs, one-half pound of pulverized sugar, one-half pound of
almonds, half cut and grated; one-half pound of finest vanilla chocolate
grated, one-half pound of raisins, cut and seeded; seven soda crackers,
rolled to a powder; one teaspoon of baking-powder, juice of three lemons
and one-fourth glass of wine. Beat whites of eggs to a stiff froth and
stir in last. Beat yolks with sugar until very light; then add
chocolate, and proceed as with other torten.


Beat one-half pound of pulverized sugar with the yolks of six large
eggs. Beat long and steadily until a thick batter. Add one-half pound of
dates, cut very fine, one teaspoon each of allspice and ground cinnamon,
one-fourth pound of chocolate grated, juice and peel of one lemon, three
and one-half soda crackers, rolled to a fine powder, one teaspoon of
baking-powder, and last the stiff-beaten whites. Bake slowly. Cake can
be cut in half and put together with jelly.


Beat together for twenty minutes until very light the yolks of eight
eggs with one-half pound of granulated sugar, then add the very
stiffly-beaten whites of eggs, place the bowl in which it has been
stirred over a boiler in which water is boiling on the stove, stir
continually but slowly until all the batter is well warmed but not too
hot, add a small pinch of salt, and one-half pound of grated hazelnuts,
add the nuts gradually, mix well and pour into a greased spring form.
Bake very slowly. The grated rind of one-half lemon can be added if
desired. Ice with boiled icing.


Cream one pound of butter with one pound of sugar until foamy, then add
one by one four whole eggs. Mix well, then stir in three-fourths pound
of pounded almonds or walnuts, one teaspoon of cinnamon, one-fourth
teaspoon of cloves, one pound of flour, one teaspoon of baking-powder,
and a few drops of bitter almond essence. Put in four layer pans and
bake in slow oven. Put together with apricot, strawberry, or raspberry
jam and pineapple marmalade, each layer having a different preserve. Ice
top and sides. If only two layers are desired for home use, half the
quantity of ingredients can be used. This is a very fine cake. It is
better the second day.


Bake three layers of almond tart and flavor it with a wine glass of
arrack. When baked, scrape part of the cake out of the thickest layer,
not disturbing the rim, and reserve these crumbs to add to the following
filling: Boil one-half pound of sugar in one-fourth cup of water until
it spins a thread. Add to this syrup a wine glass of rum, and the
crumbs, and spread over the layers, piling one on top of the other.
Another way to fill this cake is to take some crab-apple jelly or apple
marmalade and thin it with a little brandy.


Grate eight ounces of walnuts and eight ounces of blanched almonds. Beat
light the yolks of twelve eggs and three-fourths pound of sugar. Add
the grated nuts and one-fourth pound of sifted flour, fold in the whites
beaten to a stiff froth. Bake in layers and fill with sweetened whipped


Separate the yolks and whites of six eggs, being very careful not to get
a particle of the yolks into the whites. Sift one-half pound of
granulated sugar into the yolks and beat until thick as batter. Add a
pinch of salt to the whites and beat very stiff. Have ready one-fourth
pound of grated walnuts, reserve whole pieces for decorating the top of
cake. Add the pounded nuts to the beaten yolks, and two tablespoons of
grated lady fingers or stale sponge cake. Last add the stiffly-beaten
whites of the eggs. Bake in layers and fill with almond or plain icing.


Boil one pound of chestnuts in the shells, peel them while warm, put
nuts through potato ricer or colander. Beat well the yolks of six eggs
with six tablespoons of sugar, add all the chestnut puree but two or
three tablespoons reserved for top of torte, then add three teaspoons of
baking-powder and the well-beaten whites of the six eggs; bake in
moderate oven fifteen to twenty minutes. Whip one-half pint of cream,
add to this the chestnut puree which was reserved, and a little sugar;
garnish torte with this mixture. Enough for twelve persons.


Mix two cups of brown sugar, two cups of honey, six egg yolks and beat
them thoroughly. Sift together three cups of flour, one-quarter teaspoon
of salt, three teaspoons of ground cinnamon, one-half teaspoon each of
ground cloves, ground nutmeg and allspice, and one and one-half
teaspoons of soda; add one cup of chopped raisins, one-half ounce of
citron cut in small pieces, one-half ounce of candied orange peel cut in
small pieces, one-half pound of almonds coarsely chopped. Beat the
whites of three eggs very stiff and add them last. Pour the dough to the
depth of about half an inch into well-buttered tins and bake in a slow
oven for one-half hour.



One cup of sugar, one-third cup of boiling water, white of one egg
beaten stiff. Pour water on sugar until dissolved, heat slowly to
boiling point without stirring; boil until syrup will thread when
dropped from tip of spoon; as soon as it threads, pour slowly over
beaten white, then beat with heavy wire spoon until of proper
consistency to spread. Flavor.


Put on to boil two cups of brown sugar, one cup of milk and a small lump
of butter. Boil until it gets as thick as cream, then beat with a fork
or egg whip until thick and creamy. Spread quickly on cake.


Boil two cups of maple sugar with one-half cup of boiling water until it
threads from the spoon. Pour it upon the beaten whites of two eggs and
beat until cold. Spread between layers and on top of cake. Do not make
icings on cloudy or rainy days.


Take the white of one egg and add to it the same quantity of water
(measure in an egg shell). Stir into this as much confectioner's sugar
to make it of the right consistency to spread upon the cake. Flavor with
any flavoring desired. You may color it as you would boiled frosting by
adding fruit coloring.


Mix cocoanut with the unboiled icing. If you desire to spread it between
the cakes, scatter more cocoanut over and between the layers.


Mix any quantity of finely chopped nuts into any quantity of cream icing
(unboiled) as in the foregoing recipes. Ice the top of cake with plain
icing, and lay the halves of walnuts on top.


Grate the peel of one-half orange, mix with two tablespoons of orange
juice and one tablespoon of lemon juice and let stand fifteen minutes.
Strain and add to the beaten yolk of one egg. Stir in enough powdered
sugar to make it the right consistency to spread upon the cake.


Grate two sticks of bitter chocolate, add five tablespoons of powdered
sugar and three tablespoons of boiling water. Put on the stove, over
moderate fire, stir while boiling until smooth, glossy and thick. Spread
at once on cake and set aside to harden.


Beat the whites of three eggs and one and one-half cups of pulverized
sugar, added gradually while beating. Beat until very thick, then add
four tablespoons of grated chocolate and two teaspoons of vanilla.

This quantity is sufficient for a very large cake.


To the white of an unbeaten egg add one and one-fourth cups of
pulverized sugar and stir until smooth. Add three drops of rose-water,
ten of vanilla, and the juice of half a lemon. It will at once become
very white, and will harden in five or six minutes.


To one cup of confectioner's sugar add some liquid, either milk or
water, to make it the right consistency to spread, flavor with vanilla.
Instead of the water or milk, orange juice can be used. A little of the
rind must be added. Lemon juice can be substituted in place of vanilla.
Chocolate melted over hot water and added to the sugar and water makes a
nice chocolate icing; flavor with vanilla.


Take the whites of two eggs and one-half pound of sweet almonds, which
should be blanched, dried and grated or pounded to a paste. Beat the
whites of the eggs, add half a pound of confectioner's sugar, one
tablespoon at a time, until all is used, and then add the almonds and a
few drops of rosewater. Spread between or on top of cake. Put on thick,
and when nearly dry cover with a plain icing. If the cakes are well
dredged with a little flour after baking, and then carefully wiped
before the icing is put on, it will not run and can be spread more
smoothly. Put the frosting in the centre of the cake, dip a knife in
cold water and spread from the centre toward the edge.


One cup of pulverized sugar into which sift two dessertspoons of dry
cocoa, two tablespoons of strong hot coffee in which is melted a piece
of butter the size of a walnut. Beat well and add a little vanilla.


