The Interpreters of Genesis and the Interpreters of Nature This is Essay #4 from "Science and Hebrew Tradition"
Thomas Henry Huxley

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The Interpreters of Genesis and the Interpreters of Nature
by Thomas Henry Huxley
This is Essay #4 from "Science and Hebrew Tradition"

Our fabulist warns "those who in quarrels interpose" of the fate
which is probably in store for them; and, in venturing to place
myself between so powerful a controversialist as Mr. Gladstone
and the eminent divine whom he assaults with such vigour in the
last number of this Review,<1> I am fully aware that I run great
danger of verifying Gay's prediction. Moreover, it is quite
possible that my zeal in offering aid to a combatant so
extremely well able to take care of himself as M. Reville may be
thought to savour of indiscretion.

Two considerations, however, have led me to face the double
risk. The one is that though, in my judgment, M. Reville is
wholly in the right in that part of the controversy to which I
propose to restrict my observations, nevertheless he, as a
foreigner, has very little chance of making the truth prevail
with Englishmen against the authority and the dialectic skill of
the greatest master of persuasive rhetoric among English-
speaking men of our time. As the Queen's proctor intervenes, in
certain cases, between two litigants in the interests of
justice, so it may be permitted me to interpose as a sort of
uncommissioned science proctor. My second excuse for my
meddlesomeness is, that important questions of natural science--
respecting which neither of the combatants professes to speak as
an expert--are involved in the controversy; and I think it is
desirable that the public should know what it is that natural
science really has to say on these topics, to the best belief of
one who has been a diligent student of natural science for the
last forty years.

The original "Prolegomenes de l'Histoire des Religions" has not
come in my way; but I have read the translation of M. Reville's
work, published in England under the auspices of Professor Max
Muller, with very great interest. It puts more fairly and
clearly than any book previously known to me, the view which a
man of strong religious feelings, but at the same time
possessing the information and the reasoning power which enable
him to estimate the strength of scientific methods of inquiry
and the weight of scientific truth, may be expected to take of
the relation between science and religion.

In the chapter on "The Primitive Revelation" the scientific
worth of the account of the Creation given in the book of
Genesis is estimated in terms which are as unquestionably
respectful as, in my judgment, they are just; and, at the end of
the chapter on "Primitive Tradition," M. Reville appraises the
value of pentateuchal anthropology in a way which I should have
thought sure of enlisting the assent of all competent judges,
even if it were extended to the whole of the cosmogony and
biology of Genesis:--

As, however, the original traditions of nations sprang up in an
epoch less remote than our own from the primitive life, it is
indispensable to consult them, to compare them, and to associate
them with other sources of information which are available.
From this point of view, the traditions recorded in Genesis
possess, in addition to their own peculiar charm, a value of the
highest order; but we cannot ultimately see in them more than a
venerable fragment, well-deserving attention, of the great
genesis of mankind.

Mr. Gladstone is of a different mind. He dissents from
M. Reville's views respecting the proper estimation of the
pentateuchal traditions, no less than he does from his
interpretation of those Homeric myths which have been the object
of his own special study. In the latter case, Mr. Gladstone
tells M. Reville that he is wrong on his own authority, to
which, in such a matter, all will pay due respect: in the
former, he affirms himself to be "wholly destitute of that kind
of knowledge which carries authority," and his rebuke is
administered in the name and by the authority of
natural science.

An air of magisterial gravity hangs about the following

But the question is not here of a lofty poem, or a skilfully
constructed narrative: it is whether natural science, in the
patient exercise of its high calling to examine facts, finds
that the works of God cry out against what we have fondly
believed to be His word and tell another tale; or whether, in
this nineteenth century of Christian progress, it substantially
echoes back the majestic sound, which, before it existed as a
pursuit, went forth into all lands.

First, looking largely at the latter portion of the narrative,
which describes the creation of living organisms, and waiving
details, on some of which (as in v. 24) the Septuagint seems to
vary from the Hebrew, there is a grand fourfold division, set
forth in an orderly succession of times as follows: on the
fifth day
1. The water-population;
2. The air-population;
and, on the sixth day,
3. The land-population of animals;
4. The land-population consummated in man.
Now this same fourfold order is understood to have been so
affirmed in our time by natural science, that it may be taken as
a demonstrated conclusion and established fact" (p. 696).

