The Koran/The Q'uran

Part 4 out of 14

9 See ii. 58, and Midr. Jalkut on Ex. xii. c. 208.

10 Lit. except.

11 Lit. a tongue of truth, i.e. high repute. Or, grant that my words
may be believed among posterity. See [lviii.] xix. 47.

12 Of their motives in embracing Islam.

13 The Adites are mentioned in vii. and xi.

14 This is to be understood of the small forts erected by the
nomades of the Hejaz along the route of the caravans to guarantee
their safety. Comp. Gen. xi. 1-10, and Sura lxxxix. 6, p. 54.

15 The Madian and the El-Aika of other Suras are unquestionably
one and the same place, as they have the same prophet Shoaib (or
Sho'eyb), the Jethro of Scripture a name perhaps altered from
Hobab (Numb. x. 29) and because the same sin is laid to the
charge of both. See Winer's Realw”rterbuch on Jethro. The Midr.
Rabbah on Ex. ii. I6, Par. I, makes Jethro renounce idolatry, and
his office of Priest, and undergo banishment from the Midianites.

16 Gabriel. See Sura lxxxi. 19, p. 46.

17 See Sura xiii. 36. This verse is said to have been revealed at
Medina by Itq. 34.

18 The unbelieving Meccans. Lit. that the knowing (Doctors,
Uhlemas) knew it.

19 Lit. have introduced it, i.e. infidelity; or, the Koran. Beidh. The
latter interpretation seems most accordant with the context.

20 Comp. Sura xxxvii. 7, 8, p. 79.

21 It is probable that within three or four years from his entry
upon the prophetic office, Muhammad had made about 40
converts. Some biographers refer to this passage, and not to Sura
lxiv. I, as the first call to preach. But this Sura is itself late, and
bears evidence of the opposition to which the prophet had become
exposed, and of adherents to his cause, now become numerous.
The diffuseness and feeblenss of the style clearly point to a late

22 They impart to their votaries on earth what they have learned
by stealth and partially, in heaven.

23 Muhammad found it necessary to employ the pens of certain
poets to defend himself and his religion from the ridicule and
satire of other poets, whose productions were recited at the great
annual fair held at Okatz, the Olympus of the Hejaz. The poems
which were judged the best were written up in letters of gold, or
suspended (hence called Moallakat) in the Caaba. These poetical
contests were subsequently suppressed by Muhammad, as offering
openings for discussions which might prove inconvenient, and
dangerous to his rising claims.


MECCA 99 Verses

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

ELIF. LAM. RA.2 These are the signs of the Book, and of a lucid
recital [Koran].

Many a time will the infidels wish that they had been Muslims.

Let them feast and enjoy themselves, and let hope beguile them:
but they shall know the truth at last.

We never destroyed a city whose term was not perfixed:3

No people can forestall or retard its destiny.

They say: "O thou to whom the warning hath been sent down, thou
art surely possessed by a djinn:

Wouldst thou not have come to us with the angels, if thou wert of
those who assert the truth?"

We will not send down the angels without due cause.4 The
Infidels would not in that case have been respited.

Verily, We have sent down the warning, and verily, We will be its

And already have We sent Apostles, before thee, among the sects
of the ancients;

But never came Apostles to them whom they did not deride.

In like manner will We put it into the hearts of the sinners of
Mecca to do the same:

They will not believe on him though the example of those of old
hath gone before.

Even were We to open above them a gate in Heaven, yet all the
while they were mounting up to it,

They would surely say: It is only that our eyes are drunken: nay,
we are a people enchanted.

We have set the signs of the zodiac5 in the Heavens, and adorned
and decked them forth for the beholders,

And We guard them from every stoned6 Satan,

Save such as steal a hearing:7 and him doth a visible flame pursue.

And the Earth have We spread forth, and thrown thereon the
mountains, and caused everything to spring forth in it in balanced

And We have provided therein sustenance for you, and for the
creatures which not ye sustain:

And no one thing is there, but with Us are its storehouses; and We
send it not down but in settled measure:

And We send forth the fertilising winds, and cause the rain to
come down from the heaven, and give you to drink of it; and it is
not ye who are its storers:

And We cause to live and We cause to die,8 and We are the heir of
all things:

We know those of you who flourish first and We know those who
come later:

And truly thy Lord will gather them together again, for He is Wise,

We created man of dried clay, of dark loam moulded;

And the djinn had We before created of subtle fire.

Remember when thy Lord said to the Angels, "I create man of
dried clay, of dark loam moulded:

And when I shall have fashioned him and breathed of my spirit
into him, then fall ye down and worship him."

And the Angels bowed down in worship, all of them, all together,

Save Eblis: he refused to be with those who bowed in worship.

"O Eblis,"9 said God, "wherefore art thou not with those who bow
down in worship?"

He said, "It beseemeth not me to bow in worship to man whom
thou hast created of clay, of moulded loam."

He said, "Begone then hence; thou art a stoned one,10

And the curse shall be on thee till the day of reckoning."

He said, "O my Lord! respite me till the day when man shall be
raised from the dead."

He said, "One then of the respited shalt thou be

Till the day of the predestined time."

He said, "O my Lord! because thou hast beguiled me, I will surely
make all fair seeming to them11 on the earth; I will surely beguile
them all;

Except such of them as shall be thy sincere servants."

He said, "This is the right way with me;

For over none of my servants shalt thou have power, save those
beguiled ones who shall follow thee."

And verily, Hell is the promise for them one and all.

It hath seven Portals;12 at each Portal is a separate band of them;

But 'mid gardens and fountains shall the pious dwell:

"Enter ye therein in peace, secure "

And all rancour will We remove from their bosoms: they shall sit
as brethren, face to face, on couches:

Therein no weariness shall reach them, nor forth from it shall they
be cast for ever.

Announce to my servants that I am the Gracious, the Merciful,

And that my chastisement is the grievous chastisement.

And tell them of Abraham's guests.

When they entered in unto him, and said, "Peace."

"Verily," said he, "We fear you."

They said, "Fear not, for of a sage son we bring thee tidings."

He said, "Bring ye me such tidings now that old age hath come
upon me? What, therefore, are your tidings really?"

They said, "We announce them to thee in very truth. Be not then
one of the despairing."

"And who," said he, "despaireth of the mercy of his Lord, but they
who err?"

He said, "What is your business then, O ye Sent Ones?"

They said, "We are sent unto a people who are sinners,

Except the family of Lot, whom verily we will rescue all,

Except his wife. We have decreed that she shall be of those who

And when the Sent Ones came to the family of Lot

He said, "Yes; are persons unknown to me."

They said, "Yes; but we have come to thee for a purpose about
which thy people doubt:

We have come to thee with very truth, and we are truthful envoys.

Lead forth therefore thy family in the dead of the night; follow
thou on their rear: and let no one of you turn round, but pass ye on
whither ye are bidden."

And this command we gave him because to the last man should
these people be cut off at morning.

Then came the people of the city rejoicing at the news13

He said, "These are my guests: therefore disgrace me not.

And fear God and put me not to shame."

They said, "Have we not forbidden thee to entertain any one

He said, "Here are my daughters, if ye will thus act."

As thou livest, O Muhammad, they were bewildered in the
drunkenness of their lust.

So a tempest overtook them at their sunrise,

And we turned the city upside down, and we rained stones of
baked clay upon them.

Verily, in this are signs for those who scan heedfully;

And these cities lay on the high road.15

Verily, in this are signs for the faithful.