Melt one-half pound marshmallows over hot water, cook together one cup
of sugar and one-quarter cup of cold water until it threads thoroughly.
Beat up the white of an egg and syrup and mix, then add to the melted
marshmallows and beat until creamy and cool. Can be used for cake
filling or spread between two cookies.


One pound of figs chopped fine, one cup of water, one-half cup of sugar;
cook all together until soft and smooth.


Mash six bananas, add juice of one lemon and three or more tablespoons
of sugar; or add mashed bananas with whipped cream or boiled icing.


Scald two cups of milk. Mix together three-fourths of a cup of sugar,
one-third cup of flour and one-eighth teaspoon of salt. Add to three
slightly-beaten eggs and pour in scalded milk. Cook twenty minutes over
boiling water, stirring constantly until thickened. Cool and flavor.
This can be used as a foundation for most fillings, by adding melted
chocolate, nuts, fruits, etc.


Put three cups of warmed-over or freshly made coffee in a small
casserole, add two tablespoons of powdered sugar, one-half teaspoon of
vanilla. When at boiling point (do not let it boil), add one cup of milk
or cream. Then add one tablespoon of cornstarch which has been moistened
with cold water. Stir in while cooking till it is smooth and glossy.
When the cake is cool, pour mixture over the layers.


Take one pound of sugar, yolks of eight eggs with two whole ones, the
juice of five large lemons, the grated peel of two, and one-quarter
pound of butter. Put the sugar, lemon and butter into saucepan and melt
over a gentle fire. When all is dissolved, stir in the eggs which have
been beaten, stir rapidly until it is thick as honey, and spread some of
this between the layers of cake. Pack the remainder in jelly glasses.


Keep a wide-mouthed bottle of brandy in which to throw lemon peel. Often
you will have use for the juice of lemons only. Then it will be
economical to put the lemon peel in the bottle to use for flavoring. A
teaspoon of this is sufficient for the largest cake.


Take the peel of half a dozen lemons and put in alcohol the same as for


Take two ounces of vanilla bean and one of tonka. Soak the tonka in warm
water until the skin can be rubbed off; then cut or chop in small pieces
and put in two wine bottles. Fill with half alcohol, half water; cork,
seal, and in a week's time will be ready for use.



To make good puff paste one must have all the ingredients cold. Use a
marble slab if possible and avoid making the paste on a warm, damp day.
It should be made in a cool place as it is necessary to keep the paste
cold during the whole time of preparation. This recipe makes two pies or
four crusts, and requires one-half pound of butter and one-half teaspoon
of salt, one-half pound of flour and one-fourth to one-half cup of

Cut off one-third of the butter and put the remaining two-thirds in a
bowl of ice-water. Divide this into four equal parts; pat each into a
thin sheet and set them away on ice. Mix and sift flour and salt; rub
the reserved butter into it and make as stiff as possible with
ice-water. Dust the slab with flour; turn the paste upon it; knead for
one minute, then stand it on ice for five minutes. Roll the cold paste
into a square sheet about one-third of an inch thick; place the cold
batter in the centre and fold the paste over it, first from the sides
and then the ends, keeping the shape square and folding so that the
butter is completely covered and cannot escape through any cracks as it
is rolled. Roll out to one-fourth inch thickness, keeping the square
shape and folding as before, but without butter. Continue rolling and
folding, enclosing a sheet of butter at every alternate folding until
all four sheets are used. Then turn the folded side down and roll in one
direction into a long narrow strip, keeping the edges as straight as
possible. Fold the paste over, making three even layers. Then roll again
and fold as before. Repeat the process until the dough has had six
turns. Cut into the desired shapes and place on the ice for twenty
minutes or longer before putting in the oven.

If during the making the paste sticks to the board or pin, remove it
immediately and stand it on the ice until thoroughly chilled. Scrape the
board clean; rub with a dry cloth and dust with fresh flour before
trying again. Use as little flour as possible in rolling, but use enough
to keep the paste dry. Roll with a light, even, long stroke in every
direction, but never work the rolling-pin back and forth as that
movement toughens the paste and breaks the bubbles of air.

The baking of puff paste is almost as important as the rolling, and the
oven must be very hot, with the greatest heat at the bottom, so that the
paste will rise before it browns. If the paste should begin to scorch,
open the drafts at once and cool the temperature by placing a pan of
ice-water in the oven.


For shortening; use drippings and mix with goose, duck or chicken fat.
In the fall and winter, when poultry is plentiful and fat, save all
drippings of poultry fat for pie-crust. If you have neither, use
rendered beef fat.

Take one-half cup of shortening, one and one-half cups of flour. Sifted
pastry flour is best. If you have none at hand take two tablespoons of
flour off each cup after sifting; add a pinch of salt. With two knives
cut the fat into the sifted flour until the shortening is in pieces as
small as peas. Then pour in six or eight tablespoons of cold water; in
summer use ice-water; work with the knife until well mixed (never use
the hand). Flour a board or marble slab, roll the dough out thin,
sprinkle with a little flour and put dabs of soft drippings here and
there, fold the dough over and roll out thin again and spread with fat
and sprinkle with flour, repeat this and then roll out not too thin and
line a pie-plate with this dough. Always cut dough for lower crust a
little larger than the upper dough and do not stretch the dough when
lining pie-pan or plate.

If fruit is to be used for the filling, brush over top of the dough with
white of egg slightly beaten, or sprinkle with one tablespoon of bread
crumbs to prevent the dough from becoming soggy.

Put in the filling, brush over the edge of pastry with cold water, lay
the second round of paste loosely over the filling; press the edges
together lightly, and trim, if needed. Cut several slits in the top
crust or prick it with a fork before putting it in place.

Bake from thirty-five to forty-five minutes until crust is a nice brown.

A gas stove is more satisfactory for baking pies than a coal stove as
pies require the greatest heat at the bottom.

The recipe given above makes two crusts. Bake pies having a cooked
filling in a quick oven and those with an uncooked filling in a
moderate oven. Let pies cool upon plates on which they were made because
slipping them onto cold plates develops moisture which always destroys
the crispness of the lower crust.


To beat and bake a meringue have cold, fresh eggs, beat the whites until
frothy; add to each white one level tablespoon of powdered sugar. Beat
until so stiff that it can be cut with a knife. Spread on the pie and
bake with, the oven door open until a rich golden brown. Too much sugar
causes a meringue to liquefy; if not baked long enough the same effect
is produced.


Rub one cup of butter to a cream, add four cups of sifted flour, a pinch
of salt and a tablespoon of brown sugar; work these together until the
flour looks like sand, then take the yolk of an egg, a wine-glass of
brandy, one-half cup of ice-water and work it into the flour lightly. Do
not use the hands; knead with a knife or wooden spoon, knead as little
as possible. If the dough is of the right consistency no flour will be
required when rolling out the dough. If it is necessary to use flour use
as little as possible. Work quickly, handle dough as little as possible
and bake in a hot oven. Follow directions given with Fleischig Pie
Crust. Fat may be substituted for butter in the above recipe.


Sift into a mixing-bowl one and one-half cups of flour and one-half
teaspoon of baking-powder. Make a depression in the centre; into this
pour a generous half cup of oil and an exact half cup of very cold (or
ice) water; add pinch of salt, mix quickly with a fork, divide in two
portions; do not knead, but roll on a well-floured board, spread on
pans, fill and bake at once in a quick oven.

No failure is possible if the formula is accurately followed and these
things observed; ingredients cold, no kneading or re-rolling; dough must
not stand, but the whole process must be completed as rapidly as

Do not pinch or crimp the edge of this or any other pie. To do so makes
a hard edge that no one cares to eat. Instead, trim the edges in the
usual way, then place the palms of the hand on opposite sides of the pie
and raise the dough until the edges stand straight up. This prevents
all leakage and the crust is tender to the last morsel.