"Understood?" By whom? I cannot bring myself to imagine that Mr.
Gladstone has made so solemn and authoritative a statement on a
matter of this importance without due inquiry--without being
able to found himself upon recognised scientific authority. But
I wish he had thought fit to name the source from whence he has
derived his information, as, in that case, I could have dealt
with [143] his authority, and I should have thereby escaped the
appearance of making an attack on Mr. Gladstone himself, which
is in every way distasteful to me.

For I can meet the statement in the last paragraph of the above
citation with nothing but a direct negative. If I know anything
at all about the results attained by the natural science of our
time, it is "a demonstrated conclusion and established fact"
that the "fourfold order" given by Mr. Gladstone is not that in
which the evidence at our disposal tends to show that the water,
air, and land-populations of the globe have made
their appearance.

Perhaps I may be told that Mr. Gladstone does give his
authority--that he cites Cuvier, Sir John Herschel, and Dr.
Whewell in support of his case. If that has been Mr. Gladstone's
intention in mentioning these eminent names, I may remark that,
on this particular question, the only relevant authority is that
of Cuvier. But great as Cuvier was, it is to be remembered that,
as Mr. Gladstone incidentally remarks, he cannot now be called a
recent authority. In fact, he has been dead more than half a
century; and the palaeontology of our day is related to that of
his, very much as the geography of the sixteenth century is
related to that of the fourteenth. Since 1832, when Cuvier died,
not only a new world, but new worlds, of ancient life have been
discovered; and those who have most faithfully carried on the
work of the chief founder of palaeontology have done most to
invalidate the essentially negative grounds of his speculative
adherence to tradition.

If Mr. Gladstone's latest information on these matters is
derived from the famous discourse prefixed to the "Ossemens
Fossiles," I can understand the position he has taken up; if he
has ever opened a respectable modern manual of palaeontology, or
geology, I cannot. For the facts which demolish his whole
argument are of the commonest notoriety. But before proceeding
to consider the evidence for this assertion we must be clear
about the meaning of the phraseology employed.

I apprehend that when Mr. Gladstone uses the term "water-
population" he means those animals which in Genesis i. 21
(Revised Version) are spoken of as "the great sea monsters and
every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought
forth abundantly, after their kind." And I presume that it will
be agreed that whales and porpoises, sea fishes, and the
innumerable hosts of marine invertebrated animals, are meant
thereby. So "air-population" must be the equivalent of "fowl" in
verse 20, and "every winged fowl after its kind," verse 21.
I suppose I may take it for granted that by "fowl" we have here
to understand birds--at any rate primarily. Secondarily, it may
be that the bats and the extinct pterodactyles, which were
flying reptiles, come under the same head. But whether all
insects are "creeping things" of the land-population, or whether
flying insects are to be included under the denomination of
"winged fowl," is a point for the decision of Hebrew exegetes.
Lastly, I suppose I may assume that "land-population" signifies
"the cattle" and "the beasts of the earth," and "every creeping
thing that creepeth upon the earth," in verses 25 and 26;
presumably it comprehends all kinds of terrestrial animals,
vertebrate and invertebrate, except such as may be comprised
under the head of the "air-population."

Now what I want to make clear is this: that if the terms "water-
population," "air-population," and "land-population" are
understood in the senses here defined, natural science has
nothing to say in favour of the proposition that they succeeded
one another in the order given by Mr. Gladstone; but that, on
the contrary, all the evidence we possess goes to prove that
they did not. Whence it will follow that, if Mr. Gladstone has
interpreted Genesis rightly (on which point I am most anxious to
be understood to offer no opinion), that interpretation is
wholly irreconcilable with the conclusions at present accepted
by the interpreters of nature--with everything that can be
called "a demonstrated conclusion and established fact" of
natural science. And be it observed that I am not here dealing
with a question of speculation, but with a question of fact.