The inhabitants also of El Aika16 were sinners:

So we took vengeance on them, and they both became a plain

And the people of HEDJR treated God's messengers as liars.

And we brought forth our signs to them, but they drew back from

And they hewed them out abodes in the mountains to secure them:

But a tempest surprised them at early morn,

And their labours availed them nothing.

We have not created the heavens and the earth and all that
between them is, but for a worthy end.17 And verily, "the hour"
shall surely come. Wherefore do thou, Muhammad, forgive with
kindly forgiveness,

For thy Lord! He is the Creator, the Wise.

We have already given thee the seven verses of repetition18 and
glorious Koran.

Strain not thine eyes after the good things we have bestowed on
some of the unbelievers: afflict not thyself on their account, and
lower thy wing to the faithful.19

And SAY: I am the only plain-spoken warner.

We will punish those who foster divisions,20

Who break up the Koran into parts:

By thy Lord! we will surely take account from them one and all,

Concerning that which they have done.

Profess publicly then what thou hast been bidden,21 and withdraw
from those who join gods to God.

Verily, We will maintain thy cause against those who deride thee,

Who set up gods with God: and at last shall they know their folly.

Now know We that thy heart is distressed22 at what they say:

But do thou celebrate the praise of thy Lord, and be of those who
bow down in worship;

And serve thy Lord till the certainty23 o'ertake thee.


1 Hedjr, a valley in the route between Medina and Syria,
originally the country of the Themoudites.

2 See Sura lxviii. p. 32.

3 Lit. which had not a known writing.

4 That is, not merely to gratify the curiosity of the doubting, but to
execute prompt punishment. It might also be rendered, save with

5 Ar. bourdj, Gr. [greek text], towers, i.e. Signs of the Zodiac.

6 See Sura xv. 34; and note p. 114.

7 Comp. Sura xxxvii. 6, p. 79. In Chagiga 16, 1, the Demons
(schedim) are said to learn the secrets of the future by listening
behind the veil (parg“d).

8 Compare precisely a similar association of subjects, the Rain,
Food, God, as Lord of life and death in Tr. Taanith, fol. 1 a.

9 Comp. Sura [xci.] ii. 32. There is much in this dialogue between
Eblis and Allah which reminds of the dialogue between Jehovah
and Satan in the opening of the Book of Job.

10 That is, accursed. According to the Muhammadan tradition,
Abraham drove Satan away with stones when he would have
hindered him from sacrificing Ismael. Hence the custom during the
pilgrimage of throwing a certain number of stones the Shafeis,
49; the Hanafis, 70 as if at Satan, in the valley of Mina, near
Mecca. The spot where the apparition of Satan to Abraham took
place is marked by three small pillars, at which the stones are now
thrown. Comp. Gen. xv. II.

11 Lit. I will embellish, prepare.

12 Thus, in Sota, 10, David is said to have rescued Absalom from
"the seven dwellings of Hell;" in Midr. on Ps. xi. "There are
seven houses of abode for the wicked in Hell;" and in Sohar ii.
150, "Hell hath seven gates."

13 At the arrival of strangers.

14 Comp. Midr. Rabbah on Gen. Par. 50.

15 From Arabia to Syria. The pronoun in the fem. sing. may refer
to the Pentapolis as to a single city, or to Sodom alone.

16 See Sura [lvi.] xxvi. 176.

17 See Sura [lxxiii.] xvi. 3.

18 That is, the seven verses of Sura 1, p. 28. Others understand,
the seven long Suras; or, the fifteen Suras which make a seventh of
the whole; or, this Sura (Hedjr) as originally the seventh. Mathani
is an allusion, according to some, to the frequency with which the
fatthah is to be repeated; or, to the frequent repetitions of great
truths, etc., in order to impress them on the memory of the hearer
and reader; or, to the manner in which waid and wa'd, promises
and threatenings, alternate and balance each other in the same or
subsequent verses and Suras, in pairs. This verse and Sura x. 10
shew that a part at least of the Koran was known under that name
and existed as a whole in the time of Muhammad. Geiger's
interpretations at pp. 59, 60 (and in the note) seem very forced.

19 Comp. Sura [lvi.] xxvi. 215, i.e. demean thyself gently.

20 Lit. as we sent down upon the dividers, i.e. the Jews and
Christians, who receive part of the Scriptures and reject part.
Others render obstructors and explain the passage of twelve
idolaters, who in order to intimidate the Meccans, seized upon the
public revenues of Mecca during the pilgrimage.

21 In this, the fourth year of his mission, Muhammad is said to
have hazarded the step of mounting the Safa, a slight eminence in
one of the streets of Mecca, and publicly preached to the Koreisch.
The authorities are given in Sprenger (Life of M. p. 177, 8).

22 Lit. contracted.

23 Death.


MECCA. 98 Verses

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

KAF. HA. YA. AIN. SAD.2 A recital of thy Lord's mercy to his
servant Zachariah;

When he called upon his Lord with secret calling,

And said: "O Lord, verily my bones are weakened, and the hoar
hairs glisten on my head,

And never, Lord, have I prayed to thee with ill success.

But now I have fears for my kindred after me;3 and my wife is

Give me, then, a successor as thy special gift, who shall be my heir
and an heir of the family of Jacob: and make him, Lord, well
pleasing to thee."

"O Zachariah! verily we announce to thee a son, his name

That name We have given to none before him."4

He said: "O my Lord! how when my wife is barren shall I have a
son, and when I have now reached old age, failing in my powers?"

He said: So shall it be. Thy Lord hath said, Easy is this to me, for I
created thee aforetime when thou wast nothing."

He said: "Vouchsafe me, O my Lord! a sign." He said: "Thy sign
shall be that for three nights, though sound in health, thou
speakest not to man."

And he came forth from the sanctuary to his people, and made
signs to them to sing praises morn and even.

We said: "O John! receive the Book with purpose of heart:"5 and
We bestowed on him wisdom while yet a child;

And mercifulness from Ourself, and purity; and pious was he, and
duteous to his parents; and not proud, rebellious.

And peace was on him on the day he was born, and the day of his
death, and shall be on the day when he shall be raised to life!

And make mention in the Book, of Mary, when she went apart
her family, eastward,6

And took a veil to shroud herself from them:7 and we sent our
spirit8 to her, and he took before her the form of a perfect man.9

She said: "I fly for refuge from thee to the God of Mercy! If thou
fearest Him, begone from me."

He said: "I am only a messenger of thy Lord, that I may bestow on
thee a holy son."

She said: "How shall I have a son, when man hath never touched
me? and I am not unchaste."

He said: "So shall it be. Thy Lord hath said: 'Easy is this with
me;' and we will make him a sign to mankind, and a mercy from
us. For it is a thing decreed."

And she conceived him,10 and retired with him to a far-off place.

And the throes came upon her11 by the trunk of a palm. She said:
"Oh, would that I had died ere this, and been a thing forgotten,
forgotten quite!"

And one cried to her from below her:12 "Grieve not thou, thy Lord
hath provided a streamlet at thy feet:

And shake the trunk of the palm-tree toward thee:13 it will drop
fresh ripe dates upon thee.

Eat then and drink, and be of cheerful eye:14 and shouldst thou see
a man,

Say, Verily, I have vowed abstinence to the God of mercy. To
no one will I speak this day."

Then came she with the babe to her people, bearing him. They
said, "O Mary! now hast thou done a strange thing!

O sister of Aaron!15 Thy father was not a man of wickedness, nor
unchaste thy mother."

