The Letters of Horace Walpole, Volume 1
Horace Walpole

Part 14 out of 18

came from Florence, having often refused to buy most of the
things, which had long lain upon the jeweller's hands on the
old bridge, and which are very improper for sale here, as all
the English for some years have seen them, and not thought
them worth purchasing - that I remember in the catalogue the
price for the whole was fixed at two thousand pistoles; that
they are full as much worth two-and-twenty thousand; and that
I have been laughed at by people to whom I have showed them
for naming so extravagant a price: that nobody living would
think of buying all together: that for myself, I have entirely
left off making any collection; and if I had not, would not
buy things dear now which I have formerly refused at much
lower prices. That, after all, though I cannot think myself
at all well used by Marquis Riccardi, either in sending me the
things, in the price he has fixed on them, or in the things
themselves, which to my knowledge he has picked up from the
shops on the old bridge, and were no family collection, yet,
as I received so many civilities at Florence from the
nobility, and in particular from his wife, Madame Riccardi, if
he will let me do any thing that is practicable, I will sell
what I can for him. That if he will send me A new and distinct
catalogue, with the price of each piece, and a price
considerably less than what he has set upon the whole, I will
endeavour to dispose of what I can for him. But as most of
them are very indifferent, and the total value most
unreasonable, I absolutely will not undertake the sale of them
upon any other terms, but will pack them up, and send them
away to Leghorn by the first ship that sails; for as we are at
war with France, I cannot send them that way, nor will I
trouble any gentleman to carry them, as he might think himself
liable to make them good if they met with any accident; nor
will I answer for them by whatever way they go, as I did not
consent to receive them, nor am sure that I have received the
Marquis's collection.

My dear Sir, translate this very distinctly for him, for he
never shall receive any other notice from me; nor will I give
them up to Wasner or Pucci,(1084) or any body else, though he
should send me an order for it; for nobody saw me open them,
nor shall any body be able to say I had them, by receiving
them from me. In short, I think I cannot be too cautious in
such a negotiation. If a man will send Me things to the value
of two thousand pistoles, whether they are really worth it or
not, he shall take his chance for losing them, and shall
certainly never come upon me for them. He must absolutely
take his choice, of selling them at a proper price and
separately, or of having them directly sent back by sea; for
whether he consents to either or not, I shall certainly
proceed in my resolution about them
the very instant I receive an answer from you; for the sooner
I am clear of them the better. If he will let me sell them
without setting a price, he may depend upon my taking the best
method for his service; though really, my dear child, it will
be for my own honour, not for his sake, who has treated me so
impertinently. I am sorry to give you this trouble, but judge
how much the fool gives me! Adieu!

(1084) Ministers of the Queen of Hungary and the Great Duke.

430 Letter 174
To Sir Horace Mann.
Arlington Street, July 26, 1745.

It is a pain to me to write to you, when all I can tell you
will but distress you. How much I wish myself with you!
anywhere, where I should have my thoughts detached in some
degree by distance and by length of time from England! With
all the reasons that I have for not loving great part of it,
it is impossible not to feel the shock of living at the period
of all its greatness! to be one of the Ultimi Romanorum! I
will not proceed upon the chapter of reflections, but mention
some facts, which will supply your thoughts with all I should

The French make no secret of their intending to come hither;
the letters from Holland speak of it as a notoriety. Their
Mediterranean fleet is come to Rochfort, and they have another
at Brest. Their immediate design is to attack our army, the
very lessening which will be victory for them. Our six
hundred men, which have lain cooped up in the river till they
had contracted diseases, are at last gone to Ostend. Of all
this our notable ministry still make a secret: one cannot
learn the least particulars from them. This anxiety for my
friends in the army, this uncertainty about ourselves, if it
can be called uncertain that we are undone, and the provoking
folly that one sees prevail, have determined me to go to the
Hague. I shall at least hear sooner from the army, and shall
there know better what is likely to happen here. The moment
the crisis is come I shall return hither, which I can do from
Helvoetsluys in twelve hours. At all events, I shall
certainly not stay there above a month or six weeks: it
thickens too fast for something important not to happen by
that time.

You may judge of our situation by the conversation of Marshal
Belleisle: he has said for some time, that he saw we were so
little capable of making any defence that he would engage,
with five thousand scullions of the French army, to conquer
England--yet, just now, they choose to release him! he goes
away in a week.(1085) When he was told of the taking Cape
Breton, he said. "he could believe that, because the ministry
had no hand in it." We are making bonfires for Cape Breton,
and thundering over Genoa, while our army in Flanders is
running away, and dropping to pieces by detachments taken
prisoners every day; while the King is at Hanover, the regency
at their country-seats, not five thousand men in the island,
and not above fourteen or fifteen ships at home! Allelujah!

I received yours yesterday, with the bill of lading for the
gesse figures, but you don't tell me their price; pray do in
your 'next. I don't know what to say to Mr. Chute's eagle; I
would fain have it; I can depend upon his taste-but would not
it be folly to be buying curiosities now! how can I tell that
I shall have any thing in the world to pay for it, by the time
it is bought? You may present these reasons to Mr. Chute; and
if he laughs at them, why then he will buy the eagle for me;
if he thinks them of weight, not.

Adieu! I have not time or patience to say more.

(1085) The Marshal and his brother left England on the 13th of

431 Letter 175
To George Montagu, Esq.
[August 1, 1745.]

Dear George,
I cannot help thinking you laugh at me when you say such very
civil things of my letters, and yet, coming from you, I would
fain not have it all flattery:

So much the more, as, from a little elf,
I've had a high opinion of myself,
Though sickly, slender, and not large of limb.

With this modest prepossession, you may be sure I like to have
you commend me, whom, after I have done with myself, I admire
of all men living. I only beg that you will commend me no
more: it is very ruinous; and praise, like other debts, ceases
to be due on being paid. One comfort indeed is, that it is as
seldom paid as other debts.

I have been very fortunate lately: I have met with an extreme
good print of M. de Grignan;(1086) I am persuaded, very like;
and then it has his toufie `ebouriff`ee; I don't, indeed, know
what that was, but I am sure it Is in the-print. None of the
critics could ever make out what Livy's Patavinity is though
they are confident it is in his writings. I have heard within
these few days, what, for your sake, I wish I could have told
you sooner-that there is in Belleisle's suite the Abb`e
Perrin, who published Madame S`evign`e's letters, and who has
the originals in his hands. How one should have liked to have
known him! The Marshal was privately in london last Friday.
He is entertained to-day at Hampton Court by the Duke of
Grafton.(1087) Don't you believe it was to settle the binding
the scarlet thread in the window, when the French shall come
in unto the land to possess it? I don't at all wonder at any
shrewd observations the Marshal has made on our situation.
The bringing him here at all--the sending him away now--in
short, the whole series of our conduct convinces me that, we
shall soon see as silent a change as that in the Rehearsal, of
King Usher and King Physician. It may well be so, when the
disposition of the drama is in the hands of the Duke of
Newcastle--those hands that are always groping and sprawling,
and fluttering and hurrying on the rest of his precipitate
person. But there is no describing him, but as M. Courcelle,
a French prisoner, did t'other day: "Je ne scais pas," dit il,
"je ne scaurois m'exprimer, mais il a un certain tatillonage." If
one could conceive a dead body hung in chains, always wanting to
be hung somewhere else, one should have a comparative idea of

For my own part, I comfort myself with the humane reflection
of the Irishman in the ship that was on fire--I am but a
passenger! if I were not so indolent, I think I should rather
put in practice the late Duchess of Bolton's(1088)
geographical resolution of going to China, when Winston told
her the world would be burnt in three years. Have you any
philosophy? Tell me what you think. It is quite the fashion
to talk of the French coming here. Nobody sees it in any
other light but as a thing to be talked of, not to be
precautioned against. Don't you remember a report of the
plague being in the
city, and every body went to the house where it was to see it?
You- see I laugh about it, for I would not for the world be so
unenglished as to do otherwise. I am persuaded that when
Count Saxe, with ten thousand men, is within a day's march of
London, people will be hiring windows at Charing-cross and
Cheapside to see them pass by. 'Tis our characteristic to take
dangers for sights, and evils for curiosities.

Adieu! dear George: I am laying in scraps of Cato against it
may be necessary to take leave of one's correspondents `a la
Romaine, and, before the play itself is suppressed by a lettre
de cachet to the booksellers.

P. S. Lord! 'tis the 1st of August, 1745, a holiday(1089) that
is going to be turned out of the almanack!

(1086) Fran`cois-Adh`emar de Monteil, Comte de Grignan,
Lieutenant-general of Provence. He married, in 1669, the
daughter of Madame de S`evign`e-E.

(1087) As he was, on the preceding day, by the Duke of
Newcastle, at Clermont.-E.

(1088) Natural daughter of James Scot, Duke of Monmouth, by
Eleanor, daughter of Sir Robert Needham.-E.

(1089) The anniversary of the accession of the House of
Brunswick to the throne of England.

432 Letter 176
To sir Horace Mann.
Arlington Street, Aug. 7, 1745.

I have no news to tell you: Ostend is besieged, and must be
gone in a few days. The Regency are all come to town to
prevent an invasion--I should as soon think them able to make
one--not but old Stair, who still exists upon the embers of an
absurd fire that warmed him ninety years ago, thinks it still
practicable to march to Paris, and the other day in council
prevented a resolution of sending for our army home; but as we
always do half of a thing, when even the whole would scarce
signify, they seem determined to send for ten thousand--the
other ten will remain in Flanders, to keep up the bad figure
that we have been making there all this summer. Count Saxe
has been three times tapped since the of Fontenoy: but if we
get rid of his enmity, there is Belleisle gone, amply to supply
and succeed to his hatred! Van Hoey, the ingenious Dutchman at
Paris, wrote to the States to know if he should make new liveries
against the rejoiCings for the French conquests in Flanders. I
love the governor of SLuys; when the States sent him a reprimand,
for not admitting our troops that retreated thither from the
affair of Ghent, asking him if he did not know that he ought to
admit their allies? he replied, "Yes; and would they have him
admit the French too as their allies?"

There is a proclamation come out for apprehending the
Pretender's son;(1090) he was undoubtedly on board the frigate
attendant on the Elizabeth, with which Captain Brett fought so
bravely:(1090) the boy is now said to be at Brest.

I have put off my journey to the Hague, as the sea is full of
ships, and many French ones about the siege of
Ostend: I go tomorrow to Mount Edgecumbe. I don't think it
impossible but you may receive a letter from me on the road,
with a paragraph like that in Cibber's life, "Here I met the

My lady Orford is set out for Hanover; her gracious sovereign
does not seem inclined to leave it. Mrs. Chute(1092) has sent
me this letter, which you will be so good as to send to Rome.
We have taken infinite riches; vast wealth in the East Indies,
vast from the West; in short, we grow so fat that we shall
very soon be fit to kill.