Either the geological record is sufficiently complete to afford
us a means of determining the order in which animals have made
their appearance on the globe or it is not. If it is, the
determination of that order is little more than a mere matter of
observation; if it is not, then natural science neither affirms
nor refutes the "fourfold order," but is simply silent.

The series of the fossiliferous deposits, which contain the
remains of the animals which have lived on the earth in past
ages of its history, and which can alone afford the evidence
required by natural science of the order of appearance of their
different species, may be grouped in the manner shown in the
left-hand column of the following table, the oldest being at
the bottom:--

Formations First known appearance of
Eocene. Vertebrate air-population (Bats).
Jurassic. Vertebrate air-population (Birds and
Upper Palaeozoic.
Middle Palaeozoic. Vertebrate land-population (Amphibia,
Reptilia [?]).
Lower Palaeozoic.
Silurian. Vertebrate water-population (Fishes).
Invertebrate air and land-
population (Flying Insects and Scorpions).
Cambrian. Invertebrate water-population (much
earlier, if Eozoon is animal).

In the right-hand column I have noted the group of strata in
which, according to our present information, the land,
and water populations respectively appear for
the first time; and in consequence of the ambiguity about the
meaning of "fowl," I have separately indicated the first
appearance of bats, birds, flying reptiles, and flying insects.
It will be observed that, if "fowl" means only "bird," or at
most flying vertebrate, then the first certain evidence of the
latter, in the Jurassic epoch, is posterior to the first
appearance of truly terrestrial Amphibia, and possibly of
true reptiles, in the Carboniferous epoch (Middle Palaeozoic) by
a prodigious interval of time.

The water-population of vertebrated animals first appears in the
Upper Silurian.<2> Therefore, if we found ourselves on
vertebrated animals and take "fowl" to mean birds only, or, at
most, flying vertebrates, natural science says that the order of
succession was water, land, and air-population, and not--as Mr.
Gladstone, founding himself on Genesis, says--water, air, land-
population. If a chronicler of Greece affirmed that the age of
Alexander preceded that of Pericles and immediately succeeded
that of the Trojan war, Mr. Gladstone would hardly say that this
order is "understood to have been so affirmed by historical
science that it may be taken as a demonstrated conclusion and
established fact." Yet natural science "affirms" his "fourfold
order" to exactly the same extent--neither more nor less.

Suppose, however, that "fowl" is to be taken to include flying
insects. In that case, the first appearance of an air-population
must be shifted back for long ages, recent discovery having
shown that they occur in rocks of Silurian age. Hence there
might still have been hope for the fourfold order, were it not
that the fates unkindly determined that scorpions--"creeping
things that creep on the earth" par excellence--turned up
in Silurian strata nearly at the same time. So that, if the word
in the original Hebrew translated "fowl" should really after all
mean "cockroach"--and I have great faith in the elasticity of
that tongue in the hands of Biblical exegetes--the order
primarily suggested by the existing evidence--

2. Land and air-population;
1. Water-population;

and Mr. Gladstone's order--

3. Land-population;
2. Air-population;
1. Water-population;

can by no means be made to coincide. As a matter of fact, then,
the statement so confidently put forward turns out to be devoid
of foundation and in direct contradiction of the evidence at
present at our disposal.<3>

If, stepping beyond that which may be learned from the facts of
the successive appearance of the forms of animal life upon the
surface of the globe, in so far as they are yet made known to us
by natural science, we apply our reasoning faculties to the task
of finding out what those observed facts mean, the present
conclusions of the interpreters of nature appear to be no less
directly in conflict with those of the latest interpreter
of Genesis.

Mr. Gladstone appears to admit that there is some truth in the
doctrine of evolution, and indeed places it under very
high patronage.

I contend that evolution in its highest form has not been a
thing heretofore unknown to history, to philosophy, or to
theology. I contend that it was before the mind of Saint Paul
when he taught that in the fulness of time God sent forth His
Son, and of Eusebius when he wrote the "Preparation for the
Gospel," and of Augustine when he composed the "City of God"
(p. 706).