And she made a sign to them, pointing towards the babe. They
said, "How shall we speak with him who is in the cradle, an

It said,16 "Verily, I am the servant of God; He hath given me the
Book, and He hath made me a prophet;

And He hath made me blessed wherever I may be, and hath
enjoined me prayer and almsgiving so long as I shall live;

And to be duteous to her that bare me: and he hath not made me
proud, depraved.

And the peace of God was on me the day I was born, and will be
the day I shall die, and the day I shall be raised to life."

This is Jesus, the son of Mary; this is a statement of the truth
concerning which they doubt.

It beseemeth not God to beget a son. Glory be to Him! when he
decreeth a thing, He only saith to it, Be, and it Is.17

And verily, God is my Lord and your Lord; adore Him then. This is
the right way.

But the Sects have fallen to variance among themselves about
Jesus: but woe, because of the assembly of a great day, to those
who believe not!

Make them hear, make them behold the day when they shall come
before us! But the offenders this day are in a manifest error.

Warn them of the day of sighing when the decree shall be
accomplished, while they are sunk in heedlessness and while they
believe not.

Verily, we will inherit the earth and all who are upon it. To us
shall they be brought back.

Make mention also in the Book of Abraham; for he was a man of
truth, a Prophet.18

When he said to his Father, "O my Father! why dost thou worship
that which neither seeth nor heareth, nor profiteth thee aught?

O my Father! verily now hath knowledge come to me which hath
not come to thee. Follow me therefore I will guide thee into an
even path.

O my Father! worship not Satan, for Satan is a rebel against the
God of Mercy.

O my Father! indeed I fear lest a chastisement from the God of
Mercy light upon thee, and thou become Satan's vassal."

He said, "Castest thou off my Gods, O Abraham? If thou forbear
not, I will surely stone thee. Begone from me for a length of time."

He said, "Peace be on thee! I will pray my Lord for thy
forgiveness, for he is gracious to me:

But I will separate myself from you, and the gods ye call on beside
God, and on my Lord will I call. Haply, my prayers to my Lord
will not be with ill success."

And when he had separated himself from them and that which they
worshipped beside God, we bestowed on him Isaac and Jacob, and
each of them we made a prophet:

And we bestowed gifts on them in our mercy, and gave them the
lofty tongue of truth."19

And commemorate Moses in "the Book;" for he was a man of
purity: moreover he was an Apostle, a Prophet:

From the right side of the mountain we called to him, and caused
him to draw nigh to us for secret converse:

And we bestowed on him in our mercy his brother Aaron, a

And commemorate Ismael in "the Book;" for he was true to his
promise, and was an Apostle, a Prophet;

And he enjoined prayer and almsgiving on his people, and was
well pleasing to his Lord.

And commemorate Edris20 in "the Book;" for he was a man of
truth, a Prophet:

And we uplifted him to a place on high.21

These are they among the prophets of the posterity of Adam, and
among those whom we bare with Noah, and among the posterity of
Abraham and Israel, and among those whom we have guided and
chosen, to whom God hath shewed favour. When the signs of the
God of Mercy were rehearsed to them, they bowed them down
worshipping and weeping.

But others have come in their place after them: they have made an
end of prayer, and have gone after their own lusts; and in the end
they shall meet with evil:

Save those who turn and believe and do that which is right, these
shall enter the Garden, and in nought shall they be wronged:

The Garden of Eden, which the God of Mercy hath promised to his
servants, though yet unseen:22 for his promise shall come to pass:

No vain discourse shall they hear therein, but only "Peace;" and
their food shall be given them at morn and even:

This is the Paradise which we will make the heritage of those our
servants who fear us.

We23 come not down from Heaven but by thy Lord's command.
His, whatever is before us and whatever is behind us, and
whatever is between the two! And thy Lord is not forgetful,

Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth, and of all that is between
them! Worship Him, then, and abide thou steadfast in his worship.
Knowest thou any other of the same name?24

Man saith: "What! after I am dead, shall I in the end be brought
forth alive?"

Doth not man bear in mind that we made him at first, when he was

And I swear by thy Lord, we will surely gather together them and
the Satans: then will we set them on their knees round Hell:

Then will we take forth from each band those of them who have
been stoutest in rebellion against the God of Mercy:

Then shall we know right well to whom its burning is most due:

No one is there of you who shall not go down unto it25 This is a
settled decree with thy Lord

Then will we deliver those who had the fear of God, and the
wicked will we leave in it on their knees.

And when our clear signs are rehearsed to them, the infidels say to
those who believe: "Which of the two parties26 is in the best
plight? and which is the most goodly company?"

But how many generations have we brought to ruin before them,
who surpassed them in riches and in splendour!

Say: As to those who are in error, the God of Mercy will lengthen
out to them a length of days

Until they see that with which they are threatened, whether it be
some present chastisement, or whether it be "the Hour," and they
shall then know which is in the worse state, and which the more
weak in forces:

But God will increase the guidance of the already guided.

And good works which abide, are in thy Lord's sight better in
respect of guerdon, and better in the issue than all worldly good.

Hast thou marked him who believeth not in our signs, and saith, "I
shall surely have riches and children bestowed upon me?"

Hath he mounted up into the secrets of God? Hath he made a
compact with the God of Mercy?

No! we will certainly write down what he saith, and will lengthen
the length of his chastisement:

And we will inherit what he spake of, and he shall come before us
all alone.

They have taken other gods beside God to be their help.27

But it shall not be. Those gods will disavow their worship and will
become their enemies.

Seest thou not that we send the Satans against the Infidels to urge
them into sin?

Wherefore be not thou in haste with them;28 for a small number of
days do we number to them.

One day we will gather the God-fearing before the God of Mercy
with honours due:29

But the sinners will we drive unto Hell, like flocks driven to the

None shall have power to intercede, save he who hath received
permission at the hands of the God of Mercy.

They say: "The God of Mercy hath gotten offspring." Now have ye
done a monstrous thing!

Almost might the very Heavens be rent thereat, and the Earth
cleave asunder, and the mountains fall down in fragments,

That they ascribe a son to the God of Mercy, when it beseemeth
not the God of Mercy to beget a son!

Verily there is none in the Heavens and in the Earth but shall
approach the God of Mercy as a servant. He hath taken note of
them, and numbered them with exact numbering:

And each of them shall come to Him, on the day of Resurrection,

But love will the God of Mercy vouchsafe to those who believe
do the things that be right.

Verily we have made this Koran easy and in thine own tongue, that
thou mayest announce glad tidings by it to the God-fearing, and
that thou mayest warn the contentious by it.

How many generations have we destroyed before them! Canst thou
search out one of them? or canst thou hear a whisper from them?


1 Comp. the first 37 verses of this Sura with Sura iii. 35-57 with
reference to the different style adopted by Muhammad in the later
Suras, probably for the purpose of avoiding the imputation of his
being merely a poet, a sorcerer, or person possessed. Sura lii. 29,
30; xxi. 5; lxviii. 2, 51. This Sura is one of the fullest and earliest
Koranic Gospel Histories, and was recited to the Nagash or King
of ‘thiopia, in the presence of the ambassadors of the Koreisch.
His. 220; Caussin, i. 392; Sprenger (Life of M.) p. 193.

2 See Sura lxviii. I, p. 32. Golius conjectured that these letters
represent coh ya'as, thus he counselled, and that they were added
by some Jewish scribe. Sprenger (Journ. of As. Soc. of Bengal, xx.
280) arranges them as Ain, Sad, Kaf, Ha, Ya, and supposes them to
be taken from the Arabic words for Aisa (Jesus) of the Nazarenes,
King of the Jews. But we can hardly imagine that Muhammad
would ascribe such a title to our Lord, and the word which Dr.
Sprenger uses for Jews is not the form peculiar to the Koran.