Roll puff paste one-eighth of an inch thick; cut it into squares; turn
the points together into the middle and press slightly to make them
stay. Bake until thoroughly done; place a spoonful of jam in the centre
of each; cover the jam with meringue and brown the meringue in a quick

By brushing the top of the paste with beaten egg, diluted with one
teaspoon of water, a glazed appearance may be obtained.


Cut one cup of seeded muscatel raisins and one cup of nuts in small
pieces, add one cup of sugar, one well-beaten egg, one tablespoon of
water, the juice and grated rind of one lemon. Mix well. Line patty-pans
with pie dough, fill with mixture and bake until crust is brown.


If canned fruit is used, take a large can of any kind of fruit, drain
all the syrup off and put in a saucepan with an equal quantity of sugar.
Cook until it forms a syrup, then pour in the fruit, which has been
stoned (if necessary), and cook until the whole is a syrupy mass.

If fresh fruit is used, put on two parts of sugar to one of water and
cook until syrupy, then add the fruit, which has been peeled, sliced and
stoned, and cook until the whole is a thick, syrupy mass.

Line the patty cases or plain muffin rings with the puff paste. Put a
spoonful or two of the fruit in each one and bake a nice brown. Peaches,
white cherries, Malaga grapes, huckleberries and apples make nice

One large can California fruit fills twelve tartlets.


Rub together on a pastry-board one-half pound of sweet butter with one
pound (four cups sifted) of flour, add four tablespoons of powdered
sugar, a little salt, four egg yolks and moisten with one-half cup of
sour cream; cover and set aside in the ice-box for one-half hour. Take
two pounds of sour apples, peel, cut fine, mix with one-half cup of
light-colored raisins, sugar and cinnamon to taste. Cut the dough in two
pieces, roll out one piece and place on greased baking-pan, spread over
this four tablespoons of bread crumbs and the chopped sugared apples,
roll out the other half of dough, place on top and spread with white of
one egg, sprinkle with two tablespoons of powdered almonds. Bake in hot


Make a dough of one-half pound each of flour, sugar and almonds that are
grated with peel on, two eggs, a little allspice, a little citron, pinch
of salt. Flavor with brandy. Take a little more than half, roll it out
and line a pie-pan, put strawberry jam on and then cut rest of dough in
strips and cover the same as you would prune pie. Brush these strips
with yolk of egg and bake in moderate oven.


Line a gem or muffin-pan with rich pie dough; half fill each tart with
any desired preserve, and bake in a quick oven. Beat the whites of three
eggs to a stiff froth and add one-half pound of powdered sugar and stir
about ten minutes or until very light, and gradually one-half pound of
grated almonds. Divide this macaroon paste into equal portions. Roll and
shape into strips, dusting hands with powdered sugar in place of flour.
Place these strips on the baked tarts in parallel rows to cross each
other diagonally. Return to oven and bake in a slow oven about fifteen
minutes. Let remain in pans until almost cold.


Make a rich crust and bake in small spring form. Beat three whole eggs
and yolks of three very light with one cup of sugar. Add juice of three
lemons and grated rind of one, and juice of one orange. Put whole on
stove and stir until it comes to a boil. Put on baked crust, spread a
meringue made of the remaining three whites and three tablespoons of
sugar on top, and put in oven to brown. May be used as a filling for


Take one-half pound of pot cheese and one-half pound of butter and two
cups of flour sifted four times, add a pinch of salt and work these
ingredients into a dough; make thirty small balls of it and put on a
platter on the ice overnight. In the morning roll each ball separately
into two-inch squares. These squares may be filled with, a teaspoon of
jelly put in the centre and the squares folded over like an envelop; or
fill them with one-half pound of walnuts, ground; one-half cup of sugar
and moisten with a little hot milk. Roll and twist into shape. Brush
with beaten egg and bake in a moderately hot oven.


One-half cup of flour, two tablespoons of butter, four tablespoons of
grated cheese, yolk of one egg, dash of cayenne pepper, enough ice-water
to moisten. Mix as little as possible. Roll out about a quarter of an
inch thick and cut into long, narrow strips. Shake a little more cheese
on top and bake in hot oven. This is also an excellent pie crust for one
pie, omitting pepper and cheese.

Serve cheese straws with salads.


Make a mince-meat by chopping finely eight medium-sized apples, one-half
pound each of raisins, currants and sugar, a little citron peel, two or
three cloves and one teaspoon of powdered cinnamon.

Cut some good puff paste into little triangles and fill with the mince,
turning the corners of the paste over it so as to make little puffs.
Place these closely together and on a buttered baking-dish until it is
full. Now mix two tablespoons of melted butter with one teacup of thick
syrup flavored with essence of lemon, and pour it over the puffs. Bake
until done in a rather slow oven.


Pound and sift six macaroons; add one tablespoon of grated chocolate and
one pint of hot milk. Let stand ten minutes, and then add yolks of three
eggs well beaten, one tablespoon of sugar, one teaspoon of vanilla. Line
patty-tins with puff paste; fill with the mixture and bake twenty


Pare, core and slice four apples. Line a pie-plate with plain pastry.
Sprinkle with bread crumbs. Lay in the apples, sprinkle with one-half
cup of sugar, flavor with cinnamon, nutmeg or lemon juice or two
tablespoons of water if apples are not juicy. Cover with upper crust,
slash and prick and bake in moderate oven until the crust is brown and
the fruit is soft.


Put in saucepan one-half cup of sugar and one-fourth cup of water, let
it boil a few minutes, then lay in five large apples or six small ones,
which have previously been peeled and quartered; cover with a lid and
steam until tender but not broken. Line pie-plate with rich milchig
pastry, lay on the apples, sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon and bits of
butter drop a few drops of syrup over all and bake.


Butter six muffin rings and set them on a shallow agate pan which has
been well buttered. Fill the rings with sliced apples. Make a dough of
one and one-half cups of pastry flour sifted several times with one-half
teaspoon of salt and three level teaspoons of baking-powder. Chop into
the dry ingredients one-fourth of a cup of shortening, gradually add
three-fourths of a cup of milk or water. Drop the dough on the apples on
the rings. Let bake about twenty minutes. With a spatula remove each
dumpling from the ring, place on dish with the crust side down. Serve
with cream and sugar, hard sauce or with a fruit sauce.


Make a crust as rich as possible and line a deep tin. Bake quickly in a
hot oven and spread it with a layer of jelly or jam. Next whip one cup
of sweet cream until it is thick. Set the cream in a bowl of ice while
whipping. Sweeten slightly and flavor with vanilla, spread this over the
pie and put in a cool place until wanted.


Line a pie-plate with a rich puff paste. Pare and grate four or five
large tart apples into a bowl into which you have stirred the yolks of
two eggs with about half a cup of sugar. Add a few raisins, a few
currants, a few pounded almonds, a pinch of ground cinnamon, and the
grated peel of a lemon. Have no top crust. Bake in a quick oven. In the
meantime, make a meringue of the whites of the eggs by beating them to a
very stiff froth and add about three tablespoons of pulverized sugar.
Spread this over the pie when baked and set back in the oven until
brown. Eat cold.


Line your pie-plates with a rich crust. Slice apples thin, half fill
your plates and pour over them a custard made of four eggs and two cups
of milk, sweetened and seasoned to taste.


Line a pie-plate with rich paste, sprinkle cornstarch lightly over the
bottom crust and fill with cherries and regulate the quantity of sugar
you scatter over them by their sweetness. Bake with an upper crust,
secure the edges well by pinching firmly together. Eat cold.


Pick the stems out of your cherries and put them in an earthen crock,
then set them in the oven until they get hot. Take them out and seed
them. Make tarts with or without tops and sugar to your taste. The
heating of the fruit gives the flavor of the seed, which is very rich,
but the seeding of them while hot is not a delightful job. Made this way
they need no water for juice.