Has any one ever disputed the contention, thus solemnly
enunciated, that the doctrine of evolution was not invented the
day before yesterday? Has any one ever dreamed of claiming it as
a modern innovation? Is there any one so ignorant of the history
of philosophy as to be unaware that it is one of the forms in
which speculation embodied itself long before the time either of
the Bishop of Hippo or of the Apostle to the Gentiles? Is Mr.
Gladstone, of all people in the world, disposed to ignore the
founders of Greek philosophy, to say nothing of Indian sages to
whom evolution was a familiar notion ages before Paul of Tarsus
was born? But it is ungrateful to cavil at even the most oblique
admission of the possible value of one of those affirmations of
natural science which really may be said to be "a demonstrated
conclusion and established fact." I note it with pleasure, if
only for the purpose of introducing the observation that, if
there is any truth whatever in the doctrine of evolution as
applied to animals, Mr. Gladstone's gloss on Genesis in the
following passage is hardly happy:--

God created
(a) The water-population;
(b) The air-population.

And they receive His benediction (v. 20-23).

6. Pursuing this regular progression from the lower to the
higher, from the simple to the complex, the text now gives us
the work of the sixth "day," which supplies the land-population,
air and water having been already supplied (pp. 695, 696).

The gloss to which I refer is the assumption that the "air-
population" forms a term in the order of progression from lower
to higher, from simple to complex--the place of which lies
between the water-population below and the land-population
above--and I speak of it as a "gloss," because the pentateuchal
writer is nowise responsible for it.

But it is not true that the air-population, as a whole, is
"lower" or less "complex" than the land-population. On the
contrary, every beginner in the study of animal morphology is
aware that the organisation of a bat, of a bird, or of a
pterodactyle presupposes that of a terrestrial quadruped; and
that it is intelligible only as an extreme modification of the
organisation of a terrestrial mammal or reptile. In the same way
winged insects (if they are to be counted among the
"air-population") presuppose insects which were wingless, and,
therefore, as "creeping things," were part of the land-
population. Thus theory is as much opposed as observation to the
admission that natural science endorses the succession of animal
life which Mr. Gladstone finds in Genesis. On the contrary, a
good many representatives of natural science would be prepared
to say, on theoretical grounds alone, that it is incredible that
the "air-population" should have appeared before the
"land-population"--and that, if this assertion is to be found in
Genesis, it merely demonstrates the scientific worthlessness of
the story of which it forms a part.

Indeed, we may go further. It is not even admissible to say that
the water-population, as a whole, appeared before the air and
the land-populations. According to the Authorised Version,
Genesis especially mentions, among the animals created on the
fifth day, "great whales," in place of which the Revised Version
reads "great sea monsters." Far be it from me to give an opinion
which rendering is right, or whether either is right. All I
desire to remark is, that if whales and porpoises, dugongs and
manatees, are to be regarded as members of the water-population
(and if they are not, what animals can claim the designation?),
then that much of the water-population has, as certainly,
originated later than the land-population as bats and birds
have. For I am not aware that any competent judge would hesitate
to admit that the organisation of these animals shows the most
obvious signs of their descent from terrestrial quadrupeds.

A similar criticism applies to Mr. Gladstone's assumption that,
as the fourth act of that "orderly succession of times"
enunciated in Genesis, "the land-population consummated in man."