3 Lest they should desert the worship of the God of Israel.

4 Ar. Yahia. It may be true that the name in this form had never
been given. Otherwise, we have in this passage a
misunderstanding of Luke i. 61, as well as ignorance of the Jewish
Scriptures. Comp. 2 Kings xxv. 23; 1 Chron. iii. 16; Ezra viii. 12;
Jerem. xl. 8. Some commentators try to avoid the difficulty by
rendering samiyan, deserving of the name.

5 Or, with firm resolve. See Sura [xcvii.] iii. 36. The speaker is

6 To an eastern chamber in the temple to pray. Or it may mean, to
some place eastward from Jerusalem, or from the house of her

7 Thus the Protev. Jac. c. 12 says that Mary, although at a later
period, [greek text] But Wahl, she laid aside her veil.

8 Gabriel.

9 See Sura [lxxxix.] vi. 9.

10 It is quite clear from this passage, and from verse 36, that
Muhammad believed Jesus to have been conceived by an act of the
divine will. Comp. Sura [xcvii.] iii. 52; see also note at Sura [xci.]
ii. 81.

11 Or, the throes urged her to the trunk of, etc.

12 This was either the Infant which spoke as soon as born, or
Gabriel. Comp. Thilo Cod. Apoc. 136-139 on this passage.
Beidhawi explains: from behind the palm tree.

13 See Thilo Cod. Apoc. N. T. p. 138, and the Hist. Nat. Mar. c.
which connects similar incidents with the flight into Egypt. Thus
also Latona, [greek text], Call. H. in Apoll. and [greek text], H. in

14 Or, settle, calm thine eye, refresh thine eye. The birth of a son
is still called korrat ol ain.

15 The anachronism is probably only apparent. See Sura iii. 1, n.
Muhammad may have supposed that this Aaron (or Harun) was the
son of Imran and Anna. Or, if Aaron the brother of Moses be
meant Mary may be called his sister, either because she was of the
Levitical race, or by way of comparison.

16 See Sura [cxiv.] v. 109.

17 From the change in the rhyme, and from the more polemical
tone of the following five verses, it may be inferred that they were
added at a somewhat later period.

18 The title Nabi, prophet, is used of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,
as depositaries of the worship of the one true God, but with a
mission restricted to their own families; whereas Houd, Saleh,
Shoaib, etc., are designated as (Resoul) apostles and envoys,
charged with a more extended mission to the tribes of Arabia. In
Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad, etc., are united the office and gift
both of prophet (nabi) and apostle (resoul).

19 Made them to be highly praised. Beidh.

20 Enoch. Beidhawi derives the name Edris from the Ar. darasa,
to search out, with reference to his knowledge of divine mysteries.
The Heb. Enoch, in like manner, means initiated.

21 Comp. Gen. v. 24, and the tract Derek Erez in Midr. Jalkut, c.
42, where Enoch is reckoned among the nine according to other
Talmudists, thirteen (Schr der's Talm. und Rabb.
Judenthum) individuals who were exempted from death and
taken straight to Paradise. It should be observed that both here
and Sura xxi. 85, Edris is named after Ismael.

22 Maracci and Beidhawi, in absentid. Sale, as an object of faith.
Beidhawi ad f. in reward for their secret faith. Ullmann fr die
verborgene Zukunft.

23 This verse is to be understood as an answer on the part of
Gabriel to Muhammad's complaints of the long intervals between
the revelations.

24 The idolaters called their deities Gods, but as Polytheists were
unused to the singular Allah, God.

25 Even the pious on their way to Paradise are to pass the
confines of Hell.

26 The Koreisch, or the Muslims.

27 Or, glory, strength.

28 To call down judgments upon them.

29 As ambassadors come into the presence of a prince. Sale. This
is implied in the original.


Mecca. 88 Verses

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

Sad.1 By the Koran full of warning! In sooth the Infidels are
absorbed in pride, in contention with thee.

How many generations have we destroyed before them! And they
cried for mercy but no time was it of escape!

And they marvel that a warner from among themselves hath come
to them; and the Infidels say, "This is a sorcerer, a liar:

Maketh he the gods to be but one god? A strange thing forsooth is

And their chiefs took themselves off. "Go, said they, and cleave
steadfastly2 to your gods. Ye see the thing aimed at.

We heard not of this in the previous creed.3 It is but an imposture:

To him alone of us all hath a book of warning been sent down?"
Yes! they are in doubt as to my warnings, for they have not yet
tasted my vengeance.

Are the treasures of the mercy of thy Lord, the Mighty, the
bounteous, in their hands?

Is the kingdom of the heavens and of the earth and of all that is
between them theirs? Then let them mount up by cords!

Any army of the confederates4 shall here be routed.

Before them the people of Noah and Ad and Pharaoh the impaler5
treated their prophets as impostors;

And Themoud, and the people of Lot, and the dwellers in the
forest: these were the confederates.

Nought did they all but charge the apostles with falsehood: Just,
therefore, the retribution.

And these (Meccans) await but one single trumpet blast There
shall be no delaying it

Yet they dare to say, "O our Lord! hasten our lot to us, before the
day of reckoning."

Put thou up with what they say: and remember our servant David,
a man strong of hand6, one who turned him to Us in penitence:

We constrained the mountains7 to join with him in lauds at even
and at sunrise;

And the birds which flocked to him, and would all return to him

And we stablished his kingdom: and wisdom, and skill to
pronounce clear decisions, did we bestow on him.

Hath the story of the two pleaders8 reached thee, O Muhammad,
when they mounted the walls of his closet?

When they entered in upon David, and he was frightened at them,
they said, "Be not afraid; we are two opposing parties: one of us
hath wronged the other. Judge therefore with truth between us,
and be not unjust, but guide us to the right way.

Now this my brother had ninety and nine ewes, and I had but a
single ewe; and he said, make me her keeper. And he
over-persuaded me in the dispute."

He said, "Certainly he hath wronged thee in asking for thine ewe
to add her to his own ewes: and truly many associates do one
another wrong except those who believe and do the things that
are right; and few indeed are they!" And David perceived that we
had tried him; so he asked pardon of his Lord, and fell down and
bowed himself and repented.

So we forgave him that his sin; and truly he shall have a high rank
with Us, and an excellent retreat in Paradise.

O David! verily we have made thee our vicegerent upon earth.
Judge therefore between men with truth, and follow not thy
passions, lest they cause thee to err from the way of God. For they
who err from the way of God shall meet with a grievous
chastisement, for that they have forgotten the day of reckoning.

We have not created the heaven and the earth and what is between
them for nought. That is the thought of infidels; but woe to the
infidels because of the fire!

Shall we treat those who believe and do the things that are right
like those who propagate evil on earth? Shall we treat the
God-fearing like the impious?

A blessed Book9 have we sent down to thee, that men may
its verses, and that those endued with understanding may bear it in

And Solomon gave we unto David. An excellent servant, for he
loved to turn him Godward.

Remember when at eventide the prancing10 chargers were
displayed before him,

And he said, "Truly I have loved the love of earthly goods above
the remembrance of my Lord, till the sun hath been hidden by the
veil of darkness.11

Bring them back to me." And he began to sever the legs and necks.