Pare and core nice large baking apples, fill the holes with some
preserves or jam, roil the apples in sugar and cover with a rich pie
crust and bake. When done, cover with a boiled icing and set back in the
oven, leaving both doors open to let the icing dry.


When ready to make the pie, mix as much fruit in a bowl as required,
sweeten, stirring the sugar through the berries and currants lightly
with a spoon. Dust in a little flour and stir it through the fruit. Cut
one of the pieces of pastry in halves, dust the pastry-board with flour
and roll the lump of pastry out very thin, cover the pie-plate, a big
deep one, with the pastry, trim off the edges with a knife, cutting from
you. Fill the dish with the fruit, dust the surface well with flour.
Roll out the other piece for the top crust, fold it over the rolling
pin, cut a few gashes in it for a steam vent.

Carefully put on the top crust, trim it well about the edge of the
pie-plate. Press it closely together with the end of your thumb or with
a pastry knife and stand the pie in a moderate oven and bake till the
surface is a delicate brown. Then remove the pie and let it stand until
it is cool.

The top crust may be made lattice fashion by cutting the pastry in
strips, but it will not be as good as between two closed crusts.


Line the pie-plate with a rich crust. Beat up four eggs light with
one-half cup of sugar, a pinch of salt, one pint of milk and grated
nutmeg or grated lemon peel, and pour in shell and bake in slow oven.


First line a pie-plate with puff paste and bake, and then make a cream
of the yolks of four eggs, a little more than a pint of milk, one
tablespoon of cornstarch and four tablespoons of sugar, and flavor with
two teaspoons of vanilla. Pour on crust and bake; beat up the whites
with two tablespoons of powdered sugar and half a teaspoon of cream of
tartar. Spread on top of pie and set back in the oven until baked a
light brown.


Line a pie-plate with puff paste and fill with the following custard:
Butter size of an egg, creamed with one cup of granulated sugar, one
tablespoon of flour, three-fourths cup of grated cocoanut, one
tablespoon of milk, vanilla, pinch of salt, and the beaten whites of
three eggs.


Beat the yolks of six eggs and one cup of sugar until very light,
squeeze in the juice of three lemons and the rind of two of them, stir
well, then add one-half of a cocoanut grated, and lastly add the whites
of six eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. Line a deep pie-plate with rich
pastry, sprinkle a little flour over it, pour in the lemon mixture and
bake. This makes one pie in deep pie-plate.


Cover the reverse side of a deep pie-plate with a rich puff paste, and
bake a light brown. Remove from the oven until the filling is prepared.
Take a large juicy lemon, grate and peel and squeeze out every drop of
juice. Now take the lemon and put it into a cup of boiling water to
extract every particle of juice. Put the cup of water on to boil with
the lemon juice and grated peel, and a cup of sugar; beat up the yolks
of four eggs very light and add to this gradually the boiling lemon
juice. Return to the kettle and boil. Then wet a teaspoon of cornstarch
with a very little cold water, and add also a teaspoon of butter and
when the boiling mixture has thickened remove from the fire and let it
cool. Beat up the whites of the eggs to a very stiff froth, add half of
the froth to the lemon mixture and reserve the other half for the top of
the pie. Bake the lemon cream in the baked pie-crust. Add a few
tablespoons of powdered sugar and half a teaspoon of cream of tartar to
the remaining beaten whites. If you desire to have the meringue extra
thick, add the whites of one or more eggs. When the pie is baked take
from the oven just long enough to spread the meringue over the top, and
set back for two or three minutes, leaving the oven doors open just the
least bit, so as not to have it brown too quickly.


Line a deep pie-plate with nice crust, then prepare a filling as
follows: After removing the crust from two slices of bread about two
inches thick, pour over it one cup of boiling water; add one
dessertspoon of butler, and beat until the bread is well soaked and
smooth; then add the juice and rind of one lemon, one cup of sugar, the
yolks of two eggs, well beaten, and a little salt; mix well; fill pie
with mixture and bake in hot oven until firm. Beat white of two eggs to
a stiff froth, add four tablespoons of powdered sugar and spread on top
and brown.


Pare, core, and chop fine eight tart apples. Add one cup of seedless
raisins, one-half cup of currants, one ounce of chopped citron, one-half
teaspoon each of cinnamon, cloves, spice and mace, a tiny bit of salt
and grated nutmeg. Pour over whole one tablespoon of brandy, and juice
and rind of one lemon. Line bottom and sides of plate with crust, fill
in with mixture, and put strips of dough across.


Boil two pounds lean, fresh beef. When cold, chop fine. Add one-half
pound chopped suet, shredded very fine, and all gristle removed. Mix in
a bowl two pounds of seeded raisins, two pounds of currants, one-half
pound of citron, chopped very fine. Two tablespoons of cinnamon, two
tablespoons of mace, one grated nutmeg, one tablespoon of cloves,
allspice, and salt. Mix this with meat and suet. Then take two cups of
white wine, two and one-half pounds of brown sugar. Let stand. Chop fine
four apples, and add meat to fruits. Then mix wine with whole, stir
well, and put up in small stone jars. This will keep all winter in a
cool place. Let stand at least two days before using. Line pie-plates
with a rich crust, fill with mince meat mixture, put a rich paste crust
on top, or strips if preferred, prick slightly and bake. Serve warm, not


Press through a sieve one pint of stewed pumpkin, add four eggs and a
scant cup of sugar. Beat yolks and sugar together until very thick and
add one pint of milk to the beaten eggs. Then add the pressed pumpkin,
one-half teaspoon of cinnamon, less than one-half teaspoon of mace and
grated nutmeg. Stir the stiffly-beaten whites in last. Bake in a very
rich crust without cover.


Squeeze out the pulps and put them in one vessel, the skins into
another. Then simmer the pulp a little and press it through a colander
to separate the seeds. Then put the skins and pulps together and they
are ready for the pies.


Line a pie-plate with rich pastry. Pick, clean and wash one pint of
huckleberries, drain and lay them thickly on the crust. Sprinkle thickly
with sugar, lightly with cinnamon, and drop bits of butter over the top.
Bake a nice even brown.


One cup of butter, and a little salt; cut through just enough flour to
thoroughly mix, a cup of ice-water, one whole egg and the yolks of two
eggs mixed with a tablespoon of brown sugar. Add to the flour in which
you have previously sifted two teaspoons of baking-powder. Handle the
dough as little as possible in mixing. Bake in round rings in a hot oven
until a light brown. When baked, sift pulverized sugar over the top and
fill the hollow centre with a compote of peaches. Heap whipped cream or
ice-cream on top of each one, the latter being preferable.


Cover the bottom of pie-plate with rich crust; reserve enough for upper
crust. For filling use two cups of cranberries, cut in halves; one cup
of raisins, cut in pieces; two cups of sugar, butter the size of walnut.
Dredge with flour, sprinkle with water. Bake thirty minutes in a
moderate oven.


Line a pie-plate with a rich crust and bake, then fill with a layer of
sweetened grated peaches which have had a few pounded peach kernels
added to them. Whip one cup of rich cream, sweeten and flavor and spread
over the peaches. Set in ice-chest until wanted.


Line a pie-plate with a rich pie-crust, cover thickly with peaches that
have been pared and sliced fine (canned peaches may be used when others
are not to be had), adding; sugar and cover with strips of dough; bake


Pare, stone, and slice the peaches. Line a deep pie-plate with a rich
paste, sprinkle a little flour over the bottom crust and lay in your
fruit, sprinkle sugar liberally over them in proportion to their
sweetness. Add a few peach kernels, pounded fine, to each pie and bake
with crossbars of paste across the top. If you want it extra fine, with
the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth and sweeten with about four
tablespoons of pulverized sugar, adding one-fourth of a teaspoon of
cream tartar, spread over the pie and return to the oven until the
meringue is set. Eat cold.


Line your pie-plate with a rich paste, slice pineapples as thin as
possible, sprinkle sugar over them abundantly and put flakes of sugar
here and there. Cover and bake.