If this means simply that man is the final term in the
evolutional series of which he forms a part, I do not suppose
that any objection will be raised to that statement on the part
of students of natural science. But if the pentateuchal author
goes further than this, and intends to say that which is
ascribed to him by Mr. Gladstone, I think natural science will
have to enter a caveat. It is not by any means certain
that man--I mean the species Homo sapiens of zoological
terminology--has "consummated" the land-population in the sense
of appearing at a later period of time than any other. Let me
make my meaning clear by an example. From a morphological point
of view, our beautiful and useful contemporary--I might almost
call him colleague--the horse (Equus caballus), is the
last term of the evolutional series to which he belongs, just as
Homo sapiens is the last term of the series of which he
is a member. If I want to know whether the species Equus
made its appearance on the surface of the globe
before or after Homo sapiens, deduction from known laws
does not help me. There is no reason, that I know of, why one
should have appeared sooner or later than the other. If I turn
to observation, I find abundant remains of Equus caballus
in Quaternary strata, perhaps a little earlier. The existence of
Homo sapiens in the Quaternary epoch is also certain.
Evidence has been adduced in favour of man's existence in the
Pliocene, or even in the Miocene epoch. It does not satisfy me;
but I have no reason to doubt that the fact may be so,
nevertheless. Indeed, I think it is quite possible that further
research will show that Homo sapiens existed, not only
before Equus caballus, but before many other of the
existing forms of animal life; so that, if all the species of
animals have been separately created, man, in this case, would
by no means be the "consummation" of the land-population.

I am raising no objection to the position of the fourth term in
Mr. Gladstone's "order"--on the facts, as they stand, it is
quite open to any one to hold, as a pious opinion, that the
fabrication of man was the acme and final achievement of the
process of peopling the globe. But it must not be said that
natural science counts this opinion among her "demonstrated
conclusions and established facts," for there would be just as
much, or as little, reason for ranging the contrary opinion
among them.

It may seem superfluous to add to the evidence that Mr.
Gladstone has been utterly misled in supposing that his
interpretation of Genesis receives any support from natural
science. But it is as well to do one's work thoroughly while one
is about it; and I think it may be advisable to point out that
the facts, as they are at present known, not only refute Mr.
Gladstone's interpretation of Genesis in detail, but are opposed
to the central idea on which it appears to be based.

There must be some position from which the reconcilers of
science and Genesis will not retreat, some central idea the
maintenance of which is vital and its refutation fatal. Even if
they now allow that the words "the evening and the morning" have
not the least reference to a natural day, but mean a period of
any number of millions of years that may be necessary; even if
they are driven to admit that the word "creation," which so many
millions of pious Jews and Christians have held, and still hold,
to mean a sudden act of the Deity, signifies a process of
gradual evolution of one species from another, extending through
immeasurable time; even if they are willing to grant that the
asserted coincidence of the order of Nature with the "fourfold
order" ascribed to Genesis is an obvious error instead of an
established truth; they are surely prepared to make a last stand
upon the conception which underlies the whole, and which
constitutes the essence of Mr. Gladstone's "fourfold division,
set forth in an orderly succession of times." It is, that the
animal species which compose the water-population, the air-
population, and the land-population respectively, originated
during three distinct and successive periods of time, and only
during those periods of time.

This statement appears to me to be the interpretation of Genesis
which Mr. Gladstone supports, reduced to its simplest
expression. "Period of time" is substituted for "day";
"originated" is substituted for "created"; and "any order
required" for that adopted by Mr. Gladstone. It is necessary to
make this proviso, for if "day" may mean a few million years,
and "creation" may mean evolution, then it is obvious that the
order (1) water-population, (2) air-population, (3) land-
population, may also mean (1) water-population, (2) land-
population, (3) air-population; and it would be unkind to bind
down the reconcilers to this detail when one has parted with so
many others to oblige them.

But even this sublimated essence of the pentateuchal doctrine
(if it be such) remains as discordant with natural science
as ever.

It is not true that the species composing any one of the three
populations originated during any one of three successive
periods of time, and not at any other of these.

Undoubtedly, it is in the highest degree probable that animal
life appeared first under aquatic conditions; that terrestrial
forms appeared later, and flying animals only after land
animals; but it is, at the same time, testified by all the
evidence we possess, that the great majority, if not the whole,
of the primordial species of each division have long since died
out and have been replaced by a vast succession of new forms.
Hundreds of thousands of animal species, as distinct as those
which now compose our water, land, and air-populations, have
come into existence and died out again, throughout the aeons of
geological time which separate us from the lower Palaeozoic
epoch, when, as I have pointed out, our present evidence of the
existence of such distinct populations commences. If the species
of animals have all been separately created, then it follows
that hundreds of thousands of acts of creative energy have
occurred, at intervals, throughout the whole time recorded by
the fossiliferous rocks; and, during the greater part of that
time, the "creation" of the members of the water, land, and
air-populations must have gone on contemporaneously.