We also made trial of Solomon, and placed a phantom12 on his
throne: whereupon he returned to US (in penitence).

He said, O my Lord! pardon me, and give me a dominion that may
not be to any one beside me, for thou art the liberal giver.

So we subjected the wind to him; it ran softly at his bidding,
whithersoever he directed it:

And the Satans every builder and diver

And others bound in chains:13

"This," said we, "is our gift: be bounteous then, or withhold thy
favours; no account shalt thou render."

And his rank also is high with Us, and an excellent retreat.

And remember our servant Job when he cried to his Lord, "Verily,
Satan hath laid on me disease and pain."

"Stamp," said we, "with thy foot. This14 is to wash with; cool, and
to drink."

And we gave him back his family, and as many more with them in
our mercy; and for a monition to men of judgment.

And we said, "Take in thine hand a rod, and strike15 with it, nor
break thine oath." Verily, we found him patient!

How excellent a servant, one who turned to Us was he!

And remember our servants Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, men of
might and vision.16

With this cleansing did we cleanse them the remembrance of the
abode of Paradise.

And verily, they were, in our sight, of the elect and of the good.

And remember Ishmael and Elisha and Dhoulkefl, for all these
were of the just.

This is a monition: and verily, the pious shall have a goodly

Gardens of Eden, whose portals shall stand open to them:

Therein reclining, they shall there call for many a fruit and drink:

And with them shall be virgins of their own age, with modest
retiring glances:

"This is what ye were promised at the day of reckoning."

"Yes! this is our provision: it shall never fail."

Even so. But for the evil doers is a wretched home Hell wherein
they shall be burned: how wretched a bed! Even so. Let them then
taste it boiling water and gore, And other things of kindred sort!

To their leaders it shall be said, "This company shall be thrown in
headlong with you. No greetings shall await them, for they shall be
burned in the fire."

They shall say: "But ye, too! there shall be no welcome for you. It
was ye who prepared this for us, and wretched is the abode!"

They will say: "O our Lord! increase twofold in the fire, the
punishment of him who hath brought this upon us."

And they will say: "Why see we not the men whom we numbered
among the wicked

Whom we used to treat with scorn? Have they escaped our

Verily this is truth the wrangling together of the people of the

SAY: I am but a warner; and there is no God but God the One, the

Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth, and of all that is between
them,18 the Potent, the Forgiving!

SAY: this is a weighty message,19

From which ye turn aside!

Yet had I no knowledge of what passed among the celestial chiefs
when they disputed,20

Verily, it hath been revealed to me only because I am a public

When thy Lord said to the angels, "I am about to make man of

And when I have formed him and breathed my spirit into him, then
worshipping fall down before him."

And the angels prostrated themselves, all of them with one accord,

Save Eblis. He swelled with pride, and became an unbeliever.

"O Eblis," said God, "what hindereth thee from prostrating
thyself before him whom my hands have made?

Is it that thou are puffed up with pride? or art thou a being of lofty

He said: "I am more excellent than he; me hast thou created of
fire:22 of clay hast thou created him."

He said: "Begone then hence: thou art accursed,23

And lo! my ban shall be on thee till the day of the reckoning."

He said: "O my Lord! respite me till the day of Resurrection."

He said, "One then of the respited shalt thou be,

Till the day of the time appointed."

He said: "I swear by thy might then that all of them will I seduce,

Save thy sincere servants among them."

He said: "It is truth, and the truth I speak. From thee will I surely
fill Hell, and with such of them as shall follow thee, one and all.

Say: I ask no wage of you for this, nor am I one who

Of a truth the Koran is no other than a warning to all creatures.

And after a time shall ye surely know its message.


1 The letter S. See Sura lxviii. p. 32.

2 These verses are said to have been revealed when, upon the
conversion of Omar, the Koreisch went in a body to Abu Talib and
requested him to withdraw his protection from Muhammad, but
being put to silence by the latter, departed in great confusion.
Wah. Beidh.

3 That is, in the Christian religion, which teaches, Muhammad
ironically implies, a plurality of Gods.

4 This may allude to the so-called "confederacy" of the Koreisch
against Muhammad.

5 This term is also applied to Pharaoh, Sura lxxxix. 9, p. 54. He is
said to have fastened the Israelites to stakes, and then subjected
them to various torments.

6 Pr‘diti (manibus) virtute. Mar.

7 Comp. Ps. cxlviii. 9, 10.

8 Two angels who pretended to appeal to David in order to
convince him of his sin in the matter of Uriah's wife. Comp. I Sam.

9 The Psalms, if we suppose with N”ldeke, p. 99, that David is still
addressed: the Koran, if with Sale we refer the passage to

10 The Commentators say that the word used in the original
implies that the mares stood on three feet, and touched the ground
with the edge of the fourth foot.

11 Solomon, in his admiration of these horses, the result, we are
told, of David's or his own conquests, forgot the hour of evening
prayer, and when aware of his fault commenced their slaughter.
The Tr. Sanhedr. fol. 21, mentions Solomon's love for horses, and
that he determined to have a large stud; yet not to send the people
to Egypt (Deut. xvii. 16) but to have them brought to him out of
Egypt (I Kings x. 28).

12 One of the Djinn. The absurd fiction may be seen in extenso in
Sale. Compare Tr. Sanhedr. fol. 20, b. and Midr. Jalkut on I Kings
vi.  182.

13 Thus the second Targum on Esther i. 2, mentions the four
different kinds of Demons which were "given into the hand" of
Solomon a legend derived from a misunderstanding of Eccl. ii. 8.

14 The fountain which had sprung up. To this history the
Talmudists have no allusion.

15 Thy wife; on whom he had sworn that he would inflict an
hundred blows, because she had absented herself from him when
in need of her assistance, or for her words (Job ii. 9). The oath
was kept, we are told, by his giving her one blow with a rod of a
hundred stalks. This passage is often quoted by the Muslims as
authorising any similar manner of release from an oath
inconsiderately taken.

16 Lit. men of hand and of sight.

17 Lit. or do our eyes wander from them.

18 See verses 9, 26, above. It seems to have been one of the
peculiarities of Muhammad, as a person very deficient in
imagination, to dwell upon and repeat the same ideas, with an
intensity which is at once an evidence of deep personal conviction
and consciousness, of the simple Arabian especially.

19 The connection between the concluding episode and the
preceding part of the Sura does not seem very clear. It probably
originated at a different but uncertain period.

20 About the creation of man.

21 Comp. Sura [xci.] ii. 28, ff.

22 Comp. Ps. civ. 4.

23 Lit. stoned. See Sura xv. 34, p. 114.


MECCA. 83 Verses

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

YA. SIN.1 By the wise Koran!

Surely of the Sent Ones, Thou,

Upon a right path!

A revelation of the Mighty, the Merciful,

That thou shouldest warn a people whose fathers were not warned
and therefore lived in heedlessness!

Just, now, is our sentence2 against most of them; therefore they
shall not believe.

On their necks have we placed chains which reach the chin, and
forced up are their heads:

Before them have we set a barrier and behind them a barrier, and
we have shrouded them in a veil, so that they shall not see.

Alike is it to them if thou warn them or warn them not: they will
not believe.

Him only shalt thou really warn, who followeth the monition and
feareth the God of mercy in secret: him cheer with tidings of
pardon, and of a noble recompense.

Verily, it is We who will quicken the dead, and write down the
works which they have sent on before them, and the traces which
they shall have left behind them: and everything have we set down
in the clear Book of our decrees.3

Set forth to them the instance of the people of the city4 when the
Sent Ones came to it.