Your brother has this moment brought me a letter from you,
full of your good-natured concern for the Genoese. I have not
time to write you any thing but short paragraphs, as I am in
the act of writing all my letters and doing my business before
my journey. I can say no more now about the affair of your
secretary. Poor Mrs. Gibberne has been here this morning
almost in fits about her son. She brought me a long letter to
you, but I absolutely prevented her sending it, and told her I
would let you know that it was my fault if you don't hear from
her, but that I would take the answer upon myself. My dear
Sir, for her sake, for the silly boy's, who is ruined if he
follows his own whims, and for your own sake, who will have so
much trouble to get and form another, I must try to prevent
your parting. I am persuaded, that neither the fatigue of
writing, nor the indignation of going to sea are the boy's
true motives. They are, the smallness of his allowance, and
his aversion to waiting it table, For the
first, the poor woman does not expect that you should put
yourself to any inconvenience; she only begs that you will be
so good as to pay him twenty pounds a-year more, which she
herself will repay to your brother; and not let her son know
that it comes from her, as he would then refuse to take it.
For the other point, I must tell you, my dear child, fairly,
that in goodness to the poor boy, I hope you will give it up.
He is to make his fortune in your way of life, if he can be so
lucky, It will be an insuperable obstacle to him that he is
with you in the light of a menial servant. When you reflect
that his fortune may depend upon it, I am sure you will free
him from this servitude, Your brother and I, you know, from
the very first, thought that you should not insist upon it.
If he will stay with you on the terms I propose, I am sure,
from the trouble it will save yourself, and the ruin from
which it will save him, you will yield to this request; which
I seriously make to you, and advise you to comply with.

(1090) The proclamation was dated the 1st of August, and
offered a reward of thirty thousand pounds for the young
Prince's apprehension. He left the island of Belleisle on the
13th of July, disguised in the habit of a Student of the Scots
college at Paris, and allowing his beard to grow.-E.

(1091) Captain Brett was the same officer who, in Anson's
expedition, had stormed Paita. His ship was called the Lion.
After a well-matched fight of five or six hours, the vessels
parted, each nearly disabled.-E.

(1092) Widow of Francis Chute, Esq.

434 Letter 177
To The Rev. Thomas Birch.(1093)
Woolterton 15th [Aug.] 1745

When I was lately in town I was favoured with yours of the
21st past; but my stay there was so short, and my hurry so
great, that I had not time to see you as I intended. As I am
persuaded that nobody is more capable than yourself, in all
respects, to set his late Majesty's reign in a true light, I
am sure there is nobody to whom I would more readily give my
assistance, as far as I am able: but, as I have never wrote
any thing in a historical way, have now and then suggested
hints to others as they were writing, and never published but
two pamphlets-one was to justify the taking and keeping in our
pay the twelve thousand Hessians, of which I have forgot the
title, and have it not in the country; the other was published
about two years since, entitled, "The Interest of Great
Britain steadily Pursued," in answer to the pamphlets about
the Hanover forces-I can't tell in what manner, nor on what
heads to answer your desire, which is conceived in such
general terms: if you could point out some stated times, and
some particular facts, and I had before me a sketch of your
narration, I perhaps might be able, to suggest or explain some
things that are come but imperfectly to your knowledge, and
some anecdotes might occur to my memory relating to domestic
and foreign affairs, that are curious, and were never yet made
public, and perhaps not proper to, be published yet;
particularly with regard to the alteration of the ministry in
1717, by the removal of my relation, and the measures that
were pursued in consequence of that alteration; but in order
to do this, or any thing else for your service, requires a
personal conversation with you, in which I should be ready to
let you know what might occur to me. I am most truly, etc.

(1093) This industrious historian and biographer was born in
1705, and was killed by a fall from his horse, in 1765. Dr.
Johnson said of him, "Tom Birch is as brisk as a bee in
conversation; but no sooner does he take a pen in his hand,
than it becomes a torpedo to him, and benumbs all his

435 Letter 178
To Sir Horace Mann.
Arlington Street, Sept. 6, 1745.

It would have been inexcusable in me, in our present
circumstances and after all I have promised you, not to have
written to you for this last month, if I had been in London;
but I have been at Mount Edgecumbe, and so constantly upon the
road, that I neither received your letters, had time to write,
or knew what to write. I came back last night, and found three
packets from you, which I have no time to answer, and but just
time to read. The confusion I have found, and the danger we
are in, prevent my talking of any thing else. The young
Pretender(1094) at the head of three thousand men, has got a
march on General Cope, who is not eighteen hundred strong: and
when the last accounts came away, was fifty miles nearer
Edinburgh than Cope, and by this time is there. The clans
will not rise for the Government: the Dukes of Argyll(1095)
and Athol,(1096) are come post to town,(1097) not having been
able to raise a man. The young Duke of Gordon(1098) sent for
his uncle and told him that he must arm their clan. "They are
in arms."--"They must march against the rebels."--"They will
wait on the Prince of Wales." The Duke flew in a passion; his
uncle pulled out a pistol, and told him
it was in vain to dispute. Lord Loudon,(1099) Lord
Fortrose(1100) and Lord Panmure,(1101) have been very zealous,
and have raised some men; but I look upon Scotland as gone! I
think of what King William said to the Duke of Hamilton, when
he was extolling Scotland: "My Lord, I only wish it
was a hundred thousand miles off, and that you was king of

There are two manifestos published signed Charles
Prince, Regent for his father, King of Scotland, England,
France, and Ireland. By One, he promises to preserve every
body in their just rights; and orders all persons who have
public moneys in their hands to bring it to him; and by the
other dissolves the union between England and Scotland. But
all this is not the worst! Notice came yesterday, that there
are ten thousand men, thirty transports, and ten men-of-war at
Dunkirk. Against this force we have--I don't know what--
scarce fears! Three thousand Dutch -we hope are by this time
landed In Scotland; three more are coming hither. We have
sent for ten regiments from Flanders, which may be here in a
week, and we have fifteen men-of-war in the Downs. I am
grieved to tell you all this; but when it is so, how can I
avoid telling you? Your brother is just come in, who says he
has written to you-I have not time to expatiate.

My Lady O. is arrived; I hear she says, only to endeavour to
get a certain allowance. Her mother has sent to offer her the
use of her house. She is a poor weak woman. I can say
nothing to Marquis Riccardi, nor think of him; only tell him,
that I will when I have time. My sister(1102) has married
herself, that is, declared she will, to young Churchill. It
is a foolish match; but I have nothing to do with it. Adieu!
my dear Sir; excuse my haste, but you must imagine that one is
not much at leisure to write long letters--hope if you can!

(1094) The 'Pretender had landed, with a few followers, in the
Highlands Of Scotland, on the 25th of July. His appearance at
this time is thus described by Mr. Eneas Macdonald, one of his
attendants: "There entered the tent a tall youth, of a most
agreeable aspect, in a plain black coat, with a plain shirt
not very clean, and a cambric stock, fixed with a plain silver
buckle, a plain hat with a canvass string, having one end
fixed to one of his coat buttons. he had black stockings and
brass buckles in his shoes. At his first appearance I found
my heart swell to my very throat, but we were immediately
told, that this youth was an English clergyman, who had long
been possessed with a desire to see and converse with
Highlanders." "It is remarkable,"
observes Lord Mahon, " that among the foremost to join
Charles, was the father of Marshal Macdonald, Duke de Tarento,
long after raised to these honours by his merit in the French
revolutionary wars, and not more distinguished for courage and
capacity than for integrity and honour." Hist. vol. iii. p.

(1095) Archibald, Earl of Islay, and upon the death of his
elder brother John, Duke of Argyll,-D.

(1096) James Murray, second Duke of Athol; to which he
succeeded upon the death of his father in 1724, in consequence
of the attainder of his elder brother, William, Marquis of

(1097) This was not true of the Duke of Argyll; for he did not
attempt to raise any men, but pleaded a Scotch act of
parliament against arming without authority.

(1098) Cosmo George, third Duke of Gordon. He died in

(1099) John Campbell, fourth Earl of Loudon; a general in the
army. He died in 1782.-D.

(1100) The eldest son of Mackenzie, Earl of Seaforth-D

(1101) William Maule, Earl of Panmure, in Ireland, so created
in 1743, in consequence of the forfeiture of the Scotch
honours in 1715, by his elder brother, James, Earl of

(1102) Lady Maria Walpole, daughter of Lord Orford, married
Charles Churchill, Esq. son of the General.

436 Letter 179
To Sir Horace Mann.
Arlington Street, Sept. 13, 1745.

The rebellion goes on; but hitherto there is no rising in
England, nor landing of troops from abroad; indeed not even of
ours or the Dutch. The best account I can give you is, that
if the Boy has apparently no enemies in Scotland, at least he
has openly very few friends. Nobody of note has joined him,
but a brother of the Duke of Athol,(1103) and another of Lord
Dunmore.(1104) For cannon, they have nothing but
one-pounders: their greatest resource is money; they have
force Louis-d'ors. The last accounts left them at Perth,
making shoes and stockings. It is certain that a sergeant of
Cope's with twelve men, put to flight two hundred, on killing
only six or seven. Two hundred of the Monroe clan have joined
our forces. Spirit seems to rise in London, though not in the
proportion it ought; and then the person(1105) most concerned
does every thing to check its progress: when the ministers
propose any thing with regard to the rebellion, he cries,
"Pho! don't talk to me of that stuff." Lord Granville has
persuaded him that it is of no consequence. Mr. Pelham talks
every day of resigning: he certainly will as soon as this is
got over!--if it is got over. So, at least we shall see a
restoration of queen Sophia.(1106) She has lain-in of a
girl; though she had all the pretty boys in town brought to
her for patterns.

The young Chevalier has set a reward on the King's head: we
are told that his brother is set out for Ireland. However,
there is hitherto little countenance given to the undertaking
by France or Spain. It seems an effort of despair, and
weariness of the manner in which he has been kept in France.
On the grenadier's caps is written, "a grave or a throne." He
stayed some time at the Duke of Athol's, whither old Marquis
Tullybardine(1107) sent to bespeak dinner; and has since sent
his brother word, that he likes the alterations made there.
The Pretender found pine-apples there, the first he ever
tasted. Mr. Breton,(1108) a great favourite of the Southern
Prince of Wales, went the other day to visit the Duchess of
Athol,(1109) and happened not to know that she is parted from
her husband: he asked how the Duke did?, "Oh," said she, "he
turned me out of his house, and now he is turned out himself."
Every now and then a Scotchman comes and pulls the Boy by the
sleeve; "Prence, here is another mon taken!" then with all the
dignity in the world, the Boy hopes nobody was killed in the
action! Lord Bath has made a piece of a ballad, the Duke of
Newcastle's speech to the Regency; I have heard but these two
lines of it:

"Pray consider my Lords, how disastrous a thing,
To have two Prince of Wales's and never a King!"