If we represent the water, land, and air-populations by a,
and c respectively, and take vertical succession
on the page to indicate order in time, then the following
schemes will roughly shadow forth the contrast I have been
endeavouring to explain:

Genesis (as interpreted by Nature (as interpreted by
Mr. Gladstone). natural science).
b b b c1 a3 b2
c c c c a2 b1
a a a b a1 b
a a a

So far as I can see, there is only one resource left for those
modern representatives of Sisyphus, the reconcilers of Genesis
with science; and it has the advantage of being founded on a
perfectly legitimate appeal to our ignorance. It has been seen
that, on any interpretation of the terms water-population and
land-population, it must be admitted that invertebrate
representatives of these populations existed during the lower
Palaeozoic epoch. No evolutionist can hesitate to admit that
other land animals (and possibly vertebrates among them) may
have existed during that time, of the history of which we know
so little; and, further, that scorpions are animals of such high
organisation that it is highly probable their existence
indicates that of a long antecedent land-population of a
similar character.

Then, since the land-population is said not to have been created
until the sixth day, it necessarily follows that the evidence of
the order in which animals appeared must be sought in the record
of those older Palaeozoic times in which only traces of the
water-population have as yet been discovered.

Therefore, if any one chooses to say that the creative work took
place in the Cambrian or Laurentian epoch, in exactly that
manner which Mr. Gladstone does, and natural science does not,
affirm, natural science is not in a position to disprove the
accuracy of the statement. Only one cannot have one's cake and
eat it too, and such safety from the contradiction of science
means the forfeiture of her support.

Whether the account of the work of the first, second, and third
days in Genesis would be confirmed by the demonstration of the
truth of the nebular hypothesis; whether it is corroborated by
what is known of the nature and probable relative antiquity of
the heavenly bodies; whether, if the Hebrew word translated
"firmament" in the Authorised Version really means "expanse,"
the assertion that the waters are partly under this "expanse"
and partly above it would be any more confirmed by the
ascertained facts of physical geography and meteorology than it
was before; whether the creation of the whole vegetable world,
and especially of "grass, herb yielding seed after its kind, and
tree bearing fruit," before any kind of animal, is "affirmed" by
the apparently plain teaching of botanical palaeontology, that
grasses and fruit-trees originated long subsequently to animals
all these are questions which, if I mistake not, would be
answered decisively in the negative by those who are specially
conversant with the sciences involved. And it must be
recollected that the issue raised by Mr. Gladstone is not
whether, by some effort of ingenuity, the pentateuchal story can
be shown to be not disprovable by scientific knowledge, but
whether it is supported thereby.

There is nothing, then, in the criticisms of Dr. Reville but
what rather tends to confirm than to impair the old-fashioned
belief that there is a revelation in the book of Genesis
(p. 694).

The form into which Mr. Gladstone has thought fit to throw this
opinion leaves me in doubt as to its substance. I do not
understand how a hostile criticism can, under any circumstances,
tend to confirm that which it attacks. If, however, Mr.
Gladstone merely means to express his personal impression, "as
one wholly destitute of that kind of knowledge which carries
authority," that he has destroyed the value of these criticisms,
I have neither the wish nor the right to attempt to disturb his
faith. On the other hand, I may be permitted to state my own
conviction, that, so far as natural science is involved,
M. Reville's observations retain the exact value they possessed
before Mr. Gladstone attacked them.

Trusting that I have now said enough to secure the author of a
wise and moderate disquisition upon a topic which seems fated to
stir unwisdom and fanaticism to their depths, a fuller measure
of justice than has hitherto been accorded to him, I retire from
my self-appointed championship, with the hope that I shall not
hereafter be called upon by M. Reville to apologise for damage
done to his strong case by imperfect or impulsive advocacy.
But, perhaps, I may be permitted to add a word or two, on my own
account, in reference to the great question of the relations
between science and religion; since it is one about which I have
thought a good deal ever since I have been able to think at all;
and about which I have ventured to express my views publicly,
more than once, in the course of the last thirty years.