You may make pineapple pies according to any of the plain apple pie


Pare and core the pineapple and cut into small slices and sprinkle
abundantly with sugar and set it away in a covered dish to draw enough
juice to stew the pineapple in. Bake two shells on perforated pie-plates
of a rich pie dough. When the pineapple is stewed soft enough to mash,
mash it and set it away to cool. When the crust is baked and cool whip
half a pint of sweet cream and mix with the pineapple and fill in the
baked shell.


Use one-half pound of prunes, cooked until soft enough to remove the
stones. Mash with a fork and add the juice in which they have been
cooked; one-half cup of raisins, cooked in a little water for a few
minutes until soft; add to the prune mixture with one-half cup of sugar;
a little ground clove or lemon juice improves the flavor. Bake with two


Make a rich pie paste. After the paste is rolled out thin and the
pie-plate lined with it, put in a layer of prunes that have been stewed
the day before, with the addition of several slices of lemon and no

Split the prunes in halves and remove the pits before laying them on the
pie crust.

After the first layer is in sprinkle it well with sugar, then pour over
the sugar three or four tablespoons of the prune juice and dust the
surface lightly with flour.

Repeat this process till there are three layers, then cut enough of the
paste in strips to cover the top of the fruit with a lattice crust and
bake the pie in a rather quick oven.

Few pies can excel this in daintiness of flavor.


Select large purple plums, about fifteen plums for a good-sized pie; cut
them in halves, remove the kernels and dip each half in flour. Line your
pie-tin with a rich paste and lay in the plums, close together, and
sprinkle thickly with a whole cup of sugar. Lay strips of paste across
the top, into bars, also a strip around the rim, and press all around
the edge with a pointed knife or fork, which will make a fancy border.
Sift powdered sugar on top. Damson pie is made in the same way. Eat


Make a very rich crust, and over the bottom layer sprinkle a large
tablespoon of sugar and a good teaspoon of flour. Fill half-full of
rhubarb that has been cut up, scatter in one-fourth cup of strawberries
or raspberries, sprinkle with more sugar and flour, and then proceed as
before. Over the top dot bits of butter and another dusting of flour.
Use a good cup of sugar to a pie. Pinch the crusts together well after
wetting them, to prevent the juice, which should be so thick that it
does not soak through the lower crust at all, from cooking out.


Make a rich fleischig pie-crust and bake on the reverse side of pie-pan.
Pick a quart of berries, wash and drain, then sugar. Take the yolks of
four eggs beaten well with one-half cup of sugar and stir the beaten
whites gently into this mixture. Pour over strawberries. Put in
pie-crust and bake until brown. This mixture with most all fruit pies
will be found delicious.


Measure one cup of mashed, boiled sweet potatoes. Thin with one pint of
sweet milk. Beat three whole eggs very light with one-half cup of sugar.
Mix with sweet potatoes. Season with one-quarter of a nutmeg grated, one
teaspoon of cinnamon, and one-half teaspoon of lemon extract. Line
pie-plate with crust, fill with mixture, and bake in quick oven.


Line a pie-plate with a rich crust and fill with the following mixture:
One cup of vinegar, two of water and two cups of sugar, boil; add a lump
of butter and enough cornstarch to thicken; flavor with lemon essence
and put in a shell and bake.


Line a form with a rich puff paste, fill with half a pound of white mohn
(poppy seed) which has been previously soaked in milk and then ground.
Add a quarter of a pound of sugar and the yolks of six eggs; stir all
together in one direction until quite thick. Then stir the beaten
whites, to which add two ounces of sifted flour and a quarter of a pound
of melted butter. Fill and bake. When done, frost either with vanilla or
rose frosting.


Line pie pan with rounds of rich pastry, fill with same mixture as for
"Banbury Tarts"; cover with a round of pastry and bake a light brown.


Chop one cup of rhubarb and one cup of raisins together, add two
tablespoons of melted butter or chicken fat, grated rind and juice of
one lemon, one cup of sugar, one well beaten egg, one-quarter cup of
bread or cracker crumbs, one-half teaspoon of salt; mix all ingredients
thoroughly. Bake between two rounds of pastry. Canned rhubarb may be


In baking small cakes and cookies, grease the pans. If the pans cool
before you can take off the cookies, set back on stove for a few
moments. The cakes will then slip off easily. Sponge, drop cakes, anise
cakes, etc., are better baked on floured pans.

A whole raisin, an almond blanched, a piece of citron or half a walnut
may be used to decorate.

A good way to glaze is, when cookies are about baked, rub over with a
brush dipped in sugar and water and return to oven a moment.


Make a paste by working three-fourths pound of butter into one pound of
flour, with three-fourths pound of light brown sugar, one egg, one
teaspoon of cinnamon, and a pinch of salt.

Next mix one-half pound of finely chopped citron peel with one-half
pound of ground almonds, and three ounces of butter. Then flavor with
one-half teaspoon of vanilla and bind with the yolks of two eggs.

Roll out the dough and divide into two parts. Place one-half on a
well-buttered flat pan and spread the mixture over it and cover with the
other half of the paste. Brush with beaten egg, sprinkle with poppy seed
and bake in a moderately quick oven for one-half hour. When done let
cool and then cut into square or oblong pieces.

The butter cakes may be made of one layer of dough sprinkled with citron
and almonds and some poppy seed.


In a mixing bowl put a cup of sweet butter and two cups of granulated
sugar; beat these ingredients to a cream, then add three eggs, grated
lemon rind, and four tablespoons of brandy. Beat the added ingredients
thoroughly with the others till the mixture is smooth and creamy. Sift
three cups of flour in a big bowl with a teaspoon of salt and three
teaspoons of baking-powder; stir this a little at a time in the bowl
with the other ingredients, until the mixture is a light dough, just
stiff enough to roll out. If there is not enough flour, sift more in to
make the dough the desired stiffness; then dust the pastry board well
with flour, put part of the dough on the board, toss it lightly with
your hands from side to side till the dough is covered with flour. Then
dust the rolling-pin well with flour and roll the dough very thin; cut
it in shapes with a cookie cutter, lift each cookie up carefully with a
pancake turner, slip them quickly in a big baking-pan, the inside of
which has been well rubbed with flour, and bake them in a moderate oven
till light brown.

Just a moment before taking the pan out of the oven sprinkle the surface
of the cookies lightly with granulated sugar. When a little cool take
the cookies out of the pan with the pancake turner and lay them on a big
platter. When they are cold put the cookies in a stone crock.

It is a good plan to have two or three baking-pans so, while one panful
is baking, another may be filled and be ready to put in the oven when
the other is removed. Only put enough dough on the pastry board at a
time to roll out nicely on it.


Take one pound of butter one pound of sugar, yolks of six eggs,
hard-boiled, and flour enough to make a dough that is not too stiff.

Dissolve three cents worth of ammonia (hartshorn) in scalded milk. Place
the ammonia in a large bowl and pour one cup of scalding milk over it.
After this has cooled add it to the dough with one-half cup of cold
milk. Flavor to taste. Flour the pans and the cookie dough. Roll and
proceed as with sugar cookies.