The merchants are very zealous, and are opening a great
subscription for raising troops. The other day, at the city
meeting, to draw up the address, Alderman Heathcote proposed a
petition for a redress of grievances, but not one man seconded
him. In the midst of all this, no Parliament is called! The
ministers say they have nothing ready to offer; but they have
something to notify!

I must tell you a ridiculous accident: when the magistrates of
were searching houses for arms, they came to Mr. Maule's,
brother of Lord Panmure, and a great friend of the Duke of
Argyll. The maid would not let them go into one room, which
was locked, and as she said, full of arms. They now thought
they had found what they looked for, and had the door broke
open--where they found an ample collection of coats of arms!

The deputy governor of Edinburgh Castle has threatened the
magistrates to beat their town about their ears, if they admit
the rebels. Perth is twenty-four miles from Edinburgh, so we
must soon know whether they will go thither; or leave it, and
come into England. We have great hopes that the Highlanders
will not follow him so far. Very few of them could be
persuaded the last time to go to Preston; and several refused
to attend King Charles II. when he marched to Worcester. The
Caledonian Mercury never calls them "the rebels," but "the

Adieu! my dear child --thank Mr. Chute for his letter, which I
will answer soon. I don't know how to define my feeling: I
don't despair, and yet I expect nothing but bad! Yours, etc.

p . S. Is not my Princess very happy with the hopes of the
restoration of her old tenant?(1110)

(1103) William, Marquis of Tullibardine.-D.

(1104) John Murray, second Earl of Dunmore; he died in 1754.
His brother, who joined the Pretender, was the Hon. Wm.
Murray, of Taymount. He was subsequently pardoned for the
part he took in the rebellion, and succeeded to the earldom on
the death of Earl John.-D.

(1105) The King.

(1106) Lady Granville.

(1107) Elder brother of the Duke of Athol, but outlawed for
the last rebellion. He was taken prisoner after the battle of
Culloden, and died in the Tower.

(1108) Afterwards Sir William Breton. He held an office in
the household of Frederick, Prince of Wales.-D.

(1109) Jane, daughter of John Frederick, Esq. and widow of
James Lanoy, Esq.-D.

(1110) When the Old Pretender was in Lorrain, he lived at
Prince Craon's.

438 Letter 179a
To George Montagu, Esq.
Arlington Street, Sept. 17, 1745.

Dear George,
How could u ask me such a question, as whether I should be
glad to see you? Have you a mind I should make you a formal
speech, with honour, and pleasure, and satisfaction, etc.? I
will not, for that would be telling you I should not be glad.
However, do come soon, if you should be glad to see me; for
we, I mean we old folks that came over with the Prince of
Orange in eighty-eight, have had notice to remove by
Christmas-day. The moment I have SMUgged up a closet or a
dressing-room, I have always warning given me that my lease is
out. Four years ago I was mightily at my ease in
Downing-street, and then the good woman, Sandys, took my
lodgings over my head, and was in such a hurry to junket her
neighbours, that I had scarce time allowed me to wrap my old
china in a little hay. Now comes the Pretender's boy, and
promises all my comfortable apartments in the Exchequer and
Custom-house to some forlorn Irish peer, who chooses to remove
his pride and poverty out of some large unfurnished gallery at
St. Germain's. Why really Mr. Montagu this is not pleasant; I
shall wonderfully dislike being a loyal sufferer in a
threadbare coat, and shivering in an ante-chamber at Hanover,
or reduced to teach Latin and English to the young princes at
Copenhagen. The Dowager Strafford has already written cards
for my Lady Nithisdale, my Lady Tullibardine, the Duchess of
Perth and berwick, and twenty more revived peeresses, to
invite them to play at whist, Monday three months: for your
part, you will divert yourself with their old taffeties, and
tarnished slippers, and their awkwardness, the first day they
go to court in shifts and clean linen. Will you ever write to
me at my garret at Herenhausen? I will give you a faithful
account of all the promising speeches that Prince George and
Prince Edward make, -whenever they have a new sword, and
intend to re-conquer England. At least write to me, while you
may with acts of parliament on your side: but I hope you are
coming. Adieu!

439 Letter 180
To Sir Horace Mann.
Arlington Street, Sept. 20, 1745.

One really don't know what to write to you: the accounts from
Scotland vary perpetually, and at best are never very certain.
I was just going to tell you that the rebels are in England;
but my Uncle is this moment come in, and says, that an express
came last night with an account of their being in Edinburgh to
the number of five thousand. This sounds great, to have
walked through a kingdom, and taken possession of the capital!
But this capital is an open town and the castle impregnable,
and in our possession. There never was so extraordinary a
sort of rebellion! One can't tell what assurances of support
they may have from the Jacobites in England, or from the
French; but nothing of either sort has yet appeared-and if
there does not, never was so desperate an enterprise.(1111)
One can hardly believe that the English are more disaffected
than the Scotch; and among the latter, no persons of property
have joined them: both nations seem to profess a neutrality.
Their money is all gone, and they subsist. merely by levying
contributions. But, sure, banditti can never conquer a
kingdom! On the other hand, what cannot any number of men do,
who meet no opposition? They have hitherto taken no place but
open towns, nor have they any artillery for a siege but
one-pounders. Three battalions of Dutch are landed at
Gravesend, and ,re ordered to Lancashire: we expect every
moment to hear that the rest are got to Scotland; none of our
own are come yet. Lord Granville and his faction persist in
persuading the King, that it is an affair of no consequence;
and for the Duke of Newcastle, he is glad when the rebels make
any progress, in order to confute Lord Granville's assertions.
The best of our situation is, our strength at sea: the Channel
is well guarded, and twelve men-of-war more are arrived from
rowley. Vernon, that simple noisy creature, has hit upon a
scheme that is of great service; he has laid Folkstone cutters
all round the coast, which are continually relieved, and bring
constant notice of every thing that stirs. I just hear, that
the Duke of Bedford(1112) declares he will be amused no
longer, but will ask the King's leave to raise a regiment.
The Duke of Montagu has a troop of horse ready, and the Duke
of Devonshire is raising men in Derbyshire. The Yorkshiremen,
headed by the Archbishop and Lord Malton, meet the gentlemen
of the county the day after to-morrow to defend that part of
England. Unless we have more ill fortune than is conceivable,
or the general supineness continues, it is impossible but we
must get over this. You desire me to send you news: I confine
myself to tell you nothing but what you may depend upon and
leave you in a fright rather than deceive you. I confess my
own apprehensions are not near so strong as they were: and if
we get over this, I shall believe that we never can be hurt;
for we never can be more exposed to danger. Whatever
disaffection there is to the present family, it plainly does
not proceed from love to the other.

My Lady O. makes little progress in popularity. Neither the
protection of my Lady Pomfret's prudery, nor of my Lady
Townshend's libertinism, do her any services The women stare
at her, think her ugly, awkward, and disagreeable; and what is
worse, the men think so too. For the height of mortification,
King has declared publicly to the ministry, that he has been
told of the great civilities which be was said to show her at
Hanover; that he protests he showed her only the common
civilities due to any English lady that comes thither; that he
never intended to take any particular notice of her; nor had,
nor would let my Lady Yarmouth. - In fact, my Lady Yarmouth
peremptorily refused to carry her to court here: and when she
did go with my Lady Pomfret, the King but just spoke to her.
She declares her intention of staying in England, and protests
against all lawsuits and violences; and says she only asks
articles of separation, and to have her allowance settled by
any two arbitrators chosen by my brother and herself. I have
met her twice at my Lady Townshend's, just as I used at
Florence. She dresses English and plays at whist. I forgot
to tell a bon-mot of Leheup(1113) on her first coming over; he
was asked if he would not go and see her? He replied "No, I
never visit modest women." Adieu! my dear child! I flatter
myself you will collect hopes from this letter.

(1111) Mr. Henry Fox, in letters to Sir C. H. Williams, of
September 5th and 19th, writes, "England, Wade says, and I
believe it, is for the first comer; and if you can tell
whether the six thousand Dutch, and the ten battalions of
English, or five thousand French or Spaniards will be here
first, you know our fate." "The French are not come, God be
thanked! But had five thousand landed in any part of this
island a week ago, I verily believe the entire conquest would
not have cost them a battle."-B.

(1112) This plan of raising regiment,,; afterwards degenerated
into a gross job. Sir C. H. Williams gives an account of it
in his ballad, entitled "The Herbes." To this Horace Walpole
appended the following explanatory note..--"In the time of the
rebellion, these lords had proposed to raise regiments of
their own dependents, and were allowed; Had they paid them
too, the service had been noble: being paid by Government,
obscured a little the merit; being paid without raising them,
would deserve too coarse a term. It is certain, that not six
regiments ever were raised: not four of which were employed.
The chief persons who were at the head of this scheme were the
Dukes of Bedford and Montagu; the Duke of Bedford actually and
served with his regiment."--The other lords mentioned in the
ballad are, the Duke of Bolton, Lord Granby, Lord Harcourt,
Lord Halifax, Lord Falmouth, Lord Cholmondeley, and Lord
Berkeley. They were in all fifteen-

"Fifteen nobles of great fame,
All brib'd by one false muster."-D.

(1113) Isaac Leheup, brother-in-law of Horace Walpole the
elder. He was a man of great wit and greater brutality, and
being minister at Hanover, was recalled for very indecent
behaviour there.