When we sent two unto them and they charged them both with
imposture therefore with a third we strengthened them: and they
said, "Verily we are the Sent unto you of God."

They said, "Ye are only men like us: Nought hath the God of
Mercy sent down. Ye do nothing but lie."

They said, "Our Lord knoweth that we are surely sent unto you;

To proclaim a clear message is our only duty."

They said, "Of a truth we augur ill from you:5 if ye desist not we
will surely stone you, and a grievous punishment will surely befall
you from us."

They said, "Your augury of ill is with yourselves. Will ye be
warned?6 Nay, ye are an erring people."

Then from the end of the city a man came running:7 He said, "O
my people! follow the Sent Ones;

Follow those who ask not of you a recompense, and who are
rightly guided.

And why should I not worship Him who made me, and to whom ye
shall be brought back?

Shall I take gods beside Him? If the God of Mercy be pleased to
afflict me, their intercession will not avert from me aught, nor will
they deliver:

Truly then should I be in a manifest error.

Verily, in your Lord have I believed; therefore hear me."8

It was said to him, "Enter thou into Paradise:" And he said,
"Oh that my people knew

How gracious God hath been to me, and that He hath made me
one of His honoured ones."

But no army sent we down out of heaven after his death, nor were
we then sending down our angels

There was but one shout from Gabriel, and lo! they were extinct.

Oh! the misery that rests upon my servants! No apostle cometh to
them but they laugh him to scorn.

See they not how many generations we have destroyed before

Not to false gods is it that they shall be brought9 back,

But all, gathered together, shall be set before Us.

Moreover, the dead earth is a sign to them: we quicken it and
bring forth the grain from it, and they eat thereof:

And we make in it gardens of the date and vine; and we cause
springs to gush forth in it;

That they may eat of its fruits and of the labour of their hands.
they not therefore be thankful?

Glory be to Him, who hath created all the sexual pairs of such
things as Earth produceth,10 and of mankind themselves; and of
things beyond their ken!

A sign to them also is the Night. We withdraw the day from it, and
lo! they are plunged in darkness;

And the Sun hasteneth to her place of rest. This, the ordinance of
the Mighty, the Knowing!

And as for the Moon, We have decreed stations for it, till it change
like an old and crooked palm branch.

To the Sun it is not given to overtake the Moon, nor doth the night
outstrip the day; but each in its own sphere doth journey on.

It is also a sign to them that we bare their posterity in the
full-laden Ark;

And that we have made for them vessels like it on which they

And if we please, we drown them, and there is none to help them,
and they are not rescued,

Unless through our mercy, and that they may enjoy themselves for
yet awhile.

And when it is said to them, Fear what is before you and what is
behind you,11 that ye may obtain mercy.

Aye, not one sign from among the signs of their Lord dost thou
bring them, but they turn away from it!

And when it is said to them, Give alms of what God hath bestowed
on you,12 they who believe not say to the believers, "Shall we feed
him whom God can feed if He will? Truly ye are in no other than a
plain error."

And they say, "When will this promise be fulfilled, if what ye say
be true?"

They await but a single blast: as they are wrangling shall it assail

And not a bequest shall they be able to make, nor to their families
shall they return.

And the trumpet shall be blown, and, lo! they shall speed out of
their sepulchres to their Lord:

They shall say, "Oh! woe to us! who hath roused us from our
sleeping place? 'Tis what the God of Mercy promised; and the
Apostles spake the truth."

But one blast shall there be,13 and, lo! they shall be assembled
before us, all together.

And on that day shall no soul be wronged in the least: neither
shall ye be rewarded but as ye shall have wrought.

But joyous on that day shall be the inmates of Paradise, in their

In shades, on bridal couches reclining, they and their spouses:

Therein shall they have fruits, and shall have whatever they

"Peace!" shall be the word on the part of a merciful Lord.

"But be ye separated this day, O ye sinners!

Did I not enjoin on you, O sons of Adam, 'Worship not Satan, for
that he is your declared foe,'

But 'Worship Me: this is a right path'?

But now hath he led a vast host of you astray. Did ye not then

This is Hell with which ye were threatened:

Endure its heat this day, for that ye believed not."

On that day will we set a seal upon their mouths; yet shall their
hands speak unto us, and their feet14 shall bear witness of that
which they shall have done.

And, if we pleased, we would surely put out their eyes: yet even
then would they speed on with rivalry in their path: but how
should they see?

And, if we pleased, we would surely transform them as they
stand,15 and they would not be able to move onward, or to return.

Him cause we to stoop through age whose days we lengthen. Will
they not understand?

We have not taught him (Muhammad) poetry,16 nor would it
beseem him. This Book is no other than a warning and a clear

To warn whoever liveth; and, that against the Infidels sentence
may be justly given.

See they not that we have created for them among the things which
our hands have wrought, the animals of which they are masters?

And that we have subjected them unto them? And on some they
ride, and of others they eat;

And they find in them profitable uses and beverages:

Yet have they taken other gods beside God that they might be
helpful to them.

No power have they to succour them: yet are their votaries an
army at their service.

Let not their speech grieve thee: We know what they hide and what
they bring to light.

Doth not man perceive that we have created him of the moist
germs of life? Yet lo! is he an open caviller.

And he meeteth us with arguments,17 and forgetteth his creation:
"Who," saith he, "shall give life to bones when they are rotten?"

Say: He shall give life to them who gave them being at first, for in
all creation is he skilled:

Who even out of the green tree hath given you fire18, and lo! ye
kindle flame from it.

What! must not He who hath created the Heavens and the Earth be
mighty enough to create your likes? Yes! and He is the skilful

His command when He willeth aught, is but to say to it, BE, and IT

So glory be to Him in whose hand is sway over all things! And to
Him shall ye be brought back.


1 This Sura is said to have been termed by Muhammad "the heart
of the Koran." It is recited in all Muhammadan countries to the
dying, at the tombs of saints, etc. On Ya. Sin, see Sura lxviii. p. 32.

2 Sura xxxviii. 85, p. 129.

3 Lit. in the clear prototype, that is, in the Preserved Table, on
which all the actions of mankind are written down.

4 Antioch, to which Jesus is said to have sent two disciples to
preach the unity of God, and subsequently Simon Peter. This
vague story, and that of the seven sleepers in Sura xviii. are the
only traces to be found in the Koran of any knowledge, on the part
of Muhammad, of the history of the Church subsequent to the day
of Pentecost, or of the spread of the Christian religion.

5 Comp. Sura xxvii. 48; vii. 128, where, as in this passage, the
word augur refers to the mode of divination practised previous to
Islam, by the flight of birds.

6 Lit. if ye have been warned (will ye still disbelieve?).

7 Habib, the carpenter, who, as implied at verse 25, was martyred,
and whose tomb at Antioch is still an object of veneration to the

8 Ullm. following Wahl, renders, Als sie (die stadtlente) darauf ihn
sch„ndlich behandleten. The verb in the original is thus used in
the 4th conj. N”ldeke supposes that words to this effect have been
lost from the text. But of this there is no trace in the

9 Or, the Apostles shall not return to them again. Ullm.

10 For instance, date trees, the female blossoms of which were
carefully impregnated, when requisite, by branches of the male
plant. See Freyt. Einl. p. 271.

11 The chastisements of this world and of the next.

12 On account of this precept, Itq. 35, and Omar b. Muhammad
suppose the verse to have originated at Medina.

13 The Muhammadans affirm that a space of forty years will
intervene between two blasts of the Trumpet. Maracci suggests
that the idea of the two blasts is derived from 1 Thess. iv. 16, "the
voice of the archangel and the trump of God."