Take ten boiled eggs and two raw ones, one pound of best butter, half a
pound of almonds, one lemon, some cinnamon one wineglass of brandy, one
pound of pulverized sugar and about one pound and a half of flour. This
quantity makes one hundred cookies, and like fruit cake, age improves
them, in other words, the older the better. Now to begin with: Set a
dish of boiling water on the stove, when it boils hard, break the eggs
carefully, one at a time, dropping the whites in a deep porcelain dish,
and set away in a cool place. Take each yolk as you break the egg and
put it in a half shell, and lay it in the boiling water until you have
ten boiling. When boiled hard take them up and lay them on a plate to
cool. In the meantime, cream the butter with a pound of pulverized
sugar, add the grated peel of a lemon, a teaspoon of cinnamon and half
of the almonds, which have been blanched and pounded or grated (reserve
the other half for the top of the cookies, which should not be grated,
but pounded). Add the hard-boiled yolks, which must be grated, and the
two raw eggs, sift in the flour, and add the brandy. Beat up the whites
of the twelve eggs very stiff, add half to the dough, reserving the
other half, but do not make the dough stiff, as it should be so rich
that you can hardly handle it. Flour the baking-board well, roll out
about an eighth of an inch thick. Now spread with the reserved whites of
eggs, reserving half again, as you will have to roll out at least twice
on a large baking-board. Sprinkle well with the pounded almonds after
you have spread the beaten whites of the eggs on top, also sugar and
cinnamon. Cut with a cookie-cutter. Have at least five large pans
greased ready to receive them. See that you have a good fire. Time to
bake, five to ten minutes. Pack them away when cold in a stone jar or
tin cake-box. These cookies will keep a long time.


Rub one cup of butter and one cup of sugar to a cream; add two eggs and
two level teaspoons of baking-powder, flour enough to make a dough.
Flavor with vanilla, roll very thin, spread with beaten white of egg and
sugar. Proceed as for sugar cookies.


Put in a mixing bowl one generous cup of butter which has stood in a
warm place until quite soft; add two cups of New Orleans molasses; whip
these ingredients to a foam; then add two teaspoons of powdered ginger,
one teaspoon of powdered cinnamon and grate in half a large nutmeg; stir
these spices well through the mixture; then dissolve two teaspoons of
baking-soda in half a cup of hot water; stir it through the mixture, and
last, stir in enough sifted flour to make a light dough just stiff
enough to roll out.

Dust the pastry board well with flour and rub the rolling-pin well with
flour; then flour the hands well, take out some of the dough, put it on
the pastry board, quickly roll it out to the thickness of a quarter of
an inch; cut the dough out with a round cutter, with or without
scallops, and put them in well-floured baking-pans and bake in a slow
oven till a golden brown.


Take one cup of butter, one cup of sugar, two or three eggs, and
two-thirds of a cup of sour milk. Dissolve a teaspoon of soda in a
little hot water; add part of it at a time to the milk until it foams as
you stir it. Be careful not to get in too much. Mix up soft only using
flour sufficient to roll out thin. A teaspoon of cardamom seed may be
sprinkled into the dough.


Scant one-quarter of a pound of almonds, blanched and grated; scant
one-half pound of sweet butter; not quite three-quarters of a pound of
flour; a little sugar and a pinch of salt, and two yolks. Mix this well,
pound the dough well with the rolling-pin, then roll out not too thin.


Sift one pound of flour and one pound of pulverized sugar into a large
bowl, four eggs, a piece of citron grated or chopped very fine, also the
peel of a lemon, one whole nutmeg grated, one tablespoon of ground
cinnamon, one-half teaspoon of ground cloves, and half a teaspoon of
allspice. Mix all thoroughly in a deep bowl. Sift a heaping teaspoon of
baking-powder in with the flour. Work into little balls as large as
hickory nuts with buttered or floured hands. Bake on waxed or buttered
tins, an inch apart.


Four eggs, not separated, but thoroughly beaten, then add one and
one-half cups of granulated sugar, and beat for thirty minutes; add two
heaping cups of flour and fourteen drops of anise seed oil; drop from a
teaspoon on well-buttered pans, and bake in a moderate oven. It will
improve them to let them stand from two to three hours in the pans
before baking.


Boil six eggs hard. When cold shell and grate the yolks (reserve the
whites for salads or to garnish vegetables), add one-half pound of
sugar, the grated peel of a lemon and one-half wineglass of brandy. Stir
in one-half pound of butter which has been worked to a cream. Sift in as
much flour as you think will allow you to roll out the dough; take as
little as possible, a little over half a pound, and flour the board
very thick. Put in about two cents worth of cardamom seed and a little
rosewater. Cut out with a fancy cake-cutter and brush with beaten egg.
Sprinkle pounded almonds and sugar on top.


Take two cups of flour, one tablespoon of sugar, add four eggs and two
tablespoons of oil; knead all these together, roll out not very thin,
cut in squares, close two sides, prick with a fork so they will not
blister; put on tins and bake well. Then take one pound of honey, boil,
and put the squares in this and let boil a bit; then drop in one-quarter
pound of poppy seeds and put back on fire. When nice and brown sprinkle
with a little cold water, take off and put on another dish so they do
not stick to each other.


To one pound of flour take one teaspoon of baking-powder, four eggs,
one-quarter pound of poppy seeds, three tablespoons of oil, two pounds
of sugar and a little salt; knead not too stiff and put on tins and bake
in hot oven till a nice brown. (Do not let burn.)


Mix one pound of flour, one teaspoon of baking-powder, three tablespoons
of oil, and four eggs; knead very well. Roll out in strips three inches
long, place on tins and bake. Take a pound of chopped nuts, one-half
pound of honey, and one-half pound of sugar; mix thoroughly with wooden
spoon and boil with the cakes until brown. Take off the stove; wet with
cold water, spread out on board. When cold, pat with the hands to make
thin and sprinkle with dry ginger.


Boil one pound of pure honey. Take one pound of cornmeal mixed with a
little ground allspice, cloves, and pepper, add the boiled honey, make a
loose batter, add one wineglass of brandy; mix all, and cool. Wet the
hands with cold water, take pieces of the dough and knead until the
dough comes clear from the hand; afterwards knead with white flour so it
is not too hard; add one pound of chopped nuts, sprinkle flour on tins,
spread dough, not too thin; leave the stove door open till it raises;
then close door, and when done take out. Spread with brandy and cut in
thin slices.


Blanch and cut in halves three-fourths pound of shelled almonds, and
slice one-half pound of citron; mix well together and roll in a little
flour; add to them three-fourths pound of sugar, then six eggs well
beaten, and last the rest of the flour (three-fourths pound). Butter
shallow pans, and put in the mixture about two inches thick; after it is
baked in a quick oven slice cake in strips three-fourths of an inch wide
and turn each piece. Put back in oven and bake a little longer. When
cold put away in tin box.


Two pounds of soup fat rendered a day or two before using, three pints
of flour, one teaspoon of salt, two-thirds cup of granulated sugar, one
teaspoon of baking-powder, two teaspoons of vanilla, flour. Knead well,
add enough beer to be able to roll. Let it stand two hours.

Roll, cut in long strips three inches wide. Fill with the following: One
and one-half cups of brown sugar, two tablespoons of honey, two pounds
of walnuts chopped fine, one pound of stewed prunes chopped fine, two
cups of sponge cake crumbs, juice of one lemon, spices to taste, few
raisins and currants, and a little citron chopped fine; add a little
wine, a little chicken schmalz; heat a few minutes. You may use up
remnants of jellies, jams, marmalades, etc. Put plenty of filling in
centre of strips, fold over, with a round stick (use a wooden spoon),
press the dough firmly three inches apart, then with a knife cut them
apart. They will be the shape of the fig bars you buy. Grease the pan
and the top of cakes, and bake in moderate oven. They will keep--the
longer the better.


Blanch half a pound of almonds, pound in mortar to a smooth paste, add
one pound of pulverized sugar and the beaten whites of four eggs, and
work the paste well together with the back of a spoon. Dip your hands in
water and roll the mixture into balls the size of a hickory nut and lay
on buttered or waxed paper an inch apart. When done, dip your hands in
water and pass gently over the macaroons, making the surface smooth and
shiny. Set in a cool oven three-quarters of an hour.