441 Letter 181
To Sir Horace Mann.
Arlington Street, Sept. 27, 1745.

I can't doubt but the joy of the Jacobites has reached
Florence before this letter. Your two or three Irish priests,
I forget their names, will have set out to take possession of
abbey-lands here. I feel for what you will feel, and for the
insulting things that will be said to you upon the
battle(1114) we have lost in Scotland; but all this is
nothing, to what it prefaces. The express came hither on
Tuesday morning, but the Papists knew it on Sunday night.
Cope lay in face of the rebels all Friday; he scarce two
thousand strong, they vastly superior, though we don't know
their numbers. The military people say that he should have
attacked them. However, we are sadly convinced that they are
not such raw ragamuffins as they were represented. The
rotation that has been established in that country, to give
all the Highlanders the benefit of serving in the independent
companies, has trained and disciplined them. Macdonald (I
suppose, he from Naples,) -who is reckoned a very experienced
able officer, is said to have commanded them, and to be
dangerously wounded. One does not hear the Boy's personal
valour cried up; by which I conclude he was not in the
action.(1115) Our dragoons most shamefully fled without
striking a blow, and are with Cope, who escaped in a boat to
Berwick. I pity poor him(1116) who with no shining abilities,
and no experience, and no force, was sent to fight for a
crown! He never saw a battle but that of Dettingen, where he
got his red riband: Churchill, whose led-captain he was, and
my Lord Harrington, had pushed him up to this misfortune. We
have lost all our artillery, five hundred men taken and three
killed, and several officers, as you will see in the papers.
This defeat has frightened every body but those it rejoices,
and those it should frighten most; but my Lord Granville still
buoys up the King's spirits, and persuades him it is nothing.
He uses his ministers as ill as possible, and discourages
every body that would risk their lives and fortunes with him.
Marshal Wade is marching against the rebels; but the King will
not let him take above eight thousand men; so that if they
come into England, another battle, with no advantage on our
side, may determine our fate. Indeed, they don't seem so
unwise as to risk their cause upon so precarious an event; but
rather to design to establish themselves in Scotland, till
they can be supported from France, and be set up with taking
Edinburgh Castle, where there is to the value of a million,
and which they would make a stronghold. It is scarcely
victualled for a month, and must surely fall into their hands.
Our coasts are greatly guarded, and London kept in awe by the
arrival of the guards. I don't believe what I have been told
this morning, that more troops are sent for from Flanders, and
aid asked of Denmark.

Prince Charles has called a Parliament in Scotland for the 7th
of October; ours does not meet till the 17th, so that even in
the show of liberty and laws, they are beforehand with us.
With all this, we hear of no men of quality or fortune having
joined him but Lord Elcho(1117) whom you have seen at
Florence; and the Duke of Perth,(1118) a silly race-horsing
boy, who is said to be killed in this battle. but I gather no
confidence from hence: my father always said, "If you see them
come again, they will begin by their lowest people; their
chiefs will not appear till the end." His prophecies verify
every day!

The town is still empty; in this point only the English act
contrary to their custom, for they don't throng to see a
Parliament, though it is likely to prove a curiosity!

I have so trained myself to expect this ruin, that I see it
approach without an emotion. I shall suffer with fools,
without having any malice to our enemies, who act sensibly
from principle and from interest. Ruling parties seldom have
caution or common sense. I don't doubt but Whigs and
Protestants will be alert enough in trying to recover what
they lose so supinely.

I know nothing of my Lady O. In this situation I dare say she
will exert enough of the spirit of her Austrian party, to be
glad the present government is oppressed; her piques and the
Queen of Hungary's bigotry will draw satisfaction from what
ought to be so contrary to each of their wishes. I don't
wonder my lady hates you so much, as I think she meant to
express by her speech to Blair.
Quem non credit Cleopatra nocentem,
A quo casta fuit?"

She lives chiefly with my Lady Townshend: the latter told me
last night, that she had seen a new fat player, who looked
like every body's husband. I replied, "I could easily believe
that, from seeing so many women who looked like every body's
wives." Adieu! my dear Sir: I hope your spirits, like mine,
will grow calm, from being callous of ill news.

(1114) At Preston-Pans, near Edinburgh; where the Pretender
completely defeated Sir John Cope, on the 21st of

(1115) "Charles," says Lord Mahon, 'put himself at the head of
the second line, which was close behind the first, and
addressed them in these words@ Follow me, gentlemen, and by
the blessing of God, I will this day make you a free and happy
people." Hist. Vol. iii. P. 392.-E.

(1116) General Cope was tried afterwards for his behaviour in
this action, and it appeared very clearly, that the ministry,
his inferior officers, and his troops, were greatly to blame;
and that he did all he could, so ill-directed, so
ill-supplied, and so ill-obeyed.

(1117) Eldest son of the Earl of Wemyss.

(1118) James Drummond, who would have been the fifth Earl of
Perth, had it not been for the attainder and outlawry under
which his family laboured. His grandfather, the fourth earl,
had been created a duke by James II. after his abdication. He
was not killed at Preston-Pans.-D.

443 Letter 182
To Sir Horace Mann.
Arlington Street, Oct. 4, 1745.

I am still writing to you as "R`esident de sa Majest`e
Britannique;" and without the apprehension of your suddenly
receiving letters of recall, or orders to notify to the
council of Florence the new accession. I dare say your fears
made you think that the young Prince (for he is at least
Prince of Scotland) had vaulted from Cope's neck into St.
James's House; but he is still at Edinburgh; and his cousin
Grafton, the lord chamberlain has not even given orders for
fitting up this palace for his reception. The good people of
England have at last rubbed their eyes and looked about them.
A wonderful spirit is arisen in all counties, and among all
sorts of people. The nobility are raising regiments, and
every body else is-being raised. Dr. Herring,(1119) the
Archbishop of York, has set an example that would rouse the
most indifferent; in two days after the news arrived at York
of Cope's defeat, and when they every moment expected the
victorious rebels at their gates, the bishop made a speech to
the assembled county, that had as much true spirit, honesty,
and bravery in it, as ever was penned by an historian for an
ancient hero.

The rebels returned to Edinburgh, where they have no hopes of
taking the Castle, for old Preston, the deputy-governor, and
General Guest, have obliged them to supply the Castle
constantly with fresh provisions, on pain of having the town
fired with red-hot bullets. They did fling a bomb on Holyrood
House, and obliged the Boy to shift his quarters. Wade is
marching against them, and will have a great army: all the
rest of our troops are ordered from Flanders, and are to meet
him in Yorkshire, with some Hessians too. That county raises
four thousand men, besides a body of foxhunters, whom
Oglethorpe has converted into hussars. I am told that old
Stair, who certainly does not want zeal, but may not want envy
neither, has practised a little Scotch art to prevent wade
from having an army, and consequently the glory of saving this
country. This I don't doubt he will do, if the rebels get no
foreign aid; and I have great reason to hope they will not,
for the French are privately making us overtures of peace. My
dear child, dry your wet-brown-paperness, and be in spirits

It is not a very civil joy to send to Florence, but I can't
help telling you how glad I am of news that came two days ago,
of the King of Prussia having beat Prince Charles,(1120) who
attacked him just after we could have obtained for them a
peace with that King. That odious house of Austria! It will
not be decent for you to insult Richcourt but I would, were I
at Florence.

Pray let Mr. Chute have ample accounts of our zeal to figure
with at Rome. of the merchants of London undertaking to
support the public credit; of universal associations; of
regiments raised by the dukes of Devonshire, Bedford, Rutland,
Montagu; Lords Herbert, Halifax, Cholmondeley, Falmouth,
Malton, Derby,(1121) etc.; of Wade with an army of twenty
thousand men; of another about London of near as many--and
lastly, of Lord Gower having in person assured the King that
he is no Jacobite, but ready to serve him with his life and
fortune. Tell him of the whole coast so guarded, that nothing
can pass unvisited; and in short, send him this advertisement
out of to-day's papers, as an instance of more spirit and wit
than there is in all Scotland:

MY BOLD hearts,
The Papists eat no meat on Wednesdays, Fridays, Saturdays, nor
during Lent.
Your friend,

Just as I wrote this, a person is come in, who tells me that
the rebels have cut off the communication between Edinburgh
and the Castle: the commanders renewed their threats: and the
good magistrates have sent up hither to beg orders may be sent
to forbid this execution. It is modest! it is Scotch!-and, I
dare say, will be granted. Ask a government to spare your
town which you yourself have given up to rebels: and the
consequence of which will be the loss of your Castle!-but they
knew to what Government they applied! You need not be in haste
to have this notified at Rome. Tell it not in Gath! Adieu! my
dear Sir. This account has put Me so out of humour, and has
so altered the strain of my letter, that I must finish.

(1119) An excellent prelate, afterwards promoted to the see of
Canterbury. Walpole, in his Memoires, mentioning his death,
thus speaks of him: "On the 13th of March, 1757, died Dr.
Herring, Archbishop of Canterbury a very amiable man, to whom
no fault was objected; though perhaps the gentleness of his
Principles, his great merit, was thought one. During the
rebellion he had taken up arms to defend from oppression that
religion, which he abhorred making an instrument of

(1120) The battle of Soor in Bohemia, gained by the King of
Prussia over the Austrians, on the 30th of September, 1745.-D.

(1121) For an account of this transaction see note 1112,
letter 181, at p. 440. The noblemen here mentioned were,
William Cavendish, Third Duke of Devonshire; John Russell,
fourth Duke of Bedford; John, second and last Duke of Montagu;
Henry Arthur Herbert, first Lord Herbert of cherbury of the
third creation; George Montagu, third Earl of Halifax; George,
third Earl of Cholmondeley; Hugh Boscawen, second Viscount
Falmouth; Thomas Wentworth, first Earl of Malton; and Edward
Stanley, eleventh Earl of Derby.--D.

445 Letter 183
To sir Horace Mann.
Arlington Street, Oct. 11, 1745.

This is likely to be a very short letter; for I have nothing
to tell you, nor any thing to answer. I have not had one
letter from you this month, which I attribute to the taking of
the packet-boat by the French, with two mails in it. It was a
very critical time for our negotiations; the ministry will
say, it puts their transactions out of order.

Before I talk of any public news, I must tell you what you
will be very sorry for-Lady Granville is dead. She had a
fever for six weeks before her lying-in, and could never get
it off. Last Saturday they called in another physician, Dr.
Oliver; on Monday he pronounced her out of danger. About
seven in the evening, as Lady Pomfret and Lady Charlotte were
sitting by her, the first notice they had of her immediate
danger, was her sighing and saying, "I feel death come very
fast upon me!" She repeated the same words frequently-remained
perfectly in her senses and calm, and died about eleven at
night. Her mother and sister sat by her till she was cold.
It is very shocking for any body so young, so handsome, so
arrived at the height of happiness, so sensible of it, and on
whom all the joy and grandeur of her family depended, to be so
quickly snatched away! Poor Uguccioni! he will be very sorry
and simple about it.

For the rebels, they have made no figure since Their victory.
The Castle of Edinburgh has made a sally and taken twenty head
of cattle, and about thirty head of Highlanders. We heard
yesterday, that they are coming this way. The troops from
Flanders are expected to land in Yorkshire to-morrow. A
privateer of Bristol has taken a large Spanish ship, laden
with arms and money for Scotland. A piece of a plot has been
discovered in Dorsetshire, and one Mr. Weld(1122) taken up.
The French have declared to the Dutch, that the House of
Stuart is their ally, and that the Dutch troops must not act
against them; but we expect they shall. The Parliament meets
next Thursday, and by that time, probably, the armies will
too. The rebels are not above eight thousand, and have little
artillery; so you may wear what ministerial spirits you will.