14 Thus Chagiga, 16; Taanith, 11. "The very members of a man
bear witness against him, for thus is it written (Is. xliii. 12), Ye
yourselves are my witnesses, saith the Lord." See also Sura [lxxi.]
xli. 19, 20.

15 Lit. in their place.

16 See Sura xxvi. 225, p. III.

17 Lit. he setteth forth to us comparisons.

18 The form of the Arabic word is Rabbinic Hebrew.


Mecca. 89 Verses.

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

Ha. Mim.1 By the Luminous Book!

We have made it an Arabic Koran that ye may understand:

And it is a transcript of the archetypal Book,2 kept by us; it is
filled with wisdom,

Shall we then turn aside this warning from you because ye are a
people who transgress?

Yet how many prophets sent we among those of old!

But no prophet came to them whom they made not the object of
their scorn:

Wherefore we destroyed nations mightier than these Meccans in
strength; and the example of those of old hath gone before!

And if thou ask them who created the Heavens and the Earth, they
will say: "The Mighty, the Sage, created them both,"

Who hath made the Earth as a couch for you, and hath traced out
routes therein for your guidance;

And who sendeth down out of Heaven the rain in due degree, by
which we quicken a dead land; thus shall ye be brought forth from
the grave:

And who hath created the sexual couples, all of them, and hath
made for you the ships and beasts whereon ye ride:

That ye may sit balanced on their backs and remember the
goodness of your Lord as ye sit so evenly thereon, and say: "Glory
to Him who hath subjected these to us! We could not have attained
to it of ourselves:

And truly unto our Lord shall we return."

Yet do they assign to him some of his own servants for offspring!
Verily man is an open ingrate!

Hath God adopted daughters from among those whom he hath
created, and chosen sons for you?

But when that3 is announced to any one of them, which he
affirmeth to be the case with the God of Mercy,4 his face settleth
into darkness and he is silent-sad.

What! make they a being to be the offspring of God who is brought
up among trinkets, and is ever contentious without reason?

And they make the angels who are the servants of God of Mercy,
females. What! did they witness their creation? Their witness shall
be taken down, and they shall hereafter be enquired at.

And they say: "Had the God of Mercy so willed it we should never
have worshipped them." No knowledge have they in this: they only

Have we ere this given them a Book?5 and do they possess it still?

But say they: "Verily we found our fathers of that persuasion, and
verily, by their footsteps do we guide ourselves."

And thus never before thy time did we send a warner to any city
but its wealthy ones said: "Verily we found our fathers with a
religion, and in their tracks we tread."

Say, such was our command to that apostle "What! even if I
bring you a religion more right than that ye found your fathers
following?" And they said, "Verily we believe not in your

Wherefore we took vengeance on them, and behold what hath been
the end of those who treated our messengers as liars!

And bear in mind when Abraham said to his father and to his
people, "Verily I am clear of what ye worship,

Save Him who hath created me; for he will vouchsafe me

And this he established as a doctrine that should abide among his
posterity, that to God might they be turned.

In sooth to these idolatrous Arabians and to their fathers did I
allow their full enjoyments, till the truth should come to them, and
an undoubted apostle:

But now that the truth hath come to them, they say, "'Tis sorcery,
and we believe it not."

And they say, "Had but this Koran been sent down to some great
one of the two cities6 !"

Are they then the distributors of thy Lord's Mercy?7 It is we who
distribute their subsistence among them in this world's life; and
we raise some of them by grades above others, that the one may
take the other to serve him: but better is the mercy of thy Lord
than all their hoards.

But for fear that all mankind would have become a single people
of unbelievers, verily we would certainly have given to those who
believe not in the God of Mercy roofs of silver to their houses, and
silver stairs to ascend by;

And doors of silver to their houses, and couches of silver to recline

And ORNAMENTS OF GOLD: for all these are merely the good
things of the present life; but the next life doth thy Lord reserve for
those who fear Him.

And whoso shall withdraw from the Warning of the God of Mercy,
we will chain a Satan to him, and he shall be his fast companion:

For the Satans will turn men aside from the Way, who yet shall
deem themselves rightly guided;

Until when man shall come before us, he shall say, "O Satan,
would that between me and thee were the distance of the East and
West."8 And a wretched companion is a Satan.

But it shall not avail you on that day, because ye were unjust:
partners shall ye be in the torment.

What! Canst thou then make the deaf to hear, or guide the blind
and him who is in palpable error?

Whether therefore we take thee off by death, surely will we avenge
ourselves on them;

Or whether we make thee a witness of the accomplishment of that
with which we threatened them, we will surely gain the mastery
over them.9

Hold thou fast therefore what hath been revealed to thee, for thou
art on a right path:

For truly to thee and to thy people it is an admonition; and ye
shall have an account to render for it at last.10

And ask our Sent Ones whom we have sent before thee,

"Appointed we gods beside the God of Mercy whom they should

Of old sent we Moses with our signs to Pharaoh and his nobles:
and he said, "I truly am the Apostle of the Lord of the worlds."

And when he presented himself before them with our signs, lo!
laughed at them,

Though we shewed them no sign that was not greater than its
fellow:12 and therefore did we lay hold on them with
to the intent that they might be turned to God.

Then they said, "O Magician! call on thy Lord on our behalf to do
as he hath engaged with thee, for truly we would fain be guided."

But when we relieved them from the chastisement, lo! they broke
their pledge.

And Pharaoh made proclamation among his people. Said he, "O
my people! is not the kingdom of Egypt mine, and these rivers
which flow at my feet?13 Do ye not behold?

Am I not mightier than this despicable fellow,

And who scarce can speak distinctly?

Have bracelets of gold14 then been put upon him, or come there
with him a train of Angels?"

And he inspired his people with levity, and they obeyed him; for
they were a perverse people:

And when they had angered us, we took vengeance on them, and
we drowned them all.

And we made them a precedent and instance of divine judgments
to those who came after them.

And when the Son of Mary was set forth as an instance of divine
power, lo! thy people cried out for joy thereat:

And they said, "Are our gods or is he the better?"15 They put this
forth to thee only in the spirit of dispute. Yea, they are a
contentious people.

Jesus is no more than a servant whom we favoured, and proposed
as an instance of divine power to the children of Israel.

(And if we pleased, we could from yourselves bring forth Angels
succeed you on earth:)16

And he shall be a sign of the last hour;17 doubt not then of it, and
follow ye me: this is the right way;

And let not Satan turn you aside from it, for he is your manifest

And when Jesus came with manifest proofs, he said, "Now am I
come to you with wisdom; and a part of those things about which
ye are at variance I will clear up to you; fear ye God therefore and
obey me.

Verily, God is my Lord and your Lord; wherefore worship ye him:
this is a right way."

But the different parties18 fell into disputes among themselves;
woe to those who thus transgressed, because of the punishment of
an afflictive day!

For what wait they but for the hour "to come suddenly on them,
while they expect it not?"

Friends on that day shall become foes to one another, except the

"O my servants! on this day shall no fear come upon you, neither
shall ye be put to grief,

Who have believed in our signs and become Muslims:

Enter ye and your wives into Paradise, delighted."

Dishes and bowls of gold shall go round unto them: there shall
they enjoy whatever their souls desire, and whatever their eyes
delight in; and therein shall ye abide for ever.