The antagonism between science and religion, about which we hear
so much, appears to me to be purely factitious--fabricated, on
the one hand, by short-sighted religious people who confound a
certain branch of science, theology, with religion; and, on the
other, by equally short-sighted scientific people who forget
that science takes for its province only that which is
susceptible of clear intellectual comprehension; and that,
outside the boundaries of that province, they must be content
with imagination, with hope, and with ignorance.

It seems to me that the moral and intellectual life of the
civilised nations of Europe is the product of that interaction,
sometimes in the way of antagonism, sometimes in that of
profitable interchange, of the Semitic and the Aryan races,
which commenced with the dawn of history, when Greek and
Phoenician came in contact, and has been continued by
Carthaginian and Roman, by Jew and Gentile, down to the present
day. Our art (except, perhaps, music) and our science are the
contributions of the Aryan; but the essence of our religion is
derived from the Semite. In the eighth century B.C., in the
heart of a world of idolatrous polytheists, the Hebrew prophets
put forth a conception of religion which appears to me to be as
wonderful an inspiration of genius as the art of Pheidias or the
science of Aristotle.

"And what doth the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and
to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God?"

If any so-called religion takes away from this great saying of
Micah, I think it wantonly mutilates, while, if it adds thereto,
I think it obscures, the perfect ideal of religion.

But what extent of knowledge, what acuteness of scientific
criticism, can touch this, if any one possessed of knowledge, or
acuteness, could be absurd enough to make the attempt? Will the
progress of research prove that justice is worthless and mercy
hateful; will it ever soften the bitter contrast between our
actions and our aspirations; or show us the bounds of the
universe and bid us say, Go to, now we comprehend the infinite?
A faculty of wrath lay in those ancient Israelites, and surely
the prophet's staff would have made swift acquaintance with the
head of the scholar who had asked Micah whether, peradventure,
the Lord further required of him an implicit belief in the
accuracy of the cosmogony of Genesis!

What we are usually pleased to call religion nowadays is, for
the most part, Hellenised Judaism; and, not unfrequently, the
Hellenic element carries with it a mighty remnant of old-world
paganism and a great infusion of the worst and weakest products
of Greek scientific speculation; while fragments of Persian and
Babylonian, or rather Accadian, mythology burden the Judaic
contribution to the common stock.

The antagonism of science is not to religion, but to the heathen
survivals and the bad philosophy under which religion herself is
often well-nigh crushed. And, for my part, I trust that this
antagonism will never cease; but that, to the end of time, true
science will continue to fulfil one of her most beneficent
functions, that of relieving men from the burden of false
science which is imposed upon them in the name of religion.

This is the work that M. Reville and men such as he are doing
for us; this is the work which his opponents are endeavouring,
consciously or unconsciously, to hinder.


(1) The Nineteenth Century.

(2) [Earlier, if more recent announcements are correct.]

(3) It may be objected that I have not put the case fairly
inasmuch as the solitary insect's wing which was discovered
twelve months ago in Silurian rocks, and which is, at present,
the sole evidence of insects older than the Devonian epoch, came
from strata of Middle Silurian age, and is therefore older than
the scorpions which, within the last two years, have been found
in Upper Silurian strata in Sweden, Britain, and the United
States. But no one who comprehends the nature of the evidence
afforded by fossil remains would venture to say that the non-
discovery of scorpions in the Middle Silurian strata, up to this
time, affords any more ground for supposing that they did not
exist, than the non-discovery of flying insects in the Upper
Silurian strata, up to this time, throws any doubt on the
certainty that they existed, which is derived from the
occurrence of the wing in the Middle Silurian. In fact, I have
stretched a point in admitting that these fossils afford a
colourable pretext for the assumption that the land and air-
population were of contemporaneous origin.

End of PG's The Interpreters of Genesis and the Interpreters of Nature
This is Essay #4 from "Science and Hebrew Tradition"


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