The Venetian ambassador has been making his entries this week:
he was at Leicester-fields to-day with the Prince, and very
pretty compliments passed between them in Italian. Do excuse
this letter; i really have not a word more to say; the next
shall be all arma virumque cano!

(1122) Edward Weld, Esq. of Lulworth Castle. Hutchins, in his
History of Dorsetshire, says, that, "although he ever behaved
as a peaceful subject, he was ordered into custody, in 1745,
on account of his name being mentioned in a treasonable
anonymous letter dropped near Poole; but his immediate and
honourable discharge is the most convincing proof of his

446 Letter 184
To Sir Horace Mann.
Arlington Street, Oct. 21, 1745.

I had been almost as long without any of Your letters as you
had without mine; but yesterday I received one, dated the 5th
of this month, N. S.

The rebels have not left their camp near Edinburgh, and, I
suppose, will not now, unless to retreat into the Highlands.
General Wade was to march yesterday from Doncaster for
Scotland. By their not advancing, I conclude that either the
Boy and his council could not prevail On the Highlanders to
leave their own country, or that they were not strong enough,
and still wait for foreign assistance, which, in a new
declaration, he intimates that he still expects.(1123) One
only ship, I believe a Spanish one, has got to them with arms,
and Lord John Drummond(1124) and some people of quality on
board. We don't hear that the younger Boy is of the number.
Four ships sailed from Corunna; the one that got to Scotland,
one taken by a privateer of bristol, and one lost on the Irish
coast; the fourth is not heard of. At Edinburgh and
thereabouts they commit the most horrid barbarities. We last
night expected as bad here: information was given of an
intended insurrection and massacre by the Papists; all the
Guards were ordered out, and the Tower shut up at seven. I
cannot be surprised at any thing, considering the supineness
of the ministry--nobody has yet been taken up!

The Parliament met on Thursday. I don't think, considering
the crisis, that the House was very full. Indeed, many of the
Scotch members cannot come if they would. The young Pretender
had published a declaration, threatening to confiscate the
estates of Scotch that should come to Parliament, and making
it treason for the English. The only points that have been
before the house, the address and the suspension of the Habeas
Corpus, met with obstructions from the Jacobites. By this we
may expect what spirit they will show hereafter.(1125) With
all this, I am far from thinking that they are so
confident and sanguine as their friends at Rome. I blame the
Chutes extremely for cockading themselves: why take a part
when they are only travelling? I should certainly retire to
Florence on this occasion.

You may imagine how little I like our situation; but I don't
despair. The little use they made, or could make of their
victory; their not having marched into England; their
miscarriage at the Castle of Edinburgh; the arrival of our
forces, and the non-arrival of any French or Spanish, make me
conceive great hopes of getting over this ugly business. But
it is still an affair wherein the chance Of battles, or
perhaps of one battle, may decide.

I write you but short letters, considering the circumstances
of the time; but I hate to send you paragraphs only to
contradict them again: I still less choose to forge events;
and, indeed, am glad I have so few to tell you.

My lady O. has forced herself upon her mother, who receives
her very coolly: she talks highly of her demands, and quietly
of her methods - the fruitlessness of either will, I hope,
soon send her back--I am sorry it must be to you!

You mention Holdisworth:(1126) he has had the confidence to
come and visit me within these ten days; and (I suppose, from
the overflowing of his joy) talked a great deal and with as
little sense as when he was more tedious.

Since I wrote this, I hear the Countess has told her mother,
that she thinks her husband the best of our family, and me the
worst--nobody so bad, except you! I don't wonder at my being
so ill with her; but what have you done? or is it, that we are
worse than any body, because we know more of her than any body
does! Adieu!

(1123) "At three several councils did Charles propose to march
into England and fight Marshal Wade; but as often was his
proposal overruled. At length he declared in a very
peremptory manner, 'I see, gentlemen, you are determined to
stay in Scotland and defend your country; but I am not less
resolved to try my fate in England, though I should go
alone.'" Lord Mahon, vol. iii. P.241.-E.

(1124) Brother of the titular Duke of Perth.

(1125) "As to the Parliament," writes Horatio Walpole to Mr.
Milling, on the 29th of October, "although the address was
unanimous the first day, yesterday, upon a motion 'to enquire
into the causes of the progress of the rebellion' the House
was so fully convinced of the necessity of immediately putting
an end to it, and that the fire should be quenched before we
should enquire who kindled or promoted it, that it was
carried, not to put the question at this time, by 194 against

(1126) A nonjuror who travelled with Mr. George Pitt.

447 Letter 185
To Sir Horace Mann.
Arlington Street, Nov. 4, 1745.

It is just a fortnight since I wrote to you last: in all that
time the rebellion has made no progress, nor produced any
incidents worth mentioning. They have entrenched themselves
very strongly in the Duke of Buccleuch's park, whose seat,
about seven miles from Edinburgh, they have seized. We had an
account last week of the Boy's being retired to Dunkirk, but
it was not true. Kelly,(1127) who is gone to solicit succour
from France, was seized at Helvoet, but by a stupid burgher
released. Lord Loudon is very brisk in the north of Scotland,
and has intercepted and beat some of their parties. Marshal
Wade was to march from Newcastle yesterday.

But the rebellion does not make half the noise here that one
of its consequences does.

Fourteen lords (most of them I have named to you), at the
beginning, offered to raise regiments; these regiments, so
handsomely tendered at first, have been since put on the
regular establishment; not much to the honour of the
undertakers or of the firmness of the ministry, and the King
is to pay them. One of the great grievances of this is, that
these most disinterested colonels have named none but their
own relations and dependents for the officers, who are to have
rank; and consequently, both colonels and subalterns will
interfere with the brave old part of the army, who have served
all the war. This has made great clamour. The King was
against their having rank, but would not refuse it; yet wished
that the House of Commons would address him not to grant it.
This notification of his royal mind encouraged some of the old
part of the ministry, particularly Winnington and Fox, to
undertake to procure this Address. Friday it came on in the
committee; the Jacobites and patriots (such as are not
included in the coalition) violently opposed the regiments
themselves; so did Fox, in a very warm speech, levelled
particularly at the Duke of Montagu, who, besides his old
regiment, has one Of horse and one of foot on this new
plan.(1128) Pitt defended them as warmly: the Duke of
Bedford, Lord Gower, and Lord Halifax, being at the head of
this job. At last, at ten at night, the thirteen regiments of
foot were voted without a division, and the two of horse
carried by 192 to 82. Then came the motion for the address,
and in an hour and half more, was rejected by 126 to 124. Of
this latter number were several of the old corps; I among the
rest. It is to be reported to the House to-morrow, and will,
I conclude, be at least as warm a day as the former. The King
is now against the address, and all sides are using their
utmost efforts. The fourteen lords threaten to throw up,
unless their whole terms are complied with; and the Duke of
Bedford is not moderately insolent against such of the King's
servants as voted against him. Mr. Pelham espouses him; not
recollecting that at least twice a-week all his new allies are
suffered to oppose him as they please. I should be sorry, for
the appearance, to have the regiments given up; but I am sure
our affair is over, if our two old armies are beaten and we
should come to want these new ones; four only of which are
pretended to be raised. Pitt, who has alternately bullied and
flattered Mr. Pelham, is at last to be secretary-at-war;(1129)
Sir W. Yonge to be removed to vice-treasurer of Ireland, and
Lord Torrington(1130) to have a pension in lieu of it. An
ungracious parallel between the mercenary views Of these
patriot heroes, the regiment-factors, and of their acquiescent
agents, the ministry, with the disinterested behaviour of m
Lord Kildare,(1131) was drawn on Friday by Lord Doneraile; who
read the very proposals of the latter for raising, clothing,
and arming a regiment at his own expense, and for which he had
been told, but the very day before this question, that the
King had no occasion.--"And how," said Lord Doneraile, "can
one account for this, but by saying, that we have a ministry
who are either too good-natured to refuse a wrong thing, or
too irresolute to do a right one!"

I am extremely pleased with the, purchase of the Eagle and
Altar, and think them cheap: and I even begin to believe that
I shall be able to pay for them. The gesse statues are all
arrived safe. Your last letter was dated Oct. 19, N. S. and
left you up to the chin in water(1132) just as we were drowned
five years ago. Good night, if you are alive still!
(1127) He had been confined in the Tower ever since the
assassination plot, in the reign of King William; but at last
made his escape.

(1128) This circumstance is thus alluded to in Sir C. H.
Williams's ballad of "The heroes.

"Three regiments one Duke contents,
With two more places you know:
Since his Bath Knights, his Grace delights
In Tri-a junct' in U-no."

The Duke of Montagu was master of the great wardrobe, a place
worth eight thousand pounds a-year. He was also grand-master
of the order of the Bath.-D.

(1129) In the May following, Mr. Pitt was appointed paymaster
of the forces.-E.

(1130) Pattee Byng, second Viscount Torrington. He had
been made vice-treasurer of Ireland upon the going out of the
Walpole administration.-D.

(1131) @ James Fitzgerald, twentieth Earl of Kildare; created
in 1761, Marquis of Kildare, and in 1766 Duke of Leinster-
-Irish honours.-D.

(1132) By an inundation of the Arno.

449 Letter 186
To Sir Horace Mann.
Arlington Street, Nov. 15, 1745.

I told you in my last what disturbance there had been about
the new regiments; the affair of rank was again disputed on
the report till ten at night, and carried by a majority of 23.
The King had been persuaded to appear for it, though Lord
Granville made it a party point against Mr. Pelham.
Winnington did not speak. I was not there, for I could not
vote for it, and yielded not to give any hindrance to a public
measure (or at least what was called so) ' just now. The
Prince acted openly, and influenced his people against it; but
it, only served to let Mr. Pelham see, what, like every thing
else, he did not know, how strong he is. The King will scarce
speak to him, and he cannot yet get Pitt into place.