Prepare the almonds by blanching them in boiling water. Strip them of
the skins and lay them on a clean towel to dry. Grate or pound one-half
pound of almonds, beat the whites of five eggs to a stiff, very stiff
froth; stir in gradually three-quarters of a pound of pulverized sugar
(use confectioner's sugar if you can get it), and then add the pounded
almonds, to which add a tablespoon of rosewater or a teaspoon of essence
of bitter almonds. Line a broad baking-pan with buttered or waxed paper
and drop upon this half a teaspoon of the mixture at a time, allowing
room enough to prevent their running together. Sift powdered sugar over
them and bake in a quick oven to a delicate brown. If the mixture has
been well beaten they will not run. Try one on a piece of paper before
you venture to bake them all. If it runs add a little more sugar.


Beat stiff the whites of three eggs, add one-half pound of sugar, and
one-half pound of finely cut figs, one-half pound of either blanched
almonds cut into long slices, or cut up walnuts. Heat a large pan, pass
ironing-wax over surface, lay in waxed paper, and drop spoonfuls of
mixture on paper, same distance apart. Bake very slowly in very moderate
oven. Remove and let cool; then take paper out with the macaroons, turn
over and place hot cloths on wrong; side, when cakes will drop off.


Take one-half glass of fat, two eggs, four cups of flour, two teaspoons
of baking-powder, one cup of water, one-half cup of sugar; knead
lightly, and roll out not too thin. Two cups of sugar, mix with two
teaspoons of cinnamon; one-half pound of grated almonds, one-half pound
of small raisins (washed). Reserve one-half of the sugar and cinnamon,
the nuts and raisins; brush the dough with melted fat and sprinkle with
almonds and sugar. Put a little of the almond and raisin mixture around
the edge and roll around twice. Cut in small pieces, brush every piece
with fat, and roll in the sugar and almonds which has been reserved for
this purpose. Place in greased pan and bake in hot oven.


Grind two cups of almonds and reserve one-quarter cup each of sugar and
nuts, and an egg yolk for decorating. Cream one cup of butter, add
three-fourths cup of sugar, then two whole eggs, almonds and two cups of
flour. Roll thin and cut in strips or squares, with fluted cookie
cutter. Brush with yolk, sprinkle with nuts and sugar, set aside, and
bake in medium oven.


Sift one cup of flour and one teaspoon of salt together. Chop in one
tablespoon of butter, and add milk to make a very stiff dough; chop
thoroughly and knead until smooth; make into small balls and roll each
one into a thin wafer. Place in shallow greased and floured pans and
bake in a hot oven until they puff and are brown.


Take an equal quantity of flour, sugar and butter, and mix it well by
rubbing with the hollow of the hands until small grains are formed. Then
add one cup of poppy seed, two eggs, and enough Rhine wine to hold the
dough together. Roll out the dough on a well-floured board, about half a
finger in thickness, cut into any shape desired.


Beat three-quarters of a pound of butter and a pound of sugar to a
cream; add three eggs, one saltspoon of salt, a gill of caraway seeds
and a teaspoon of powdered mace, stirring all well together to a cream;
then pour in a cup of sour milk in which a level teaspoon of baking-soda
is stirred.

Hold the cup over the mixing bowl while stirring in the soda, as it will
foam over the cup. Last of all stir in enough sifted flour to make a
light dough, stiff enough to roll thin. Roll on a pastry board well
dusted with flour. Cut in round shapes and place in baking-tins well
rubbed with flour.

Sprinkle a little sugar over the cookies and bake them in a moderate
oven till a light brown. When cool, carefully lift the cookies from the
pans with a pancake turner.


Take one-half cup of butter and one cup and a half of sugar, and rub to
a cream. Add two eggs, three-quarters of a cup of milk; one-half cup of
citron, cut up very fine, one teaspoon of allspice and one of cloves.
Sift one heaping teaspoon of baking-powder into enough flour to thicken.
Make stiffer than ordinary cup cake dough; flavor to suit taste, and
drop on large tins with a teaspoon. Grease the pans, and bake in a
quick oven. The best plan is to try one on a plate. If the dough runs
too much add more flour.


Take one cup of butter, one cup of sugar, one cup of molasses, half a
cup of cold coffee, with two teaspoons of soda, one teaspoon of ginger,
and flour enough to make a dough stiff enough to roll out thin. Shape
with cutter and bake in quick oven.


Take the yolks of five eggs, one-half pound of sugar, one tablespoon of
water, vanilla, one-half pound of flour, one teaspoon of baking-powder,
one-half of five cents worth anise seeds, and the beaten whites of the
eggs. Butter square tins and bake. When cooled cut in strips one inch
wide and toast on both sides.


Sift one cup of flour with two teaspoons of baking-powder, one teaspoon
of salt, add one cup of rolled oats, one tablespoon of sugar and two
tablespoons of melted butter, mix with one-half cup of milk.

Drop by teaspoons onto a greased pan, press well into each two or three
raisins, or a split date and bake for twenty minutes in a hot oven. Can
be served with butter, honey, or maple sugar.


Take one cup of pulverized sugar, and one cup of finely-pounded nut
meats, the unbeaten whites of two eggs, two heaping teaspoons of flour,
and one scant teaspoon of baking-powder. Mix these ingredients together
and drop from a teaspoon which, you have previously dipped in cold
water, upon buttered paper. Do not put them too near each other, for
they always spread a great deal. Bake about fifteen minutes.


Stone thirty dates; chop them fine. Cut one-half pound of almonds
lengthwise in slices, but do not blanch them. Beat the whites of two
eggs until foamy, add one cup of powdered sugar, and beat until stiff;
add the dates, then the almonds, and mix very thoroughly. Drop mixture
with teaspoon in small piles on tins, one-half inch apart. Bake thirty
minutes in a very slow oven or until dry. They are done when they leave
the pan readily.


Blanch two cups of almonds and dry them overnight. Grind very fine, add
one-half cup of sugar and enough butter to knead into a very stiff
paste. Roll very thin, cut in small rounds, place in baking-tin in
moderate oven. When done, roll in grated almonds and powdered sugar.


Beat the white of one egg; add one-half cup of sugar with a flavoring of
vanilla, fold in one cup of shredded cocoanut, drop by teaspoonfuls on a
well-greased baking-pan, inverted, and bake for about ten or twelve
minutes in a slow oven. Remove from pan when cookies are cold.


Mix the whites of two eggs, beaten stiff, with one-half cup of sugar,
add one-half cup of shredded cocoanut, fold in two cups of corn flakes,
a pinch of salt, one-half teaspoon of vanilla. Make and bake same as
kisses above.


Beat whites of three eggs to a snow, add three-fourths cup of powdered
sugar, one cup of ground sweet chocolate, one cup of walnuts chopped,
three tablespoons of flour. Drop by teaspoonful on greased baking-tin.
Bake in slow oven.


Take half a pound of strained honey, half a pound of sifted powdered
sugar, half a pound of almonds (cut in half lengthwise), half a pound of
finest flour, one ounce of citron (cut or chopped extremely fine), peel
of a lemon, a little grated nutmeg, also a pinch of ground cloves and a
wineglass of brandy. Set the honey and sugar over the fire together, put
in the almonds, stir all up thoroughly. Next put in the spices and work
into a dough. Put away in a cold place for a week, then roll about as
thick as a finger. Bake in a quick oven and cut into strips with a sharp
knife after they are baked (do this while hot), cut three inches long
and two inches wide.


One pound of real honey, not jar; one cup of granulated sugar, four
eggs, one tablespoon of allspice, three tablespoons of salad-oil, four
cups of flour, well sifted; three teaspoons of baking-powder. Warm up or
heat honey, not hot, just warm. Rub yolks well with sugar, beat whites
to a froth, then mix ingredients, add flour and bake in moderate oven
for one hour.


Three eggs, not separated, beaten with one cup of sugar, one cup of
honey, one cup of blanched almonds chopped finely, one teaspoon each of
allspice, cloves, and cinnamon, one cup of chocolate and flour enough to
make a thick batter; one teaspoon of baking-soda. Spread very thin on
square, buttered pans, bake in a hot oven, and when done, spread with a
white icing, cut into squares, and put a half blanched almond in the
centre of each square.