This is Paradise, which ye have received as your heritage in
recompense for your works;

Therein shall ye have fruits in abundance, of which ye shall eat.

But in the torment of Hell shall the wicked remain for ever:

It shall not be mitigated to them, and they shall be mute for
despair therein,

For it is not we who have treated them unjustly, but it was they
who were unjust to themselves.

And they shall cry: "O Malec!19 would that thy Lord would make
an end of us!" He saith: "Here must ye remain."

We have come to you with the truth (O Meccans), but most of you
abhor the truth.

Have they drawn tight their toils for thee?20 We too will tighten

Think they that we hear not their secrets and their private talk?
Yes, and our angels who are at their sides write them down.

Say: If the God of Mercy had a son, the first would I be to worship

But far be the Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth, the Lord of
the Throne, from that which they impute to Him!

Wherefore let them alone, to plunge on, and sport, until they meet
the day with which they are menaced.

He who is God in the Heavens is God in earth also: and He is the
Wise, the Knowing.

And Blessed be He whose is the kingdom of the Heavens and of
Earth and of all that is between them; for with Him is the
knowledge of the Hour, and to Him shall ye be brought back.

The gods whom they call upon beside Him shall not be able to
intercede for others: they only shall be able who bore witness to
the truth and21 knew it."

If thou ask them who hath created them, they will be sure to say,
"God." How then hold they false opinions?

And one22 saith, "O Lord! verily these are people who believe

Turn thou then from them, and say, "Peace:" In the end they shall
know their folly.


1 See Sura lxviii. I, p. 32.

2 Lit. it is in the Mother of the Book, i.e. the original of the Koran,
preserved before God.

3 That is, of the birth of a female.

4 Lit. which he imputeth to the God of Mercy, as his likeness.

5 To authorise angel-worship.

6 Supply, Mecca and Taief, we would have received it.

7 Lit. mercy, i.e. the gift and office of prophecy.

8 Lit. the two Easts, by which some understand the distance
between the two solstices.

9 Comp. Suras xl. 77; xxiii. 97; x. 47; xxix. 53; xxxvii. 179; xiii.
42. These passages clearly show that Muhammad had at this
period towards the close of his Meccan period full faith in his
ultimate success, and in the fulfilment of his menaces against the

10 Lit. ye shall be examined in the end.

11 This verse is said (see N”ld. p. 100, n.) to have been revealed in
the temple at Jerusalem on the occasion of the night journey
thither. See also Weil's Muhammed der Prophet, p. 374.

12 Lit. sister.

13 See Sura [lxxix.] xxviii. 39, n.

14 Comp. Gen. xli. 42.

15 This was a captious objection made to Muhammad by the
idolaters of Mecca when he condemned their gods (Sura xxi. 98),
as if they had said, "Jesus is worshipped as a God by the
Christians: does he come under your anathema equally with our
idols? we shall be content for our gods to be with him."

16 That is, as we caused Jesus to be born without a human father.

17 At his return to this earth. Some refer this to the Koran as
revealing the last Hour. Lit. He (or it) is for knowledge of the

18 Jewish and Christian sects.

19 Malec is one of the keepers of Hell, who specially presides over
the torments of the damned.

20 Lit. if they have twisted tight or set firmly the affair, i.e. their
plots against thee and the truth.

21 Or, and they (the Infidels). The Commentators say that Jesus,
Ezra, and the angels, will be allowed to intercede.

22 Muhammad.


Mecca. 28 Verses

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

Say: It hath been revealed to me that a company of

DJINN1 listened, and said, "Verily, we have heard a marvellous
discourse (Koran);

It guideth to the truth; wherefore we believed in it, and we will not
henceforth join any being with our Lord;

And He, may the majesty of our Lord be exalted! hath taken no
spouse neither hath he any offspring.

But the foolish among us hath spoken of God that which is unjust:

And we verily thought that no one amongst men or Djinn would
have uttered a lie against God.

There are indeed people among men, who have sought for refuge
unto people among Djinn: but they only increased their folly:

And they thought, as ye think, that God would not raise any from
the dead.

And the Heavens did we essay, but found them filled with a
garrison, and with flaming darts;

And we sat on some of the seats to listen, but whoever listeneth
findeth an ambush ready for him of flaming darts.

And truly we know not whether evil be meant for them that are on
earth, or whether their Lord meaneth guidance for them.

And there are among us good, and others among us of another
kind; we are of various sorts:

And verily we thought that no one could weaken God on earth,
neither could we escape from him by flight:

Wherefore as soon as we had heard 'the guidance' we believed in
it; and whoever believeth in his Lord, need not fear either loss or

There are some among us who have resigned themselves to God
(the Muslims); and there are others of us who have gone astray.
And whoso resigneth himself to God pursueth the way of truth;

But they who go astray from it shall be fuel for Hell."

Moreover, if they (the Meccans) keep straight on in that way, we
will surely give them to drink of abundant waters,

That we may prove them thereby: but whoso withdraweth from the
remembrance of his Lord, him will He send into a severe torment.

It is unto God that the temples are set apart: call not then on any
other therein with God.

When the servant of God stood up to call upon Him, the djinn
almost jostled him by their crowds.

Say: I call only upon my Lord, and I join no other being with Him.

Say: No control have I over what may hurt or benefit you.

Say: Verily none can protect me against God;

Neither shall I find any refuge beside Him.

My sole work is preaching from God, and His message: and for
such as shall rebel against God and his apostle is the fire of Hell!
they shall remain therein alway, for ever!

Until they see their threatened vengeance they will be perverse!
but then shall they know which side was the weakest in a protector
and the fewest in number.

Say: I know not whether that with which ye are threatened be nigh,
or whether my Lord hath assigned it to a distant day: He knoweth
the secret, nor doth He divulge his secret to any,

Except to that Apostle who pleaseth Him; and before him and
behind him He maketh a guard to march:

That He may know if his Apostles have verily delivered the
messages of their Lord: and He embraceth in his knowledge all
their ways, and taketh count of all that concerneth them.


1 This interview with the Djinn took place at Nakhla, probably the
"Wady Mohram" of Burckhardt, midway between Mecca and
Ta‹ef, when Muhammad was driven from Mecca. A.D. 620.


Mecca. 30 Verses

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

Blessed be He is whose hand is the KINGDOM! and over all
things is He potent:

Who hath created death and life to prove which of you will be
righteous in deed; and He is the Mighty, the Forgiving!

Who hath created seven Heavens one above another: No defect
canst thou see in the creation of the God of Mercy: Repeat the
gaze: seest thou a single flaw?

Then twice more repeat the gaze: thy gaze shall return to thee
dulled and weary.

Moreover we have decked the lowest heaven with lights, and have
placed them there to be hurled at the Satans, for whom we have
prepared the torment of the flaming fire.

And for those who believe not in their Lord is the torment of Hell;
and horrid the journey thither!

When they shall be thrown into it, they shall hear it braying:1 and
it shall boil

Almost shall it burst for fury. So oft as a crowd shall be thrown
into it, its keepers shall ask them, "Came not the warner to you?"

They shall say, Yes! there came to us one charged with warnings;
but we treated him as a liar, and said, "Nothing hath God sent
down: ye are in nothing but a vast delusion."

And they shall say, "Had we but hearkened or understood, we had
not been among the dwellers in the flames;"

And their sin shall they acknowledge: but, "Avaunt, ye dwellers in
the flame."

But pardon and a great reward for those who fear their Lord in

Be your converse hidden or open, He truly knoweth the inmost
recess of your breasts!


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