The rebels are come into England: for two days we believed
them near Lancaster, but the ministry now own that they don't
know if they have passed Carlisle. Some think they will
besiege that town, which has an old wall, and the militia in
it of Cumberland and Westmoreland; but as they can pass by it,
I don't see why they should take it; for they are not strong
enough to leave garrisons. Several desert them as they
advance south; and altogether, good men and bad, nobody
believes them ten thousand. By their marching westward to
avoid Wade, it is evident they are not strong enough to fight
him. They may yet retire back into their mountains, but if
once they get to Lancaster, their retreat is cut off; for Wade
'will not stir from Newcastle, till he has embarked them deep
into England, and then he will be behind them. He has sent
General Handasyde from Berwick with two regiments to take
possession of Edinburgh. The rebels are certainly in a Very
desperate situation: they dared not meet Wade; and if they had
waited for him their troops would have deserted. Unless they
meet with great risings in their favour in Lancashire, I don't
see what they can hope, except from a continuation of our
neglect. That, indeed, has nobly exerted itself for them.
They were suffered to march the whole length of Scotland, and
take possession of the capital, without a man appearing
against them. Then two thousand men sailed to them, to run
from them. Till the flight of Cope's army, Wade was not sent.
'Two roads still lay into England, and till they had chosen
that which Wade had not taken, no
army was thought of being sent to secure the other. Now
Ligonier, with seven old regiments, and six of the new, is
ordered to Lancashire: before this first division of the army
could get to Coventry, they are forced to order it to halt,
for fear the enemy should be up with it before it was all
assembled. It is uncertain if the rebels will march to the
north of Wales, to Bristol, or towards London. If to the
latter, Ligonier must fight the n: if to either of the other,
I hope, the two armies may join and drive them into a corner,
where they must all perish. They cannot subsist in Wales, but
by being supplied by the' Papists in Ireland(. The best is,
that we are in no fear from France; there is no preparation
for invasions in any of their ports. Lord Clancarty,(1133) a
Scotchman of great parts, but mad and drunken, and whose
family forfeited 90,000 pounds a-@ear for King James, is made
vice-admiral at Brest. The Duke of Bedford goes in his little
round person with his regiment: he now takes to the land, and
says he is tired of being a pen and ink man. Lord Gower too,
insisted upon going with his regiment, but is laid up with the

With the rebels in England, you may imagine we have no private
news, nor think of foreign. From this account you may judge,
that our case is far from desperate, though disagreeable, The
Prince, while the Princess lies-in, has taken to give dinners,
to which he asks two of the ladies of the bedchamber, two of
the maids of honour, etc. by turns, and five or six others.
He sits at the head of the table, drinks and harangues to all
this medley till nine at night; and the other day, after the
affair of the regiments, drank Mr. Fox's health in a bumper,
with three huzzas, for opposing Mr. Pelham--

"Si quel fata aspera rumpas,
Tu Marcellus eris!"

You put me in pain for my eagle, and in more for the Chutes;
whose zeal is very heroic, but very ill-placed. I long to
hear that all my Chutes and eagles are safe out of the Pope's
hands! Pray wish the Suares's joy of all their espousals.
Does the Princess pray abundantly for her friend the
Pretender? Is she extremely abbatue with her devotion? and
does she fast till she has got a violent appetite for supper?
And then, does she eat so long that old Sarrasin is quite
impatient to go to cards again? Good night! I intend you
shall be resident from King George.

P. S. I forgot to tell you, that the other day I concluded the
ministry knew the danger was all over; for the Duke of
Newcastle ventured to have the Pretender's declaration burnt
at the Royal Exchange.

(1133) Donagh Maccarty, Earl of Clancarty, was an Irishman,
and not a Scotchman.-D.

451 Letter 187
To Sir Horace Mann.
Arlington Street, Nov. 22, 1745.

For these two days we have been expecting news of a battle.
Wade marched last Saturday from Newcastle, and must have got
up with the rebels, if they stayed for him, though the roads
are exceedingly bad and great quantities of snow have fallen.
But last night there was some notice of a body of rebels being
advanced to Penryth. We were put into great spirits by an
heroic letter from the mayor of Carlisle, who had fired on the
rebels and made them retire; he concluded with saying, "And so
I think the town of Carlisle has done his Majesty more service
than the great city of Edinburgh, or than all Scotland
together." But this hero, who was crown the whole fashion for
four-and-twenty hours, had chosen to stop all other letters.
The King spoke of him at his levee with great encomiums; Lord
Stair said, "Yes, sir, Mr. Patterson has behaved very
bravely." The Duke of Bedford interrupted him; "My lord, his
name is not Paterson; that is a Scotch name; his name is
Patinson." But, alack! the next day the rebels returned, having
placed the women and children of the country in wagons
in front of their army, and forcing the peasants to fix the
scaling-ladders. The great Mr. Pattinson, or Patterson (for
now his name may be which one pleases,) instantly surrendered
the town and agreed to pay two thousand pounds to save it from
pillage. Well! then we were assured that the citadel could
hold out seven or eight days but did not so many hours. On
mustering the militia, there were not found above four men in
a company; and for two companies, which the ministry, on a
report of Lord Albemarle, who said they were to be sent from
Wade's army, thought were there, and did not know were not
there, there was nothing but two of invalids. Colonel Durand,
the governor, fled, because he would not sign the
capitulation, by which the garrison, it is said, has sworn
never to bear arms against the house of Stuart. The Colonel
sent two expresses, one to Wade, and another to Ligonier at
Preston; but the latter was playing at whist with Lord
Harrington at Petersham. Such is our diligence and attention!
All my hopes are in Wade, who was so sensible of the ignorance
of our governors that he refused to accept the command, till
they consented that he should be subject to no kind of orders
from hence. The rebels are reckoned up to thirteen thousand;
Wade marches with about twelve; but if they come southward,
the other army will probably be to fight them; the Duke is to
command it, and sets out next week with another brigade of
Guards, and Ligonier under him. There are great apprehensions
for Chester from the Flintshire-men, who are ready to rise. A
quartermaster, first sent to Carlisle, was seized and carried
to Wade; he behaved most insolently; and being asked by the
General, how many the rebels were, replied, "enough to beat
any army you have in England." A Mackintosh has been taken,
who reduces their formidability, by being sent to raise two
clans, and with orders, if they would not rise, at least to
give out they had risen, for that three clans would leave the
Pretender, unless joined by those two. Five hundred new
rebels are arrived at Perth, where our prisoners are kept.

I had this morning a subscription pool@ brought me for our
parish; Lord Granville had refused to subscribe. This is in
the style of his friend Lord Bath, who has absented himself
whenever any act of authority was to be executed against the

Five Scotch lords are going to raise regiments `a l'Angloise!
resident in London, while the rebels were in Scotland; they
are to receive military emoluments for their neutrality!

The Fox man-of-war of twenty guns is lost off Dunbar. One
Beavor, the captain, had done us notable service: the
Pretender sent to commend his zeal and activity, and to tell
him, that if he would return to his allegiance, be should soon
have a flag. Beavor replied, "he never treated with any but
principals; that if the Pretender would come on board him, he
would talk with him." I must now tell you of our great Vernon:
without once complaining to the ministry, he has written to
Sir John Philipps, a distinguished Jacobite, to complain of
want of provisions; yet they do not venture to recall him!
Yesterday they had another baiting from Pitt, who is ravenous
for the place of secretary at war: they would give it him; but
as a preliminary, he insists on a declaration of our having
nothing to do with the Continent. He mustered his forces, but
did not notify his intention; only at two o'clock Lyttelton
said at the Treasury, that there would be business at the
House. The motion was to augment our naval force, which, Pitt
said, was the only method of putting an end to the rebellion.
Ships built a year hence to suppress an army of Highlanders,
now marching through England! My uncle attacked him, and
congratulated his country on the wisdom of the modern young
men; and said he had a son of two-and-twenty, who, he did not
doubt, would come over wiser than any of them. Pitt was
provoked, and retorted on his negotiations and greyheaded
experience. At those words, my uncle, as if he had been at
Bartholomew fair, snatched off his wig, and showed his gray
hairs, which made the august senate laugh, and put Pitt out,
who, after laughing himself, diverted his venom upon Mr.
Pelham. Upon the question, Pitt's party amounted but to
thirty-six: in short, he has nothing left but his words, and
his haughtiness, and his Lytteltons, and his Grenvilles.

453 Letter 188
To Sir Horace Mann.
Arlington Street, Nov. 29, 1745.

We have had your story here this week of the pretended
pretender, but with the unlucky circumstance of its coming
from the Roman Catholics. With all the faith you have in your
little spy, I cannot believe it; though, to be sure, it has a
Stuart-air, the not exposing the real boy to danger. The Duke
of Newcastle mentioned your account this morning to my uncle;
but they don't give any credit to the courier's relation. It
grows so near being necessary for the young man to get off by
any evasion, that I am persuaded all that party will try to
have it believed. We are so far from thinking that they have
not sent us one son, that two days ago we believed we had got
the other too. A small ship has taken the Soleil privateer
from Dunkirk, going to Montrose, with twenty French officers,
sixty others, and the brother of the beheaded Lord
Derwentwater and his son,(1134) who at first was believed to
be the second boy. News came yesterday of a second privateer,
taken with arms and money; of another lost on the Dutch coast,
and of Vernon being in pursuit of two more. All this must be
a great damp to the party, who are coming on--fast--fast to
their destruction. Last night they were to be at Preston, but
several repeated accounts make them under five thousand--none
above seven; they must have diminished greatly by desertion.
The country is so far from rising for them, that the towns are
left desolate on their approach, and the people hide and bury
their effects, even to their pewter. Warrington bridge is
broken down, which will turn them some miles aside. The Duke,
with the flower of that brave army which stood all the fire at
Fontenoy, will rendezvous at Stone, beyond Litchfield, the day
after to-morrow: Wade is advancing behind them, and will be at
Wetherby in Yorkshire to-morrow. In short, I have no
conception of their daring to fight either army, nor see any
visible possibility of their not being very soon destroyed.
My fears have been great, from the greatness of our stake; but
I now write in the greatest confidence of our getting over
this ugly business. We have another very disagreeable affair,
that may have fatal consequences: there rages a murrain among
the cows; we dare not eat milk, butter, beef, nor any thing
from that species. Unless there is snow or frost soon, it is
likely to @spread dreadfully though hitherto it has not
reached many miles from London. At first, it was imagined
that the Papists had empoisoned the pools; but the physicians
have pronounced it infectious, and brought from abroad.