This recipe is one that is used in Palestine. It makes a honey cake not
nearly as rich as those in the foregoing recipes for honey cakes, but
will very nicely take the place of a sweet cracker to serve with tea.

Take three cups of sifted flour, one-quarter teaspoon of salt, add three
eggs, one teaspoon of allspice, one teaspoon of soda, the grated rind
and juice of one-half lemon and three tablespoons of honey, mix all
ingredients well. Roll on board to one-fourth inch in thickness and cut
with form. Brush with white of egg or honey diluted with water. On each
cake put an almond or walnut. Bake in moderate oven from fifteen to
twenty minutes.


Four eggs, one pound of brown sugar; beat well. Add one-eighth pound of
citron shredded, one-eighth pound of shelled walnuts (broken), one and
one-half cups of flour, one teaspoon of baking-powder, two teaspoons of
cinnamon, one-fourth teaspoon of allspice. Spread the dough in long pans
with well-floured hands, have about one and one-half inches thick. Bake
in very moderate oven. When baked, cut in squares and spread with icing.
Set in a cool stove or the sun to dry.

It is best to let these cakes and all honey cakes stand a week before


Heat one cup of molasses, mix it with two cups of brown sugar and three
eggs, reserving one white for the icing; add one level teaspoon of
baking-soda that has been dissolved in a little milk, then put in
alternately a little flour and a cup of milk; now add one tablespoon of
mixed spices, half cup of brandy, one small cup each of chopped nuts and
citron, and lastly, flour enough to make a stiff batter. Place in
shallow pans and bake slowly. When done, cover with icing and cut in
squares or strips.

*Icing for Lebkuchen.*--One cup of powdered sugar added to the beaten
white of one egg; flavor with one teaspoon of brandy or lemon juice.



Take two cups of milk, two eggs or the yolks of three eggs, two
tablespoons of sugar and one-half teaspoon of vanilla. Put the milk on
to heat in a double boiler. Beat the eggs thoroughly with the sugar;
into them pour the hot milk, stirring to prevent lumps. Return all to
the double boiler and cook until the custard coats the spoon, but no
longer. If the mixture should curdle, set the boiler in a pan of cold
water and beat with a wire egg-beater until smooth. When the steam
passes off add the vanilla, or other flavoring.

In the winter, when eggs are expensive, the custard may be made with one
egg and one heaping teaspoon of cornstarch dissolved in a little cold

If desired, the whites of the eggs may be beaten separately and added to
the custard after it is cold or beaten with sugar into a meringue.


Melt one-half cup of sugar until it is light brown in color, add four
cups of scalded milk. Beat the eggs, add the milk and sugar, one-quarter
teaspoon of salt, one teaspoon of vanilla and bake in cups as directed
for cup custard. Serve with caramel sauce.


Stir until quite light four eggs, yolks and whites, and four tablespoons
of sugar; have ready four cups of scalded milk; mix, add pinch of salt
and one teaspoon of good vanilla; pour into cups and place cups into pan
of boiling water. Put into oven and bake exactly twenty-five minutes.


Beat yolks of three eggs, three tablespoons of sugar till light,
dissolve one heaping tablespoon of grated unsweetened chocolate, one
tablespoon of sugar and one of hot water. When dissolved, add slowly one
pint of milk heated to boiling, pour this hot mixture over the beaten
eggs and sugar, cook in double boiler, stirring constantly till it
thickens; when cool, flavor with vanilla, and place on ice. When ready
to serve, half-fill small punch glasses with the custard, heap over
them sweetened whipped cream, flavored; putting on top of each glass,
and serve cold.


Take one quart of milk, one and one-half cups of sugar, seven heaping
tablespoons of cocoa, six level tablespoons of cornstarch, one
tablespoon of vanilla; place milk and sugar up to boil, when boiling,
add cocoa, dissolved to a smooth paste; then add cornstarch dissolved in
cold water, let come to a boil, remove from fire and add the vanilla;
then place in mold and allow to get cold. Serve with whipped cream.


Heat one quart of milk to boiling point. Dissolve four large tablespoons
of cornstarch in a quarter cup of cold milk. Beat two whole eggs with
one-half cup of sugar until light, and add a tiny pinch of salt. When
the milk begins to boil, add a piece of butter, size of a hickory nut,
then pour it over the well-beaten eggs and sugar, mix well, and put back
on the stove. Stir until it begins to boil, then stir in the dissolved
cornstarch until the custard is very thick. Remove from the fire, flavor
with vanilla or lemon, pour into a mold, and set on ice till very cold
and firm. Serve with cream.


Beat light the yolks of three eggs with one-quarter cup of sugar. Scald
a pint of milk, beat up the whites of three eggs very stiff and put them
into the boiling milk, a spoonful at a time. Take out the boiled whites
and lay them on a platter; now pour the hot milk gradually on the beaten
yolks, when thoroughly mixed, return to the fire to boil. When it begins
to thicken remove. When cool, flavor with vanilla or bitter almond. Pour
into a deep glass dish; put the whites on top, and garnish with jelly or
candied fruit. Eat cold.


Take a half-pint glass of red raspberry or currant juice and mix it with
a quarter cup of sugar. Beat the whites of four eggs to a stiff froth
and add gradually a quarter cup of powdered sugar. Press the raspberries
through a strainer to avoid seeds and by degrees beat the juice with the
sugar and eggs until so stiff that it stands in peaks. Chill it
thoroughly and serve in a glass dish half filled with cold whipped
cream. Heap on the mixture by the spoonful, like floating island. If
currant juice is used it will require a pint of sugar.


Take one cup of currant juice, sufficiently sweetened, and a pinch of
salt. Let this boil and add to it enough cornstarch to render it
moderately thick and then boil again for ten minutes. It should be eaten
cold with cream. (About one-quarter cup of cornstarch dissolved in cold
water will be sufficient to thicken.)


Peel and grate one large sour apple, sprinkling over it three-fourths
cup of powdered sugar as it is grated to keep it from turning dark. Add
the unbeaten whites of two eggs; beat constantly for half an hour;
arrange mound fashion on a glass dish with cold boiled custard around


Stir together and whip one pint of double cream and one pint of grape
juice or grape jelly melted, this must be whipped to a froth. Drain if
needed. Put in cups and set on ice for several hours. Serve with lady


Soak one-half pound of prunes in cold water overnight. In the morning
let them simmer in this water until they are very soft. Remove stones
and rub through strainer. Add one-half cup of sugar and cook five
minutes or until the consistency of marmalade. When the fruit mixture is
cold, add the well-beaten whites of three eggs and one-half teaspoon of
lemon juice; add this gradually, then heap lightly in buttered dish and
bake twenty minutes in a slow oven. Serve cold with thin custard or


Beat four eggs light with one cup of sugar. Add one cup of cooked rice,
two cups of sweet milk, juice and rind of one lemon, one-half teaspoon
of cinnamon. Pour in pudding-pan and place in a pan filled with hot
water; bake until firm in moderate oven. Serve with lemon sauce.


Heat a little more than a pint of sweet milk to the boiling point, then
stir in gradually a little cold milk in which you have rubbed smooth a
heaping tablespoon of butter and a little nutmeg. Let this just come to
a boil, then pour into a buttered pudding-dish, first adding one cup of
stewed prune with the stones taken out. Bake for fifteen to twenty
minutes, according to the state of oven. A little cream improves it when
it is served in the saucers.


Soak four tablespoons of tapioca overnight in one quart of sweet milk.
In the morning beat the yolks of three eggs with one cup of sugar. Put
the milk and tapioca on in a double boiler, adding a pinch of salt; when
this comes to boiling point stir in the eggs and sugar. Beat the whites
to a stiff froth and stir quickly and delicately into the hot mixture.
Flavor with vanilla. Eat cold.


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