I forgot to tell you, that my uncle begged the Duke of
Newcastle to stifle this report of the sham Pretender lest the
King should hear it and recall the Duke, as too great to fight
a counterfeit. It is certain that the army adore the Duke,
and are gone in the greatest spirits; and on the parade, as
they began their march, the Guards vowed that they would
neither give nor take quarter. For bravery, his Royal
Highness is certainly no Stuart, but literally loves to be in
the act of fighting. His brother has so far the same taste,
that the night of his new son's christening, he had the
citadel of Carlisle in sugar at supper, and the company
besieged it with sugar-plums. It was well imagined,
considering the time and the circumstances. One thing was
very proper; old Marshal Stair was there, who is grown child
enough to be fit to war only with such artillery. Another
piece of ingenuity of that court was on the report of Pitt
being named secretary at war. The Prince hates him, since the
fall of Lord Granville: he said, Miss Chudleigh,(1135) one of
the maids, was fitter for the employment; and dictated a
letter which he made her write to Lord Harrington, to desire
he would draw the warrant for her. There were fourteen people
at table, and all were to sign it: the Duke of
Queensberry(1136 would not, as being a friend of Pitt, nor
Mrs. Layton, one of the dressers: however, it was actually
sent, and the footman ordered not to deliver it till Sir
William Yonge was at Lord Harrington's-alas! it would be
endless to tell you all his Caligulisms! A ridiculous thing
happened when the Princess saw company: the new-born babe was
shown in a mighty pretty cradle, designed by Kent, under a
canopy in the great drawing-room. Sir William Stanhope went
to look at it; Mrs. Herbert, the governess, advanced to
unmantle it; he said, "In wax, I suppose."--"Sir!"--"In wax,
Madam?"--"The young Prince, Sir."--"Yes, in wax, I suppose."
This is his odd humour? when he went to see this duke at his
birth, he said, "Lord! it sees!"

The good Provost of Edinburgh has been with Marshal Wade at
Newcastle, and it is said, is coming to London-he must trust
hugely to the inactivity of the ministry! They have taken an
agent there going with large contributions from the- Roman
Catholics, who have pretended to be so quiet! The Duchess of
Richmond, while her husband is at the army, was going to her
grace of Norfolk:(1137) when he was very uneasy at her
intention, she showed him letters from the Norfolk, "wherein
she prays God that this wicked rebellion may be soon
suppressed, lest it hurt the poor Roman Catholics." But this
wise jaunt has made such a noise that it is laid aside.

Your friend Lord Sandwich has got one of the Duke of Montagu's
regiments: he stayed quietly till all the noise was over. He
is now lord of the admiralty, lieutenant-colonel to the Duke
of Bedford, aide-de-camp to the Duke of Richmond, and colonel
of a regiment!

A friend of mine, Mr. Talbot, who has a good estate in
Cheshire, with the great tithes, which he takes in kind, and
has generally fifteen hundred pounds stock, has expressly
ordered his steward to burn it, if the rebels come that way: I
don't think this will make a bad figure in Mr. Chute's brave
gazette. As we go on prospering, I will take care to furnish
him with paragraphs, till he kills Riviera(1138) and all the
faction. When my lovely eagle comes, I will consecrate it to
his Roman memory; don't think I want spirits more than he,
when I beg you to send me a case of drams: I remember your
getting one for Mr. Trevor.

I guessed at having lost two letters from you in the
packet-boat that was taken: I have received all you mention,
but those of the 21st and 28th of September, one of which I
suppose was about Gibberne: his mother has told me how happy
you have made her and him, for which I much thank you and your
usual good-nature. Adieu! I trust all my letters will grow
better and better. You must have passed a lamentable scene of
anxiety; we have had a good deal; but I think we grow in
spirits again. There never was so melancholy a town; no kind
of public place but the playhouses, and they look as if the
rebels had just driven away the company. Nobody but has some
fear for themselves, for their money, or for their friends in
the army: of this number am I deeply; Lord Bury(1139) and mr.
Conway, two of the first in my list, are aide-de-camps to the
Duke, and another, Mr. Cornwallis,(1140) is in the same army,
and my nephew, Lord Malpas(1141)--so I still fear the rebels
beyond my reason. Good night.

P. S. It is now generally believed from many circumstances,
that the youngest Pretender is actually among the prisoners
taken on board the Soleil: pray wish Mr. Chute joy for me.

(1134) Charles Radcliffe, brother of James, Earl of
Derwentwater, who was executed for the share he took in the
rebellion of 1715. Charles was executed in 1746, upon the
sentence pronounced against him in 1716, which he had then
evaded, by escaping from Newgate. His son was Bartholomew,
third Earl of Newburgh, a Scotch title he inherited from his

(1135) Afterwards the well-known Duchess of Kingston.-D.

(1136) Charles Douglas, third Duke of Queensberry, and second
Duke of Dover: died 1778.-D.

(1137) Mary Blount, Duchess of Norfolk, the wife of Duke
Edward. She and her Husband were suspected of Jacobitism.-D.

(1138) Cardinal Riviera, promoted to the purple by the
interest of the Pretender.

(1139) George Keppel, eldest son of the Earl of Albemarle,
whom he succeeded in the title in 1754.

(1140) Edward, brother of Earl Cornwallis, groom of the
bedchamber to the King, and afterwards governor of Nova

(1141) George, eldest son of George, Earl of Cholmondeley, and
of Mary, second daughter of Sir Robert Walpole.

455 Letter 189
To sir Horace Mann.
Arlington Street, December 9, 1745.

I am glad I did not write to you last post as I intended; I
should have sent you an account that would have alarmed you,
and the danger would have been over before the letter had
crossed the sea. The Duke, from some strange want of
intelligence, lay last week for four-and-twenty hours under
arms at Stone, in Staffordshire, expecting the rebels every
moment, while they were marching in all haste to Derby.(1142)
The news of this threw the town into great consternation but
his Royal Highness repaired his mistake, and got to
Northampton, between the Highlanders and London. They got
nine thousand pounds at Derby, and had the books brought to
them, and obliged every body to give them what they had
subscribed against them. Then they retreated a few miles, but
returned again to Derby, got ten thousand pounds more,
plundered the town, and burnt a house of the Countess of
Exeter. They are gone again, and got back to Leake, in
Staffordshire, but miserably harassed, and, it is said, have
left all their cannon behind them, and twenty wagons of
sick.(1143) The Duke has sent General Hawley with the
dragoons to harass them in their retreat, and despatched Mr.
Conway to Marshal Wade, to hasten his march upon the back of
them. They must either go to North Wales, where they will
probably all perish, or to Scotland, with great loss. We
dread them no more We are threatened with great preparations
for a French invasion, but the coast is exceedingly guarded;
and for the people, the spirit against the rebels increases
every day. Though they have marched thus into the heart of
the kingdom, there has not been the least symptom of a rising,
not even in the great towns of which they possessed
themselves. They have got no recruits since their first entry
into England, excepting one gentleman in Lancashire, one
hundred and fifty common men, and two parsons, at Manchester,
and a physician from York. But here in London the aversion to
them is amazing: on some thoughts of the King's going to an
encampment at Finchley, the weavers not Only offered him a
thousand men, but the whole body of the Law formed themselves
into a little army, under the command of Lord Chief-Justice
Willes,(1144) and were to have done duty at St. James's, to
guard the royal family in the King's absence.

But the greatest demonstration of loyalty appeared on the
prisoners being brought to town from the Soleil prize - the
young man is certainly Mr. Radcliffe's son; but the mob,
persuaded of his being the youngest Pretender, could scarcely
be restrained from tearing him to pieces all the way on the
road, and at his arrival. He said he had heard of English
mobs, but could not conceive they were so dreadful, and wished
he had been shot at the battle of Dettingen, where he had been
engaged. The father, whom they call Lord Derwentwater, said,
on entering the Tower, that he had never expected to arrive
there alive. For the young man, he must only be treated as a
French captive; for the father, it is sufficient to produce
him at the Old Bailey, and prove that he is the individual
person condemned for the last rebellion, and so to Tyburn.

We begin to take up people, but it is with as much caution and
timidity as women of quality begin to pawn their Jewels; we
have not ventured upon any great stone yet!

The Provost of Edinburgh is in custody of a messenger; and the
other day they seized an, odd man, who goes by the name of
Count St. Germain. he has been here these two years, and will
not tell who he is, or whence, but professes that he does not
go by his right name. He sings, plays on the violin
wonderfully, composes, is mad, and not very sensible. He is
called an Italian, a Spaniard, a Pole; a somebody that married
a great fortune in Mexico, and ran away with her jewels to
Constantinople; a priest, a fiddler, a vast nobleman, The
Prince of Wales has had unsatiated curiosity about him, but in
vain. However, nothing has been made out against him -.' he
is released: and, what convinces me that he is not a
gentleman, stays here, and talks of his being taken up for a

I think these accounts, upon which you may depend, must raise
your spirits, and figure in Mr. Chute's royal journal.-But you
don't get my letters: I have sent you eleven since I came to
town; how many of these have you received? Adieu!

(1142) The consternation was so great as to occasion that day
being named Black Friday. (Fielding, in his True Patriot,
says, that, "when the Highlanders, by a most incredible march,
got between the Duke's army and the metropolis, they struck a
terror into it scarce to be credited." An immediate rush was
made upon the Bank of England, which, it is said, only
escaped bankruptcy by paying in sixpences, to gain time. The
shops in general were shut up; public business, for the most
part, was suspended, and the restoration of the Stuarts was
expected by all as no improbable or distant occurrence. See
Lord Mahon, vol. iii. p. 444.)

(1143 "Charles arrived at Derby in high spirits, reflecting
that he was now within a hundred and thirty miles of the
capital. Accordingly, that evening, at supper, he studiously
directed his conversation to his intended progress and
expected triumph--whether it would be best for him to enter
London on foot or on horseback, in Highland or in English
dress. Far different were the thoughts of his followers, who,
early next morning, laid before him their earnest and
unanimous opinion for an immediate retreat to Scotland,
Charles said, that, rather than go back, he would wish to be
buried twenty feet under ground. On the following day he
sullenly consented to retreat, but added, that, in future, he
would call no more councils; since he was accountable to
nobody for his actions, excepting to God and his father, and
would therefore no longer either ask or accept their advice."
See Sir Walter Scott's Tales of a Grandfather, vol. v. p. 226.-E.

(1144) Sir John Willes, knight, chief justice of the common
pleas from 1737 to 1762.-D.

(1145) In the beginning of the year 1755, on rumours of a
great armament at Brest, one Virette, a Swiss, who had been a
kind of toad-eater to this St. Germain, was denounced to Lord
Holderness for a spy; but Mr. Stanley going pretty surlily to
his lordship, on his suspecting a friend of his, Virette was
declared innocent, and the penitent secretary of state made
him the honourable amends of a dinner in form. About the same
time, a spy of ours was seized at Brest, but not happening to
be acquainted with Mr. Stanley, was broken upon the wheel.

457 Letter 190
To Sir Horace Mann.
Arlington street, Dec. 20, 1745.

I have at last got your great letter by Mr. Gambier, and the
views of the villas,(1146) for which I thank you much. I
can't say I think them too well done. nor the villas
themselves pretty; but the prospects are charming. I have
since received two more letters from you, of November 30th and
December 7th. You seem to receive mine at last, though very

We have at last got a spring-tide of good luck. The rebels
turned back from Derby, and have ever since been flying with
the greatest precipitation.(1147) The Duke, with all his
horse, and a thousand foot mounted, has pursued them with
astonishing rapidity; and General Oglethorpe, with part of
Wade's horse, has crossed over upon them. There has been
little prospect of coming up with their entire body, but it
dismayed them; their stragglers were picked up, and the towns
in their way preserved from plunder, by their not having time
to do mischief. This morning an express is arrived from Lord
Malton(1148) in Yorkshire, who has had an account of
Oglethorpe's cutting a part of them to pieces, and of the
Duke's overtaking their rear and entirely demolishing it. We
believe all this; but, as it is not yet confirmed, don't
depend upon it too much. The fat East India ships are arrived
safe from Ireland--I mean the prizes; and yesterday a letter
arrived from Admiral Townshend in the West Indies, where he
has fallen in with the Martinico fleet (each ship valued at
eight thousand pounds), taken twenty, sunk ten, and driven
ashore two men-of-war, their convoy, and battered them to
pieces. All this will raise the pulse Of the stocks, which
have been exceedingly low this week, and the Bank itself in
danger. The private rich are making immense fortunes out of
the public distress: the dread of the French invasion has
occasioned this. They have a vast embarkation at Dunkirk; the
Duc de Richelieu, Marquis Fimarcon, and other general
officers, are named in form to command. Nay, it has been
notified in form by the insolent Lord John Drummond,(1149) who
has got to Scotland, and sent a drum to Marshal Wade, to
announce himself commander for the French King in the war he
designs to wage in England, and to propose a cartel for the
exchange of prisoners. No answer has been made to this rebel;
but the King has acquainted the Parliament with this audacious
message. We have a vast fleet at sea; and the main body of
the Duke's army is coming down to the coast to prevent their
landing, if they should slip our ships. Indeed, I can't
believe they will attempt coming hither, as they must hear of
the destruction of the rebels in England; but they will
probably, dribble away to Scotland, where the war may last
considerably. Into England, I scarce believe the Highlanders
will be drawn again:--to have come as far as Derby--to have
found no rising in their favour, and to find themselves not
strong enough to fight either army, will make lasting

Vernon, I hear, is recalled for his absurdities, and at his
own request, and Martin named for his successor.(1150) We had
yesterday a very remarkable day in the House: the King
notified his having sent for six thousand Hessians into
Scotland. Mr. Pelham, for an address of thanks. Lord
Cornbury (indeed, an exceedingly honest man(1151)) was for
thanking for the notice, not for the sending for the troops;
and proposed to add a representation of the national being the
only constitutional troops, and to hope we should be
exonerated of these foreigners as soon as possible. Pitt, and
that clan, joined him; but the voice of the House, and the
desires of the whole kingdom for all the troops we can get,
were so strong, that, on the division, we were 190 to 44: I
think and hope this will produce some Hanoverians too. That it
will produce a dismission of the Cobhamites is pretty certain;
the Duke of Bedford and Lord Gower arc warm for both points.
The latter has certainly renounced Jacobitism.

Boetslaar is come again from Holland, but his errand not yet
known. You will have heard of another victory,(1152) which
the Prussian has gained over the Saxons; very bloody on both
sides--but now he is master of Dresden.

We again think that we have got the second son,(1153) under
the name of Macdonald. Nobody is permitted to see any of the

In the midst of our political distresses, which, I assure you,
have reduced the town to a state of Presbyterian dulness, we
have been entertained with the marriage of the Duchess of
Bridgewater(1154) and Dick Lyttelton - she, forty, plain, very
rich, and with five children; he, six-and-twenty, handsome,
poor, and proper to get her five more. I saw, the other day,
a very good Irish letter. A gentleman in Dublin, full of the
great qualities of my Lord Chesterfield, has written a
panegyric on them, particularly on his affability and
humility; with a comparison between him and the hauteur of all
other lord-lieutenants. As an instance, he says, the earl was
invited to a great dinner, whither he went, by mistake, at
one, instead of three. The master was not at home, the lady
not dressed, every thing in confusion. My lord was so humble
as to dismiss his train and take a hackney-chair, and went and
stayed with Mrs. Phipps till dinner-time--la belle humilit`e!

I am not at all surprised to hear of my cousin Don Sebastian's
stupidity. Why, child, he cannot articulate; how would you
have had him educated? Cape Breton, Bastia, Martinico! if we
are undone this year, at least we go out with `eclat. Good

1146) Villas of the Florentine nobility.

(1147) "Now few there were," says Captain Daniel, in his MS.
Memoirs, " who would go on foot if they could ride; and mighty
taking, stealing, and pressing of horses there was amongst us!
Diverting it was to see the Highlanders mounted, without
either breeches, saddle, or any thing else but the bare back
of the horses to ride on; and for their bridle, only a straw
rope! in this manner do we march out of England." See Lord
Mahon's Hist. vol. iii. p. 449.-E.

(1148) Sir Thomas Watson Wentworth, Knight of the Bath and
Earl of Malton. [In April 1746, he was advanced to the dignity
of Marquis of Rockingham. He died in 1750, was succeeded by
his second son, Charles Watson Wentworth, second marquis; on
whose death, in 1782, all the titles became extinct.]

(1149) Brother of the titular Duke of Perth. [And a general
officer in the French army. "The amount of supplies brought
by him reminds us," says Sir Walter Scott, "of those
administered to a man perishing of famine, by a comrade, who
dropped into his mouth, from time to time, a small shelfish,
affording nutriment enough to keep the sufferer from dying,
but not sufficient to restore him to active exertion."]

(1150) On the 2d of January, Admiral Vernon, having arrived in
the Downs from a cruise, struck his flag; upon which, Admiral
Martin took the command, in his room.-E.

(1151) Henry Hyde, only son of Henry, the last Earl of
Clarendon. He was called up to the House of Peers, by the
style of Lord Hyde, and died unmarried, before his father, at
Paris, 1753. (When Lord Cornbury returned from his travels,
Lord Essex, his brother-in-law, told him, with a great deal of
pleasure, that he had got a handsome pension for him, All Lord
Cornbury's answer was, "How could you tell, my Lord, that I
was to be sold? or, at least, how came you to know my price so
exactly?"--"It was on this account," says Spence, "that Pope
complimented him with this passage-

"Would you be bless't? despise low joys, low gains;
Disdain whatever Cornbury disdains;
Be virtuous, and be happy for your pains."

On the death of the earl, a few months after his son, the
viscounty of Cornbury and earldom of Clarendon became

(1152) The battle of Kesselsdorf, gained by Prince Leopold of
Anhalt Dessau over the Saxon army, commanded by Count
Rutowsky. This event took place on the 15th of December, and
was followed by the taking of Dresden by the King of

(1153) Henry Stuart, afterwards Cardinal of York. This
intelligence did not prove true.-D.

(1154) lady Rachel Russel, eldest sister of John, Duke of
Bedford, and widow of Scrope Egerton, Duke of Bridgewator;
married to her second husband, Colonel Richard Lyttelton,
brother of Sir George Lyttelton, and afterwards Knight of the

460 Letter 191
To Sir Horace Mann.
Arlington Street, Jan, 3, 1746.

I deferred writing to you till I could tell you that the
rebellion was at an end in England. The Duke has taken
Carlisle, but was long enough before it to prove how basely or
cowardly it was yielded to the rebel: you will see the
particulars' in the Gazette. His Royal Highness is expected
in town every day; but I still think it probable that he will
go to Scotland.(1155) That country is very clamorous for it.
If the King does send him, it should not be with that sword of
mercy with which the present family have governed those
people. All the world agrees in the fitness of severity to
highwaymen, for the sake of the innocent who suffer; then can
rigour be ill-placed against banditti. who have so terrified,
pillaged, and injured the poor people in Cumberland,
Lancashire, Derbyshire, and the counties through which this
rebellion has stalked? There is a military magistrate of some
fierceness sent into Scotland with Wade's army, who is coming
to town; it is General Hawley.(1156) He will not sow the
seeds of future disloyalty by too easily pardoning the

The French still go on with their preparations at Dunkirk and
their sea-ports; but I think, few people believe now that they
will be exerted against us: we have a numerous fleet in the
Channel, and a large army on the shores opposite to France.
The Dutch fear that all this storm is to burst on them. Since
the Queen's making peace with Prussia, the Dutch are applying
to him for protection; and I am told, wake from their neutral

We are in a good quiet state here in town; the Parliament is
reposing itself for the holidays; the ministry is in private
agitation; the Cobham part of the coalition is going to be
disbanded; Pitt's wild ambition cannot content itself with
what he had asked, and had granted: and he has driven
Lyttelton and the Grenvilles to adopt all his extravagances.
But then, they are at 'variance again within themselves:
Lyttelton's wife(1157) hates Pitt, and does not approve his
governing her husband and hurting their family; so that, at
present, it seems, he does not care to be a martyr to Pitt's
caprices, which are in excellent training; for he is governed
by her mad Grace of Queensberry. All this makes foul weather;
but, to me, it is only a cloudy landscape.

The Prince has dismissed Hume Campbell(1158) who was his
solicitor, for attacking Lord Tweedale(1159) on the Scotch
affairs: the latter has resigned the seals of secretary of
state for Scotland to-day. I conclude, when the holidays are
over, and the rebellion travelled so far back, we shall have
warm inquiries in Parliament. This is a short letter, I
perceive; but I know nothing more; and the Carlisle part of it
will make you wear, your beaver more erect than I believe you
have of late. Adieu!

(1155) The Duke of Cumberland entered Carlisle on the 31 st of
December; but his pursuit of the Highlanders in person was
interrupted by despatches, which called him to London, to be
ready to take command against the projected invasion from

(1156) "Hawley," says Lord Mahon, "was an officer of some
but destitute of capacity, and hated, not merely by his
enemies, but by his own soldiers, for a most violent and
vindictive temper. One of his first measures, on arriving at
Edinburgh, to take the chief command, was to order two gibbets
to be erected, ready for the rebels who might fall into his
hands; and, with a similar view, he bid several executioners
attend his army on his march." Vol. ii. p. 357.

(1157) Lucy Fortescue, sister of Lord Clinton, first wife of
Sir George, afterwards Lord Lyttelton. [She died in January
1747, at the age of twenty-nine.

(1158) twin-brother to the Earl of Marchmont; who, in his
Diary .of the 2d of January, says, "My brother told me he had
been, last night, with Mr. Drax, the Prince's secretary, when
he had notified to him that the Prince expected all his family


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